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Environment Environnement Canada Canada. GV for Snowfall Retrieval Research. David Hudak Paul Joe. 2nd International GPM Ground Validation Workshop, 27-29 September, Taipei, Taiwan. 2477. All active Synoptic Stations north of 50 N. Ref: WMO Publication No. 9 Volume A. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • GV for Snowfall Retrieval ResearchDavid HudakPaul Joe 2nd International GPM Ground Validation Workshop, 27-29 September, Taipei, Taiwan

  • Ref: WMO Publication No. 9 Volume AAll active Synoptic Stations north of 50 N29 Oct 2001

  • POSS Occurrence(1 minute data)Surface obsDoppler XBandDerived SnowratesMinutelySnow onlyTyped by observer1 winter of dataYEV=Inuvik 68NYUL=Montreal 45N

  • Vertical Profile AnalysisFort Simpson (62N)Montreal (45N)

  • Quantifying Snow Gauge ErrorsSystematic errors: WIND (temperature)wetting lossevaporation lossnon-zero trace

    capping of gauge orificeblowing snowGoodison et al

  • WMO Intercomparison Study ResultsCatch Efficiency vs Wind for the 4 most widely used gauges

    fig5 (2)

    90.326056527181.723574953187.700237

    66.40831253760.08371134378.108172

    76.448947780170.568259489377.903893

    84.526020980580.769308936974.490208

    80.280032536375.557677681273.7032

    84.967916962172.380077412273.312012

    90.381716345783.603087619869.485052

    70.870348726964.707709707268.552437

    65.420684034668.925363536567.629472

    61.590479930656.311295936565.992453

    77.785288384571.478373110165.274925

    65.470396842459.235120952664.740832

    67.180851297558.418131563162.466573

    58.943587939658.943587939658.766437

    66.375297512759.000264455758.113757

    46.698887344151.614559696157.951552

    66.186421898350.510690396157.467253

    58.093825171658.093825171657.306592

    54.627248678556.233932463255.878013

    55.845882320170.257722918954.942997

    54.877232712950.105299433554.634413

    33.649110512636.453203055453.869708

    43.846845606341.940461014753.717925

    63.506301155752.429620721653.264892

    2.443.281625689852.9648

    48.908485717759.777038099452.073788

    50.241091103247.449919375250.619648

    47.319480780141.859540690148.786973

    51.999429428747.839475074448.786973

    45.469918114847.218761119247.421613

    36.515841932245.330010674447.421613

    2.812.8147.153173

    73.08166281165.468989601547.153173

    28.625595286137.044888017346.488828

    21.969324657431.384749510545.574957

    27.943464336444.03212562144.553693

    19.92898212345.551959138444.302237

    50.670654263642.473930779843.927948

    31.873868751531.873868751543.068117

    44.770565540.366903319640.040053

    51.309240942557.859356807537.888333

    38.035616121633.92365762236.572512

    21.345662658427.037839367336.473997

    13.177481816926.354963633735.321925

    18.86864116433.020122037134.225437

    17.718003186232.214551247633.525325

    13.302862248129.266296945833.439548

    27.536924853631.208514834133.439548

    14.773138592217.727766310632.684925

    30.909217800628.333449650632.119612

    4.3112.584938189431.420573

    20.265860456932.932023242531.269477

    22.155797920129.541063893430.898492

    28.810993194321.608244895727.938208

    4.94.927.6123

    5.1518.723603949626.403925

    5.2815.038905500225.870912

    11.932685948518.561955919925.646908

    5.3611.382391448425.575328

    32.56832189929.854295074125.403133

    5.8712.496481418924.271717

    13.941121207516.475870517924.256192

    21.761672149626.59759929424.069637

    6.097.722975307724.019333

    15.072107358820.09614314524.165453

    Danish Hellmann

    Hungarian Hellmann

    Hungarian Hellmann

    Danish Hellmann

    German Hellmann at Harzgerode

    Wind speed at gauge height (m/s)

    Catch ratio to the DFIR (%)

    Snow data, DFIR >3mm, Jokioinen and Harzgerode

    fig2

    fig2

    5.5

    7.1

    5.7

    7

    5.2

    5

    5.8

    3

    3.3

    3.3

    4.6

    5.3

    5.9

    2.8

    1.2

    3.6

    1.3

    2.2

    1.4

    2.2

    4.3

    1.9

    1.3

    4.3

    4.2

    3.7

    4.8

    2

    2.2

    2.7

    3.2

    1.2

    3.9

    2.3

    1.7

    1.7

    4.3

    2.2

    0.4

    0.4

    3.6

    3.4

    3.8

    3.7

    0.5

    2.1

    1.1

    2.1

    2.4

    1.2

    0.5

    0.8

    1.3

    3.3

    2.2

    1.7

    1.3

    1.6

    2

    0.6

    1.9

    1

    0.4

    2.3

    1.9

    1.7

    1

    1.9

    2.2

    1.7

    1.4

    1.1

    1.1

    0.9

    1.8

    1.4

    0.7

    1.6

    0.4

    2

    1.2

    1.2

    0.7

    1.1

    0.9

    1.4

    1.2

    0.6

    1.3

    0.4

    0.4

    1.7

    0.6

    0

    0.9

    1

    1.4

    1.3

    0.6

    0.4

    1.1

    0.6

    0.9

    0.7

    1.3

    0.9

    0.9

    1.6

    0.3

    1.1

    0.2

    0.7

    0.3

    1.2

    0.5

    0.7

    0.4

    0.2

    0.2

    0.7

    0.1

    0.9

    0.2

    0.7

    0.7

    0.5

    0.5

    0.5

    0.4

    0.5

    0.8

    0.8

    0.7

    0.4

    0.3

    0.5

    0.6

    0.7

    0.1

    0

    0.6

    0.5

    0.4

    0.6

    0.7

    0.2

    0.2

    0

    0.2

    0

    0.5

    0.4

    0.2

    0.5

    0.1

    0.5

    0.6

    0.4

    0.1

    0.4

    0.2

    0.5

    0.6

    0.2

    0.4

    0.5

    0.3

    0.2

    0.2

    0.3

    0.3

    0.1

    0.4

    0.5

    0.3

    0.5

    0.1

    0

    0

    0

    0.3

    0.5

    0

    0

    0.2

    0.1

    0

    0.3

    0

    0.2

    0.3

    0.2

    0.2

    0.3

    0.5

    0

    0.1

    0.1

    0

    0.1

    0

    0.1

    0

    0.1

    0.2

    0.1

    0

    0.1

    0.2

    0.2

    0.2

    0.1

    0.2

    0.2

    0.2

    0.2

    0.2

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0.1

    0

    0

    0

    0.1

    0.1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0.1

    0.2

    0.2

    0

    0.1

    0

    0.2

    0.1

    0.1

    0.1

    0.1

    0

    &A

    Page &P

    Hungarian Hellmann (mm)

    Danish Hellmann (mm)

    a) snow

    fig3

    2.9

    0.4

    0.1

    2

    2.5

    3.4

    0.1

    3.2

    2.9

    3.2

    0.7

    0.6

    0.7

    0.2

    0.4

    1.7

    1.8

    1.1

    0.9

    0.2

    1.2

    0.2

    0

    0.7

    0.3

    10.1

    0.1

    0.1

    1.5

    4.9

    0

    3.9

    0.2

    3.3

    0.2

    12.5

    8.2

    4.2

    2.2

    0.5

    4.7

    1.2

    4

    2.1

    1.2

    0.3

    1.8

    3.9

    3.4

    0.7

    2.1

    0.3

    3.8

    2.9

    0.2

    5.9

    7.2

    9

    4

    0.7

    2.4

    6.6

    4.6

    2.1

    0.1

    0.2

    0.5

    11.9

    0.2

    1.9

    1.5

    0

    1

    0.4

    10.2

    11.2

    0.1

    2.4

    1.6

    1

    0.8

    1.3

    4.8

    3

    4.3

    5.9

    0.1

    10.5

    0

    8.8

    2.7

    0.4

    0.3

    5.5

    1.2

    0.6

    0.4

    0.3

    0.1

    1.2

    2.2

    1.6

    0.3

    0.2

    1.5

    0.3

    0.9

    12.8

    1.1

    5.3

    2.5

    0.9

    0.2

    0

    0.3

    3.4

    0.1

    3.2

    3.6

    0.3

    0.7

    8.9

    3.3

    0.6

    5.7

    0.3

    0.2

    1.5

    3.1

    0

    0.6

    0

    5.2

    4.2

    4.4

    3.3

    2.2

    1.6

    2

    0.7

    2.9

    1.5

    0.2

    1.4

    1.1

    0.7

    0

    0.9

    2.2

    0.3

    0.6

    3.1

    0.8

    0.2

    1.3

    1.8

    9.8

    1.1

    0.7

    3

    1.8

    5.7

    0.2

    0.2

    2.2

    1.5

    3

    1.6

    0.2

    0.7

    3.8

    2

    0.2

    0.6

    0.8

    1

    0.4

    0.4

    4.7

    0.4

    0.4

    0.1

    0

    0

    0.1

    0

    1

    1.2

    1.2

    0.2

    4.3

    0.2

    1.2

    1.4

    1.7

    0.7

    3.9

    4.5

    0.4

    0.5

    1

    0.3

    3

    1.1

    1

    3.4

    1.6

    0.2

    3.3

    0.4

    1.4

    10.7

    0.7

    0.5

    2.6

    1.9

    0.4

    1

    0.1

    1.6

    0.1

    0

    0.3

    0

    0.3

    0.1

    1.5

    2.2

    4

    1.1

    1.8

    0.7

    0

    1

    2.5

    2.8

    1.2

    0.5

    2

    0.2

    1.2

    0

    1.7

    0

    0.3

    1

    1

    0.3

    0.8

    0.5

    1.8

    0.3

    0.2

    0.7

    0.6

    2.8

    3.7

    3.8

    7.3

    0

    0.1

    0.5

    1.3

    0.2

    3.5

    3.1

    0.4

    3.4

    1.4

    0.5

    2.6

    1.8

    0.8

    4

    0.7

    0

    2.7

    0

    0.2

    1

    0

    &A

    Page &P

    Hungarian Hellmann (mm)

    Danish Hellmann (mm)

    b) mixed

    fig4

    0.5

    0.3

    5.1

    4.3

    11.6

    3

    0.4

    0.1

    6.5

    3.2

    0.5

    2.5

    3.2

    1.3

    1.9

    0.4

    0.4

    0.2

    1.1

    3.2

    1.1

    0.1

    3.2

    0.2

    2.4

    4.4

    0.2

    2.8

    0.2

    0.7

    1.1

    11.3

    1.6

    0

    0.2

    14.3

    18.3

    2.6

    5.6

    6.4

    3.1

    2.8

    3

    1.7

    1.2

    3.1

    2

    5.4

    15.3

    4.1

    1.5

    1.6

    3.8

    4.5

    0.2

    0.2

    4.7

    3.4

    1.1

    0.8

    0.9

    0.7

    7.4

    0.2

    1.3

    0.6

    8.6

    0.9

    0.1

    4.9

    4.4

    3

    2.4

    4.4

    1.8

    0.4

    0.1

    0.2

    0.9

    6.2

    0.2

    1.8

    0.2

    0.3

    0.1

    2.9

    2.8

    7.8

    2.3

    0.1

    4.7

    3

    2.9

    0.5

    13

    0.1

    2.8

    1.4

    1.2

    19.7

    0.8

    3

    1.7

    2.3

    1.7

    0.5

    0.3

    0.8

    0.2

    0.2

    0.5

    1.3

    15.1

    0.6

    0

    4.5

    1.5

    0.4

    1.8

    0.7

    1

    2.7

    0.8

    0.8

    5.6

    0

    0.3

    1.8

    0.2

    5.9

    1.1

    0.4

    2.5

    17.7

    15.6

    5.4

    0.6

    1.5

    0.4

    2.8

    3.2

    1.3

    0.7

    1.4

    3.1

    3.4

    1.3

    10

    0.1

    0.4

    0.3

    14.2

    4.8

    0.7

    2

    5.5

    0.4

    0.3

    0.1

    4.6

    0.1

    4.4

    2.9

    0

    0.4

    1.3

    0.9

    9.4

    1.3

    3

    0.6

    0.6

    1.2

    0.1

    0.5

    0.9

    2.5

    15

    12.2

    6.9

    2.4

    1.2

    4.9

    1.5

    0.3

    0.9

    0.2

    1.3

    0.4

    1

    0.4

    4.5

    2.1

    0.4

    7.6

    18.9

    1.8

    1.7

    1.2

    2.7

    4

    0.4

    0.2

    0

    1.9

    0.3

    4.9

    1.1

    1

    11

    0.5

    0.1

    0.2

    0.5

    0.6

    14.9

    8.9

    0.1

    1.3

    0.1

    3.5

    3.7

    3.9

    1.8

    0.2

    0.1

    2.8

    0.8

    4.6

    0.4

    1.4

    0.4

    0.3

    2.5

    1.5

    0

    3.2

    6.1

    2

    0.1

    2.2

    0.9

    0.3

    0

    3.66

    2.3

    1

    3.7

    0.5

    0

    8.5

    4.9

    0.2

    0.3

    1.5

    0.6

    0.4

    3.6

    3.3

    2.4

    0.2

    1.4

    1.8

    11.6

    0.4

    3.3

    1.8

    0.9

    1

    0.1

    0.2

    0.1

    3.8

    1.3

    3.3

    5.9

    0.5

    0.4

    1.2

    2.6

    3.9

    1.8

    0.1

    0.8

    13.7

    3.4

    2.8

    0.1

    1.2

    4.5

    2.4

    0.3

    6.7

    9.4

    6

    0.9

    1

    1.2

    3.4

    7.7

    1.8

    0.7

    0.3

    1.9

    2.7

    2

    0.1

    0.3

    3.8

    2.3

    0.7

    0.1

    0.2

    3.7

    0.6

    8.3

    0.3

    1.4

    0.9

    1.6

    4.3

    0.2

    1.7

    1.9

    1.1

    1.7

    13.6

    3.2

    0.3

    0.7

    0.5

    3.1

    0

    1.7

    0.7

    0.7

    1.7

    0.5

    0.6

    1.7

    0.3

    3.1

    3.5

    18.4

    0

    1.4

    3

    1.6

    2.7

    6.9

    0.5

    3

    5.4

    0.3

    0.6

    0.7

    14.7

    2.4

    1.2

    0.8

    0

    8.3

    0.1

    4.8

    0.1

    0.1

    0.7

    0.2

    0.1

    2.8

    13.7

    0.7

    0.8

    0.2

    4.4

    0

    2.6

    0.3

    0.5

    7.6

    1.8

    0.5

    8.4

    0.7

    1

    0.1

    0.3

    2.8

    1.3

    2.3

    0.5

    2.8

    1.8

    7.1

    0

    0

    0.2

    7.6

    1.8

    3.4

    0.7

    1.2

    4.2

    3.9

    10.3

    0.3

    0.2

    2

    1.4

    0.9

    0.6

    1.5

    0.1

    2.4

    9.9

    4.6

    1.3

    1.5

    2

    5

    0.4

    1

    0.1

    1.9

    2

    0.4

    2.9

    6.6

    0.5

    1.2

    0.4

    0.7

    7.3

    0.9

    3.4

    1.3

    5

    1.7

    3.9

    0.5

    3.6

    0.2

    0.7

    1.7

    11.1

    5.4

    3.2

    7

    0.1

    1.4

    3.7

    6.1

    6.2

    5.9

    0.9

    0.7

    0.1

    0.8

    1.3

    0.3

    0.2

    1.3

    1.43

    1.8

    1.1

    2.8

    0.4

    6.9

    1.8

    0.4

    14.3

    0

    8.9

    1

    2.4

    0.2

    3

    1.9

    0.2

    0.2

    2.3

    0

    2.8

    1.2

    0.2

    0.8

    1.8

    0.8

    6.8

    0.3

    4.3

    0

    12.1

    0.3

    0.7

    1.8

    0

    1.8

    2.8

    0.9

    1.3

    3.7

    6

    11.1

    0.6

    4.9

    0

    11.1

    12.3

    11

    0.8

    0.8

    4.9

    0.4

    0.6

    6.4

    1.2

    2.8

    3.7

    0.5

    0.2

    2.2

    6.7

    0.1

    0.7

    0.5

    &A

    Page &P

    Hungarian Hellmann (mm)

    Danish Hellmann (mm)

    c) rain

    fig5

    fig5

    0.1

    0.1

    0.1

    0.2

    0.1

    0.3

    0.3

    0.3

    0.3

    0.5

    0.2

    0.3

    0.2

    0.5

    0.2

    0.2

    0.3

    0.4

    0.3

    0.3

    0.5

    0.7

    0.8

    0.8

    0.8

    0.9

    0.3

    0.4

    0.7

    0.6

    0.4

    1.4

    1.5

    1

    1.4

    0.6

    2.1

    1.4

    2.3

    1.2

    1.6

    4

    1.6

    1.6

    4.9

    5

    5.8

    1.8

    3.8

    7.3

    2.3

    9.4

    &A

    Page &P

    Polish Hellmann (mm)

    German Hellmann (mm)

    a) snow

    fig6

    0.4

    0.8

    0.8

    0.8

    0.9

    0.3

    0.3

    0.3

    0.4

    0.4

    0.7

    0.6

    0.9

    0.4

    0.2

    1.4

    1.5

    1.4

    1.1

    1

    1.1

    0.7

    0.8

    0.4

    1.4

    1.4

    1.9

    0.6

    0.8

    2.1

    1.4

    1.4

    2.4

    1.1

    2.3

    2.1

    1.4

    1.1

    1.6

    1.3

    0.9

    1.8

    0.9

    3

    0.9

    2.3

    1.9

    4

    4

    3

    4.7

    2.4

    1.5

    2.4

    0.9

    4.9

    0.3

    4.4

    1.2

    3.4

    3.7

    &A

    Page &P

    Polish Hellmann (mm)

    German Hellmann (mm)

    b) mixed

    fig7

    0.1

    0.3

    0.3

    0.1

    0.1

    0.1

    0.1

    0.1

    0.1

    0.1

    0.1

    0.2

    0.4

    0.3

    0.2

    0.2

    0.2

    0.1

    0.4

    0.2

    0.3

    0.4

    0

    0.3

    0.3

    0.5

    0.3

    0.5

    0.3

    0.5

    0.4

    0.4

    0.6

    0.5

    0.6

    0.3

    0.8

    0.6

    0.6

    0.6

    0.7

    0.9

    0.7

    0.8

    0.8

    0.9

    0.9

    0.6

    1

    1.1

    1.3

    1.7

    1.5

    1.4

    1.5

    1.4

    1.4

    1.8

    1.9

    2.4

    2.9

    2

    2.6

    2.4

    3

    3.2

    2.7

    3.3

    3.1

    4.1

    4

    4.1

    4.1

    4.9

    5.1

    5.6

    6.2

    6.3

    6.1

    6.5

    5.8

    6.6

    7

    6.6

    7.1

    12.6

    13.2

    13.6

    14.8

    16.4

    &A

    Page &P

    Polish Helmann (mm)

    German Hellmann (mm)

    c) rain

    fig8

    fig8

    89.519790267967.139842700973.5341134344

    69.415181060946.276787373946.2767873739

    97.221819302888.383472093488.3834720934

    87.386925876573.588990211875.1220941745

    73.362812855348.908541903555.5778885267

    82.195383907266.852245577963.5644302216

    43.650346512718.272238075118.2722380751

    53.430967749944.357784547138.3089957452

    79.507087207665.476424759268.2825572489

    34.238554139218.831204776619.68716863

    73.150591310553.5669684454.142957348

    &A

    Page &P

    G.Hell.sh

    G.Hell.unsh

    P.Hell.unsh

    wind speed at gauge height( m/s)

    catch ratio to DFIR (%)

    a) snow

    hel.pic

    83.039360710183.039360710179.7177862817

    88.738429641888.738429641879.2307407516

    73.488884806255.116663604655.1166636046

    94.234832860879.956827881979.9568278819

    89.589679268975.591291883272.791614406

    90.560758009575.467298341275.4672983412

    94.54361630588.813700165380.2188259558

    91.078248055382.79840732382.798407323

    81.309922776981.309922776978.7689876901

    71.447700406559.129131370954.2017037566

    86.680518338486.680518338479.6523682029

    91.998230358885.098363081985.0983630819

    84.55890902173.989045393373.9890453933

    87.571763870781.860561879176.1493598875

    82.55019068172.231416845966.0401525448

    94.756784917480.93808711784.8862864885

    88.896952104581.640058055278.0116110305

    82.744236005384.305448005481.1830240052

    81.733520723374.022811221170.9385274202

    85.326776721882.384474076282.3844740762

    68.16796435456.369662831261.6133523969

    76.792930442875.593040904774.3931513665

    77.036145619977.036145619975.9511294844

    80.515215528867.750608188969.7143939335

    62.562059328558.987084509758.093340805

    91.057038651188.455408975388.4554089753

    91.99114149477.431392480578.0931992539

    90.27782044289.683887412786.1202892374

    79.182315633765.900120753266.9218280517

    81.03842836678.337147420576.9865069477

    84.979514714781.656293468977.3835804386

    &A

    Page &P

    German Hell sh

    German Hell unsh

    Polish Hell unsh

    wind speed at guage height (m/s)

    catch ratio to the DFIR (%)

    b) mixed

    table 2

    85.274550991981.994760569278.7149701464

    90.493014061687.573884575887.5738845758

    91.44583241991.44583241988.6747465881

    74.786918206167.050340460669.6291997091

    82.020551531782.020551531782.0205515317

    81.800542033175.342604504166.7320211322

    92.779582395690.570544719590.5705447195

    88.488463231786.33020803186.330208031

    91.54133799385.299883129885.2998831298

    84.550804525186.563918918582.5376901316

    84.689498123181.432209733779.803565539

    84.395961810181.270185446879.7072972651

    88.929947806385.915373304484.4080860534

    89.539159215889.539159215888.1179027203

    95.45578713895.45578713893.964290464

    89.802227694789.802227694788.3538046674

    89.183316079686.5211275486.52112754

    76.710483662676.710483662678.0562816216

    89.220549485885.450667113282.9374121981

    94.943680018489.811589206689.8115892066

    89.6593658884.940451886377.8620808958

    86.531523003884.192833192983.0234882874

    93.645793068587.26085263289.3891661108

    89.201398734387.233720821186.5778281833

    83.929775628382.747666112480.3834470806

    92.830423161890.998243757390.3875172892

    91.488224721388.844056376786.7287217011

    &A

    Page &P

    G.Hell.sh

    G.Hell.unsh

    P.Hell.unsh

    wind speed at gauge height (m/s)

    catch ratio to the DFIR (%)

    c) rain

    table3

    90.326056527181.723574953187.700237

    66.40831253760.08371134378.108172

    76.448947780170.568259489377.903893

    84.526020980580.769308936974.490208

    80.280032536375.557677681273.7032

    84.967916962172.380077412273.312012

    90.381716345783.603087619869.485052

    70.870348726964.707709707268.552437

    65.420684034668.925363536567.629472

    61.590479930656.311295936565.992453

    77.785288384571.478373110165.274925

    65.470396842459.235120952664.740832

    67.180851297558.418131563162.466573

    58.943587939658.943587939658.766437

    66.375297512759.000264455758.113757

    46.698887344151.614559696157.951552

    66.186421898350.510690396157.467253

    58.093825171658.093825171657.306592

    54.627248678556.233932463255.878013

    55.845882320170.257722918954.942997

    54.877232712950.105299433554.634413

    33.649110512636.453203055453.869708

    43.846845606341.940461014753.717925

    63.506301155752.429620721653.264892

    2.443.281625689852.9648

    48.908485717759.777038099452.073788

    50.241091103247.449919375250.619648

    47.319480780141.859540690148.786973

    51.999429428747.839475074448.786973

    45.469918114847.218761119247.421613

    36.515841932245.330010674447.421613

    2.812.8147.153173

    73.08166281165.468989601547.153173

    28.625595286137.044888017346.488828

    21.969324657431.384749510545.574957

    27.943464336444.03212562144.553693

    19.92898212345.551959138444.302237

    50.670654263642.473930779843.927948

    31.873868751531.873868751543.068117

    44.770565540.366903319640.040053

    51.309240942557.859356807537.888333

    38.035616121633.92365762236.572512

    21.345662658427.037839367336.473997

    13.177481816926.354963633735.321925

    18.86864116433.020122037134.225437

    17.718003186232.214551247633.525325

    13.302862248129.266296945833.439548

    27.536924853631.208514834133.439548

    14.773138592217.727766310632.684925

    30.909217800628.333449650632.119612

    4.3112.584938189431.420573

    20.265860456932.932023242531.269477

    22.155797920129.541063893430.898492

    28.810993194321.608244895727.938208

    4.94.927.6123

    5.1518.723603949626.403925

    5.2815.038905500225.870912

    11.932685948518.561955919925.646908

    5.3611.382391448425.575328

    32.56832189929.854295074125.403133

    5.8712.496481418924.271717

    13.941121207516.475870517924.256192

    21.761672149626.59759929424.069637

    6.097.722975307724.019333

    15.072107358820.09614314524.165453

    Hungarian Hellmann

    Danish Hellmann

    German Hellmann at Harzgerode

    Wind speed at gauge height (m/s)

    Catch ratio to the DFIR (%)

    Snow data, DFIR >3mm, Jokioinen

    table4

    67.26139383462.32.32.367.2613938346

    63.31894544680.60.60.663.3189454468

    23.6100930314.30764.30764.307623.610093031

    38.85529719082.82.82.838.8552971908

    30.72775334733.93.93.930.7277533473

    70.03599929621.51.51.570.0359992962

    43.38877320422.72.72.743.3887732042

    53.28728086472.22.22.253.2872808647

    16.52022973345.35.35.316.5202297334

    83.83183302170.50.50.583.8318330217

    32.21253655113.89823.89823.898232.2125365511

    45.006248440133345.0062484401

    34.02637474213.93.93.934.0263747421

    2.020372.14886677022.02032.020372.1488667702

    1.185.77536017441.11.185.7753601744

    3.195159.17869814443.19513.195159.1786981444

    1.660.23154928621.61.660.2315492862

    5.366729.47207546325.36675.366729.4720754632

    257.06716763432257.0671676343

    0.972.49218019410.90.972.4921801941

    254.15297922062254.1529792206

    27.35987220893.42653.42653.426527.3598722089

    41.258364334733341.2583643347

    35.152320801633335.1523208016

    43.82348326622.42.42.443.8234832662

    23.0667960795.88295.88295.882923.066796079

    82.67475091641.03241.03241.032482.6747509164

    29.86218283053.53.53.529.8621828305

    33.24862903373.73.73.733.2486290337

    59.69296613322.12.12.159.6929661332

    9.67545465214.84.84.89.6754546521

    35.71314807664.24.24.235.7131480766

    13.85264681715.35.35.313.8526468171

    44.26477535472.22.22.244.2647753547

    51.49008478791.71.71.751.4900847879

    43.83738554762.12.12.143.8373855476

    77.135737376311177.1357373763

    58.10561809241.43291.43291.432958.1056180924

    62.5104638722.42.42.462.510463872

    48.5573417992.52.52.548.557341799

    73.58004758021.31.31.373.5800475802

    61.42677784411.41.41.461.4267778441

    28.5823961813.31973.31973.319728.582396181

    9.80982257015.42015.42015.42019.8098225701

    66.12658240431.41.41.466.1265824043

    49.05403059192.62.62.649.0540305919

    33.93301297482.62.62.633.9330129748

    36.12838607993.76473.76473.764736.1283860799

    0000100

    0.20.20.20.296.1552

    1.620861.71494226791.62081.620861.7149422679

    1.81266.4604744981.8121.81266.460474498

    2.2985.4917461322.292.2985.491746132

    2.576854.22435960032.57682.576854.2243596003

    2.959275.29980737872.95922.959275.2998073787

    3.150466.71110995783.15043.150466.7111099578

    3.437249.34111587453.43723.437249.3411158745

    3.819659.64799179183.81963.819659.6479917918

    4.106450.30027512754.10644.106450.3002751275

    4.297653.74.29764.297666.8317059511

    0.90.990.69767441860.990.6976744186

    1.31.389.74358974361.389.7435897436

    1.51.5102.77777777781.5102.7777777778

    1.81.8801.880

    1.91.962.79069767441.962.7906976744

    1.91.985.29411764711.985.2941176471

    2261.1111111111261.1111111111

    2.12.173.43752.173.4375

    2.269.76744186052.22.269.7674418605

    2.32.363.63636363642.363.6363636364

    2.62.669.56521739132.669.5652173913

    2.72.782.22222222222.782.2222222222

    2.72.758.97435897442.758.9743589744

    2.72.7402.740

    2.82.839.53488372092.839.5348837209

    2.92.941.37931034482.941.3793103448

    3351.3513513514351.3513513514

    3359.1397849462359.1397849462

    351.85185185193351.8518518519

    362.74509803923362.7450980392

    3356.5789473684351.82

    3.23.2503.249.3312

    3.23.286.20689655173.249.3312

    3.43.464.51612903233.446.9328

    3.43.440.42553191493.446.9328

    3.73.743.28358208963.743.5047

    3.73.740.3508771933.743.5047

    3.83.848.51485148513.842.4072

    3.83.854.54545454553.842.4072

    3.859.32203389833.83.859.3220338983

    3.844.89795918373.83.844.8979591837

    3.8403.83.840

    3.93.922.58064516133.922.5806451613

    4436.170212766436.170212766

    4429.4117647059429.4117647059

    4443.4343434343443.4343434343

    4444.0677966102444.0677966102

    4.14.144.44444444444.144.4444444444

    4.14.148.38709677424.148.3870967742

    4.14.132.54.132.5

    4.14.146.5116279074.146.511627907

    4.14.137.54.137.5

    4.228.1254.24.228.125

    4.238.29787234044.24.238.2978723404

    4.234.6938775514.24.234.693877551

    4.34.347.52475247524.347.5247524752

    4.44.468.0851063834.468.085106383

    4.64.633.33333333334.633.3333333333

    4.64.644.44444444444.644.4444444444

    4.64.638.46153846154.638.4615384615

    4.74.761.53846153854.761.5384615385

    4.84.844.11764705884.844.1176470588

    4.84.836.26373626374.836.2637362637

    4.84.842.15686274514.842.1568627451

    4.84.823.07692307694.823.0769230769

    4.84.833.33333333334.833.3333333333

    5525.7142857143525.7142857143

    550.87719298255550.8771929825

    5.237.0370370375.25.237.037037037

    5.25.230.95238095245.230.9523809524

    5.25.217.54385964915.217.5438596491

    5.25.239.53488372095.239.5348837209

    5.25.230.76923076925.230.7692307692

    5.35.329.1970802925.329.197080292

    5.45.430.15873015875.430.1587301587

    5.45.429.23076923085.429.2307692308

    5.55.512.76595744685.512.7659574468

    5.55.515.38461538465.515.3846153846

    5.55.525.6410256415.525.641025641

    5.65.619.14893617025.619.1489361702

    5.65.619.56521739135.619.5652173913

    5.65.638.77551020415.638.7755102041

    5.95.933.33333333335.933.3333333333

    6.16.117.91044776126.117.9104477612

    6.16.121.62162162166.121.6216216216

    6.16.122.07792207796.122.0779220779

    6.26.25.40540540546.25.4054054054

    6.46.438.57142857146.438.5714285714

    6.56.518.756.518.75

    6.66.620.22471910116.620.2247191011

    6.66.621.95121951226.621.9512195122

    6.746.7414.63414634156.7414.6341463415

    6.86.8306.830

    7725.1908396947725.1908396947

    7.27.215.15151515157.215.1515151515

    100

    1.48651.48651.486584.111651309384.1116513093

    0.4890.4890.48981.538981781.5389817

    0.7740.7740.77475.280925648775.2809256487

    1.10651.10651.106567.909776340267.9097763402

    1.77151.77151.771580.855019027180.8550190271

    0.7740.7740.77486.138751463486.1387514634

    0.7740.7740.77476.294322724876.2943227248

    0.7740.7740.77485.318382401985.3183824019

    1.48651.48651.486584.662300417784.6623004177

    0.7740.7740.77478.353616491578.3536164915

    0.7740.7740.77482.371750670682.3717506706

    0.4890.4890.48979.970924359679.9709243596

    0.7740.7740.77475.473953663275.4739536632

    2.24652.24652.246580.136915125480.1369151254

    0.4890.4890.48987.438833808287.4388338082

    1.48651.48651.486585.886641908785.8866419087

    0.4890.4890.48996.222560899596.2225608995

    0.7740.7740.77489.384997136589.3849971365

    0.4890.4890.48993.659641141993.6596411419

    0.4890.4890.48999.530006084199.5300060841

    2.15152.15152.151591.086344572891.0863445728

    0.7740.7740.77491.786219640891.7862196408

    0.7740.7740.77471.782292886271.7822928862

    0.4890.4890.48992.635872337292.6358723372

    1.39151.39151.391564.496303628264.4963036282

    0.25150.25150.251595.56203995495.562039954

    0.7740.7740.77496.393364732996.3933647329

    0.7740.7740.77495.615428553895.6154285538

    0.7740.7740.77493.454023970993.4540239709

    Jokioinen

    Harzgerode

    Valdai

    Parg

    Wind speed at the gauge height (m/s)

    Catch ratio to the DFIR (%)

    Hellmann gauge, snow, DFIR > 3mm

    table5

    1.91.92.864340860413.283578926912.0083553499

    2.42.22.862020429814.55670136312.0612668436

    1.91.72.75422185613.610406481511.4562414269

    1.61.42.689301756111.113859281611.4336825702

    1.21.12.63435642566.673964437210.3494810838

    0.91.12.54136273713.2592998698.6078945257

    0.90.92.518381345112.1110075269.2981283586

    1.91.82.45664247283.94105848477.5238389254

    1.31.42.438079939613.465739012512.3884798915

    0.80.72.38418639188.894866657.9707246604

    1.71.62.36481611379.22008913128.5039657036

    0.40.42.360766042710.840883039812.1820232096

    2.122.35428236987.87167100878.2823668874

    1.51.22.28239640274.31105445267.2672060773

    1.21.22.25749215431.90928520814.6864273289

    0.40.72.25145402225.59319675096.8768812511

    11.12.20404451595.06009940795.8697153131

    10.92.18402764486.70267853756.1769782601

    1.21.42.18223192323.70244630855.4655159793

    1.31.22.17775805592.89968589595.9254450917

    0.30.62.17683445376.82796865466.8279686546

    1.31.32.17463886843.82182627384.7483296129

    0.20.42.09898527061.5099189094.8652942622

    0.10.42.05363075659.12138187728.2000301724

    1.81.72.03397889066.431929065.8902929286

    0.70.61.9983201846.03026044216.0302604421

    001.97568227236.70607711096.3228727046

    1.10.91.89914354483.14367934975.4071284815

    1.211.88720852963.4504658954.383024245

    1.41.41.85865367465.04304625085.2264297508

    1.41.31.84697130815.09672800814.6778188568

    0.70.61.81978153465.41243898484.175310074

    0.40.41.80671660835.26987628296.5670765987

    1.21.11.77939515784.92334856524.3862559945

    0.80.61.77423460524.16041889424.6647120935

    10.91.76222472433.68584657033.6858465703

    0.70.71.74330031695.88916753875.6358700101

    1.31.31.74294671444.04738413023.882184778

    10.91.72713324691.09971941441.7281305084

    0.60.91.72661197521.06568666692.3445106672

    1.71.61.71388914024.94795405954.581438944

    0.30.31.71273556195.42376319715.0011322986

    1.11.11.54919401074.83285450484.3884540906

    0.10.21.54428608415.55856685525.1567427452

    0.80.71.54133168840.8861336672.3039475341

    0.20.31.53627399263.99118141143.6653706839

    1.41.21.53602414394.41096461625.2511483526

    0.60.51.53322523033.18160778653.4920085462

    0.50.71.50264059094.41310113773.9485641759

    0.40.41.47993530792.87770793693.6999102045

    0.40.21.47306563970.6056984842.6246934308

    0.20.21.4692139473.60445689654.5656454023

    0.70.71.46264820862.56980698073.9223369706

    0.20.11.45541955416.35732676296.3573267629

    10.91.45362651783.30557172933.9836377251

    0.20.21.40479418393.38461940083.2110491751

    0.60.71.36184753212.22499007322.3898041527

    0.70.71.36156387351.65238111913.4019611276

    0.40.51.34730764133.57677324043.1388010069

    0.30.51.29202826241.67768237211.9357873525

    0.60.51.25499979273.19088684982.9072524632

    0.50.41.25214182581.61252267662.1816483271

    0.60.51.25059040840.67273938641.4800266502

    0.70.81.2426507823.65605422313.1429238058

    0.80.81.23456963972.74309115312.4992608284

    0.70.71.22832123643.2592998693.0921562859

    0.30.41.22430991214.08480831593.0306642344

    0.40.31.15570884072.57429438722.5742943872

    0.80.51.15449950833.17511577842.9260870899

    0.60.61.12870468832.49926082842.2554305037

    0.90.71.12072820823.83333005133.3952351883

    0.10.11.11039899722.34319804672.169627821

    001.09048057721.92552675032.2922937504

    0.50.61.0636939081.73865101351.7386510135

    0.50.51.05552677592.59077425292.464395021

    0.50.41.03873114712.69135896332.8769699263

    0.70.61.02049534611.37454703791.229857876

    0.90.71.01144524112.45116234582.3186670839

    0.10.20.98760470951.17188831691.1718883169

    0.20.20.97523860552.84353271662.7171534847

    0.100.97121923612.40884728441.9708750509

    0.30.20.96003407182.93486223282.9348622328

    000.95179204781.16020909751.7930504234

    0.40.50.94977286111.90869478022.0746682394

    0.30.40.94977286111.72489727371.5749062065

    0.20.20.94262114322.00665994082.303942895

    0.50.50.93736244832.10740091151.9620629176

    0.20.10.93351620511.12297157641.8716192941

    0.80.50.93141646642.07471871972.0747187197

    0.60.60.93141646641.02428440781.6095897838

    0.30.40.90490579380.57758874351.2706952357

    0.20.10.86788461022.30401251342.1858580255

    0.60.40.8474832331.44428827061.2743720035

    0.20.20.84549749730.68634892710.6863489271

    0.60.50.83149733892.20079055211.8486640638

    0.70.60.8167269832.21463551891.8865413679

    0.20.20.79974134252.15009219322.1500921932

    0.40.40.74948744052.00982670411.8801604651

    0.30.50.74899102861.7619964441.5547027447

    0.30.30.74123079831.05105031651.0510503165

    0.30.20.7410724722.17384695292.0128212527

    0.20.20.7407561941.4811742751.1693481118

    0.30.30.72696249441.66392536171.5192361998

    0.50.30.72458316161.09508581141.0950858114

    0.20.10.7222205871.86408680821.8640868082

    0.50.40.72016562311.34476984861.22783334

    0.50.50.71753838531.7021498722.3830098208

    0.30.30.71710198372.00214716761.8939229963

    0.60.50.71059693440.93282164680.9328216468

    0.10.10.6593736991.7377703681.737770368

    0.100.63946466510.72018221651.0082551031

    000.63615721741.25055899991.1189212104

    000.62946375320.95422844251.2268651404

    0.40.30.60674421311.96724581411.7134076445

    0.50.50.60539298820.93385758190.8093432376

    000.5566506741.38843637141.8156475626

    000.54602106250.98939845170.9893984517

    0.30.20.52899874360.93895730980.597518288

    0.10.10.52877335991.27978461011.2797846101

    000.52765158951.34056872451.3405687245

    0.30.30.52378751230.52259980620.3732855759

    0.100.52346041561.69404326511.5467351551

    0.30.20.51377722950.80656436470.8065643647

    0.40.30.50973138931.21895341891.3814805415

    0.30.20.50921571311.37827533551.3782753355

    0.40.20.50572262050.79401413820.9383803451

    0.40.30.50316508850.99572226651.4382654961

    0.50.50.50224575891.19656919681.0370266372

    000.45881206381.01111522070.8555590329

    0.10.10.44650044071.15078123390.9973437361

    0.10.10.43608860031.21621442191.3592984715

    0.200.43096803881.26692342981.2669234298

    0.20.10.42903909431.07422347071.0742234707

    000.42724243151.42138634321.737249975

    0.10.10.41720803870.92361328530.7556835971

    0.100.415577821.57674786191.0788274845

    0.10.10.41532186220.97249679230.9724967923

    0.10.20.41421692731.2641093871.0233266466

    0.20.10.41202571540.77117277210.7711727721

    0.100.41127236760.38216268410.3821626841

    0.10.10.41018830991.25434195291.447317638

    0.20.20.40960643841.14987978981.1498797898

    0.30.20.40910864470.96182306730.8138502877

    0.30.20.40753753031.04064642510.9182174339

    0.20.10.40712526791.1736778530.9501201667

    0.30.20.40679577810.68159174460.9542284425

    0.20.20.40638429340.83170246380.8317024638

    0.20.20.40613759370.56738329070.3404299744

    0.20.20.40572672780.89655727390.6973223241

    0.20.20.40269556980.27113361340.2711336134

    000.33895295880.97065794571.1471412085

    000.32848120860.79417468280.9706579457

    000.32792700510.56752513820.5675251382

    0.100.32300706560.99055166110.9905516611

    0.10.10.31980199370.50982357190.3641596942

    000.31842035751.35025860220.9238611489

    0.200.3176024881.06599363331.0659936333

    0.100.31329474821.65822733362.0267222966

    0.20.10.31284136910.84245041190.6017502942

    0.10.10.31245414941.38202755721.0134868752

    000.31110829370.62811026740.6281102674

    0.200.3105991541.11733008760.9683527426

    000.31053564071.04503932620.9220935231

    0.100.30990201771.40624795971.4062479597

    000.30895641631.1429592671.142959267

    000.30801605040.92818954341.3407182294

    0.10.10.30689366360.82522575010.8252257501

    0.10.20.30683148350.82323962280.6402974844

    0.20.20.30614860380.63722228760.6372222876

    0.200.30528215210.66437974360.6643797436

    0.30.10.30441827280.92591669310.6410192491

    0.200.30361802070.48125241350.3437517239

    0.20.20.30275787750.86684234670.7334819857

    0.10.10.30245102470.83383692810.8338369281

    0.30.10.30220565090.57357945430.5735794543

    0.10.10.30196036280.86980938930.753834804

    0.20.10.30165385890.69238398660.6923839866

    000.21882870190.4932050840.2959230504

    000.21747867270.27909092640.2790909264

    0.100.21587563940.24779902840.2477990284

    000.21423405520.61353577040.5019838121

    0.20.10.21306213230.70913654140.7091365414

    000.21306213230.47504378080.4750437808

    000.21182550010.38816532570.3881653257

    000.20951500490.81731806160.6356918257

    000.20890644230.45188935570.4518893557

    000.20869030430.26472489430.2647248943

    000.20813112750.73137205140.7313720514

    0.100.20753313870.40349833050.2420989983

    0.100.20639079780.59237005260.4607322631

    00.10.20501096720.66632482180.5451748542

    000.20455432230.53950171620.4196124459

    0.100.20401643380.61478363730.391225951

    00.10.20397513120.58461447960.4783209379

    0.100.20372752050.67866907190.6786690719

    0.100.20282229890.62245178610.6224517861

    000.20171583130.81283586170.8128358617

    0.20.10.20155221770.63528764160.6352876416

    0.10.10.2006940890.78035238570.3344367367

    0.74201949550.5300139254

    0.30331527850.3033152785

    0.38711413490.3871141349

    0.37076655780.2224599347

    0.3682702750.368270275

    0.35771012410.5007941737

    0.47289815280.3377843949

    0.33123815480.1987428929

    0.32208406220.3220840622

    0.44421679670.4442167967

    0.56389017960.4385812508

    0.54176116590.4213697957

    0.41699531360.2978537954

    0.53169519540.4135407075

    0.409277780.40927778

    0.40674913020.4067491302

    0.40258250930.4025825093

    0.37351438520.3735143852

    0.54706356880.5470635688

    0.39944953720.3994495372

    0.39222659190.3922265919

    0.55317903690.3319074222

    0.49441997610.4944199761

    0.28249491980.2824949198

    0.64029748440.2744132076

    0.3924757870.2354854722

    0.54072202270.3862300162

    0.38098140810.3809814081

    0.21800699080.2180069908

    0.49968068260.214148864

    0.2136730830.213673083

    0.34832136970.2089928218

    0.20222903580.2022290358

    0.19575933090.1957593309

    0.31393833990.3139383399

    0.3132723220.4385812508

    0.42850146910.4285014691

    0.41612793950.1783405455

    0.51973976240.2887443124

    0.39362173980.1686950314

    0.38261265960.3826126596

    0.2705604280.270560428

    0.48312058280.2684003238

    0.26626418310.2662641831

    0.3690781010.263627215

    0.39633586960.3963358696

    0.37047417630.3704741763

    0.56882785150.3412967109

    0.31327462370.3132746237

    0.68710122730.4907865909

    0.29447195460.2944719546

    0.27573934910.2757393491

    0.24379068380.2437906838

    0.23602738350.2360273835

    0.23333428170.2333342817

    0.22652106170.2265210617

    0.36579649440.2194778966

    0.34450766930.2067046016

    0.19242390650.3207065108

    0.18796339320.1879633932

    0.30478790590.1828727435

    0.18248904030.3041484005

    0.30034989680.1802099381

    0.28696877220.1721812633

    0.16298974130.1629897413

    0.37726830410.2694773601

    0.25846162790.2584616279

    DFIR (mm)

    Corrected Danish Hellmann (mm)

    Danish Hellmann, snow, Jokioinen

    table6

    100.0830158403100.0830158403100.083015840310099.4843156419

    98.721228068996.573077350785.541359857481.6893.6908001195

    95.420537124888.758570428568.356920318265.6284.9157043347

    90.651452971178.40320402652.73918932251.8275.2388557785

    84.764554354366.826560018539.652695635840.2865.5056061869

    78.082266155455.099975846929.19751316633156.1992728602

    70.904823596344.028199326721.121120000123.9847.6002444159

    63.505073086534.142777971315.043266654919.2239.8562528153

    56.121990986825.724652974710.566588786516.7233.0244956723

    99999

    Canadian Nipher

    NWS 8" Alter

    NWS 8" unsh

    Hellmann unsh

    Tretyakov

    Wind speed at gauge height (m/s)

    Ratio of gauge catch to the DFIR (%)

    tab7

    67.2613938346

    63.3189454468

    23.610093031

    38.8552971908

    30.7277533473

    70.0359992962

    43.3887732042

    53.2872808647

    16.5202297334

    83.8318330217

    32.2125365511

    45.0062484401

    34.0263747421

    72.1488667702

    85.7753601744

    59.1786981444

    60.2315492862

    29.4720754632

    57.0671676343

    72.4921801941

    54.1529792206

    27.3598722089

    41.2583643347

    35.1523208016

    43.8234832662

    23.066796079

    82.6747509164

    29.8621828305

    33.2486290337

    59.6929661332

    9.6754546521

    35.7131480766

    13.8526468171

    44.2647753547

    51.4900847879

    43.8373855476

    77.1357373763

    58.1056180924

    62.510463872

    48.557341799

    73.5800475802

    61.4267778441

    28.582396181

    9.8098225701

    66.1265824043

    49.0540305919

    33.9330129748

    36.1283860799

    66.7111099578

    49.3411158745

    59.6479917918

    66.460474498

    75.2998073787

    85.491746132

    50.3002751275

    66.8317059511

    61.7149422679

    54.2243596003

    62.7450980392

    40

    36.170212766

    43.2835820896

    19.5652173913

    40.4255319149

    62.7906976744

    69.5652173913

    58.9743589744

    28.125

    30.9523809524

    61.1111111111

    29.4117647059

    64.5161290323

    89.7435897436

    69.7674418605

    33.3333333333

    90.6976744186

    73.4375

    40.350877193

    42.1568627451

    51.8518518519

    40

    48.3870967742

    38.2978723404

    63.6363636364

    30.1587301587

    17.9104477612

    36.2637362637

    38.4615384615

    37.5

    21.6216216216

    22.5806451613

    48.5148514851

    14.6341463415

    50.8771929825

    59.1397849462

    82.2222222222

    33.3333333333

    39.5348837209

    29.2307692308

    61.5384615385

    23.0769230769

    43.4343434343

    50

    30.7692307692

    17.5438596491

    33.3333333333

    102.7777777778

    51.3513513514

    22.0779220779

    15.3846153846

    29.197080292

    5.4054054054

    46.511627907

    44.4444444444

    34.693877551

    44.4444444444

    37.037037037

    25.1908396947

    21.9512195122

    38.7755102041

    44.8979591837

    25.7142857143

    38.5714285714

    56.5789473684

    59.3220338983

    44.0677966102

    41.3793103448

    30

    80

    18.75

    20.2247191011

    47.5247524752

    54.5454545455

    15.1515151515

    32.5

    19.1489361702

    39.5348837209

    44.1176470588

    68.085106383

    12.7659574468

    86.2068965517

    85.2941176471

    25.641025641

    84.1116513093

    81.5389817

    75.2809256487

    67.9097763402

    80.8550190271

    86.1387514634

    76.2943227248

    85.3183824019

    84.6623004177

    78.3536164915

    82.3717506706

    79.9709243596

    75.4739536632

    80.1369151254

    87.4388338082

    85.8866419087

    96.2225608995

    89.3849971365

    93.6596411419

    99.5300060841

    91.0863445728

    91.7862196408

    71.7822928862

    92.6358723372

    64.4963036282

    95.562039954

    96.3933647329

    95.6154285538

    93.4540239709

    Wind speed at gauge height (m/s)

    Catch ratio of Hellmann gauge to the DFIR (%)

    Hellmann gauges, snow, DFIR > 3mm

    Sheet11

    Table 2. Summary (total and % of the DFIR) of intercomparison for the Hellmann gauges

    at Valdai WMO site in Russia.

    Precip.# ofMeanMeanMeanDFIRGerman

    typeeventTmaxTminWind (@3m)Hellmann

    (c)(c)(m/s)

    snow136-1.5-4.24.5729.9386.6(mm)

    100.053.0(%)

    mixed872.2-0.84.7603.7440.5(mm)

    100.073.0(%)

    rain1227.75.04.0822.8744.8(mm)

    100.090.5(%)

    &A

    Sheet12

    Table 3. Summary (total and % of the DFIR) of intercomparison for the Hellmann gauges

    at Jokioinen WMO site in Finland.

    Precip.# ofMeanMeanMeanDFIRHellmann Gauges

    typeeventTmaxTminWind (@3m)HungarianDanish

    ( c)( c)(m/s)

    snow266-2.3-6.02.7620.2263.2264.8(mm)

    100.042.442.7(%)

    mixed2822.2-0.93.0821.0576.7547.0(mm)

    100.070.266.6(%)

    rain52611.37.02.41616.11451.61413.6(mm)

    100.089.887.5(%)

    &A

    Sheet13

    Table 4. Summary (total and % of the DFIR) of intercomparison for the Hellmann gauges

    at Harzgerode WMO site in Germany.

    Precip.# ofMeanMeanMeanDFIRGerman HellmannPolish Hellmann

    typeeventTmaxTminWind (@3m)shieldedunsh.unsh.

    (c)(c)(m/s)

    Snow52-0.9-5.23.0147.8102.574.474.1(mm)

    100.069.450.350.1(%)

    Mixed624.2-0.94.9280.8232.8214.7209.7(mm)

    100.082.976.574.7(%)

    Rain907.41.84.3271.8236.2226.9223.1(mm)

    100.086.983.582.1(%)

    &A

    Sheet14

    Table 5. Summary (total and % of the DFIR) of intercomparison for the Hellmann gauges

    at Parg WMO site in Croatia.

    Precip.# ofMeanMeanMeanDFIRGerman Hellmann

    typeeventTmaxTminWind (@3m)shieldedunsh.

    (c)(c)(m/s)

    Snow65-1.4-8.61.0486.9432.2413.3(mm)

    100.088.884.9(%)

    Mixed473.4-3.31.3800.9727.0711.7(mm)

    100.090.888.9(%)

    Rain1419.41.91.61573.813961368(mm)

    100.088.786.9(%)

    &A

    Sheet15

    Table 6. Comparison of the derived catch-wind relations of the Hellmann gauges for snow,

    e.g. Eqs (2), (4), (5) and (6).

    WindCatch ratio of Hellmann gauges

    speedGermanHungarianDanishCombined

    (m/s)(%)(%)(%)(%)b) mixed

    0--98.1102.6

    0100.0100.0100.0100.01--91.293.2

    177.776.876.981.72--84.384.5

    259.357.257.565.63--77.476.8

    344.841.141.851.84--70.569.8

    434.128.429.840.35--63.663.6

    527.319.421.531.06--56.758.3

    624.313.816.824.07--49.853.8

    7-11.715.819.2

    notes:T = -2C for German Hellmann snow equation

    T = 1C for both mixed equations

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    Sheet16

    Table 7. Summary (total and % of the DFIR) of tests on the combined CR-wind relations of the Hellmann gauges at the 4 WMO sites.

    precip.# ofDFIRHungarian HellmannDanish HellmannGerman Hellmann

    typeeventobservedcorrectedobservedcorrectedobservedcorrected

    Jokioinen, Finland

    snow266620.2263.2526.8264.8547.7(mm)

    100.042.484.942.788.3(%)

    mixed282821576.7794.2547762.3(mm)

    100.070.296.766.692.9(%)

    Harzgerode, Germany

    snow52147.874.4158.874.1156.4(mm)

    100.050.3107.450.1105.8(%)

    mixed62280.8232.8294.9209.7288.4(mm)

    100.082.9105.074.7102.7(%)

    Valdai, Russia

    snow136729.9386.6919.7(mm)

    100.053.0126.0(%)

    mixed87603.7440.5673.8(mm)

    100.073.0111.6(%)

    Parg, Croatia

    snow65486.9413.3501.8(mm)

    100.084.9103.1(%)

    mixed47800.9727.0918.3(mm)

    100.090.8114.7(%)

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