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  • Equity and the Law of Trusts

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  • Equity and the Law of Trusts

    Twelft h Edition

    philip h pettit maof the Middle Temple, Barrister

    Emeritus Professor of Equity, Universities of Bristol and Buckingham

    1

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  • 3Great Clarendon Street, Oxford, OX2 6DP,

    United KingdomOxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.

    It furthers the University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship,and education by publishing worldwide. Oxford is a registered trade mark of

    Oxford University Press in the UK and in certain other countries© Oxford University Press 2012

    Th e moral rights of the author have been assertedFirst edition published by Butterworths 1966

    Ninth edition published 2001Tenth edition published 2005

    Eleventh edition published 2009Impression: 1

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored ina retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the

    prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press, or as expressly permittedby law, by licence or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics

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    address aboveYou must not circulate this work in any other form

    and you must impose this same condition on any acquirerPublic sector information reproduced under Open Government Licence v1.0

    (http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/open-government-licence.htm)

    Crown copyright material reproduced with the permission of theController, HMSO (under the terms of the Click Use licence)

    British Library Cataloguing in Publication DataData available

    Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication DataLibrary of Congress Control Number: 2012939875

    ISBN 978–0–19–969495–2Printed in Great Britain by

    Ashford Colour Press Ltd, Gosport, HampshireLinks to third party websites are provided by Oxford in good faith and

    for information only. Oxford disclaims any responsibility for the materialscontained in any third party website referenced in this work.

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  • Preface

    I began the preface to the previous edition by saying that the single major task in preparing that edition had been to make the considerable revisions necessary as a consequence of the provisions of the Charities Act 2006. Most of that Act has now been repealed by the Charities Act 2011 which repealed (as will be noted in the text) in whole or in part several other charity statutes. It has carried out a useful consolidation of the statutory law, but has made little change of substance.

    An addendum to the previous preface noted that the Perpetuities and Accumulations Bill had received a fi rst reading in the House of Lords. It duly became an Act in 2009 and is referred to in the text where necessary. One way in which it amended the law was by pro-viding that for the future the perpetuity period was to be 125 years and no other period.

    Until the relevant provisions of the Equality Act 2010 came into force the position in re-lation to discrimination by charities was governed by the provisions of the Race Relations Act 1976 and the Sex Discrimination Act 1975. Both these Acts were repealed by the 2010 Act, which in general applies to charities, but there are some special provisions which apply only to them. One important provision of the 2010 Act in relation to trusts has not yet been brought into force, namely the abolition of the presumption of advancement: this is discussed in Chapter 9.

    Th e Trusts (Capital and Income) Bill, based on a Law Commission recommendation, received its fi rst reading a few days before I was due to return the proofs. It is uncontrover-sial and likely to become law in its present form. I have therefore noted it in the text, also noting that some of its provisions have limited retrospective eff ect.

    Th e Law Commission Report which deals with illegality in trusts has not yet received a Government response. I have therefore merely noted its existence in the text, but have summarized its provisions in an appendix.

    Notable cases which called for signifi cant rewriting of the relevant areas include Jones v Kernott (discussed p 193 et seq) where the Supreme Court put beyond all possibility of doubt the validity of the approach of the House of Lords in Stack v Dowden to the rights of the parties to the family home under a common intention constructive trust; Pitt v Holt (discussed p 488 et seq) where Lloyd LJ in eff ect overturned the so-called rule in Re Hastings-Bass which he himself had lucidly explained in Sieff v Fox when he had been sit-ting as a High Court judge and was bound by precedent. His statement of the law in that case, which he now held was not correct, had subsequently been applied in numerous cases; Th e Independent Schools Council v Th e Charity Commission for England and Wales (discussed p 283 et seq) where the Upper Tribunal gave detailed consideration to the re-quirement of public benefi t in relation to the technical legal meaning of charity. Th ough the Tribunal said that they were dealing with the question in the context of a trust for the advancement of education, it is thought that much of what was said is of more general application; Sinclair Investments (UK) Ltd v Versailles Trade Finance Ltd (in administra-tive receivership) which reasserted the authority of Lister v Stubbs aft er the doubts as to its correctness raised by the Privy Council in A-G for Hong Kong v Reid; and Th orner v Major where their Lordships clarifi ed the principles of proprietary estoppel and where Lord Walker dismissed the suggestion that had been made by some commentators that its

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  • vi Preface

    earlier decision in Yeoman’s Row Management Ltd v Cobbe had ‘severely curtailed, or even extinguished the doctrine’.

    Other new cases have, of course, been duly incorporated and appropriate amendments made. Th e opportunity has been taken to slightly enlarge the discussion of some topics—for example the need for certainty; the principles established in Milroy v Lord; the rule in Strong v Bird; the Quistclose trust; and sections 31 and 32 of the Trustee Act 1925, noting the relevant Law Commission recommendations; and to reduce the discussion of others—for example the administration of charities and the equitable rules of apportionment. Th e injunction has once again proved a lively area and there has been some rearrangement of the material and a new section on super-injunctions.

    It is forty-six years since I published the fi rst edition of this book, and the time has come, as the phrase goes, for me to lay down my pen—or perhaps I should say, abandon my com-puter. I hope that all my readers will fi nd this edition to be a helpful exposition of the law, and in particular, that it will assist my undergraduate readers in preparing for their exams, and will continue to be found of value by them in their future careers.

    I would like to thank all those in the OUP with whom I had contact for their helpfulness, at all stages, and in particular for their sympathetic response when I was unable to meet the original deadline for submission because of illness.

    Th e law is stated on the basis of material available to me on 24 May 2012.

    Philip H PettitMay 2012

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  • Contents

    Preface vTable of Cases xvTable of Statutes lxxviiTables of Secondary European and International Legislation xciAbbreviations xciii

    1 History of the Court of Chancery and Introduction to Equity 11 History of the Court of Chancery 2

    2 Jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery 5

    3 Fusion of the administration of law and equity 8

    4 Uses and trusts 12

    5 Equitable interests and equities 20

    6 Th e maxims of equity 25

    7 Trusts and taxation 28

    8 Trusts and the confl ict of laws 29

    2 The Trust Concept 301 Trust and bailment 31

    2 Trust and contract 31

    3 Trust and agency 32

    4 Trusts and powers 33

    5 Trusts and the administration of estates of deceased persons 39

    6 Trust and restitution 43

    3 The Essentials of a Trust 451 Capacity of settlor and benefi ciaries 45

    2 Th e three certainties 48

    3 Th e benefi ciary principle 59

    4 Trusts for the benefi t of unincorporated associations 63

    4 Classification and Juristic Nature of Trusts 671 Classifi cation 68

    2 Discretionary and protective trusts 78

    3 Nature of a trust 84

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  • viii Contents

    5 Formal Requirements of Express Trusts 871 Inter vivos transactions 872 Th e creation of trusts and the disposition of equitable interests by will 100

    6 Completely and Incompletely Constituted Trusts 1011 Th e perfect creation of a trust 102

    2 Th e position of a volunteer 108

    3 Trusts of a chose in action 113

    4 Trusts of the benefi t of a contract and volunteers 118

    5 Trusts of future property 120

    6 Exceptions to the maxim that ‘equity will not assist a volunteer’ 121

    7 Secret Trusts and Mutual Wills 1301 Fully secret and half-secret trusts 130

    2 Mutual wills 138

    8 Constructive Trusts 1421 Th e rule in Keech v Sandford 1422 Obligation to account as a constructive trustee for profi ts

    received by virtue of his position as trustee 144

    3 Strangers to the trust 153

    4 Th e vendor under a contract for the sale of land 168

    5 Undertaking by purchaser 169

    6 Executor de son tort 171

    9 Resulting Trusts 1721 Failure to dispose of the equitable interest 172

    2 Transfer into and purchase in the name of another, and related cases 180

    10 Common Intention Constructive Trusts; Proprietary Estoppel; Licences 1931 Common intention constructive trust 193

    2 Proprietary estoppel 206

    3 Th e Pallant v Morgan equity 2194 Licences 221

    11 Unlawful Trusts 2251 Trusts that off end against the rule against perpetuities 225

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  • Contents ix

    2 Trusts that off end against the rule against perpetual trusts 226

    3 Th e eff ect of declaring a trust void as off ending against the policy of the law 226

    4 Trusts tending to prevent the carrying out of parental duties 228

    5 Trusts designed or tending to induce a future separation of husband and wife 229

    6 Trusts in restraint of marriage 230

    7 Trusts that are not merely unlawful, but also fraudulent 232

    8 Law Commission Report 320 236

    12 Voidable Trusts 2371 Transactions at an undervalue 237

    2 Transactions defrauding creditors 240

    3 Voluntary settlement of land followed by conveyance for valuable consideration 242

    4 Provisions for protection of spouse or civil partner and family 242

    5 Sham trusts 243

    6 Illusory trusts 245

    13 Charitable Trusts 2481 Diff erence between charitable and non-charitable trusts 249

    2 Th e legal meaning of ‘charity’ 258

    3 Designated descriptions of charitable purposes 262

    4 Recreational charities 278

    5 Trusts that have been held not to be charitable 280

    6 Th e Requirement of Public Benefi t 283

    7 Exceptions to the Requirement of Public Benefi t 292

    14 The Administration of Charities 2951 Scope of the regulatory provisions of the Charities Act 2011 296

    2 Legal framework of charity 297

    3 Charity trustees and other persons and bodies responsible for the running of charities 299

    4 Persons and bodies responsible for the regulation and control of charities 307

    5 Registration of charities 324

    6 Charity accounts, audit, annual reports, and annual returns 327

    7 Schemes 330

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  • x Contents

    8 Th e cy-près doctrine 334

    9 Statutory powers of unincorporated charities 347

    10 Merger of charities 350

    11 Discrimination 351

    12 Dispositions of charity land 352

    13 Control of fund-raising for charitable institutions 354

    15 Trustees 3581 Appointment of trustees 358

    2 Vesting of the trust property 379

    3 Termination of trusteeship 381

    4 Special kinds of trustee 388

    16 Duties of Trustees 3961 Duties on the acceptance of the trust 398

    2 Statutory ‘duty of care’ 400

    3 Duty of trustees to act unanimously 401

    4 Duties in relation to information, accounts, and audit 403

    5 Duty of trustees to hand over the trust funds to the right persons 406

    6 Duties where benefi ciary is solely and benefi cially entitled 410

    7 Rights and liabilities in relation to strangers to the trust 413

    17 The Investment of Trust Funds 4151 Non-fi nancial considerations 416

    2 Express power of investment 418

    3 Th e statutory power under the Trustee Act 2000 420

    4 Acquisition of land 424

    5 Trustees holding a controlling interest in a company 425

    6 Settled land and land held upon a trust of land 426

    7 Personal representatives 426

    8 Alteration of power of investment 427

    9 Claims by benefi ciaries in relation to the investment of trust funds 427

    10 Occupational pension schemes established under a trust 428

    18 Evenhandedness as Between the Beneficiaries 4291 Th e rules of apportionment 429

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  • Contents xi

    2 Classifi cation of corporate receipts 433

    3 Allocation of expenditure 434

    4 Confl ict of interests of benefi ciaries under separate trusts 435

    19 The Fiduciary Nature of Trusteeship 4361 Trustee as fi duciary 436

    2 Duty to act without remuneration 437

    3 Disabilities of trustee relating to purchase of trust property or equitable interest 442

    20 Appointment of Agents, Nominees, and Custodians—Delegation of Trusts 4471 Th e equitable rules as to delegation 447

    2 Part IV of the Trustee Act 2000 448

    3 Delegation by power of attorney under s 25 of the Trustee Act 1925, as substituted by s 5(1) of the Trustee Delegation Act 1999 453

    4 Delegation under the Trusts of Land and Appointment of Trustees Act 1996 455

    5 Delegation under s 1 of the Trustee Delegation Act 1999 456

    6 Attorney acting for a trustee and the ‘two-trustee’ rule 457

    21 Powers of Trustees 4581 Power of sale 458

    2 Power to give receipts 460

    3 Power to insure 460

    4 Power to compound liabilities 462

    5 Powers in relation to reversionary interests 464

    6 Power of maintenance of minors 464

    7 Power of advancement 470

    8 Right to reimbursement for costs and expenses 475

    9 Trustees of land 481

    10 Applications to the court 482

    11 Control of trustee’s powers 485

    22 Variation of Trusts 4921 Exceptions under the inherent jurisdiction 492

    2 Statutory exceptions to duty not to deviate from the terms of the trust 494

    3 Th e Variation of Trusts Act 1958 499

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  • xii Contents

    23 Breach of Trust 5081 Personal liability of trustees to benefi ciaries 508

    2 Liability of trustees inter se 5183 Defences of a trustee to proceedings for breach of trust 519

    4 Criminal liability of trustees 534

    24 Following and Tracing 5351 Following and tracing at common law 537

    2 Tracing in equity 540

    3 Th e claims in personam 549

    25 Injunctions I—Nature; Damages in Lieu; Enforcement 5521 Meaning and nature of an injunction 552

    2 Classifi cation of injunctions 557

    3 Damages in lieu of an injunction 564

    4 Enforcement of an injunction 572

    26 Injunctions II—Principles Governing Grant of Injunctions 5781 Interim injunctions 578

    2 Perpetual injunctions 593

    3 Particular factors which may defeat a claim for an injunction 596

    27 Injunctions III—Injunctions in Particular Types of Case 6031 To restrain a breach of contract 603

    2 To restrain legal proceedings 610

    3 To protect membership of clubs, trade unions, and other unincorporated bodies 611

    4 To restrain the commission or repetition of a tort 612

    5 To protect copyright, patent rights, and trade marks 613

    6 To restrain a breach of confi dence 613

    7 To protect public rights 620

    8 To restrain a breach of trust 623

    9 In matrimonial and other family matters 624

    10 In Company matters 624

    11 Freezing injunctions and search orders 625

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  • Contents xiii

    28 Specific Performance 6491 Nature of the remedy of specifi c performance 649

    2 Grounds on which specifi c performance may be refused 653

    3 Defences to an action for specifi c performance 667

    29 Other Equitable Remedies 6761 Th e appointment of a receiver, or receiver and manager 676

    2 Account 688

    3 Rescission 690

    4 Rectifi cation of documents 701

    5 Delivery up and cancellation of documents 711

    6 Ne exeat regno 7127 Setting aside a judgment obtained by fraud 713

    8 Setting aside a deed for mistake 714

    Appendix 717Glossary 720Index 723

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  • Table of Cases

    A3 Style Ltd v Goss (1990), CA . . . 6394 ENG Ltd v Harper (2009) . . . 240A v A (2007) . . . 244, 245A v B (a company) (2002) . . . 618A v C (1980) . . . 627, 637A v C (No 2) (1981) . . . 633A Bank v A Bank Ltd (Serious Fraud Offi ce,

    Interested Party) (2000) . . . 167AEG Unit Trust (Managers) Ltd’s Deed, Re,

    Midland Bank Executor and Trustee Co Ltd v AEG Unit Trust (Managers) Ltd (1957) . . . 411

    AITC Foundation, Re (2005) . . . 262ALG Inc v Uganda Airlines Corpn

    (1992) . . . 630AMEC Group Ltd v Universal Steels (Scotland)

    Ltd (2009) . . . 589AMP (UK) plc v Barker (2001) . . . 709AN v Barclays Private Bank & Trust (Cayman)

    Ltd (2007) . . . 483ARMS (Multiple Sclerosis Research) Ltd, Re,

    Alleyne v A-G (1996) . . . 344Aaron’s Reefs Ltd v Twiss (1896), HL . . . 667Aas v Benham (1891), CA . . . 145Abbeyfi eld (Harpenden) Society Ltd v Woods

    (1968), CA . . . 222Abbott Fund Trusts, Re, Smith v Abbott

    (1900) . . . 176Aberdeen Railway Co v Blaikie Bros

    (1854) . . . 443Aberdeen Town Council v Aberdeen University

    (1877), HL . . . 145, 444Aberfoyle Plantations Ltd v Cheng (1960),

    PC . . . 672Abergavenny’s (Marquis) Estate Act Trusts, Re,

    Marquis of Abergavenny v Ram (1981) . . . 474Abernethy v Hutchinson (1825) . . . 614Abidin Daver, Th e (1984), HL . . . 579Abigail v Lapin (1934), HL . . . 24Aboriginal Development Commission v Treka

    Aboriginal Arts and Craft s Ltd (1984) . . . 77Abou-Rahman v Abacha (2006) . . . 150, 153,

    162, 166Abrahams, Re, Abrahams v Bendon

    (1911) . . . 467Abrahams v Abrahams’ Trustee in Bankruptcy

    (1999) . . . 51, 180

    Abrahams’ Will Trusts, Re, Caplan v Abrahams (1969) . . . 473

    Abram Steamship Co Ltd v Westville Shipping Co Ltd (1923) . . . 691

    Achilli v Tovell (1927) . . . 605Acrow (Automation) Ltd v Rex Chainbelt Inc

    (1971), CA . . . 575, 612Acton v Woodgate (1833) . . . 245Adam v Newbigging. See Newbigging v AdamAdam & Co International Trustees Ltd v

    Th eodore Goddard (2000) . . . 361, 384Adam Phones Ltd v Goldschmidt (1999) . . . 574Adams and Kensington Vestry, Re

    (1884),CA . . . 50Adams’ Trust, Re (1879) . . . 362Adderley v Dixon (1824) . . . 653Adekunle v Ritchie (2007) . . . 194Adlard, Re, Taylor v Adlard (1954) . . . 111, 120Admiral Shipping YJS A/S v Portlink Ferries Ltd

    (1984), CA . . . 629Adnitt v Hands (1887), DC . . . 246Advocate (Lord) v Scotsman Publications Ltd

    (1989) . . . 619Affl eck v Newcastle Mind (1999), EAT . . . 299Agip (Africa) Ltd v Jackson (1990); aff d (1991),

    CA . . . 154, 156, 157, 158, 536, 537, 538, 540, 547, 549

    Agip SpA v Navigazione Alta Italia SpA, Th e Nai Genova and Nai Superba (1984), CA . . . 707

    Agnew v Belfast Banking Co (1896), CA . . . 124Agrabele, Th e. See Gebr Van Weelde

    Scheepvaart Kantoor BV v Homeric Marine Services Ltd, Th e Agrabele

    Agricultural Mortgage Corpn plc v Woodward (1994), CA . . . 240

    Aid/Watch Incorporated v Commissioner of Taxation of the Commonwealth of Australia (2010) . . . 280

    Ailion v Spiekermann (1976) . . . 653Ailyan and Fry (trustees in bankruptcy of Kevin

    Foster) v Smith (2010) . . . 238Ainsworth v Bentley (1866) . . . 597Ainsworth, Re, Finch v Smith (1915) . . . 525Air Canada v M & L Travel Ltd (1993) . . . 52Air Jamaica Ltd v Charlton (1999), PC . . . 19Akeroyd’s Settlement, Re, Roberts v Akeroyd

    (1893), CA . . . 174Al-Fayed v Th e Observer Ltd (1986) . . . 590

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  • xvi Table of Cases

    Al Nahkel for Contracting and Trading Ltd v Lowe (1986) . . . 713

    Albert (Prince) v Strange (1849) . . . 614Aldhous, Re, Noble v Treasury Solicitor

    (1955) . . . 408Alexander v Standard Telephones and Cables plc

    (1990) . . . 660Ali v Khan (2002) . . . 182Ali v Naseem (2003) . . . 713Alimand Computer Systems v Radcliff es & Co

    (1991) . . . 145Allcard v Skinner (1887) . . . 693, 696Allen v Distillers Co (Biochemicals) Ltd

    (1974) . . . 484, 506Allen v Gulf Oil Refi ning Ltd (1980), CA, revsd

    (1981), HL . . . 570Allen v Jackson (1875), CA . . . 231Allen v Jambo Holdings Ltd (1980), CA . . . 632,

    642Allen v Rochdale Borough Council (1999),

    CA . . . 69Allen v Snyder (1977), CA . . . 6Allen-Meyrick’s Will Trusts, Re, Mangnall v

    Allen-Meyrick (1966) . . . 81, 484Allhusen v Whitell (1867) . . . 433Alliance and Leicester plc v Slayford (2000),

    CA . . . 202Allied Arab Bank Ltd v Hajjar (1988) . . . 713Allied Irish Bank v Ashford Hotels Ltd (1997),

    CA . . . 581Allnutt v Wilding (2007) . . . 702, 709Allsop, Re, Whittaker v Bamford (1914),

    CA . . . 532Al-Rawas v Pegasus Energy Ltd (2008) . . . 581Alsop Wilkinson (a fi rm) v Neary

    (1994) . . . 479–481Aluminium Industrie Vaassen BV v Romalpa

    Aluminium Ltd (1976); aff d (1976), CA . . . 32, 542

    Amber Size and Chemical Co Ltd v Menzel (1913) . . . 614

    Amec Development Ltd v Jury’s Hotel Management (UK) Ltd (2001) . . . 571

    American Cyanamid Co v Ethicon Ltd (1975), HL . . . 578, 584–586, 588, 589, 590–593

    American Cyanamid Co v Ethicon Ltd (1979) . . . 560

    American Express International Banking Corpn v Hurley (1985) . . . 686

    Ames v Birkenhead Docks Trustees (1855) . . . 680

    Ames’ Settlement, Re, Dinwiddy v Ames (1946) . . . 173

    Amis v Witt (1863) . . . 127Anchor Brewhouse Developments Ltd v Berkley

    House (Docklands Developments) Ltd (1987) . . . 591

    Andrew’s Trust, Re, Carter v Andrew (1905) . . . 176

    Andrews, Re (1999), CA . . . 677Angel v Jay (1911) . . . 693Angel Bell, Th e. See Iraqi Ministry of Defence

    v Arcepey Shipping Co SA (Gillespie Bros intervening), Th e Angel Bell

    Anglesey (Marquis), Re, Countess De Galve v Gardner (1903) . . . 684

    Anker Petersen v Anker Petersen (1991) . . . 427Annamunthodo v Oilfi eld Workers’ Trade

    Union (1961), PC . . . 611Ansah v Ansah (1977), CA . . . 559Ansari v Ansari (2008) . . . 242, 243Anson v Anson (1953) . . . 188Anson v Potter (1879) . . . 411Antec International Ltd v South Western Chicks

    (Warren) Ltd (1997) . . . 585Anthony v Donges (1998) . . . 484Antie v R (2009) . . . 49Aquaculture Corpn v New Zealand Green

    Mussel Co Ltd (1990) . . . 513Arab Monetary Fund v Hashim (1989) . . . 643,

    647Araghchinchi v Araghchinchi (1997),

    CA . . . 645Aranes v Marshall (2007) . . . 403Arber, Re, Taylor v Shelton (1919) . . . 269Arbib and Class’s Contract, Re (1891),

    CA . . . 362Archer v Williams (2003) . . . 619Archer-Shee v Garland (Inspector of Taxes)

    (1931), HL . . . 84, 85Arden, Re (1935) . . . 75Arena Corporation v Schroder (2003) . . . 579Argyll (Duchess of) v Duke of Argyll

    (1967) . . . 26, 599, 614, 619Armitage’s Will Trusts, Re, Ellam v Norwich

    Corpn (1972) . . . 318Armitage v Nurse (1997), CA . . . 245, 404, 519,

    520, 526Armour v Th yssen Edelstahlwerke-AG (1991),

    HL . . . 542Armstrong, Re (1892) . . . 678Armstrong v Hachen Estate (2000) . . . 123Armstrong v Sheppard & Short Ltd (1959),

    CA . . . 594, 595, 597Arning v James (1936) . . . 394Arnold’s Trusts, Re (1947) . . . 36, 37

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  • Table of Cases xvii

    Aroso v Coutts & Co (2002) . . . 183, 184, 190Arthur v Public Trustee (1988) . . . 105Arthur (LP) (Insurance) Ltd v Sisson

    (1966) . . . 680Artistic Upholstery Ltd v Art Forma (Furniture)

    Ltd (1999) . . . 64Ashburn Anstalt v Arnold (1989), CA . . . 169,

    170, 215, 222, 223, 224Ashburton (Lord) v Pape (1913), CA . . . 619Ashby, Re, ex p Wreford (1892) . . . 81Ashcroft v Barnesdale (2010) . . . 701Ashton v Corrigan (1871) . . . 665Ashurst v Pollard (2001), CA . . . 86, 651Ashworth Security Hospital v MGN Ltd

    (2002) . . . 405Aspland v Watte (1855) . . . 523Associated Artists Ltd v IRC (1956) . . . 265Associated British Ports v Transport and

    General Workers’ Union (1989), CA; revsd (1989), HL . . . 659–660

    Aston v Heron (1834) . . . 679Astor’s Settlement Trusts, Re, Astor v Scholfi eld

    (1952) . . . 59, 60Astro Exito Navegacion SA v Southland

    Enterprise Co Ltd (No 2) (Chase Manhattan Bank NA intervening), Th e Messiniaki Tolmi (1982), CA; aff d (1983), HL . . . 559, 578

    ATC (Cayman) Ltd v Rothschild Trust Cayman Ltd (2006) . . . 458

    Athletes Foot Marketing Associates Inc v Cobra Sports Ltd (1980) . . . 588

    Atkin v Raymond (2010) . . . 386Atkinson, Re, Atkinson v Atkinson (1911),

    CA . . . 49, 50Atkinson, Re, Barbers’ Co v Grose-Smith (1904),

    CA . . . 433Atkinson’s Will Trusts, Re Atkinson v Hall

    (1978) . . . 249Atlas Cabinets and Furniture Ltd v National

    Trust Co Ltd (1990) . . . 72Attenborough (George) & Son v Solomon (1913),

    HL . . . 40, 41, 42A-G (at the relation of Allen) v Colchester Corpn

    (1955) . . . 656A-G v Alford . . . 515A-G v Ashborne Recreation Ground Co

    (1903) . . . 622A-G v Barker (1990), CA . . . 591A-G v Bastow (1957) . . . 622A-G v Biphosphated Guano Co (1879),

    CA . . . 23A-G v Birmingham Borough Council

    (1858) . . . 597

    A-G v Birmingham, Tame and Rea District Drainage Board (1910), CA; varied (1912), HL . . . 601, 622

    A-G v Blake (Jonathan Cape Ltd third party) (1996); revsd (1997), CA; aff d (2000), HL . . . 571, 614, 620

    A-G v Chaudry (1971), CA . . . 622, 623A-G v Cocke (1988) . . . 527, 529A-G v Colney Hatch Lunatic Asylum

    (1868) . . . 558A-G v Cooper’s Co (1812) . . . 331A-G v Day (1817) . . . 677A-G v Day (1900) . . . 269A-G v Dixie, ex p Bosworth School

    (1805) . . . 319A-G v Dublin Corpn (1827), HL . . . 688A-G v Earl of Clarendon (1810) . . . 319, 443A-G v Gee (1813) . . . 678A-G v Governors, etc of Sherborne Grammar

    School (1854) . . . 315A-G v Guardian Newspapers Ltd (1987),

    HL . . . 586, 615A-G v Guardian Newspapers Ltd (No 2) (1988);

    on appeal (1988), CA; aff d (1988), HL . . . 7, 613, 616, 619, 620

    A-G v Harris (1961) CA . . . 620, 622A-G v Ironmongers’ Co (1841); aff d sub nom

    Ironmongers’ Co v A-G (1844), HL . . . 334, 336

    A-G v Jacobs-Smith (1895), CA . . . 108A-G v Lady Downing (1769) . . . 264A-G v Lewes Corpn (1911) . . . 601A-G v Long Eaton UDC (1915), CA . . . 561A-G v Manchester Corpn (1893) . . . 561, 562A-G v Margaret and Regius Professors in

    Cambridge (1682) . . . 264A-G v Mathieson, Re Wilkinson and Fell’s

    Contract (1907), CA . . . 259A-G v Middleton (1751) . . . 319A-G v Molland (1832) . . . 269A-G v National Provincial and Union Bank of

    England. See Tetley, Re, National Provincial and Union Bank of England Ltd v Tetley

    A-G v Nottingham Corpn (1904) . . . 562A-G v Oakaver (1736) . . . 269A-G v Parry (2002) . . . 617A-G v Plowden. See Grove-Grady, Re, Plowden

    v LawrenceA-G v Price (1810) . . . 293A-G v Punch Ltd (2002) . . . 575A-G v R (2003) . . . 697A-G v Ross (1985) . . . 252

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  • xviii Table of Cases

    A-G v Schonfeld (1980) . . . 676, 683A-G v Sharp (1931), CA . . . 622A-G v Smith (1958) . . . 620A-G v South Staff ordshire Waterworks Co

    (1909) . . . 601A-G v Stephens (1834) . . . 358A-G v Times Newspapers Ltd (1991), HL . . . 575A-G v Trustees of the British Museum

    (Commission for Looted Art in Europe intervening) (2005) . . . 315

    A-G v Wilson (1840) . . . 516A-G v Wright (1987) . . . 584A-G for Dominion of Canada v Ritchie

    Contracting and Supply Co (1919), PC . . . 561A-G for Hong Kong v Reid (1994), PC . . . 142,

    150, 152, 153, 534A-G for New South Wales v Public Trustee

    (1987) . . . 346A-G for New South Wales v Sawtell

    (1978) . . . 274A-G for Ontario v Perry (1934) . . . 108A-G for Tuvalu v Philatelic Distribution Corpn

    Ltd (1990), CA . . . 573A-G of Hong Kong v Humphreys Estate

    (Queen’s Gardens) Ltd (1987), PC . . . 207A-G of the Bahamas v Royal Trust Co (1986),

    PC . . . 250A-G of the Cayman Islands v Wahr-Hansen

    (2001), PC . . . 249, 278A-G’s Reference (No 1 of 1985) (1986),

    CA . . . 534Attwood v Small (1838), HL . . . 692Auckland Medical Aid Trust v IRC

    (1979) . . . 265Australian Building & Technical Solutions pty

    ltd Baumelhem (2009) . . . 72Australian Hardwoods Pty Ltd v Railways Comr

    (1961), PC . . . 649, 671Australian Meat Industry Employees Union v

    Mudginberri Station Pty Ltd (1986) . . . 573Australian Postal Corpn v Lutak (1991) . . . 152Australian Securities Commission v AS

    Nominees Ltd (1995) . . . 397Australian Securities and Investments

    Commission v Citigroup Global Markets Australia Pty Ltd (2007) . . . 245

    Author of a Blog v Times Newspapers Ltd (2009) . . . 613, 617, 618

    Avalon Trust, Re (2006) . . . 404Avant Petroleum Inc v Gatoil Overseas Inc

    (1986), CA . . . 629Aveling v Knipe (1815) . . . 181Avon Finance Co Ltd v Bridger (1985) . . . 697

    Ayerst (Inspector of Taxes) v C & K (Construction) Ltd (1976), HL . . . 396

    Aylesford (Earl of) v Earl Poulett (1892) . . . 678Ayliff e v Murray (1740) . . . 440Aynsley v Glover (1874); on appeal

    (1874) . . . 565, 567

    BB (child property transfer), Re (1999), CA . . . 49B v B (injunction: restraint on leaving

    jurisdiction) (1997) . . . 648BA Peters plc (in administration), Re

    (2008) . . . 49, 178, 540BBC v Harpercollins Publishers Ltd

    (2010) . . . 591BBC v Rochdale MBC (2005) . . . 618BICC plc v Burndy Corpn (1985), CA . . . 672BMP Global Distribution Inc v Bank of Nova

    Scotia (2009) . . . 538B Borough Council v S (by the Offi cial Solicitor)

    (2006) . . . 559Babanaft International Co SA v Bassatne (1990),

    CA . . . 627, 636Baber’s Trusts, Re (1870) . . . 246Baburin v Baburin (No 2) (1991) . . . 531Bacal Contracting Ltd v Modern Engineering

    (Bristol) Ltd (1980) . . . 687Bacharach’s Will Trusts, Re, Minden v

    Bacharach (1959) . . . 703Bacon v Camphausen (1888) . . . 518Bacup Corpn v Smith (1890), CA . . . 679Baddeley v IRC (1953), CA; revsd sub nom IRC

    v Baddeley (1955), HL . . . 262, 277, 278, 287, 288, 291

    Baden v Société Générale pour Favoriser le Développement du Commerce et de Industrie en France SA (1983); aff d (1985), CA . . . 159, 163

    Baden’s Deed Trusts, Re, Baden v Smith (1969), CA; revsd sub nom McPhail v . . . Doulton (1971) 34, 35, 37, 38, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 79, 81, 82

    Baden’s Deed Trusts (No 2), Re (1972); aff d (1973), CA . . . 38, 55, 57, 58

    Badfi nger Music v Evans (2001) . . . 150, 440Badger, Re (1913) . . . 470Badger’s Settlement, Re, Badger v Woolley

    (1915) . . . 377Bagshaw, Re, Westminster Bank Ltd v Taylor

    (1954) . . . 342, 343Bahin v Hughes (1886), CA . . . 398, 518, 519Bahr v Nicolay (No 2) (1988) . . . 170Bailey v Gould (1840) . . . 461

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  • Table of Cases xix

    Baillie, Re, Fitzgerald v Noad (1886) . . . 133Bain, Re, Public Trustee v Ross (1930), CA . . . 271Bainbridge v Blair (1835) . . . 681Bainbridge v Smith (1889) . . . 658Baird v BCE Holdings Pty Ltd (1996) . . . 691Baird v Baird (1990), PC . . . 19, 96Baird v Wells (1890), CA . . . 612Bairstow v Queens Moat Houses plc

    (2001) . . . 148Baker v Archer-Shee (1927), HL . . . 84, 85Baker v Baker (1993), CA . . . 215Baker v Carter (1835) . . . 444Baker v Peck (1861) . . . 444Baker (GL) Ltd v Medway Building and Supplies

    Ltd (1958); on appeal (1958), CA . . . 526, 550Balding v Ashley (1991) . . . 103Baldry v Feintuck (1972) . . . 280Baldwin v Society for the Diff usion of Useful

    Knowledge (1838) . . . 609, 658Balfour’s Settlement, Re, Public Trustee v

    Offi cial Receiver (1938) . . . 83Balkanbank v Taher (1994); on appeal (1994),

    CA . . . 580Ball’s Settlement, Re (1968) . . . 500Balls v Strutt (1841) . . . 397, 623Baltic Shipping v Translink Shipping Ltd

    (1995) . . . 637Banfi eld, Re, Lloyds Bank Ltd v Smith

    (1968) . . . 268, 285Banister Re, Broad v Munton (1879), CA . . . 667Bank Mellat v Kazmi (1989), CA . . . 633Bank Mellat v Nikpour (1985), CA . . . 559, 625Bank of Africa Ltd v Cohen (1909), CA . . . 555Bank of China v NBM LLC (2002) . . . 637Bank of Credit and Commerce International

    (Overseas) Ltd v Akindele (2000), CA . . . 157–161, 163

    Bank of Credit and Commerce International SA (No 9), Re (1994), CA . . . 629

    Bank of Credit and Commerce International SA v Aboody (1990), CA . . . 695

    Bank of Credit and Commerce International SA v Ali [2001] UKHL 8 (2001) . . . 523

    Bank of Ireland Home Mortgages Ltd v Bell (2001) . . . 202

    Bank of Montreal v British Columbia (Milk Marketing Board) (1994) . . . 52

    Bank of New Zealand v New Zealand Guardian Trust Co Ltd (1999) . . . 510

    Bank of Scotland v A Ltd (2001) . . . 72Bank Tejarat v Hong Kong and Shanghai

    Banking Corpn (CI) Ltd and Hong Kong

    and Shanghai Bank Trustee (Jersey) Ltd (1994) . . . 537

    Bankart v Houghton (1860) . . . 598Bankes v Salisbury Diocesan Council of

    Education Inc (1960) . . . 174Banks v Goodfellow (1870) . . . 46, 47Banks v Ripley (1940) . . . 710Banner Homes Group plc v Luff Developments

    Ltd (2000), CA . . . 219, 220Bannister v Bannister (1948), CA . . . 98, 99, 115,

    142Banque Financiere de la Cite v Parc (Battersea)

    Ltd (1998), HL . . . 548Banton v CIBC Trust Corp (2001) . . . 156Baptist Union of Ireland (Northern) Corpn Ltd

    v IRC (1945) . . . 287Barbados Trust Co v Bank of Zambia

    (2007) . . . 51Barber v Rowe (1948), CA . . . 89Barbour’s Settlement, Re, National Westminster

    Bank Ltd v Barbour (1974) . . . 441, 494Barcham (a bankrupt), Re, French v Barcham

    (2008) . . . 203Barclay v Prospect Mortgages Ltd (1974) . . . 712Barclays Bank Ltd v Bird (1954) . . . 682Barclays Bank Ltd v Moore (1967), CA . . . 685Barclays Bank Ltd v Quistclose Investments Ltd

    (1970), HL . . . 20, 80, 176, 177, 178Barclays Bank plc v Bean (2004) . . . 240Barclays Bank plc v Caplan (1997) . . . 696Barclays Bank plc v O’Brien (1994), HL . . . 23,

    695–697Barclays Bank plc v Quincecare Ltd

    (1992) . . . 158Barclays Bank plc v RBS Advanta (1996) . . . 585Baring’s Settlement Trusts, Re, Baring Bros &

    Co Ltd v Liddell (1940) . . . 83Barker, Re, Ravenshaw v Barker (1898) . . . 511,

    532Barker v Stickney (1919), CA . . . 609Barker-Benfi eld (Deceased), Re (2006) . . . 965Barker’s Trusts, Re (1875) . . . 362Barker’s Will Trusts, Re, Barker v Crouch

    (1948) . . . 269Barlow Clowes International Ltd (in liquidation)

    v Vaughan (1992),CA . . . 174, 546, 547Barlow Clowes International Ltd v Eurotrust

    International Ltd (2004) . . . 161, 164, 165, 166Barlow’s Will Trusts, Re (1979) . . . 54, 227Barnes, Re (1976) . . . 347Barnes v Addy (1874) . . . 151, 161, 167Barnes v City of London Real Property Co

    (1918) . . . 655, 663

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  • xx Table of Cases

    Barnes v Tomlinson (2006) . . . 165Barnsley Brewery Co Ltd v RBNB (1997) . . . 585Barralet v A-G (1980) . . . 265, 268, 277Barrett v Barrett (2008) . . . 232Barron v Willis (1900), CA; on appeal sub nom

    Willis v Barron (1902), HL . . . 446Barros Mattos Jnr v MacDaniels Ltd

    (2004) . . . 550Barrow v Barrow (1854); on appeal (1854),

    CA . . . 705Barrow v Chappell & Co Ltd (1951) . . . 656Barrows v Chief Land Registrar (1977) . . . 687Bartlam v Coutts & Co (2006) . . . 709Bartlett v Barclays Bank Trust Co Ltd

    (1980) . . . 397, 422, 425, 511, 528Bartlett v Barclays Bank Trust Co Ltd (No 2)

    (1980) . . . 515Bartlett v Salmon (1855) . . . 692Basham, Re (1987) . . . 208Baskcomb v Beckwith (1869) . . . 668Bastin v Bidwell (1881) . . . 672Bate v Hooper (1855) . . . 525Bateman v Davis (1818) . . . 509Bateman v Williams (2009) . . . 191Bateman’s Will Trusts, Re, Brierley v Perry

    (1970) . . . 137Bates (Th omas) & Son Ltd v Wyndham’s

    (Lingerie) Ltd (1981), CA . . . 706, 710Bath v Standard Land Co Ltd (1911) . . . 145Bath and North East Somerset District Council

    v Mowlem plc (2004) . . . 578Bathe, Re, Bathe v Public Trustee (1925) . . . 231Batstone v Salter (1875) . . . 183, 184Batten v Wedgwood Coal and Iron Co

    (1884) . . . 680Baumgartner v Baumgartner (1987), HC of

    A . . . 72Baxter v Claydon (1952) . . . 584Baxter v Four Oaks Properties Ltd

    (1965) . . . 564, 605Bayer AG v Winter (1986), CA . . . 578, 646, 647Bayer AG v Winter (No 2) (1986) . . . 647Bayley-Jones v University of Newcastle

    (1990) . . . 321Baynes Clarke v Corless (2010) . . . 220Bayoumi v Women’s Total Abstinence

    Educational Union Ltd (2003) . . . 352, 353Beale v Trinller (2008) . . . 446Beale’s Settlement Trusts, Re, Huggins v Beale

    (1932) . . . 496Beaney, Re (1978) . . . 46, 123Beatty’s Will Trusts (No 2), Re (1991) . . . 374

    Beatty’s Will Trusts, Re (1990) . . . 34Beauclerk v Ashburnham (1845) . . . 419Beaumont, Re, Beaumont v Ewbank

    (1902) . . . 123, 128Beaumont v Boultbee (1802) . . . 689Beckbessinger, Re (1993) . . . 58Beckenham MC Ltd v Centralex Ltd

    (2004) . . . 240Beckett’s Settlement Re, Re, Beckett, Eden v Von

    Stutterheim (1940) . . . 411, 474Bective (Countess of) v Hodgson (1864) . . . 467Beddoe Re, Downes v Cottam (1893),

    CA . . . 399, 479Beddow v Beddow (1878) . . . 554Bedford (Duke) v British Museum Trustees

    (1822) . . . 669Bedingfeld and Herring’s Contract, Re

    (1893) . . . 364Beecher v Major (1865) . . . 184Beesty’s Will Trusts Re, Farrar v Royal Alfred

    Merchant Seamen’s Society (1966) . . . 411Begg-MacBrearty (Inspector of Taxes) v Stilwell

    (1996) . . . 465Behbehani v Salem (1989), CA . . . 630Behnke v Bede Shipping Co Ltd (1927) . . . 654Behrens v Richards (1905) . . . 595Behzadi v Shaft esbury Hotels Ltd (1992),

    CA . . . 673Bekhor (AJ) & Co Ltd v Bilton (1981), CA . . . 636Belar Pty Ltd v Mahaff ey (in liquidation)

    (2001) . . . 477Belchier, ex p. See Parsons, Re, ex p Belchier, ex

    p ParsonsBelfast City YMCA Trustees v Northern Ireland

    Valuation Comr (1969), CA . . . 280Belize Alliance of Conservation Non-

    Governmental Organisations v Department of the Environment of Belize (2003) . . . 590, 632, 642

    Bell v Lever Bros Ltd (1932), HL . . . 698Bell’s Indenture, Re, Bell v Hickley

    (1980) . . . 167, 515Bellairs v Bellairs (1874) . . . 230Bellamy, Re, Pickard v Holroyd (1883) . . . 230Belling, Re, Enfi eld London Borough Council v

    Public Trustee (1967) . . . 314Belmont Finance Corpn v Williams Furniture

    Ltd (No 2) (1980), CA . . . 157, 160, 515Belmont Finance Corpn Ltd v Williams

    Furniture Ltd (1979), CA . . . 162Bence v Gilpin (1868) . . . 382Benett, Re, Ward v Benett (1906), CA . . . 384Benett v Wyndham (1862) . . . 414, 475, 477

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  • Table of Cases xxi

    Benham’s Will Trusts, Re (1994) . . . 257Benjamin, Re, Neville v Benjamin (1902) . . . 407Benjamin v Leicher (1998) . . . 122Bennet v Bennet (1879) . . . 186Bennett (deceased), Re in the Estate of

    (2004) . . . 695Bennett, Re, Jones v Bennett (1896), CA . . . 434,

    461Bennett, Re, Sucker v A-G (1960) . . . 330Bennett v Burgis (1846) . . . 399Bennison, Re, Cutler v Boyd (1889) . . . 402Berkeley Applegate (Investment Consultants)

    Ltd, Re, Harris v Conway (1989) . . . 236, 441, 599

    Berkley v Poulett (1976), CA . . . 168Bernard v Bagshaw (1862) . . . 402Bernard v Josephs (1982), CA . . . 187, 193Berney v Sewell (1820) . . . 682Bernstein, Re (2008) . . . 499, 503Berridge, Re, Berridge v Turner (1890),

    CA . . . 264Berry (a Bankrupt), Re (1978) . . . 192Berry, Re, Lloyds Bank Ltd v Berry

    (1962) . . . 432Berry v Berry (1929) . . . 9Berry v Green (1938), HL sub nom Blake, Berry v

    Green (1938) . . . 412Berry v St Marylebone Borough Council (1958),

    CA . . . 268Berry’s Settlement, Re, Birkenhead v Smith

    (1966) . . . 503Bersel Manufacturing Co Ltd v Berry (1968),

    HL . . . 364Berton, Re Vandyk v Berton (1939) . . . 89Bertrand v Davies (1862) . . . 681Berwick-on-Tweed Corpn v Murray

    (1857) . . . 515Besant v Wood (1879) . . . 599, 610, 673Beswick v Beswick (1968), HL . . . 109, 114, 115,

    650, 666Bethell v Abraham (1873); aff d (1874) . . . 418Bethune v Kennedy (1835) . . . 430Bevan v Webb (1905) . . . 144Bevin v Smith (1994) . . . 169Bhimji v Chatwani (1991) . . . 640Bhimji v Chatwani (No 3) (1992) . . . 644Bhopal and Kaur v Walia (1999), CA . . . 243Bhullar v Bhullar (2003) . . . 148Biddencare Ltd, Re (1994) . . . 479Bidwell v Holden (1890) . . . 557Bigg v Queensland Trustees Ltd (1990) . . . 140Bigger, Re (1977) . . . 393

    Bignold’s Settlement Trusts, Re (1872) . . . 362, 363, 369

    Bill v Cureton (1835) . . . 245Billes, Re (1983) . . . 490Bilston Corpn v Wolverhampton Corpn

    (1942) . . . 558Bind Charitable Trust, Re (2008) . . . 490Binions v Evans (1972), CA . . . 99, 170, 222, 223,

    224, 609Biogen Inc v Medeva plc (1992); revsd (1994),

    CA . . . 567, 600Birch v Birch (1902), CA . . . 713, 714Birch v Cropper (1848) . . . 377Birch v Curtis (2002) . . . 139Birch v Treasury Solicitor (1951), CA . . . 125,

    126, 129Birche, Re, Birchall v Ashton (1889),

    CA . . . 381–383Bird, Re, Re Evans, Dodd v Evans (1901) . . . 433Bird v Hadkinson (1999) . . . 574, 646Bird v Lake (1863) . . . 651Birkett, Re (1878) . . . 251Birkett v Acorn Business Machines Ltd (1999),

    CA . . . 232Birmingham City Council v Shasi (2008) . . . 623Birmingham Midshires Mortgage Services Ltd v

    Sabberwal (1999), CA . . . 216Biscoe v Jackson (1887), CA . . . 262, 336, 339Bishop, Re, ex p Langley, ex p Smith (1879),

    CA . . . 576Bishop, Re, National Provincial Bank Ltd v

    Bishop (1965) . . . 189Bishop Square Ltd v IRC (1997), CA . . . 93Bishopsgate Investment Management Ltd (in

    liquidation) v Homan (1994), CA . . . 544Biss, Re, Biss v Biss (1903), CA . . . 142, 143Blackett v Darcy (2005) . . . 122Blacklocks v JB Developments (Godalming) Ltd

    (1982) . . . 22, 24Blackwell, Re, Blackwell v Blackwell (1929),

    HL . . . 131–134, 137Blair v Canada Trust Co (1986) . . . 519Blair v Duncan (1902), HL . . . 249Blake, Re (1885) . . . 483Blake, Re (1887), CA . . . 362Blakemore v Glamorganshire Canal Navigation

    (1832) . . . 579Blaker v Herts and Essex Waterworks Co

    (1889) . . . 686Blakeway v Blakeway (1833) . . . 677Bland v Ingram’s Estates Ltd (2002) . . . 21Blandy Jenkins’ Estate, Re, Jenkins v Walker

    (1917) . . . 76

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  • xxii Table of Cases

    Blankenship v Boyle (1971) . . . 416Blathwayt v Baron Cawley (1976), HL . . . 227,

    228, 231Blome v Blome (1976) . . . 576Bloomer v Spittle (1872) . . . 707Bloomsbury Publishing Group Ltd v News

    Group Newspapers Ltd (2003) . . . 555Blue v Marshall (1735) . . . 462Blundell, Re, Blundell v Blundell (1888) . . . 167,

    477Blunt’s Trusts, Re, Wigan v Clinch

    (1904) . . . 335Blyth v Fladgate (1891) . . . 516Boardman v Phipps. See Phipps v BoardmanBoehm v Goodall (1911) . . . 679, 680Boehm v Wood (1820) . . . 683Bogg v Raper (1998), CA . . . 521Bold v Hutchinson (1855) . . . 704Boles and British Land Co’s Contract, Re

    (1902) . . . 444Bolton v Curre (1895) . . . 525Bonar Law Memorial Trust v IRC (1933) . . . 266Bond v Walford (1886) . . . 173Bonham v Blake Lapthorn Linnell

    (2006) . . . 479Boning, Re (1997) . . . 225Bonnard v Perryman (1891), CA . . . 590, 591, 613Bonsor v Musicians’ Union (1956), HL . . . 611,

    612Boots the Chemist Ltd v Street (1983) . . . 22Border (UK) Ltd v Scottish Timber Products Ltd

    (1981), CA . . . 539Borrowman v Rossell (1864) . . . 710Borthwick (Th omas) & Sons (Australasia)

    Ltd v South Otago Freezing Co Ltd (1978), NZCA . . . 607

    Borwick, Re, Borwick v Borwick (1933) . . . 228Borwick’s Settlement, Re, Woodman v Borwick,

    Re Woodman (1916) . . . 465Boscawen v Bajwa (1995), CA . . . 536, 540, 544,

    547, 548Bostock v Bryant (1990), CA . . . 211Bostock’s Settlement, Re, Norrish v Bostock

    (1921), CA . . . 75Boswell v Coaks (No 2) (1894), HL . . . 713Bothe v Amos (1976), CA . . . 204Botibol, Re, Botibol v Botibol (1947) . . . 680Bouch, Re, Sproule v Bouch (1885), CA; revsd

    sub nom Bouch v Sproule (1887), HL . . . 433Boulding Group plc v Newett (1991), CA . . . 671Bourgoin SA v Ministry of Agriculture,

    Fisheries and Food (1986), CA . . . 589

    Bourne v Keane (1919) . . . 62Bouts v Ellis (1853); aff d (1853) . . . 128Bouygues Off shore SA v Caspian Shipping Co

    (1998), CA . . . 579Bovill v Crate (1865) . . . 596Bowden, Re, Andrew v Cooper (1890) . . . 528Bowden, Re, Hulbert v Bowden (1936) . . . 120Bowen, Re, Lloyd Phillips v Davis (1893) . . . 255,

    335Bower v Bantam Investments Ltd (1972) . . . 608Bowlby, Re, Bowlby v Bowlby (1904), CA . . . 467Bowman v Secular Society Ltd (1917), HL . . . 59,

    64, 280Boyce v Boyce (1849) . . . 53Boyes, Re, Boyes v Carritt (1884) . . . 135, 173Boyle v Bettws Llantwit Colliery Co

    (1876) . . . 678Boys’ Will Trusts, Re, Westminster Bank Ltd v

    Boys (1950) . . . 419Bracewell v Appleby (1975) . . . 571Bracken, Re, Doughty v Townson (1889),

    CA . . . 408Bracken Partners Ltd v Gutteridge (2003),

    HL . . . 541Bradford (Earl) v Earl of Romney (1862) . . . 706Bradshaw v University College of Wales,

    Aberystwyth (1987) . . . 314Bradstock Group Pensions Scheme Trustees Ltd

    v Bradstock Group plc (2002) . . . 463Bradstock Trustee Services Ltd v Nabarro

    Nathanson (a fi rm) (1995) . . . 414, 475Braithwaite, Re, Braithwaite v Wallis

    (1882) . . . 418Brakespear v Ackland (2008) . . . 404Brandeis (Brokers Ltd) v Black (2001) . . . 32Brandon v Robinson (1811) . . . 78Branston & Gothard Ltd, Re (1999) . . . 49Braunstein and Marjorlaine Ltd, Re

    (1914) . . . 682Bray v Briggs (1872) . . . 668Bray v Ford (1896), HL . . . 397, 436Bray v West (1838) . . . 382Breadalbane v Chandos (1837) . . . 704Breadner v Granville-Grossman (2001) . . . 80,

    479, 480Brealispear v Achland (2008) . . . 445Breed’s Will, Re (1875) . . . 471Brenner v Rose (1973) . . . 680Brett v East India and London Shipping Co Ltd

    (1864) . . . 658, 664Brewer’s Settlement, Re, Morton v Blackmore

    (1896) . . . 79, 83

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  • Table of Cases xxiii

    Brice v Stokes (1805) . . . 521Bridgman v Gill (1857) . . . 167Bridlington Relay Ltd v Yorkshire Electricity

    Board (1965) . . . 562Brierley, Re, Brierley v Brierley (1894), CA . . . 36Briggs v Massey (1882), CA . . . 513Briggs v Parsloe (1937) . . . 670Brink’s-MAT Ltd v Elcombe (1988),

    CA . . . 630Brisbane City Council v A-G for Queensland

    (1979), PC . . . 294Bristol and West Building Society v Henning

    (1985), CA . . . 23Bristol and West Building Society v May May &

    Merrimans (a fi rm) (1996) . . . 510Bristol and West Building Society v Mothew (t/a

    Stapley & Co) (1996), CA . . . 154, 436, 437, 514Bristol’s Settled Estates, Re, Bristol v Jermyn

    (1964) . . . 495, 502Britain v Rossiter (1879), CA . . . 90British Airways Board v Laker Airways Ltd

    (1985) . . . 628British and Commonwealth Holdings plc v

    Quadrex Holdings Inc (1989), CA . . . 673British Coal Corpn v British Coal Staff

    Superannuation Scheme Trustees Ltd (1995) . . . 19

    British Data Management plc v Boxer Commercial Removals plc (1996), CA . . . 560

    British Linen Co v South American and Mexican Co (1894), CA . . . 678

    British Red Cross Balkan Fund, Re, British Red Cross Society v Johnson (1914) . . . 174

    British School of Egyptian Archaeology, Re, Murray v Public Trustee (1954) . . . 264

    British Telecommunications plc v One in a Million Ltd (1997); aff d (1998), CA . . . 560

    British Transport Commission v Gourley (1956), HL . . . 515

    Broadbent’s Will, Re (2001), CA . . . 342Brochbanli (decd), Re (1948) . . . 411Brockbank, Re, Ward v Bates (1948) . . . 369,

    486, 487Brogden, Re, Billing v Brogden (1888),

    CA . . . 399Bromley v Holland (1802) . . . 711Bromley v Tryon (1952), HL . . . 51Brook’s Settlement, Re, Brook v Brook

    (1968) . . . 111, 120, 505Brooke Bond & Co Ltd’s Trust Deed, Re, Brooke

    v Brooke Bond & Co Ltd (1963) . . . 145Brooker, Re, Brooker v Brooker (1926) . . . 89, 681Brooker’s Estate, Re, Brooker v Brooker

    (1857) . . . 681

    Brooking v Maudslay, Son and Field (1888) . . . 711

    Brookes v Richardson (1986) . . . 314, 316Brooking v Maudslay, Son and Field

    (1888) . . . 711Broomhead (JW) (Vic) Pty Ltd (in liquidation)

    v J W Broomhead Pty Ltd (1985) . . . 359, 383, 477, 478

    Broun v Kennedy (1863); on appeal (1864) . . . 708

    Brown, Re, District Bank Ltd v Brown (1954) . . . 78

    Brown v Bennett (1997); aff d (1998), CA . . . 157, 163

    Brown v Burdett (1882) . . . 225Brown v Higgs (1803); on appeal (1813),

    HL . . . 35, 37Brown v IRC (1965), HL . . . 145, 442Brown v Pourau (1995) . . . 130Brown v Smith (1878), CA . . . 470Browne (Lord) of Madingley v Associated

    Newspapers Ltd (2007) . . . 590Browne, Wace v Smith (1918) . . . 438Broxtowe Borough Council v Birch (1981); aff d

    (1983), CA . . . 267Bryank v Law Society (2007) . . . 164Bryanston Finance Ltd v de Vries (No 2) (1976),

    CA . . . 578, 589Bryant v Busk (1827) . . . 673Brykiert v Jones (1981), CA . . . 187Buchanan v Hamilton (1801) . . . 370Buckeridge v Glasse (1841) . . . 523Buckinghamshire’s (Earl) Settlements Trusts,

    Re, Cole v Hope-Morley (1977) . . . 472Buckland v Farmer and Moody (a fi rm) (1978),

    CA . . . 690Bucks Constabulary Widows’ and Orphans’

    Fund Friendly Society, Re, Th ompson v Holdsworth (No 2) (1979) . . . 66

    Buckton, Re, Buckton v Buckton (1907) . . . 480Budget Rent a Car International Inc v Mamos

    Slough Ltd (1977), CA . . . 585Budgett v Budgett (1895) . . . 476Bulkeley v Earl of Eglinton (1855) . . . 378Bull v Bull (1955), CA . . . 181, 623Bullock, Re, Good v Lickorish (1891) . . . 81Bullock v Downes. See Downes v BullockBullock v Lloyds Bank Ltd (1955) . . . 480Bulmer (HP) Ltd and Showerings Ltd v J

    Bollinger SA and Champagne Lanson Père et Fils (1978), CA . . . 569, 596, 598

    Bunn v British Broadcasting Corp (1998) . . . 580

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  • xxiv Table of Cases

    Bunn v Markham (1816) . . . 124Bunny Industries Ltd v FSW Enterprises Pty Ltd

    (1982) . . . 168Burchell v Clark (1876), CA . . . 702Burdick v Garrick (1870) . . . 32, 530Burgess v Rawnsley (1975), CA . . . 173Burns v Steel (2006) . . . 486Burns & Geroff v Leda Holdings Pty Ltd

    (1988) . . . 525Burns Philp Trustee Co Ltd v Viney (1981) . . . 84Burrell v Burrell’s Trustees (1915) . . . 443Burris v Azadani (1995), CA . . . 553, 612Burrough v Philcox (1840) . . . 35, 37Burroughs v Abbott (1922) . . . 710Burroughs-Fowler, Re, Trustee of the Property

    of Burroughs-Fowler (a bankrupt) v Burroughs-Fowler (1916) . . . 79

    Burrows and Burrows v Sharpe (1991), CA . . . 212

    Burt, Boulton and Hayward v Bull (1895), CA . . . 680

    Burton v Winters (1993), CA . . . 577Buschau v Rogers Communications Inc

    (2004) . . . 502Bushell, Re, ex p Izard (1883), CA . . . 680Bushnell, Re, Lloyds Bank Ltd v Murray

    (1975) . . . 266Butler v Board of Trade (1971) . . . 619Butler v Broadhead (1975) . . . 550Butler v Carter (1868) . . . 521Butlin’s Settlement Trusts, Re, Butlin v Butlin

    (1976) . . . 705, 708Butt v Kelson (1952), CA sub nom Re Butt

    (1952) . . . 3, 486Butterworth v Walker (1864) . . . 668Buttle v Saunders (1950) . . . 417, 460Buxton v Lister (1746) . . . 650Buxton v Public Trustee (1962) . . . 274Byford v Butler (2003) . . . 203Byrchall v Bradford (1822) . . . 513Byrne v Kinematograph Renters Society Ltd

    (1958) . . . 611, 612

    CC (a minor) (wardship: medical treatment) (No

    2), Re (1990), CA . . . 554CA Pacifi c Finance Ltd (in liquidation), Re

    (2000) . . . 52CBS United Kingdom Ltd v Lambert (1983),

    CA . . . 631CC v AB (2006) . . . 619CDE v MGN Ltd (2010) . . . 564

    C Inc plc v L (2001) . . . 625, 634, 635, 676C Ltd v P (Secretary of State for Home Offi ce and

    anor intervening) (2007) . . . 643CMS Dolphin Ltd v Simonet (2001) . . . 149CN Marine Inc v Stena Line A/B and Regie Voor

    Maritiem Transport, Th e Stena Nautica (No 2) (1982), CA . . . 650, 654

    Caborne, Re, Hodge and Nabarro v Smith (1943) . . . 229–231

    Cadogan v Earl of Essex (1854) . . . 419Caff oor (Trustees of the Abdul Caff oor Trust)

    v Income Tax Comr, Colombo (1961), PC . . . 293, 294

    Cain v Moon (1896), DC . . . 125Caird v Moss (1886), CA . . . 710Calverley v Green (1984), HC of A . . . 190Calvert v Godfrey (1843) . . . 493Calyx, Th e (1966) . . . 573Cambridge Nutrition Ltd v BBC (1990),

    CA . . . 586, 588Cambridgeshire County Council v D (1998),

    CA . . . 573Cambro Contractors Ltd v John Kennelly Sales

    Ltd (1994), CA . . . 704Camdex International Ltd v Bank of Zambia

    (No 2) (1996), CA . . . 626Cameron (deceased), Re, (1999) . . . 186Campbell v Frisbee (2002) . . . 617Campbell v Griffi n (2001) . . . 212, 214Campbell v Home (1842) . . . 407Campbell v MGN Ltd (2004) . . . 613, 614, 617,

    618Campbell v Walker (1800) . . . 443Campden Charities, Re (1881), CA . . . 331Canada Permanent Trust Co and Beil, Re

    (1982) . . . 410Canada Trust Co and Ontario Human Rights

    Commission, Re (1990), Ont CA . . . 225, 336Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce v Bello

    (1991), CA . . . 224Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce v Valley

    Credit Union Ltd (1989) . . . 532Cannon v Hartley (1949) . . . 110–112Canson Enterprises Ltd v Broughton & Co

    (1991) . . . 10Cant v Gregory (1894), CA . . . 125Canterbury Orchestra Trust v Smitham

    (1978) . . . 264Cantor Fitzgerald International v Bird

    (2002) . . . 599Capell v Winter (1907) . . . 23, 24Capewell v Revenue and Customs

    Commissioners (2007) . . . 679

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  • Table of Cases xxv

    Capital Cameras Ltd v Harold Lines Ltd (1991) . . . 629

    Car and Universal Finance Co Ltd v Caldwell (1965); aff d (1965),CA . . . 691

    Carapiet’s Trusts, Re (2002) . . . 260, 292Carl-Zeiss-Stifung v Herbert Smith & Co (a

    fi rm) (No 2) (1969), CA . . . 68, 166, 167Carlile v LED Builders Pty Ltd (1999) . . . 635Carlton v Goodman (2002) . . . 70, 180, 181Carlton Illustrators v Coleman & Co Ltd

    (1911) . . . 556Caroyo Property Ltd v Total Australia Ltd

    (1987) . . . 102Carpenters Estates Ltd v Davies (1940) . . . 657Carpmael v Powis (1846) . . . 705Carr-Saunders v Dick McNeil Associates Ltd

    (1986) . . . 571Carreras Rothmans Ltd v Freeman Mathews

    Treasure Ltd (1985) . . . 80Carroll v Graham (1905), CA . . . 479Carron Iron Co v Maclaren (1855) . . . 555Carter v Sebright (1859) . . . 476Carver v Duncan (Inspector of Taxes) (1985),

    CA; aff d (1985), HL . . . 434Casimir v Alexander (2001) . . . 185Casio Computer Ltd v Sayo (2001) . . . 163Casson v University of Aston, in Birmingham

    (1983) . . . 319, 320, 321Castanho v Brown & Root (UK) Ltd

    (1981) . . . 628Castle Re, Nesbitt v Baugh (1916) . . . 411Cater’s Trusts (No 2), Re (1858) . . . 410Cato v Th ompson (1882) . . . 663Caton v Rideout (1849) . . . 191Cattley v Pollard (2006) . . . 527, 528, 529Cavalier v Cavalier (1971) . . . 190Cave v Cave (1880) . . . 24Cave v Robinson Jarvis & Rolf (a fi rm)

    (2002) . . . 528Cavendish Browne’s Settlement Trusts, Re,

    Horner v Rawle (1916) . . . 116Cawdron v Merchant Taylors School

    (2009) . . . 251Cayne v Global Natural Resources plc (1984),

    CA . . . 558, 585, 586, 587Cazenove, Re (1919) . . . 412Centre Trustees (CI) Ltd v Van Rooyen

    (2010) . . . 491Chadwick v Heatley (1845) . . . 409Chaigley Farms Ltd v Crawford, Kaye &

    Grayshire Ltd (1996) . . . 542Chalinder and Herington, Re (1907) . . . 438

    Challoner Club Ltd (in liquidation), Re (1997) . . . 59

    Chalmers v Pardoe (1963), PC . . . 206Chamberlain, Re, Blanc v Blanc (1976) . . . 506Chamberlayne v Brockett (1872) . . . 255Chambers, ex p (1829) . . . 470Chan v Cresdon Pty Ltd (1989) . . . 9Chan v Zacharia (1983), HC of A . . . 143Chandler v Kerley (1978), CA . . . 222, 223Channel Tunnel Group Ltd v Balfour Beatty

    Construction Ltd (1992), CA; aff d (1993), HL . . . 559, 628

    Chaplin, Re, Neame v A-G (1933) . . . 271Chapman, Re, Freeman v Parker (1894),

    CA . . . 479Chapman v Browne (1902), CA . . . 422, 532Chapman v Chapman. See Chapman’s

    Settlement Trusts, Re, Chapman v ChapmanChapman v Michaelson (1909), CA . . . 712Chapman’s Settlement Trusts, Re, Chapman v

    Chapman (1953), CA; aff d sub nom Chapman v Chapman (1954), HL . . . 463, 492, 494, 495

    Chappell v Times Newspapers Ltd (1975), CA . . . 660, 671

    Chapple, Re, Newton v Chapman (1884) . . . 438Chapter plc v City Index Ltd (2007) . . . 518Charge Card Services Ltd, Re (1986) . . . 481Charles v Fraser (2010) . . . 139Charles of the Ritz Group v Jory (1986) . . . 644Charlesworth, Re, Robinson v Archdeacon of

    Cleveland (1910) . . . 268Charrington v Simons & Co Ltd (1970); revsd

    (1971) . . . 557, 591, 605Chartbook Ltd v Persimmon Homes Ltd

    (2009) . . . 704, 710Charter v Trevelyan (1844) . . . 699Charter plc v City Index Ltd (2007) . . . 159, 161Chase Manhattan Bank NA v Israel-British

    Bank (London) Ltd (1981) . . . 542Chater v Mortgage Agency Services Number

    Two Ltd (2003) . . . 695Chaudhary v Yaunz (2011) . . . 170Chaudhry v Chaudhry (1976); on appeal (1976),

    CA . . . 204Cheese v Th omas (1993), CA . . . 215, 691Chellaram v Chellaram (1985) . . . 4, 386, 482,

    555, 623, 651Chellew v Excell (2009) . . . 445Chelsea (Viscount) v Muscatt (1990),

    CA . . . 604, 605Chelsea Cloisters Ltd (in liquidation), Re (1980),

    CA . . . 49Cheltenham and Gloucester Building Society v

    Ricketts (1993), CA . . . 580

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  • xxvi Table of Cases

    Cherry v Boultbee (1829) . . . 407Chessels v British Telecommunications plc

    (2002) . . . 481Chettiar v Chettiar (1962) . . . 479Chetwynd’s Settlement, Re, Scarisbrick v

    Nevinson (1902) . . . 370, 386Chellew v Excell (2009) . . . 445Chichester v M’Intire (1830) . . . 669Chichester Diocesan Fund and Board of Finance

    Inc v Simpson (1944), HL . . . 58, 173, 249, 254, 540

    Chief Comr of Stamp Duties v ISPT Pty Ltd (1997) . . . 76, 104

    Chief Constable of Hampshire v A Ltd (1985), CA . . . 554, 620

    Chief Constable of Kent v V (1983), CA . . . 554, 620, 685

    Chief Constable of Leicestershire v M (1988) . . . 620

    Chief Constable of Surrey v A (1988) . . . 620Chillingworth v Chambers (1896), CA . . . 518,

    519, 524Chinn v Collins (Inspector of Taxes) (1979);

    revsd (1981), HL . . . 650Chinnock v Sainsbury (1860) . . . 658Chiron Corpn v Murere Diagnostics Ltd (No 9)

    (1995) . . . 600Chiron Corpn v Organon Teknika Ltd (No 10)

    (1995) . . . 565Chisholm, Re, Legal Reversionary Society v

    Knight (1898) . . . 388Chisholm v Kirklees Metropolitan Borough

    Council (1993) . . . 583Chocosuisse Union des Fabricants Suisses de

    Chocolat v Cadbury Ltd (1997); on appeal (1999), CA . . . 598

    Chohan v Saggar (1994), CA . . . 240, 241Choithram (T) International SA v Pagarani

    (2000), PC . . . 107Choudhri v Palta (1994), CA . . . 679Christ’s College, Cambridge Case (1757) . . . 264Christ’s Hospital v Grainger (1849) . . . 255, 256Christian v Christian (1981), CA . . . 211Christian Brothers of Ireland in Canada, Re

    (2000) . . . 298Christie v Ovington (1875) . . . 76Christmas’ Settlement Trusts, Re (1986) . . . 504Church (Charles) Developments plc v Cronin

    (1990) . . . 627Churchill, Re, Hiscock v Lodder (1909) . . . 468Churchill v Roach (2004) . . . 200, 211Chwee Kin Keong v Digilandmall. com Pte Ltd

    (2005) . . . 698

    C I Law Trustees v Minwalla (2005) . . . 244Cia de Seguros Imperio (a body corporate) v

    Heath (REBX) Ltd (formerly CE Heath & Co (North America) Ltd ) (2000), CA . . . 530

    Circle Trust, Re (2007) . . . 491Citibank NA v MBIA Assurance SA

    (2007) . . . 245City and Westminster Properties (1934) Ltd v

    Mudd (1959) . . . 705Civilian War Claimants Association Ltd v R

    (1932), HL . . . 372Clack v Carlon (1861) . . . 438Clapham, Re (2006) . . . 520Claremont, Re (1923) . . . 41Clark, Re (1910) . . . 681Clark v Clark (1884), PC . . . 444Clark v Clark (2006) . . . 214Clark v Girdwood (1877), CA . . . 706Clark v University of Lincolnshire and

    Humberside (2000), CA . . . 318Clarke, Re, Bracey v Royal National Lifeboat

    Institution (1923) . . . 254, 262, 289Clarke, Re, Clarke v Clarke (1901) . . . 64Clarke v Chadburn (1985) . . . 574Clarke v Cutland (2003) . . . 540Clarke v Dickson (1858) . . . 699Clarke v Harlowe (2005) . . . 181Clarke v Heathfi eld (1985), CA . . . 681Clarke v Heathfi eld (No 2) (1985) . . . 386Clarke v Hogg (1871) . . . 472Clarke v Meadus (2010) . . . 195Clarke v Price (1819) . . . 658Clarke v Swaile (1762) . . . 446Clarke v Wright (1861), Ex Ch . . . 108Clarkson v Robinson (1900) . . . 438Clasper Group Services Ltd, Re (1989) . . . 160Clay v Pennington (1837) . . . 474Clayhope Properties Ltd v Evans (1986),

    CA . . . 684Clay v Pennington (1837) . . . 474Clayton v Ramsden (1943), HL . . . 231Cleaver, Re, Cleaver v Insley (1981) . . . 138, 139Clef Aquitaine SARL v Laporte Materials

    (Barrow) Ltd (sued as Sovereign Chemicals Industries Ltd) (2001), CA . . . 516

    Clegg v Edmondson (1857) . . . 143, 185Clement v Cheesman (1884) . . . 127Clements, Re, Clements v Pearsall

    (1894) . . . 468Clergy Society, Re (1856) . . . 267Cleveland Literary and Philosophical Society’s

    Land, Re, Bolchow v Laughton (1931) . . . 375

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  • Table of Cases xxvii

    Clinton v Hooper (1791) . . . 191Clipper Maritime Co Ltd of Monrovia v

    Mineralimportexport, Th e Marie Leonhardt (1981) . . . 631, 634

    Clissold’s Settlement, Re (1864) . . . 372Clitheroe’s Settlement Trusts, Re (1959) . . . 502Clore v Th eatrical Properties Ltd and Westby &

    Co Ltd (1936), CA . . . 223Clore’s Settlement Trusts, Re, Sainer v Clore

    (1966) . . . 471Close Trustees (Switzerland) SA v Castro

    (2008) . . . 478Clough v London and North Western Rly Co

    (1871) . . . 699, 700Clough v Ratcliff e (1847) . . . 712Clough Mill Ltd v Martin (1984), CA . . . 32Clout and Frewer’s Contract, Re (1924) . . . 383Cloutte v Storey (1911) . . . 487Cylch, Re (2000) . . . 274Coake, Re, Winckley v Winterton (1922) . . . 667Coates, Re, Ramsden v Coates (1955) . . . 54Coates to Parsons, Re (1886) . . . 365Coats’ Trusts, Re, Coats v Gilmour (1948), CA ;

    aff d sub nom v Coats (1949), HL . . . 285, 286Coatsworth v Johnson (1886), CA . . . 26, 673Cobbetts LLP v Hodge (2009) . . . 148Cobra Golf Inc v Rata (1996) . . . 643, 644Coca-Cola Co v Gilbey (1995) . . . 647Coca Cola Co and Schweppes Ltd v Gilbey

    (1996), CA . . . 637Cochrane v Moore (1890), CA . . . 103Cochrane’s Settlement Trusts, Re (1955) . . . 174Cockburn v Edwards (1881), CA . . . 446Cockburn’s Will Trusts, Re, Cockburn v Lewis

    (1957) . . . 40, 42Cockell v Taylor (1851) . . . 669Cockerell’s Settlement Trusts, Re, Cockerell v

    National Provincial Bank Ltd (1956) . . . 496Cocks v Manners (1871) . . . 285Coco v AN Clark (Engineers) Ltd (1969) . . . 616Cofl exip SA v Stolt Comex Seaway MS Ltd

    (1999); on appeal (2000), CA . . . 594Cogent v Gibson (1864) . . . 654Cohen, Re, Cowan v Cohen (1973) . . . 293Cohen v Roche (1927) . . . 89Cohen’s Settlement Trusts, Re, Eliot-Cohen v

    Cohen (1965) . . . 502Cohen’s Will Trusts, Re, Re Cohen’s Settlement

    Trusts (1959) . . . 503Cole, Re, ex p Trustee of Property of Bankrupt v

    Cole (1964), CA . . . 103Cole, Re, Westminster Bank Ltd v Moore (1958),

    CA . . . 275

    Coleman, Re, Henry v Strong (1888), CA . . . 81Coleman v Bucks and Oxon Union Bank

    (1897) . . . 167Coleman Taymar Ltd v Oakes (2001) . . . 531Coles v Hulme (1828) . . . 703Coles v Sims (1854) . . . 597Coles v Trecothick (1804) . . . 446Coles v William Hill Organisation Ltd

    (1998) . . . 706, 707Collett v Morrison (1851) . . . 702Collier (deceased), Re (1998) . . . 346Collier v Collier (2002) . . . 234Collier v Mason (1858) . . . 669Collings v Lee (2001) . . . 542Collins, Re, Collins v Collins (1886) . . . 493Collins v Barker (1893) . . . 678Collins v Brebner (2000), CA . . . 510Colls v Home and Colonial Stores Ltd (1904),

    HL . . . 569Columbia Picture Industries Inc v Robinson

    (1986) . . . 642, 644, 645, 647Colyear v Lady Mulgrave (1836) . . . 116Combe, Re, Combe v Combe (1925) . . . 36Combs, Re (1884) . . . 385Comiskey v Bowring-Hanbury (1905), HL . . . 50Commercial Bank of the Near East plc v A, B, C

    and D (1989) . . . 630Commerzbank AG v Gareth Price-Jones

    (2003) . . . 551Commerzbank Aktiengesellschaft v IMB

    Morgan plc (2004) . . . 542, 547Commission for the New Towns v Cooper

    (Great Britain) Ltd (1995), CA . . . 707Commissioner of Stamp Duties v Byrnes

    (1911) . . . 185Commonwealth Reserve I v Chodar (2001)

    (NZ) . . . 72Compagnie du Senegal v Smith & Co

    (1883) . . . 683Company’s Application, a, Re (1989) . . . 615Compton, Re, Powell v Compton (1945),

    CA . . . 286–288, 292Connell v Bond Corpn Pty (1992) . . . 84Conroy, Re (1973) . . . 346Conservative and Unionist Central Offi ce v

    Burrell (Inspector of Taxes) (1980); aff d (1982), CA . . . 61, 172

    Consiglio Trusts, Re (1973) . . . 386Constantinidi v Ralli (1935) . . . 708Consterdine v Consterdine (1862) . . . 402Construction Industry Training Board v A-G

    (1973), CA . . . 260Conway v Fenton (1888) . . . 493Conway v Ratini (2005) . . . 443

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  • xxviii Table of Cases

    Conybeare’s Settlement, ex p (1853) . . . 372Conyngham v Conyngham (1750) . . . 382Coode, Re, Coode v Foster (1913) . . . 373Cook, Re, Beck v Grant (1948) . . . 48Cook v Andrews (1897) . . . 683Cook v Th omas (2010) . . . 208Cook’s Settlement Trusts, Re, Royal Exchange

    Assurance v Cook (1965) . . . 109, 110, 119Cooke v Clayworth (1811) . . . 670Cooke v Cooke (1987) . . . 200Cooke v Gilbert (1892), CA . . . 604Cooke v Head (1972), CA . . . 72Cookson v Lee (1853), CA . . . 444Coombes v Smith (1986) . . . 207, 222Cooper (Colin), Re, Le Neve-Foster v National

    Provincial Bank Ltd (1939), CA . . . 138Cooper v PRG Powerhouse Ltd (2008) . . . 178Cooper and Allen’s Contract for Sale to Harlech,

    Re (1876) . . . 459, 460Co-operative Insurance Society Ltd v Argyll

    Stores (Holdings) Ltd (1997), HL . . . 655, 656Co-operative Insurance Society Ltd v

    Centremoor Ltd (1983), CA . . . 705Cooper’s Conveyance Trusts Re, Crewdson v

    Bagot (1956) . . . 174, 255, 335Corelli, Re, Watt v Bridges (1943) . . . 273Corin v Patton (1990) . . . 88Cornish v Midland Bank plc (Humes, third

    party) (1985), CA . . . 699Corsellis, Re, Lawton v Elwes (1887), CA . . . 438Corvisy v Corvisy (1982) . . . 612Costa & Duppe Properties Pty Ltd v Duppe

    (1986) . . . 18, 85Cothay v Sydenham (1788) . . . 407Cottam v Eastern Counties Rly Co

    (1860) . . . 400Cotter Re, Jennings v Nye (1915) . . . 370, 373Coulthard v Disco Mix Club Ltd (1999) . . . 529,

    530Coulthurst, Re, Coutts & Co v Coulthurst (1951),

    CA . . . 262, 293Countryside Residential (North Th ames Ltd) v

    A Child (2000), CA . . . 224Courage Group’s Pension Schemes, Re,

    Ryan v Imperial Brewing and Leisure Ltd (1987) . . . 179

    Courtenay v Courtenay (1846) . . . 386Cowan v Scargill (1985) . . . 19, 373, 397, 416,

    424, 428Cowan de Groot Properties Ltd v Eagle Trust plc

    (1992) . . . 163Cowcher v Cowcher (1972) . . . 7Cowley (Lord) v Byas (1877), CA . . . 562

    Cowper v Laidler (1903) . . . 565Cowper v Stoneham (1893) . . . 516Cox v Barnard (1850) . . . 118Cox v Jones (2004) . . . 220Cox v Middleton (1854) . . . 652Cox v Smith (1868) . . . 670Coxen, Re, McCallum v Coxen (1948) . . . 251,

    483Coys v Autocherish Ltd (2004) . . . 591Cozens, Re, Green v Brisley (1913) . . . 104CPT Custodian Property Ltd v Commissioner of

    State Revenue (2005) . . . 17Crabb v Arun District Council (1976),

    CA . . . 207, 212, 213, 216Crabb v Crabb (1834) . . . 185Craddock Bros Ltd v Hunt (1923), CA . . . 701,

    704Cradock v Piper (1850) . . . 438Cradock v Scottish Provident Institution (1893);

    aff d (1894), CA . . . 686Cradock v Witham (1895) . . . 365Crane v Davis (1981) . . . 183Crane v Hegeman-Harris Co Inc (1939); on

    appeal (1939), CA . . . 703, 710Cranleigh Precision Engineering Ltd v Bryant

    (1964) . . . 614Cranston, Re, Webb v Oldfi eld (1898) . . . 281Cranstoun, Re, National Provincial Bank

    v Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufacturers and Commerce (1932) . . . 273

    Craven (Inspector of Taxes) v White (1989), HL . . . 28

    Craven’s Estate, Re, Lloyds Bank v Cockburn (1937) . . . 125, 126, 128, 496

    Crawley Borough Council v Ure (1995), CA . . . 486

    Crawley Model Railway Society, Re (2006) . . . 284

    Creaglean v Hazen (1999) . . . 48Cream Holdings Ltd v Banerjee (2004) . . . 590,

    591Credit Lyonnais Bank Nederland NV v Burch

    (1996), CA . . . 697Credit Suisse Fides Trust SA v Cuoghi (1997),

    CA . . . 628, 630, 643Crest Homes plc v Marks (1987), HL . . . 644Crisp v Mullings (1974); on appeal (1975),

    CA . . . 190Criterion Properties plc v Stratford UK

    Properties LLC (2004) . . . 156Croft on v Ormsby (1806) . . . 674Crompton & Co Ltd, Re, Player v Crompton &

    Co Ltd (1914) . . . 682

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  • Table of Cases xxix

    Croome v Croome (1888), CA; aff d (1889), HL . . . 175

    Cross, Re, Harston v Tenison (1882), CA . . . 522Crossco No 4 Unlimited v Jolan Ltd (2011) . . . 73,

    220Crow v Wood (1850) . . . 680Crowden v Aldridge (1993) . . . 41Crowe, Re (1979) . . . 339Crowe v Appleby (Inspector of Taxes) (1975);

    aff d (1976),CA . . . 412Crowe v Stevedoring Employees Retirement

    Fund Pty Ltd (2003) . . . 403Crowhurst Park, Re, Sims-Hilditch v Simmons

    (1974) . . . 366Crown Dilman plc v Sutton (2004) . . . 152Crowther v Brophy (1992) . . . 62Crutchley v Jerningham (1817) . . . 651Cud v Rutter sub nom Cuddee v Rutter

    (1720) . . . 653Cuff Knox, Re (1963) . . . 85Cull’s Trusts, Re (1875) . . . 407, 485Cullen v A-G for Ireland (1866) . . . 131Cumberland Consolidated Holdings Ltd v

    Ireland (1946), CA . . . 168Cummins, Re, Cummins v Th ompson (1971),

    CA . . . 194Cummins v Perkins (1899), CA . . . 683Cunnack v Edwards (1896), CA . . . 66Cunningham and Bradley’s Contract for Sale to

    Wilson, Re (1877) . . . 376Cunningham and Frayling, Re (1891) . . . 76Curley v Parkes (2004) . . . 181Curnick v Tucker (1874) . . . 49Curnock v CIR (2003) . . . 128Currant v Jago (1844) . . . 184, 186Currie, Re , McClelland v Gamble (1985) . . . 339Curtis, Re, Hawes v Curtis (1885) . . . 190, 343Curtis v Perry (1802) . . . 233Customs and Excise Comrs v Anchor Foods Ltd

    (1999) . . . 583, 633Customs and Excise Comrs v Barclays Bank plc

    (2006) . . . 627, 634Customs and Excise Comrs v Richmond Th eatre

    Management Ltd (1995) . . . 49Cutler v Wandsworth Stadium Ltd (1949),

    HL . . . 556

    DD (a child) v O (2004) . . . 474, 505D (a minor), Re (1992), CA . . . 555D (statutory will), Re (2011) . . . 47DFT v TDF (2010) . . . 563DHN Food Distributors Ltd v Tower Hamlets

    London Borough Council (1976), CA . . . 169, 222, 224

    DPR Futures Ltd, Re (1989) . . . 632D’Abo v Paget (2000) . . . 480Dacre, Re, Whitaker v Dacre (1916) CA . . . 518D’Adhemar (Viscountess) v Bertrand

    (1865) . . . 362, 377, 378Dadourian Group International Inc v Simms

    (2006) . . . 638, 639Dagle, Re (1990) . . . 185Dagnall v JL Freedman & Co (a fi rm) (1993),

    HL . . . 479Daiches v Bluelake Investments Ltd

    (1985) . . . 684Dale, Re, Proctor v Dale (1994) . . . 139Dale v IRC (1954), HL . . . 438Daley’s Estate, Re (1988) . . . 249Dalgety Wine Estates Pty Ltd v Rizzon

    (1979) . . . 604d’Altroy’s Will Trusts, Re, Crane v Lowman

    (1968) . . . 173Daly v Sydney Stock Exchange (1986), HC of

    A . . . 176Dalziel, Re, Midland Bank Executor and

    Trustee Co Ltd v St Bartholomew’s Hospital (1943) . . . 256

    Dance v Goldingham (1873) . . . 460, 623Danchevsky v Danchevsky (1975), CA . . . 577D’Angibau, Re, Andrews v Andrews (1879),

    CA . . . 110, 118Daniel v Drew (2005) . . . 694Daniel v Ferguson (1891), CA . . . 559Daniells v Mendonca (1999), CA . . . 568Daniels v Daniels’ Estate (1992) . . . 63Danish Bacon Co Ltd Staff Pension Fund, Re,

    Christensen v Arnett (1971) . . . 92, 96Dann v Spurrier (1802) . . . 208Darashah v UFAC (UK) Ltd (1982), CA . . . 631Dargie, Re, Miller Th ornton-Jones

    (1954) . . . 478Darke v Williamson (1855) . . . 476Darling, Re, Farquhar v Darling (1896) . . . 269Darlington Borough Council v Wiltshier

    Northern Ltd (1994), CA . . . 113Darlow v Sparks (1938) . . . 127Darwin Cyclone Tracy Relief Fund Trust, Re

    (1979) . . . 259Dashwood v Lord of Bulkeley (1804) . . . 231Dataforce Pty Ltd v Brambles Holdings Ltd

    (1988) . . . 607Davenport v Bishopp (1843); aff d (1846) . . . 109,

    119David (Lawrence) Ltd v Ashton (1991),

    CA . . . 589Davies (Paul A) (Australia) Pty Ltd (in

    liquidation) v Davies (1983) . . . 152

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  • xxx Table of Cases

    Davies v Otty (No 2) (1865) . . . 98Davies v Perpetual Trustee, Co Ltd (1959),

    PC . . . 287Davies v Sharples (2006) . . . 528, 530Davies’ Trusts, Re (1914) . . . 485Davis, Re, Hannen v Hillyer (1902) . . . 346Davis v Duke of Marlborough (1819) . . . 711Davis v Hone (1805) . . . 650, 672Davis v Hutchings (1907) . . . 407Davis v Richards and Wallington Industries Ltd

    (1991) . . . 75, 173, 179Davstone Estates Ltd’s Leases, Re, Manprop Ltd

    v O’Dell (1969) . . . 483Davy v Scarth (1906) . . . 679Davy International Ltd v Tazzyman (1997),

    CA . . . 576Dawkins, Re, Dawkins v Judd (1986) . . . 243Dawson’s Settlement, Re, Lloyds Bank Ltd v

    Dawson (1966) . . . 174Day v Brownrigg (1878), CA . . . 553Day v Mead (1987), NZCA . . . 7Deakins v Hookings (1993) . . . 605Dean, Re, Cooper-Dean v Stevens (1889) . . . 62,

    275Dean v Stout (Th e trustee in bankruptcy of

    Dean) (2005) . . . 203Dean and Westham Holdings Pty Ltd v Lloyd

    (1990) . . . 102, 654Dean’s Will Trusts, Re, Cowan v Board of

    Governors of St Mary’s Hospital, Paddington (1950) . . . 271

    Dearle v Hall (1823) . . . 407De Bruyne v De Bruyne (2010) . . . 73Debtor, Re, ex p Debtor v Dodwell (Trustee)

    (1949) . . . 396De Cliff ord’s (Lord) Estate, Re, Lord De Cliff ord

    v Quilter (1900) . . . 532, 533De Falco v Crawley Borough Council (1980),

    CA . . . 592De Francesco v Barnum (1890) . . . 658, 659Defries v Creed (1865) . . . 680Deg v Deg (1727) . . . 89De Hoghton v Money (1866), CA . . . 653Delaney, Re, Conoley v Quick (1902) . . . 259,

    286Delaney v Chen (2010) . . . 240Delgoff e v Fader (1939) . . . 123, 126Delius, Re, Emanuel v Rosen (1957) . . . 259Delius’ Will Trusts, Re (1957) . . . 264Delmar Charitable Trust, Re (1897) . . . 267Delves v Gray (1902) . . . 444De Mattos v Gibson (1858); on appeal

    (1859) . . . 609

    De Mestre v West (1891), PC . . . 108De Molestian v Ponton (2002) . . . 700Denley’s Trust Deed, Re, Holman v HH Martyn

    & Co Ltd (1969) . . . 61, 66Denman v Lord Chancellor’s Department

    (2004) . . . 321Denne v Light (1857) . . . 670Dennis v McDonald (1982), CA . . . 203Dennis v Ministry of Defence (2003) . . . 601Den Norske Bank ASA v Antonatos (1998),

    CA . . . 638, 643, 644, 647Denny v Hancock (1870) . . . 668Densham (a bankrupt), Re, ex p trustee of

    bankrupt v Densham (1975) . . . 99Dent v Dent (1995) . . . 169Department of Environment, Food and Rural

    Aff airs v Feakins (2004) . . . 240Department of Social Security v Butler (1995),

    CA . . . 628Deputy Comr of Taxation (NSW) v

    Chamberlain (1990) . . . 668Derby & Co Ltd v Weldon (1990) . . . 636, 637Derby & Co Ltd v Weldon (No 2) (1989),

    CA . . . 625, 629, 631, 636, 639, 683Derby & Co Ltd v Weldon (Nos 3 and 4) (1990),

    CA . . . 625, 629, 636, 639, 683Derby & Co Ltd v Weldon (No 6) (1990),

    CA . . . 625, 626, 635, 637Derry v Peek (1889), HL . . . 692Deschamps v Miller (1908) . . . 555De Sommery, Re, Coelenbier v De Sommery

    (1912) . . . 383De Teissier’s Settled Estates, Re, Re De

    Teissier’s Trusts, De Teissier v De Teissier (1893) . . . 493

    Detmold, Re, Detmold v Detmold (1889) . . . 79Deutsche Morgan Grenfell Group plc v IRC

    (2006) . . . 408Deutsche Ruckversicherung AG v Walbrook

    Insurance Co Ltd (1995), CA . . . 592Devaynes v Noble, Clayton’s Case (1816) . . . 546,

    547Devey v Th ornton (1851) . . . 407De Vitre v Betts (1873) . . . 689Dewar, Re, Dewar v Brooke (1885) . . . 448Dewar v Dewar (1976) . . . 359Dewar v Nustock Pastoral Co Pty Ltd

    (1994) . . . 544Dewhirst’s Trusts, Re (1886), CA . . . 370De Wind v Wedge (2008) . . . 695Dibbens (E) & Sons Ltd (in liquidation), Re

    (1990) . . . 177Dibble v Pfl uger (2010) . . . 201

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  • Table of Cases xxxi

    Dick, Re, Lopes v Hume-Dick (1891), CA; aff d sub nom Hume v Lopes (1892), HL . . . 415, 420

    Dickens v Harris (1866) . . . 681Dicker v Popham Radford & Co (1890) . . . 561Dickinson v Burrell (1866) . . . 24Dickinson v Grand Junction Canal Co

    (1852) . . . 604Dietman v Brent London Borough Council

    (1987); aff d (1988), CA . . . 659Diggles, Re, Gregory v Edfmondson (1888),

    CA . . . 50Digital Equipment Corpn v Darkcrest Ltd

    (1984) . . . 580Dillon, Re, Duffi n v Duffi n (1890), CA . . . 123,

    127, 129Dillwyn v Llewellyn (1862) . . . 206, 212Dimbleby & Sons Ltd v National Union of

    Journalists (1984), HL . . . 593Dimes v Scott (1828) . . . 511, 512Dingle v Turner (1972), HL . . . 287, 288, 291, 293Diplock, Re, Diplock v Wintle (1947); on appeal

    (1948), CA; aff d sub nom Ministry of Health v Simpson (1951), HL . . . 6, 154, 206, 406, 540, 541, 543, 546, 547, 548, 549

    Director General of Fair Trading v Buckland (1990) . . . 573

    Director General of Fair Trading v Pioneer Concrete (UK) Ltd (1994), HL . . . 572–574

    Director General of Fair Trading v Smiths Concrete Ltd (1991), CA . . . 574

    Director General of Fair Trading v Tobyward Ltd (1989) . . . 583

    Distributori Automatici Italia SPA v Holford General Trading Co Ltd (1985) . . . 640

    Distributors and Warehousing Ltd, Re (1986) . . . 710

    Diwell v Farnes (1959), CA . . . 181Dixon v Dixon (1879) . . . 191, 516Dixon v Dixon (1904) . . . 680Docker v Somes (1834) . . . 516Docwra, Re, Docwra v Faith (1885) . . . 76Dodds v Tuke (1884) . . . 476Dodkin v Brunt (1868) . . . 358, 371Dodsley v Kinnersley (1761) . . . 650Dodsworth v Dodsworth (1973), CA . . . 215, 216Doe d Chidgey v Harris (1847) . . . 383Doering v Doering (1889) . . . 518Doherty v Allman (or Allen) (1878), HL . . . 591,

    604, 610Doland, Re, (1970) . . . 703Doleman & Sons v Ossett Corpn (1912),

    CA . . . 666

    Dollfus v Pickford (1854) . . . 594Doloret v Rothschild (1824) . . . 650Dominion Coal Co Ltd v Dominion Iron and

    Steel Co Ltd and National Trust Co Ltd (1909), PC . . . 653

    Dominion Students’ Hall Trust, Re, Dominion Students’ Hall Trust v A-G (1947) . . . 331, 336

    Don King Productions Inc v Warren (1998); aff d (2000), CA . . . 30, 51, 410

    Donald v Ntuli (Guardian News and Media Ltd intervening) (2010) . . . 563

    Donnell v Bennett (1883) . . . 605Doody, Re, Fisher v Doody (1893), CA . . . 438Double Happiness Trust, Re (2003) . . . 53Dougan v Macpherson (1902) . . . 446Douglas, Re, Douglas v Simpson (1905) . . . 269,

    275Douglas, Re, Obert v Barrow (1887), CA . . . 63,

    254Douglas v Andrews (1849) . . . 470Douglas v Hello! Ltd (2001), CA . . . 588Douglas v Hello! Ltd (No 3) (2007) . . . 613, 616,

    617, 618Douglas’s Will Trusts, Re, Lloyds Bank Ltd v

    Nelson (1959); aff d (1959), CA . . . 419Dove v Everard (1830) . . . 382Dove’s Will Trust, Re, Hedley v Dove

    (1939) . . . 385Dover Coalfi eld Extension Ltd, Re (1908),

    CA . . . 146Downes v Bullock (1858); aff d sub nom Bullock v

    Downes (1860) . . . 525Downing v Taxation Comr of Commonwealth

    of Australia (1971) . . . 276Downshire Settled Estates, Re, Marquess of

    Downshire v Royal Bank of Scotland (1953), CA . . . 494, 495, 498

    Downsview Nominees Ltd v First City Corpn Ltd (1993), PC . . . 687

    Dowse v Gorton (1891), HL . . . 475, 476Dowson v Solomon (1859) . . . 669Drake’s Settlement, Re (1926) . . . 391Drakeford v Wilks (1747) . . . 134Draper v British Optical Association

    (1938) . . . 562Drexel Burnham Lambert UK Pension Plan, Re

    (1995) . . . 437Drexler (George) Ofrex Foundation (Trustees) v

    IRC (1966) . . . 294Dreyfus (Camille and Henry) Foundation Inc v

    IRC (1956), HL . . . 256Driffi ll, Re, Harvey v Chamberlain

    (1950) . . . 276

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  • xxxii Table of Cases

    Drosier v Brereton (1851) . . . 509Druiff v Lord Parker (1868) . . . 702Drummond, Re, Ashworth v Drummond

    (1914) . . . 64, 262Dubai Aluminium Co Ltd v Salaam

    (2002) . . . 71, 155, 156, 167Duckwari plc (no.2), Re (1999) . . . 148Duddell, Re, Roundway v Roundway

    (1932) . . . 141Duddy v Gresham (1878) . . . 231Duder v Amsterdamsch Trustees Kantoor

    (1902) . . . 678Dudgeon, Re, Truman v Pope (1896) . . . 262Dudman, Re, Dudman v Dudman (1925) . . . 124Duffi eld v Elwes (1827), HL . . . 123, 127Dufour v Pereira (1769) . . . 139, 140Dugdale, Re, Dugdale v Dugdale (1888) . . . 78,

    212Duggan v Governor of Full Sutton Prison

    (2004) . . . 77Duke Group Ltd (in liquidation) v Pilmer (1999);

    on appeal sub nom Pilmer v Duke Group (in liquidation) (2001) . . . 7, 145

    Dumbell, Re, ex p Hughes, ex p Lyon (1802) . . . 443, 444

    Dunbar v Dunbar (1909) . . . 190Duncan v Worrall (1822) . . . 711Duncuft v Albrecht (1841) . . . 654Dundee General Hospitals Board of

    Management v Walker (1952) . . . 397, 488Dunford and Elliott Ltd v Johnson and Firth

    Brown Ltd (1976), CA . . . 589Dunn, Re, Brinklow v Singleton (1904) . . . 478,

    680Dunn v Flood (1885),CA . . . 460Dunn v Rio Properties (2004) . . . 684Dunne v Byrne (1912), PC . . . 267, 268, 270Dunning v Earl of Gainsborough (1885) . . . 512Duport Steels Ltd v Sirs (1980), HL . . . 593Dupree’s Deed Trusts, Re, Daley v Lloyds Bank

    (1945) . . . 265Du Preez Ltd v KSP (Isle of Man) Ltd

    (2009–2010) . . . 178Du Sautoy v Symes (1967) . . . 674Duxbury’s Settlement Trusts, Re (1994),

    CA . . . 390Dyer v Dyer (1788) . . . 180, 182Dyno-Rod v Reeve (1999) . . . 585Dyrlund Smith A/S v Turberville Smith Ltd

    (1998), CA . . . 586Dyson v A-G (1911), CA . . . 372Dyson v Lum (1866) . . . 443, 444

    Dyster v Randall & Sons (1926) . . . 672, 673

    EE v Channel Four Television Corp (2005) . . . 590E, L, O and R Trusts, Re (2008) . . . 435ETI Euro Telecom International NV v Republic

    of Bolivia (2008) . . . 629ETK v News Group Newspapers Ltd

    (2011) . . . 618EVTR, Re, Gilbert v Barber (1987), CA . . . 178Eads v Williams (1854) . . . 669, 674Eagle Trust plc v SBC Securities Ltd

    (1992) . . . 157, 159, 167Earl of Chesterfi eld’s Trusts, Re (1883) . . . 430,

    432Early v Garrett (1829) . . . 693East, Re, Re Bellwood’s Will Trusts

    (1873) . . . 362East v Pantiles (Plant Hire) Ltd (1982),

    CA . . . 703East Sussex County Council v Stedman

    (2009) . . . 624Eastbourne Mutual Building Society v Hastings

    Corpn (1965) . . . 40Eastern Capital Futures Ltd (in liquidation), Re

    (1989) . . . 546Eastern Counties Rly Co v Hawkes

    (1855) . . . 661Eastes, Re, Pain v Paxon (1948) . . . 271Easton v Brown (1981) . . . 674Easton v Landor (1892), CA . . . 479Eastwood v Lever (1863) . . . 564Eaton, Re, Daines v Eaton (1894) . . . 430Eaton, Re, Shaw v Midland Bank Executor and

    Trustee Co Ltd (1964) . . . 482Eaton v Bennett (1865) . . . 705Eaton v Buchanan (1911), HL . . . 397, 463Eaves v Hickson (1861) . . . 406Eddis v Chichester Constable (1969); aff d (1969),

    CA . . . 550Eden, Re, Ellis v Crampton (1957