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    HOW ZEN

    BECAME ZEN

    -ORTEN3CHL~TTER

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    How Zen Became Zen

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    SS S S BhSm 22

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    Kuroda nstitute Book

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    2008 K ll g v

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    Library o Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

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    v

    Contents

    Acknowledgments v

    Conventions x

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    Notes 183 Caodong Lineage 23 Linji Lineage 237 Glossary 239 Bibliography 21 Index 277

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    v

    Acknowledgments

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    x

    Conventions

    Names o Chinese Monastics

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    How Zen Became Zen

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    1

    Introduction

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    13

    ChPR 1

    Chan Buddhism in the Song

    Some Background

    The Reception o the Chan School in the Song

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    1 hw Z Bc Z

    wl v b l . C cl v w ly y w wll w Sg l cy h-zg bvly w pll . C lg, l, w B ky g gl l wy-

    g pc B, w bg C. C, lg w g v , h (c. 8c. 7), Sgc (..), x (801), hogr (017), c gro pssg ro o Cs prrc x, l v x pc, hg. cc-g C ylgy, hg bl w C cg w ppp C lg, ,gg vc, vlly cv pl cg -l p C . hg,

    w lg c p ly p c g, w hg cpl, y hg (777) Qg-y Xg (. 70), C lg bc b-lgs. as hzog cs, by wl cry, rsg o Sog C scool ws C lgs scg ro hg bc cyllz v bc kw l(jia;lly l ) (zong). g, hzg , lg c v lg w g vg w pcl yl C, y ll w c lg

    hg C. by lg cg hg cb -q :

    p cg, g p w,cly pg ,g w , B cv.

    ccp p p xlypwl cl lgcy y by Sg C cl w vy c l-g. w c B w cg, cg y vbllbc w l lgg.W w w g ly l ly, p-o rsg col o b xprss wors. t plcow w cv p g ws, prcpl, cl o o sorcl B sl. t co-

    w, c, ly lg l, b l l w , b , c y. vy l , , b C l-g w lvg B, ly g c w cl p g pcl g cv .

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    C B Sg 1

    C cl lgcy w ( c) cgz p l. wy, lgw b vcl y wl vy cc cl c.

    Sg C cl y pc w y bc ccp x ll l C B, v cly by vl cl, w k v wll by Jp K Z Scl g g cc w Sg C wl c. Scl B l ccp sory o lg s lrgly sorcl c, sp o rc rvsosclp, l ccp C y ll lg cy ( vy c lv ppl l Z).Y lg p Sg b ycl

    cc, c y v lgz Sg C cl cl p pcl . v Sg, Clg w bjc c pl p lgz lg c c bl plcl lg cl.

    y c, ly clly g ccc Sg C - w w cgz lg Clg. Oly c p w b C cl. . G- Fl p , w pcl cgy C -

    c Sg, bc w pcl C . C,l Jp, ll c w, ll , glB pcl c. v jy p bp C ly y l pp Sg. w, wv, ypclly w c-lg g pcl pblc, ly wl y cv b-c b lg.

    hwv, g Sg cl l, j lk ppl

    g, C w c cv c lg q l pc cclc C . wll-w C l, wc w wly Sg, c yg cl-lc b vbl c C c w cpl lc clp clg.4 c lg q C B l. pc C cg w c lyppl gly cvl wy, g pv llgcl lgg

    sgly bzrr or sockg cos. ts sors lso c o b rrr gg, lg cly pg c y ly bc ggw w c p c by bq C.5 S c b q Py (7883) cg c w,6 Y Wy (899) g c

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    1 hw Z Bc Z

    os vlbl g worl s pc o r s, dogs Lgj(80789) g l g wv , y pply p ly lg ll bg w vy l b Sg c

    l ( pbbly y l wll). Sg C, l v p c c cl x. c cypc lgyC p bc c l w z c- by . O c, Sg C l gg ccos lk kllg o cs s xprsso o l r. Rr, SogC w cly gv, lg w lv gly gl lv, ggg lz lc cw ccg bl cl. p w

    Sg p cp g p c bw cpl plc w lg vbl. B by g lgo lcrs o sygs ogs o c srs by ggg g , Sg C gb p wy wl lly l lg l xpc by g cp.

    p g Sg C cl, c -lg gg c b lbly c bck g-yy

    C. vc ll c lg p 92Zutang ji(lgy ll pc), v ly ply l Sg c. , mz dy (709788), w pc q-l cclc C , pp lb- cp c B- ly c . v mz c Zutang jigv clyl cclc pc l c. ly, g-cy v Liuzu tanjing(Pl S x pc;

    Platorm Stra) l c y c lg bv. jy ly C x w w v vlbl w w Sg l, bly cv w cy. Clly, C o Sog o s or plog sros o rly C, Plat-orm Stral b w b b w ccpbl l C cy. , pcy bw C w w c p Zutangji C w w l p. yg g

    clcl g l ll v c w p y w gv Sg l. Wl c b l c l p g, cl w gv by Sg w v Sg C cl.

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    C B Sg 17

    t tg C lor srv o xl poso o bbo SogC c g. Sg, bb C y w w l C lg w p-l g g C w w lc-

    . Sg C w b w g c (, b, w g pl cc pw), j w g w g v b c by bo r cs, sros o bbo Sog C osry wrpv l pbl. Sg C gg y k B pcc srs rol cors s wll s C works. mos Sog Csrs s gog cory r sros, qog (rsg;ju) y b g C , Chuandeng lu, g

    c c w lly j cypc glsory. B orws, cgs, pss, syls o vl Sog-yy C g v vy w pc. C ly, l lgly l, w lg l c w B cl (, w ll , l cl ly cg). w ll g C cl pccl B gp. , l C cl Sg w q pcc. R,

    w gv C cl y w ccp pcl C lg.

    Chan and Factionalism

    t cocp o C rssso l ws, ro bgg, co-. w w bg w wl c B cg pl w cc lg cl b b c l l , -

    plc w c B gp.4 algl Sg cy v c l vl qlly vl Clg hzg p, ggl bw C lgw c vc Sg, v hzg w pc. c, wl C cl c b vb wg g bl bw cpg lg. v p ly C, wv, l gglbw l ll C c l b,C w ccz by c v, w g-

    v cc bl pcc pl g ppgcp cg .5 cl C c g b ppc C cg pcc y c g k blgvly. Ccp lg y w ccl ll C, b -

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    18 hw Z Bc Z

    qcy orrss o rcos bw C srs ss lg c g Sg C l- clly c clv w j c. p cy l C

    c cpg c ply pp x Cl.L w b vvw y cp b-

    w C lg. ly p l Sg C cl l v p lwYgz hb w m cy x hg.6 c w c b cg x hg c, b pp hg ly, v xclvly, g . Svl hg cpl

    bc vy ccl, , bg cv g pl c Cg Lyg, y g pp g g-kg -cl b pl cv l lv. lly x hg w lv b w, q C lg gg bc B lly B. R, x c w hg cpl w pcl l C . p-cl lg lg C bc cl B ly b c by Gg (132), p cpl

    , Zy (3897), Gg c lg. B w w C lg c-py c. l c x, y -c B y Xu gaoseng zhuan (C ccl ; cpl 7), hg vl ,b x l c yg cg - cc, gly g hg- cv pcl . Xu gaoseng zhuanc- pcl C lg; , w

    l x B, l pc, Sgc, cl ll. l kw C lg p-

    p hg cpl F (3889), pbl g w F llw. pp w wl Bl cg vlly c B, w bg C. h, ly C lg ccp , B h Sgc x

    hgw F l. lg lg qclybc ccp gg C cl, p cl F pp w cllg by gp cpl hg, clg L (l w h; . 708) pcllySx (0?70), w bc xly l g w

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    20 hw Z Bc Z

    w hg, c x, c), vcy S v lg w by cpl.45 p S pl ly p clb p , qckly ,

    C gp, wc l ly l c,s or or lss o v ccp c or s lg, v w yw cp.46 c Zg, ly C gp c-g lv bc hg vv, c g bw C lg ccp lgcy bc g p w C cl.

    l, lv cy, bc p C l-g lg cg hg g lv v , ll wc cl b c bc

    w cpl, y hg Qgy Xg. w Cg , pply dg Lgj(80789) cpl C Bj (80901); Fy , cl g Fy Wy (8898); Gyg -, w g c, G Lgy (77183) cpl Yg hj (807883); Lj , Lj Yx (. 8); Y , YWy (899). c gv c g C, w v cly

    c C pg c ppc Cog prcc bs o vso kg o r ors. O cy, c w c pcvly, g w ply b lg lp, y blcl c.

    cl xcly w vl c pp. lly g l c l c w Zongmen shigui lun ( v C cl), wkb Fy Wy.4 pg w Cg,

    Lj, Y, Gyg by ,4 c Fy Wyl c b Fy , b l v . hwv, p - Fy w l w C , wc lly, lg lv vl p C coporry o Fy wo wr o copss vol sc.4 w b xv c l c by c l pg Zongmen shigui lun sixl C.5 x lg cl ly c5 wll

    ( b Xj, 7828) Xg(Xg Yc, 822908) lg. c cl Fy l,w w -g c Xg Yc, wll y cp, b ll lv vl . Fy vb w v l x lg w xv, w cc deng, wc c c .

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    C B Sg 21

    howvr, w ccp pssgs ro Zongmen shigui lunscssbv c, b ccl l ly cl cy, lg gg bck hg wpcv v c y. cp

    s or Coog Gyg ros (wc r bo cosrc cpl w )c y lg w b g llgc o prclr osg sr. irsgly, bo pssgs bv, Fy bg p C lg c-x lg c g . cl, , lg C cp g Fy.

    pcc c v , wv, c v b

    plc by Fy Wy. Zutang ji 92, w wFy ws sll lv, os o rr o coprsv sys o sc l-g.5 pg: v c l cpl Zutang ji, Jg (..) Y (..), wll , Z-g Sgg (.k.. Zg Wg, 88972), w w c-g c Xg Yc, clc y.F, Fy Wy cl ll Zutang ji; l-g Y Wy cl, cpl , x Wy w p .5

    Zutang ji w gc clv g Clg. x l y, b bl pc vw C cl c b qlly lg lg cg hg sx prrc.54 t Zutang jiws copl Qzo r So- g ( g, 93797) w w Fj pvc, g jy lv pc ppy. S g l ppB c lgcy g, g b pv gl C v g

    S g , bgg l lg ylgy g g pbl cc vo C s lrg ly.55 t Zutang jiv gv prl lgcy o so lg xc c-ll lg c hg dox.56 ts vso o lrg, , wll-orr C rsssoly b c B l w xcly w l lg lgzg c wl w, v Cv xly wll bq Sg yy. , wv, Zutang ji cplly pl. lg

    cpl lv w lg cg Xg Yc,wc bly p Zutang ji, Zutang jil pclly - mz lg x xply pv x C, wc gg mz lg bc pcllypg Zutang jiw w.5

    ly Sg, Zutang jiw clp by xpv

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    22 hw Z Bc Z

    c plJingde Chuandeng lu, wc w pbl 1009, vlly Zutang jiw l C. Svl clg by b cllc- Sg Y Zutang ji, wv, ww q pbly w y C Sg.5

    Chuandeng luw l ply b Zutang ji, c- pl clv ppc C lg -os rssso ly.5 t work ws lly copl by Yog do-y (..), w w c-g c Fy Wy, b w v by gp l l by Yg Y (981020) pl lgg y v w gc wy. Chuandeng luos o o y o v ros by , or os y v lg. l, vy l g- cl Chuandeng luc b c

    v . W c b bc pccv v sc lgs or wr rl vlbl o coplr o Chuandeng luply p l wy p pbl . Chuandeng lu l cly p lg -cg Fy Wy, wl xpc, by clg lg -b vl lg. , Fy c w xy- , cpl d (891972) l y- l, wl b c w l wy-v .6 y, gl cpl Chuandeng lu,

    , ll g cpl , x g l ly v Fy lg l.6 gly, c Fy c-gc Yj q (929997), w ll-wQglg q (..), lg q c w lg b cpl l .6 Pp q lg w cpg w . y c, Chuandeng luplclyly wk v , l, C, , gv g fc w, pg y w

    cpl c v bc glly ccp w C cl. l cl c c v bc

    gzl pg Guangdeng lu, y 1039. w g c c c v , lg xplc yppcg xc w ply g p. -l pc, Guangdeng lu bly b w, gly p Lj v .

    w bg w l l pc b c w C lg w Lj Yx gl l, by -plyg y w pc l hg. Guang-deng lu c c Lj bg Y , Cg , w

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    C B Sg 23

    Gyg , lly Fy . wy, Guangdeng lugly p Lj ( v cl w lly c yg cllc Lj Yx)6 wl cwlgg g cl lg cg

    hg. Guangdeng luw cpl by l L Zx(9881038), w w g-g cl -lw pRzg. Rzg v w pc Guangdeng lu, wclly fc g g Lj c c.64

    -lg-x w l Wujia zongpai( lg v) g yg (989100) cpl w l65 w vl c y v c c c c v C . w w

    g vl lg bl Chuandenglu, wll c cp . l x ccc -bg c c v c lg C vb bl lc, wv, c cl C Qg (10071072) c l c hg Chuana zhengzong ji(Rc lg), cpl b 101. y ll:

    my p : cg [zhengzong] c w hg w bly. c v

    w w , wy wl. c w c cll lvl [jia]. , pp w w cll Gyg, Cg, Lj, Y, Fy [l]. llw

    w cl. y, llw l Y, Lj, Fy g bc. B Gyg [ly] ly bc xc, Cg bly x, bl l lly

    pg g g g. B ppy cl g w g w . b q w y c g ppl x g. h b w: ppl, Wy c b pcc w ?66

    as o bov,jia, wc os lly s ly, s coolyrsl s os s cox, b or lrl rslo rfcs c ccly: pl bw v jia

    vlv cl p; , l, lly p cl, w cg g , p-pcv Qg p, y w ll ql cg. ll c cp .

    x xplc c c v c b

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    2 hw Z Bc Z

    Sg c p hzg pc Xudeng lu. Xudeng luw cpl by Y Fg W-b (..), w c Y Lj lg. p w c lg p by , c

    g lg Y Lj . wy-v ccl , Xudeng luv ccl Cg Fy .6 c by c Gyg ro r ls. t Xudeng lugvs goo c- lv v C lv cy. lg vy c p--, vl l g w ll lv w w w pbl. Xudeng lu l c cg pw Lj :Wb bvly l gv Lj plc l ql

    w Y . c v C Sg c. pc w by cl- J hg (10711128), Chanlin sengbao zhuan(Ccl g gv C []; Sengbaozhuan), w by l h Yqg (cv 11111). pc 112, hg q g c v C.6

    cl ppc Chuandeng lu,

    v c C bc p C cl y,b g vll gz C cl p vl C l-c. vy b g C ly Sg cl y l b v blg, wc l -cly cl Chuandeng lu. Sg C clcl b lg lg l w c l.

    a b vvw w, cp x bw C . Y c xplc c

    v C ly Sg Cc gc. Sw, p vc pbv, vl c w C clw pclly pccp w pcc C -, cl v C l c wll c. C lvgly w pcl lg, wlly v cpp p cllc c yg, pp, or sorcs. ev w r wr sgrs bo pss C

    cg pcc, w cwlg ll C gl c lg lg hg . F, cl c c b-w C , xpl w w C v l c c

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    C B Sg 2

    C w, c l w w w pp vl ros. evry xplc rrc o sys o v ros, or-v, c c v ll p

    lgy. W Qg bv, wc ply w C lg pp cl. pc Xudeng lu, hzg l p p Y Lj w b p ll C .

    p w c, c C pg cy cg pcc, w lgly b Sg C. , pg wc hg c w cvl cl Y- Lj c c,

    cp , ppvgly c cy k c bw w lgbl.6 gly gg hg cp bw wb p C cg pcc, b ly lyl.

    O gc lg c pp Sg. By bgg wl cy, ccl Lj cl ll c lv bck w cpl Sg Cy (981039), ly, hglg h (1002109)

    Ygq Fg (992109). gv v l v (wujia qizong), v g v l pl hglg bc (hglg pai) Ygqbc (Ygqpai) Lj . c cy l Lj C, , w v, p yl cg c b cw c bc. Lgly, wl , bc plc w Jhg w hglg bc Zgg, v C, w Ygq bc, c w l-

    y ppc C, wl l c w pcc- ppc c gg . gcc c gly v, wv. ly c ll Sg-yyl p v l v v bbl c yg Yw Kq (103113), w c. F, xp hglg pai c b yw Sg l, wl l c Ygqpai 120Jiatai pudeng lu(Cpv c [-so o ] lp ro J r [1201120]; rr Pudeng lu)

    c Gqg Xgj (..), w w c-g c Yw Kq.i coclso, i blv w v o rjc ol o C ss

    sss srog col or scr wrss og r scools oC g Sg b c cl p

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    2 hw Z Bc Z

    cg yl. vlbl c pp c -g. cwlgg lc cl w C por rsg ll pc o sp bw sl llo C, wc p p w w g cll

    c v C, l cp wll w.

    The Song Literati and Buddhism

    Sg yy llw lg gl g yy, wc c, plg p jbl cpg ply cc c p kw Fv dy(W, 90790). Sg p b bl lg , b b w v vy c. Svl -C

    p C-yl l pw c- bl vbl c cy. l bgg Sg, y yy b w gly g cc blclg C gv byg bl pc. vlly l l C Jc J yy (111123) 1127, cg lg Sg yy, wc ly bly g bl l S. p l w S Sg ( Sg, 11271279), wl l p

    Sg w Sg (B Sg, 901127). Sgyy w mgl c wp g , Sgc wly llc w mgl g J,l Sg yy Y (1279138).

    t Sog ysy s log b rcogz s Cs soryw g cg v k plc. dg p, Cvlp clz , l cy, lvly blgc, l g vc l clgy -vlp w c cl. a w g w cv w

    g, gcl, w; pg cq pbl p w ply; cy vy l kwlg l y vc l cc,c, clgy, wll , plpy, pllgy, clgy.

    Sg , kw z (. 9097), w gl wc pw by vwg l w vg, qckly p cl p w b g p cl. Kwg w ly ly c g

    l, l Sg p llw plcy pc-c v cvl lp cll p v ly .W pwl bl l l g gl pw g g, Sg cl c l wc - p y lvl bccy w w, ply

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    C B Sg 27

    g cvl vc x. l w kw shidau,wc llly c cl b gl llyl l cl-cl, w ly p- Sg cy. l w w p gp, w

    clly bp c. cl y w l gv- c, b l w p c, w w b, w l c Cc clly -, w c w ppl w w c b l-.4 lly, w c w l gp,w ll l lg pcg g-gcl p. Sg, g c c b by b cpl l cg l l w l Kg. S Sg, g-

    l bc p, b g lk l lg : l w y b w cv g c,w lly lv g g w c l, w g xpc c c.5 v-l, w cbl cl bly w l g cy, x y pbl l llw cclly pc cl g lvl gv.trogo Sog, r wr lso wly ls g o gl g c g b-

    ls lr ls.6 dowwr obly ws lso vr-prs r, l l ggl v g . , w cl b lg w l, v l l.

    Sg yy llcl y b kw vlp Cc g w gl -Cc. w bro ov o w s bs o crv rrpros o cCc x lz v l bcpclly p S Sg l cl. -Cc

    c g pl cg pz l-clv w pyc y l cl vl ppl B. v vw p-g B c l Sg l, cv g c l s wy ro Bs owr no-Cocs. l, w b cly cl Cc W clp, g gp v c B rl cg o b vgorosly r. accorg o s vw,B l pg l, pclly S Sg.

    Cy Sg l cl gp wc -B -Cc, wv, c v jy c l c B g, b w B cg lly y w wlvw cl cl. c -B -

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    28 hw Z Bc Z

    xp Sg-yy cl c, x- y, . Y y l c w c l kw v pz B k, pc-p B l, cvly gg y B.

    alog y brs o c l o s o v bv-l lg w B, wg cczg B plybc p ly p b c lw xpc b p pp fc vg- -B wg ly Cc clc h Y(7882). y l w g B, pclly C B, pp wg g Sg. g l , l c -lg, - Wg a (1021108) l Zg

    Gg (10191083) ll . pply, l l, Wg Zg lly c jing(cp), gby Cc clc. hwv, Zg wjingrr o Bs scrpr wro bck lcrg Wg o lyfc B, cg Wg xpl w . g g w w xcpl vb or v l o gs ss o sy Bs xs, s wll sw cl l Zg Gg w w b fc Bcl g p cc. Wg

    w vc gv cv, y p-ly bjc B d cg g yl gg cy. vl, Wg w v g B, l l w vl w-lc B (g g pbly c B cp w w Zg). 108,ly b , c p c B y. v Zg Gg cl cp B; w , w b B y

    b g v clly cl gv y(ensi;l w y, gongde si) ly. ScB gv w wly by c l c gv p c ly b,4 Zg llly g b l g plc.

    S Sg, w -Cc bc gz vlp by ply -B Z X (11301200),-B c . hwv, pgc B soo lk Z X s clos ollowrs xprss co b r-

    blc Sg l cl. L y g , ZX w gly fl g b ypcl , vw B w clly by l.5 c, Z Xw cpl b B gv c w ppl w,v g l, w l, Lly w ll

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    C B Sg 29

    ppl, b y l cl, cl, , c, w, ll B g.6 l cl c pcy B k, vc gg jy wll-kw k Sg c l l. , l

    Y C (c. 1101190) c l ly p l cl cl cc cl cl, vl pcly pcbl lv wl b bc B- .

    p p w v B, C B pcl, gl p llclv Sg-yy l cl. c p Sg cl g B cg llc-l p c g cl cll pc

    Cy. F, lg bjc c b lly xpl b, y Sg l xly b llcl l-g l vlv lv ll cg vlbl . cl y v B, , C-c wg, b l, , c vlv c w p -, xpl , c lg cv llyc w l. cl v jy lw cc bw w g w b c-r r rlgos syss, w o b srprs soo

    l Wg w cv B p w-g cczg . c clly wg bw Wg cv B p w cl bc B gv p xclv cc, w c w l v l y ss oolc rc o spcc rlgos or llcl ro. B c l Sg lw w Cc, wll , cg cpbl w cply B, c, j lk cl l, lgly ccp

    cg pp c l lg ding(p)vl. p Xzg (. 1121189) v w wly kwy g vw.

    F, l ccp B k w lgly lv y Sg cl p Sg cy. mc vc x w wlvw l B c l w lglycxv. alg bcg B c w cb lvg (chu jia), y c

    kp p clos rlos w r l ls. ts, ok Cgl Zogz(..), wll-w C c c, v -ll g x bb q, C-g vv Fg w y cl vllg bc l g, Lj Yw Kq

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    30 hw Z Bc Z

    Sc c .4 ll g b C B c b p- cl l cl.

    C Sg b gl p cy,

    x w cp, ll xpl pc gv plc Sog C scool porc o sppor o sclr ocls cl cc vl C lg.

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    31

    ChPR 2

    The Chan School and

    the Song State

    n 9, te L Z (h Z, 9190) bg vg pp-

    B w p Szg (. 999) ll - l lc plly bw plq -y. Rc c 30,33 w l, wlly 2,9 w p. cpl y l, L Z g-l bll, 90 cclly p w yy, Sg, bc kw py p z. ly z c pw, c yg L Z c xcl l -pcg . O, wv, w b l glly c. Sly

    w, z pp ll c w cb orb rblg o y sl osry.4 ts b o bl-g v b b g Sg y-y, lg w wly g pply ly c.5

    z ly c b B cv bvlc c ccz Sg yy plc w . O , Sg c w B pl v wy g l cl , wl l cvly pp cg gw B -

    clgy y cl p pwl b B- w g pc yy lv p-lly. a wl Sg p g c lv B bl, l cl pl lvl -b , l y b c l, B lzg, v yg, lg plpcl pcc.6

    B w g pl c b b.c C b lp bw l

    l pl c cv clg pcl, lg w xc lg cp, -c, c, p cb z ly w cll, cg pc ppy p. lg B w g lg, w glly -

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    32 hw Z Bc Z

    p pwl cc pl c v, l oscs osrs prl govr sp-clly pp w b w c. l, - ll lg w cgz lvg B-

    , xc g y w g bw gb lcl cy wll wl p. Py ppy lg l p w p- c ll . by y p- w c lcl B g -pr. W pror ws ll or pr or locl r ws r wy, by g, B wl p pcl g-cl l llv . a cpy l C

    wrrs r qck o po o, orovr, Sog cor ws o ob wr

    vl B cg ly g pplc gvg p b xc x l, fcg cl g w v l g .

    pl gv pz vlv l wc B b wy. F w gv y g g l, ll wv c w bwl ppl b -c . w cvly gg l Bcp, wll cplg pg B c.

    Spclly cc B w cg w g c pl b, y w c b-plc z l bplc p, . B- w v p vl l c w bl Sg yy. a b cp p p wp, cp- B qly cp p bv.4

    lg Sg pc B clgy

    osrs o prov por corbo o ysc pc ppy, l w B pl , l g gl g ly p w p . L pv y, Sg w xlyosl owr rgl rlgos grops, y grop ro-x v pc.5 c lg gpwl p pblc , y, cp ppl l,, ply, bc c bll.6 y B gp pp v w pc by c by B-

    bl. m B c w l pp xcly bc cl w gv, lpcp l cl, g l c- ppl. v , Sg v cplly l pc g cc cl pw B w b

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    C Scl Sg S 33

    lg b , w vw p-cv. S, ll pg, Sg p w-gg l c c B.

    S cl B lg y C,

    lw B wl. B g clz Sg,g w vlv bccy plcl wll bg ll -sos r s corol, cs Bs o b rgl by Soggv g w l pc. cl ll pc B: cg l, x wcl c, , blg xpso o osrs, ow osrs wr r, ow sccsso oosc lrsp ook plc, or. Svr pss wr wr pl c w g vl l. c-

    rs o Bs sbls wr cosrbl, og coprbl l plc Sg cy.O wl, wv, Sg gv plc w gly

    bcl c B. B w llw xp g-cly: w w bl, ppl c gly, l bgg yy.my bc xly wly g l g l, w j lw y. Lg w l bl cc wl g c-

    cl p, c llg y-lg.t l Bs clrgy r bvl bo ss volv- w B. Wl l c w vy w b pg, y v l pp by g c-l v pl g c B w p .S C clgy v ply vc c, clg cl- Qg, w lly w y cpl-g b c w gv by cl lw by

    c lw. vlg C 1072, Jp Jj (10111081) p b lv B l C c cgl c B, y cb g p p l cb vlc c v l pl b l wy y l ( g lg g). B, gl, l B clgy vccp v bc Sg cl . lclgy w g w l ppv lg pw; y

    c, g jy l c v c ll lgly wlvw c cl l. C cl pp Sg bc

    c l c B ly yy. C cl b-kw vbl vlp Sg-

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    3 hw Z Bc Z

    yy B; wv, pc by wc plc b wll . v w p g w C cl c ccpy pwl p Sg, p-v w plc vlp C cl cx

    Sg gv gl plc w B.

    The Granting o Name Plaquesand Registration o Monasteries

    l bc S (8118) g y, gv- kp g ppv . Scly pkg, ly g w lgl. lg g - v b lgly l, c bw clly

    cgz, ppv, cgz w p . ppv w lwy k bgpg, lg w y vg bg lgly gv cl.4

    v l pcc gg w pc-c bwg pl plq (e) c ll -rs. tr s vc o s prcc s r bck s norr W (BW, 383).5 gg pl plq w v lg p , cg gv

    pcl pcl l . By bwg plq p-cl , pl gv cl cly gcl pw blg w g g cc p p. g, -b p g w g -pl plq.6 m w plq jy pc w w pp B, wl wly ppv l v g pc.g l g hcg (8187) pp

    B, xpl, w gv c g lg v yp B bl, xplclyxp w plq. Lw, wg plq b-c ccl vvl g pp B 9 L Z, w w plq w b y. , plq pv w lg cy, bv pg.

    Sg gv w w g pv c gg plq clgy, ly bg

    g plq lg b . plcy pp vfc w bly c -c yy, b gg plq l c v g , lly, cl. , plq gg b-c crl o norr Sog polcy o olrg v corgg

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    C Scl Sg S 3

    gw c B wl g p cc. c Sg p, zg (. 97997), g plq lg b. Plq gg c g Sg c c cl S Sg, b

    w pclly g g Zzg (. 9971022) Ygzg(. 103107) bw plq lg cl. blgbl plq, y blg c l yby ( by pc bw w pll; y ly - q); lcl cl w cg w yg w lgbl. ll ly lcl g-cc w g plq, w p Sg ly p-clly ll plly v w .

    w c by Zzg lp cly pl

    plq gg ll Sg l bvl wc B. 1018, Zzg p llg b- w gg v plq wcg l c by g ll w plq y, g pvly bl y, v ly by, wl b llw x. S , Zzg c llwg c xc w plq y y by, B , bb c.Wll-p w w y by w -

    xl g w l b xp -c. c by g gg b blg w. lg yg b gg xp plq, cl w xcly y cl b g plq: c-g y by, ll p-c wr lso lgbl. t cr osrs govrs sppor c xc w l b c blg l ll cc g

    g bc c b l.Plql v f p c c,wv, gv c v bcly g by lcl , w w l w ll . cl gv vlgly l .4 c w clb bl w l wly g; g Sg, - ql plq by vg y by c- pp, b c g w

    b S Sg.5 Sg gv plcy gg plq ll - pc, b g bgg cl gv p cl, w gly ccl, cg p plq w g -

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    C Scl Sg S 37

    y lg, bc bb c w ly w cl c b . mb yy ly g lv lv,wl c w c g.

    Sg, y l w lyll z, g y v b vy lg, y v w l ppy. m w lcl y v ppl pcl lcl , lg yw pbbly l cp w . p Sg w y. wly Sg, wv, y cq pcclgl cgz ly g y. lgl b l y

    pc g w g y p ppy. B l gly cl gv cl pbl w c l b y pc l y.

    p c y Sg lgl c B- c B d Sg lw cp-, Qingyuan tiaoa shilei(Cl lw pgp Qgy [1191201]; Tiaoa shilei).4 Tiaoa shilei ly x(lg cpl) Sg lw l. v g

    l S Sg, y gl c clly lgg, B c w lg by Qgy p. v , vly b gl ccg c B Tiaoa shilei -cly c by c, lg l b w lwy c, Tiaoa shileiclly fc plc - lg-lg pc c gz.

    Tiaoa shilei, l pg w bbcy -y y xplc l. W bb c -

    y pp w, bbcy w b p b ( cpl ) ccg lg , ccg y b . w b vlbl, bbcyw b p lg g bb cpl b cpl, l ccc w y.44 wy, vyby c g cc, l clly, cc bbcy, ly w g b xwl bbcy b p x g. wl

    bbcy y y w l by p l p wy, y b bg l lv lgg cc . w ll cc bg bbcy ly y g, wv, v p bcg bb y w

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    38 hw Z Bc Z

    g Sg. Tiaoa shilei k w w pcy b bl(ei zushi yingzhi zhe), bbcy w b p cpl -g bb; ly w cpl wl b p

    b.45 cpbl g v vc bbcy w bvly lwyvlbl ro w osr ly. a o Tiaofa shileisys c , w wy, wll- w c-grgo ws o v s bbo, y col prs o ors v ll p.46 y wll wc ly w y k v bbcy, wl v b c vy l bbcy w g.B y lso rr o so wc osr ly o rry

    y c v cv pblc . Sc cvpp qly, c blw, lg w b vy ly clly v p cg.

    Tiaoa shilei ly w w cvly vlvw y y cl b pp bbcy. w b wy y l y w w clly lllg p w llw v bbcy, v y w l .4 lpc , c, w b p c cl

    cc bbcy.4 Flly, vy gcly, c bb y y b lc, ppv b cl b ll p.4

    , lg Sg cgz g ly cl bbcy y, l w vyc l w cc w plc, cll w, c, cl ccpy bbcy. q ly wcvly p l y cl bc bb lp gvg lcl

    w pv. l v c clly . Sc ll pp b ppv by cl, lcl cl ply pp v v wy bl p ccp bbcy jc. hy w pbbly pp pply govr o v r ss oclly pprov.5 ts ss o vb ly ly, wv; l, vy w c cpplc. g, b, w y w cgz pblc, w clly c y.5

    Tiaoa shilei c l y -rc o ll opblc osrs, cg cgory o pblcbbc w p y c clc w v. Pblc w vy y cp. Pblc cc y

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    C Scl Sg S 39

    l, pcpl y c g g cl lv l c . abb pblc w b c b c vlbl, lly y. bbos ow osr scpls wr o llow o scc o bbcy

    pblc osry, rl prv pblc osrs ro rvr-g y y by l.5 w ly Sg pblc bc lgl wll-

    cgy, lg l yp v xc l. accg k Fl (720), - W, w : cl p- by , wc w 7; pv pby bl c l, wc w 839; c ppl, wc b 30,000.5 W c pbbly

    y w l ( b) g g. L pblc Sg, cl l pp by c w gv pl plq; ll b, wv, p lg cgy.54

    m, pp ll, pblc Sg w cw lg pcc cl c B.Pblc w clly g C (,l, hy Vy) ly w w b l pc cl l p cl

    v bb. Pblc w vy lg, l g l, cv pl g wll cl p-lcl pp b c l. y w pcv gly bcl clly c w ; c, y w , bb w vy clk govr ocls. evlly, los ll os osrs bccl pblc.

    t or op r o pblc osrs vry ccssbl wl. my vl g cl

    c L Y (1121210), w 1170 jy w ly Zjg o w pos Sc, rp ls 17 ys, s ryqly yg g g ycl b.55 S w v pcclly po ccoo rvlrs.56 mrkplcs o sprg p, or prps wrg, lg pblc ppl , c Xgg y Kg, lv wppl g c l l.5 Sl p l lv pblc

    wl y cvl vc x.5 x -lv w l pblc .5Lk y , pblc w l by

    gl bb. B pblc , bb w l pl l c fc. bb pblc x-

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    0 hw Z Bc Z

    c bl pw v y, w w ly ll , w pl, pccl, cl. lg y c c cc blc, wx bb pw w c bb

    p c lv xp .6bb pblc ly v w y b v-g w p y, , l bb y, y lly pcl pl l cc w y l c. Fcl b by bb b-c c pbl Sg y pblc v y y, p lw vpl .6

    Tiaoa shileic g cp w bb

    pblc y w b lc. ccg , pcl - w cg lcl B gy w gg -g ll bb pblc (pbbly wlpc). bb w lc ll vc bbcy w b k y y, w w ccpl cc y, w w l g by . pcl - wl vg bb cc , , c pp. g bb cl c p w c-, wl lc w w

    l g rgr ws o kow o v co y cr or v bl c.6 l pc cb Cc c 1103, Chanyuan qinggui(Rl py C), Y-yy c, Chixiu Baizhang qinggui(Bzg l py, v by pl ).6 lg w vvc y w l plly llw, y c w l qly gcgly g Sg. xcp wll c g l, wl c w ypp bbc pblc w cly by

    cl , w clgy plyg l l wv. Sc p-p cl c cly pl c, c pblc , y cl b pvcllvl g q pwl cl fl b c l. wll g pp ppc vlp l B Sg.

    y w l ccv wy. , cl - wl bb ll bbcy pblcy wl ll p g.64 Bc cpl b-

    b cl xpl c y w vg, byg wy bbcy cl b cv v.65 prcc bc solz Fj w Zg So (10811),66w bc pc Fj 1132, c w lcl l, cg v, p y by wc pblc bb-

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    C Scl Sg S 1

    cs wr co o o gs br. Oly ory-o op os- Fj w xp.6 Sc y y l v b plclw.

    The Promotion o Public Monasteries in the Song

    as op sos, pblc osrs wr prcv s bo or sl y l y.W cl cl v c lp y w l bc cc bb c c w ly by l cc w ly, bbc pblc w w p cl cl, gl w bb w

    c cly by c lcl , bbcy w l g b, bb w lc pc vly vlvcl. F, bb pblc lly l p- ly w y, vy w bb w lc, gv- cl cl k pc l. F ll , bv pc pblc v y.

    pgly, b pblc gw cllyrg norr Sog. ts ws prly bcs y w pblc os-

    w g p, lly w pp pwlcl lcl l. Pp v p, wv, w cv xg y pblc . Bc Sg gv pg pblc , lw pl v p w cv pblcosrs o rry os, wl ss ws rly v cssry g p y y pblc .6 xc c c y bg c-v w pblc bbc.

    pcpl, ly g b y -y cl b cv pblc . , pg ccg lc bb pblc , Tiaoa shilei l b cly llw v ly y w cpl g cg pblc.6 cp Fy y Zjg, wc bc pblc y 100, vl cpl g y -y pblc , wc w p. B l cp pc c -

    gg Yqg y, wc k SgZl (901028), g w Yw (..), p c vcl pblc y c cg 1010.ccpyg Zl Yw p w p x plly cpl, w vc pp

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    2 hw Z Bc Z

    pl. , lly v ppy v bbcy Yqg y y y g lq g . cl g ly g p b w l lgl q.

    plcy vy bl: c cpl w xcl g v bbcy pblc y v lg p c c , by gg cv-, cpl l bbcy l g pbblyy cc v lg . y , cglly pv q l ly c cbllv. lg lly pcl g w b ly y cv pblc, lbl g y pblc y, w l w

    lly c cly gl.O g wll w w cl p b ly, pclly yg g, gv p -y c c . c Yqg y, cc c l Zl v cpl cv. B v Zl Yw wcc b cpl wllg gv p g.y w w g, cplg y cl bc bbcy, cg Yqg y v

    y y. , y cpl g cpl wl k v bbcy , v w ql p wcl b .4

    pcc, cv y pblc w pbbly l vly, b l g px by c. , v lw Tiaoa shileipv g c cv y -y pblc . O l bb w

    y c c p , -y cl b pblc .5 bl w cc w bc lp- o prospcs or rvvl, rls or sllg bbo wr b pblc y, plyg c w b cv pblc .6 a c Tiaoa shileil qg (bl by Zzg 1008) g, bb g l pl ccpl w b pp. c

    ply c w bc pblc w pv b, ggg w plcy plc - p plc ll pblcbbc.

    l gv cl l ppy lglly

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    C Scl Sg S 3

    rry osrs r jrscos o pblc os. i s lso lkly l w p pplyg v -srs covr o pblc ss. i y css, owvr, rry o- v b cbly pblc by gv

    cl w y lgl jc cl w ls. tr r ros rrcs Sog sorcs o rry o- bcg pblc, ply c cl y cg y pblc .

    G g bc plq w bw c bc Sg, y l pv pc -bl pg cv . , k, pblc bbc -gvg l plq l g, l y

    gly k bc pblc cq g . hw-v, c l, b bwl plq cv y pblc c b p by Sg gv bg B c cl pbl. Wl ll g -srs o pr wr pblc, s s v b , ls o lrgg, gv-c cv c . b pblc w pg y wl bg bb v --l

    pblc so crr cr ss, b r sll col o v bc cv ly gv p cl w w -lly w ppy. b c c y g pblc l c cv vlly.

    , lcl l pbbly ply p l c cv. a x by l Y Jg (100010) 1038 cb cc bb Pl y g- w w l cl bg fc b. ccg

    Y, bbcy y b ccp by Cg C, g Lgj. g Lgj, bbcy w p cpl ww cllylg lp. g Fv dy p llw cllp g, y v b p. W c cl S g g, g c p bbcy. L, pp bgg Sg, bb ( cl w c p) w cpl v

    bbcy . x p lay supporters y bjc, k w c. cp g-g f x g l, c-c y g Fv y p. wl vg b y y, Pl bc pblc,

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    hw Z Bc Z

    S g l cc bbcy, g y w pw S g cllp,ly lly bc pblc g w ccl ly pp pp bg cc pw b.

    k p lkly v b p lw. wc l cpg Fv dyp, w w g y g vlv w B, k pp bbc p cl. wl v p cl g l v , c-g w c w pblc bbc (v g v b b Sg). F, l-lw ll g, y w g bb,

    y l l l. v c bc lly plly p pw lcl l ly pp, wol v gv ls grr lvrg r rlosps wlcl . Lyppl, c, ll v -y , c cl c ly w l, b b lcl cl ly pp gro vg prsgos pblc osry r r. W osrsbc p ly pp, ly pp w bl, c bv, fc cc bb p y

    y. f clc c ly Sg. x by Y Jg ly cy c w cll ll bbcy hj y by cgg, wc l y bcg pblc. c w Zl Yw c cl Yqg y lc fy y ly Sg. Zl cl Yqg y glly b v by pvbb, c l b pblc y v

    cg. cl w pv bb cl v pw p y w w ly o c sol b pblc osry, b prsbly bcg pwl cl lcl l.

    cb, cl plcl c Sg w v cv y pblc -c gc , b pblc gw x-plvly Sg p. By wl cy, l ll g w pblc, b pc

    v wll v pblc .4 lg lb y b wl b c g -cl g , wc pl by , pp pblc ll bly g.5

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    C Scl Sg S

    The Institution o Public Monasteriesand the Chan School

    pblc y, bbcy w pp b p y cp-

    cb w p qlc. m, ll, pblc Sg cl c w pcl cl B, bbc w c lg l cl. O gg pc Sg y y pblc pcl cc bw pblc C cl. l pblc ll v b g C, v pblc - c w B c xc, y pblc bbc c b pclly c w

    C cl.ly Sg, pblc c w scool lso ppr, so pblc osrs lr bc ssocw hy cl. S Sg, pblc hyosrs c o b clss s tcg (jiaoorjiang) osrs,6 cgy pblc Vy (l) w l y. l w c w g Vy cl B. , w y bc lly vlp SSg, w cl y pblc, pblc

    w cl C, cg, Vy.c , wv, y pblc bg lz C cl. l, wll c ly, Vy y (lyuan lsi) glly g -y cc wv w l pblc c w Vy cl. w p cllyl: bc pblc bbc bg w C cl bcy w cll Vy , cv y y pblc C y cb

    Sg c cg Vy C. b -vlly p y q cg l w Vy cl w C cl, b g bc ccbw C y pblc y Vy cl.

    w l bl g Vy y by cp Lgg y m g, wc w w- by Zg Sgyg (1031121) 1102.

    x, Zg p ll 1087, Lgg y wcg by pl c Vy C, 109, -b O C k v Cg dgB (1081111) v k p bbcy. 1102, Zg w

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    hw Z Bc Z

    w c [bcg] pblc C y (shiangchanyuan ji) Lgg y. Zg g l -cpl g C mz by Sx (..),kow s gr sr Cr Lgj, rs bc bbo Lgg

    y g Y p (80820) g yy. Zg , vg cp lyz C Vy, c llwg ccl: Vy [l] [y] cc[jiayi], C ss pblc [shifang] [sys]. t wc s cll sc-csso [jiayi] s wr o gro [jia] s cog ro, sw x g [yi] bl l. S [ b Lgg osry bc pblc,] y wol cssrly sy: W r g C [ Lgg]. w p[ b bb] lc pblcly [shiang], c C

    v b c . pg, Zg Sgyg cb wg Lgg y pblc y cg Vy C. h xplcly Vy w ycc C w pblc bbc. xplg w Vy y w, Zg cb w pvly w wbb Lgg w ll c ly lg y , C. y bc pblc, C -c l g bbcy.

    cp clly Sg

    sgo Vy osry o rr o osry w bbcyl by b Vy cl. R, Vy cx ply v gv by Vy, , by y, -c c B w cc y pcl cl. p ly b gg by . G Fl, g p vc . B cl Vy Sg x ply y, pp pblc . a Vy y ror orry rry osry ssoc w osr ly

    g bbcy.Zg l w v y cc C lg g ly, w cw Lgg y ( Pl y cb l), w ll Vy y, bc cc bbcy wy y w ly. v p Vy y cx c w-v w Vy cl.

    c p p Zg Sgyg

    v c pblc bbc xclvly w C cl. wv ly , Zg v b w, b -C pblc w xc w w c Lgg y 1102. Zg v l, wv, C wc w y pblc pcl wy w

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    8 hw Z Bc Z

    lp bw C, Vy, pblc - xpl Y Jg x 1038 c bv, wc cb cc bb g Pl y: c b wl v C Vy, b [ lc-

    ] bb c. C [], c cc-g v [de], Vy [] ccg ly lp[qin] [.. ly].6 h g, Vy w y y, wl C p yy w y pblc bbc. c c C w y pblc bbc 10 c Fy -y, l l. h, w wy B b C Vy g by lvg g v . m w lvg

    cl w w y v lycc cll pblc. m w lv w cll c b cll y(jiayi). pcl lp bw pblc - C cl l clly vc by -rcs o osrs vg b cg ro Vy o C, loslwy llw by c C w w ll bb.

    v l wl cy, w pblc g

    C w ly lgly g cg Vy, cy c C w y pblc bb-c c. l Sg cp, xpl, l w -y bc pblc 1177 cb cg Vy C. v pblc Vy pp, Vyy c, w cgly, b y, w cy g bw pblc -y Vy .

    ccl w Sg x y

    w cg Vy C, lwy cv bg y w y bbcy w pblc bbcylly v b C lg. gg plq gvg y c w C -y (chansi or chanyuan) cly , wv, -y b cv pblc C y. Cjy mgz, xpl, w g plq gvg By cy 982, b y clly bcc w C cl. Lw, y g

    pblc C y cly v w C -y cl . pbl y yg b y clc l.

    Bc pblc ly p Sg w xcl-vly c w C cl, wl , ,

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    C Scl Sg S 9

    clc w . Pp bgg w Zl p 1010, wv, pblc clly v b lg l c xc. vlly l c l c bw pblc C

    pblc cg , wc w c w cl hy cl, wc g lv cy. alw b x k 11 bl x lvg y Vy pblc c-g lvg pblc C , kg cl c bc cl by .4 hwv, 11 lw y l c pblc Vy -. cgy ly pp cy, pblc Vy v bc vy .5 ccg

    Jp S Z , g, pblc Vy wc w lg clg c C Vy dx (97).6 Sg Vy cl b wll s, s o clr xcly w ow ook sp, b Z Yz (108111) w l ly g .

    Later Song Government Policies toward Buddhism

    Sg gv plc pv vll b gly bcl c B. B w llw xp, w w bl, ppl wll. Bw pclly ccz Sg p w pl- w pblc bbc g cc Ccl, wc bc cl l c B. cc c w b lgly l Sg gv- plc, l vlp cl v plcw plc. gv p

    pblc bbc fg C cl w clly lv. plc Sg w pbbly cly -vcg C cl, b pblc C f bc C cl pcl c w y pblc bbc bc Sg gv w vg vg bc pblc. llw C cl vlp lb p y, wc g gv vly cl b pcl gg ll wy bc -cl B. cl pbbly cb C pply

    g l plc, lp cvc Sggovr prolro o C osrs ws bcl o . cl cc vlp bw C cl , gc Sg C w ll pb-l w pl c, w pc w by p.

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    0 hw Z Bc Z

    bl C cl v vlp p y,w c l clly cc y, b pblc C .

    w lv cy, C cl bg lg

    pvlg p g. Ov lv cy, pblc w bbc g b h-y cl bc cgly , xp C bl. By ly cy, wl ly b l ll pblc w g C. , gv pp B gl v . w v , gg w plq - p g Szg Ygzg. w g Szg g Sg gv bg ll

    cc, lg x w ll bk , jgg bgp k, xc b l g Sg. w g cv cvl w Plc g Wg lly l 1070 108. p l w g gg l v lcl , pply bc w yg g c pl pw B cl c. Wl lww grg o w plqs or sl o oro crcs os lkly

    gc pc c l pblc C -, cg plcy v cb p l l vbl B c bl gl b c l yy.

    g w g c w. 1103, p hzg c pcl Cgg (l cll g W) w b p c pc py lgvy. gly, y v b pcclly g pblc C, cl 11 Luohu yelu(Rc c

    L L), vl C w v v .lg bl c ly b c blw g B, w wll cv by l c c-y. Luohu yelup C S mz (107111) l bl B wl cl. W Cg Fg wpp Cgg y Kg g wll, l plly bw ppl b p wp w xl. pp ccp Cgg

    w pcv wlc p g cl Bc bl c ccg plwll-bg p ppy . y vg Cgg y c pc w cblyl l g hcg pc B, w

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    2 hw Z Bc Z

    Qzg (. 1121127). 1127, J k cl Kg c Sg . hzg, Qzg, pl c w c by J p. O hzg, l w Gzg (. 1127112), g cp

    lr rsbls ysy, hgzo bc porrycpl S Sg, w L. hzg Qzg b cpvy ( w gv l, wl vc lgcy Gzg), w vcp.

    lv cl l c B c- S Sg. gg plq c llogr s pro, ol plqs wr rsrr ro o os-ry o or s. erly o, Gozog orr so o g os-

    c llg cc. h l b c ll cc 112 110. Jgg bgp cpy , b w pl, v g-c pc B c bl.4 lg -y c b cv C S Sg, pc v lw. Pp bvc cv ly b cg pblc , w lg b pblc C xc, lcv y v l pg. F, c

    ppl c c l vl l lv c-y w y l v bc cbl,5 pp bc ppl ll lcl pl w lly -c w B.

    my Sg v p b c s bc lss cvs o locl lvl by wl cry cs l cl cl plc.6 c gv bc lcc w l lcl gv, pbbly l bc lcc w gl . y ply xpl wy

    w plq w g wl cy: lg w gg plq cl . , ss, corol o ll b os llsros osrs ws l o loclcl, w cl l y w . y c, plclcg g pc C cl S Sg. cc y l, c , g b y cv, g w pc- B w Sg, v bly cl l c cy S

    Sg cl b l cly c . b, C cl l l b p, b bc gl cl c c B bc w pvlg p w . x cp wll g,

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    C Scl Sg S 3

    C cl cgly l wb l pp.

    Conclusion

    vc c cp cpl cgz ccll vlp c B Sg C. C, , l cl B g -g Sg g wll v v c xc w pccgv plc c bv, C B wl pb-bly v vlp lg q l p plc. m gcly, v pb-lc , C cl wl v v cq

    p c B.F ppcv , y c p- p bg B c bl cl. Sc cl cl cl w l bbcy pblc y, y xc cbl fc w c - w gv, v cg w pp-g . By qg ppcv bb pblc bb cgz l, - wl b by w w p B

    w wl b lly xp g, x cl y. F p vw,pblc osrs srv o gr sprl powr col b s locl rs wc y wr plc. For locl l, pblc l v lc pg ybl xp lcl pw. Flly, l c g pblc -, y c w w ccl vlp pcl lg l c l.

    c y , cc y -sr lg brs o r osry, s kg lss lkly sc cl b c b bl. lg p- y cv pblc c bg b, lg , cl l w cl gv cc xg y ppvg lp. F y - lg, v, gv plc pv cbl cy g w g y p lp

    g cl .S y wy, cc w -c b y pblc . W c c-y bw bl, lwl clgy, w w g v y

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    hw Z Bc Z

    cfc w , l-, gl w vy l w cp. y v p g x by (lg clly ly cc-lly) p , x clgy. mv,

    b l l l, c c -b cl b p p gy ly cc.Sll, l y -

    l pblc ly cfcg .Obvly, l vg pblc, wc bclly pp ppy ll rgs. B, s i wll l x cpr, rssso ls wr -p pblc pl, - w pblc , b lg .

    l p pclly pg gv c y b - lg wl l b b lg. O gwll g lg w w l v ppy, cbl cfc v l b c.

    y c, w ly pp w ccl vvl l c B ppy C cl: ppro locl ls ocls lso bco crcl o sccss o prclrB lg Sg. wll xpl

    x cp.

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    ChPR 3

    Procreation and Patronage in

    the Song Chan School

    n te reious cp, plc, pc-

    lly Sg, p pc vlp c B, cg v cl -cg gw C cl, blg f vlv.W plc, C wl lly v v bc j c C B.

    cp, wll g pp pg bo lr, bo os wo wr govr ocls os wo wr, w l ccl cc C cl gl gw cl vl C lg pcl.

    or lr prog proo pc o vrlly ll spcs o C; gcly, w ll l cp, ply fc vlp C lgy lgy l l ll C. c llw, llc cplx c c clc c v wc pp b c l c b cclly p vlp C lg Sg. ll l g pc l pp bc vg C cl g S Sg.

    Buddhist Families

    wll w C c B p gzlols rrlol rs borrow ro Cs ly kspy, blg cv pv p, pl-g v cll . B c c w B l ly lg g c xiongdi(b; llw cpl),shu(pl cl; llw cpl), zu(pl g;

    ) . pcpl gz wcgz by Sg fc c c Tiaoa shi-lei, wc gl c w plc hl mg (huhun) cgy.

    , ll c w b lg cv ly:

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    8 hw Z Bc Z

    c w l, v g y p lv pblc . llg y cp -ly , c qly , g w

    osr srs osry. i vs jory o s css, bo o- y w c, lg rry scrpo col o v srv o c osk pg. a , y y cp l - b cpl l , lg w (g, l lwy w w). ll vc C , c, bc b ly, l w lv pblc yw l bbcy. y c

    y v l c w clly c w - ly.

    Chan Transmission Families

    C B lglg, pclly c w C cl, v cv cl ppl w. p b , wv, C

    cl b cx l, v cl y vg w ly p ccp- . lg c b lly xpl , lly lg gw - lg w glly ccp bg pl y . Gg bc loro o Cs rssso lg sv-cry ors oGg c lg g cpl cl pcpl , Zy, w v

    (cvly pg v Gg), ll v b Zy cpl. Gg, ,w Zy cpl, c -so lg c prps b s s lg s or o sbls sls or lg r o Zy y osr scpl col v b.Slly, y b gc pc C, hg,w pply cpl pc, dx. w g w w hg b w w cpl p v w w l .

    lg v y xpl Sg C - cpl l bcg , pp v b blg bw lg, v y -c Sg. S cpl C v b clly l wy lly c w

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    Pc Pg Sg C Scl 9

    . y cp Jgy S (1072117)w by l Fg J (. 112),4 xpl, cpl y v cp- , l v b cpl w

    lly ppc q cp.5 y c, w bc cpl wll-w C pbbly p bp x ly., cpl Chanyuan qinggui, Cgl Zgz, w by Y Fy Fx (10271090) b bc Fx b, Cgl Yg (..).6 hz Qgy(1078110) bc cpl Fg Cg b cv cpl, xZc (101117). Qgy p v gl -

    o lr c doks osry b s shixiong(l b; llw c) dx Zc y g vyg. Qgy lg lgw Zc, cl bc Zc c cy, cl l xZc. plc Qgy clly w cvy clv b c b lyly lg -l w Zc.

    a p cy, bc x p

    hg w x pc C lgbc . , c b glly ccp C cl v vl ql w g v vl w. W vlp, l bg p, ly w p cb l w . B lk l, l c w lg coc br rog s sr bck o sorcl B,w c cl y pl. C cl py g B w ly b

    lg, lg C c l cl cg l p cly B- w ll p. C cl w p b lg pyscl bos srg w B ky, wc crr vryc B lg. vy w - ro cr o scpl, rc o Bs rssso pc, mkyp, k plc. , pcpl,vy w l C w qvl B l. wy, C l w lv

    ly B. Oly w - w b C ly cl b blg C cl.

    l w w C cl, oo o r rssso spcl ssoco w C v

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    0 hw Z Bc Z

    cl B p l y. Sg, cl g w w ly lg, l hy Vy cl. lg ly C cl -bk lg c gg bck B, l-

    g C lg c p, lg g cbl pg Sg l cy wyc vl C.

    mb lg g Sg cl, xclv pg gp w c -plll cl lg y. ly c b cplly c ly, l c bc w vy yp y: pblc y. c pv cp, pblc y lgl cgy

    ws jor ovo o Sog. mosprps llpblc osrsw clly l w pcc cl B, bbc w v b l blgg cl (lg l cl cg by clgv). Pblc w pclly c w Ccl, b, w v , ly Sg cl B- l bg bl l w g wpblc . cl l pblc w ly l b-

    gg. c, ll , l clly x cx pblc .

    Enlightenment and Dharma Transmissionin the Song Chan School

    bc b C ly, c cv C w l -cv l . l C l-g,

    b w C c-gz lg l cv. w-l cpl ccg bl g l ly. C l pl w cp c wc lg vy c c- w C . c c c, c lg, ccz by pv lgg gly q w c, wc w g

    cly p ly lg B- ll bg. Sg C , c lg, lly vlvgg-yy C , c b c gg w lC c , w c by C .C, xpl, wll-kw y, q 103Guangdeng lu:

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    Pc Pg Sg C Scl 1

    [Bzg h (7981)] v mz . Oy, ccp mz wl w y wlc. mz : W ? pl:

    wl c. wl, mz : W g?

    : fw wy. mz , gbb w . c p. mz : y ll y fw wy! w, wg. x y,

    w mz c [] ll [ gv ] w b w, c p ll p [mz] . mz l, llw bb q. mz : J w, w gv . Wy y ll p y ? :Bc y . mz : W wll y c g? : Yy pp b cvl b.

    g llwg lg. mz gv . l.

    l , lg cwlg ( y pl by mz ) pc ly pvv vlvg ly w vl, . v p, y py vy l xcl

    w s ppglk w, s lg rrs, r oo. i os cp , pchg hg Platorm Stra, v

    v plc c l g.4 B l b g , b plply ckwlg lg( yinke).

    p g plcy g ppl l C pc g, pc bywc C Sg bc b bc C ly lly cv w c-plx , g w pl cfc. lg p

    ply pv v w pp SgC, w c gly pblc c. vy Sg C cl q b .

    y bgpcl, ggpcl, cc lv C x Sg ( ply -y cp) lp pc C pc Sg g C . ypcl cc l Sg C bg by g ly b,g w g pcc cl. w

    g, bc c ypcl cl bcg C . cl c c l, l-g pp lw cl. m clclc, l bgg , w yg --b y w c B x pp l Cc clc.

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    2 hw Z Bc Z

    g jy C w w v c o v bco oscs rry osrs o wc vrlly o-g w, b w g y w pg c w pclly

    lkly c c w wl l vc w y pblc . y c, p bcg c w b ccp s posl by bbo or or sor ok. ar vgcv vc (shami) , b c wl g vlly bc ll k.5 a k w p bp C ly wl vl vv C l w w bc. vy g w cb lg lg xpc p. v , p lly

    p v y y v vc b y, l v v c pblc . vlly, p cv bbcy pblc y bg c bb, wc lly ll s . a ypcl bogrpy lss vros bbcs srbqly l, pzg y pp by pl g c pwl l. Flly, cb pg wy b cpl, w w pv ,

    b , w w l lwy .6 k pgc cc gv vl p clb C . F ll, w w g xcp, Sg C lwy pc bg c bbllwg g lg. w vl xpc- ccl C wl vlly v bb pblc . cc, ggpcl c-c clly fc l l: lg l w g qlc g bg pblc y; y g

    lw c c w c cy pp. O , wl bgpcl cc C lwy pl lg w cgz by c, g lg- xpc w xpc g cc C c w . , bgpqly ply k c p g w p ppv by c.

    y c, ccl p c cc w sr c s ws wory o bg o s rs-

    ly. c c v b pl . ll l-l, c w w , w lllv, pp l w b, b yg w c. Lcl y l v b vlv. cpl l g wll, , w ll , c g- cl lwy b g.

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    hw Z Bc Z

    pzzlg. l ll c v pc student -g c cc master, cl pp ly , b only ater, b p-p p bb pblc y. F xpl,

    vl Sg-yy C c cl y b w Bb h-y (10371091), w w pp bbcy 108, hglg h w c cc.6t Louhu yeluro 11 s sory bo Lgy Cog (..), wo b-c Fxg F (..) b F cv bbcy.W F lly g p bb, Cg , Yw Kq, w c cc. l, l Fg Sq (..) w p cp c cc , Yg (1103113)

    ly w cc v w Sq b p-p bbcy gv .lg l cl, l w v c

    cc g p vg C w p k w l bbcy dg vw .O w l by Zgy (..), w g y w (shou-zuo) mo tog. t sco ws l by sr kpr (zangzhu) m g, C.4 ccg g p,C v cv cc l g y l. g

    l ll g c cc Wj Lp (119122) ly 122, w Lp w bb m g. ccw w by Lp , Fz gg (11211203).g q x cc, wc bg: S Kp L-p, Ww,4 w y /cpl [jin wu zi ye]. wllw by lg lg gg bc Lj.4

    p pv by g C vc gg C w c cc w g wc cpl. Pbbly cc w cy pq

    cvg p bb, c by g, w l w xp cy b c cc pblc -y C, w l, O c, bb .4 wl c C cv bbcy, cc cv vl .

    bv, wv, y c C b ll b pp pblc . c, y b Bb hy bv cb whglg, w cv q, cl v g h-

    y, vl cc ( x ply , [weia]), l g hy c p-. hy ly g p vl hglgplc. B v , wv, hglg .44 hy w v c bb vl pblc ,

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    Pc Pg Sg C Scl

    cvg b cc yg l.Lw, w ll pv Cg Sg, hgz Zgj (1091117) Zx Qgl (1088111), w w b x Zc, w pp

    bbc l Zc. b wll-w C . vl c cc pp bbcycl b p w lg pp cl b by pxy byl cpl lg by b ly.

    gly, dg Lj , ccc wl cp p , xpl, w , y cgg,

    bc y pl cpl, .45 g ccly, gg gg pbly w c cc vg c. wllv w c.

    Chan Procreation and Public Monasteries

    p p p pp C pp bbcy pblc y clly ccl

    c. vc gly gg w ly w cv pp bb C bc ll b C ly, lly w cc by vg gl c cc vlby . ll b w ly llygl vl cx c bbcy pb-lc y. y c Sg c ly bb pblc y w c wlly p C ly . l,

    y cp C , b , w l. B ly wv bc bb ( vg c wl [chu-shi]) v . clly cl b c, v yw w w w ly cgz vg cvlg (pbly vg b cc) w wbvly p bbcy. x Zc y cp,or xpl, s os ppl hogz Zgj s qo s posg qs- Zc b 1117bvly wy w

    cp cgz hgz p . B w -cp l Zc , ly w Zc cpl wl bbc . hgz p cpl Zc, Qgl, k l, g b wll-w lg xpc Zc w g

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    hw Z Bc Z

    w l v g c c.46 hgz y bg-py,4 cl Wg Bxg (1101173) cb w hgz wpp p bb 112 w[hgz] ly [shi] c wl [chushi]

    Zc.4 w w x, p- by y y, b xp g: ly vg cv bbcy cl b c . c, w C gv p cvg bbcy, kw kaitang(pg ll), w l wl cl w w b c . l cb c yg cllc vl C Sg.4 c c bb pblc y ccl

    ll bp C lg , w c , ll-fg C .vl, y w lg C -

    cl b c . vc by c cclly lc k p c y v l bbcy pblc y. k g C (chanshi, dashi), wv, b w l g c y c, lly (shouzuo).5

    c, x xplcly k q v l bbcy, lly by xplg y w bbc b w. Sc l jy cl - by g cl y w c ql l bbcy.5 Sll, lwy plc w l cpl , cg lwpg pc. c v b c cw cv c cc l g bbc, llg ly w z c ppl v b pv ll

    Sg p; v jy C w bbc wply g. l cl lyppl

    . v c g-pg l,wv, y lwy l l, w l bbc y .5 clg l C clly c pg vl C wlC cl. c c, wv, lyppl wv ly c p C lg. Dahui Pujue chanshi

    nianpu (Clgcl bgpy C d Pj), x-pl, w l , g w w ywll-w cl l. B l w (sia): c wlv w ll l pblc bbc. Oly c l l w w plly lg pc

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    Pc Pg Sg C Scl 7

    cc [w ] (qin you qizheng), wc c l b l, lyw, w .5 llw by l wy- l w v v cg.54 W cl c bg b-

    w , w w ll c; lyppl w - lg b w cl b c cl ; lyppl w w b w lg . g l cpl rssso sors rfcs slr rsg: so ss,y w lg xpc c by C w , b ly w w l bbc pblc - bc b lg.

    v gc c , l, Sg c w

    l pblc bbcy y ly cpl y cw vg .55 vc c lyw c bb , b - l w bbcy pblc y. Oly

    wo l or, prps, ps l poso s bbo o pblcy cl p vl ccc cpl. , blv, ccl l wwc w c v w ll g Sg l cB.

    , J hg, pp Cg LFg (1071127), bgg Fg wJs Zlg (.., Y ro) bor procg o rcv rs- Cg Fg dk. L, hgc, Zlg Wy bc p bc vy , lg Wx (..) b Zlgc w cl m y. Fg w lb cl by Cg, y v W-x bc bb Lg C y. vy w

    b w ply p w Fg.56 hg vclly pl by cg bbcy Wx, Fg v lg Zlg. Bc Wx bbcy , , bc pp, w bl pc pp lg. W bbcy, Wx qly Zlg, hg , ly w Fg v w lg v. Ppl w p w Fg c bc w wy v ly, cl v b pl vl w.

    xpc ccl C wl vlly bppo o bbcy o pblc osry bcos rly rs-bl cx. wy C l lyc lly b c p ly lg b bg cl,5 w lly p -

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    8 hw Z Bc Z

    ly l cv p bb bc bl pp lg. Cg c xc w rlly opo or Sog C srs. a vry ls, C sr v pp pblc y b cl p

    b l c lg ly. c b -cgcqc Sg-yy l B.

    cc w c cc ly -fc pc c b c b l w (, b, v w) C v wo col crry o r lgs. C srs prosg ssw ly w wy b l gz-l kll lp ql w w plclly

    p g bck pp bbc pblc.Sc pg w vl , y

    lwy v b bv w wl cv. l C p bbcy, lg w vcbly -, v w w glly c pcl cl cg llgc ccp lg b ccpg bbcy. , , g ply v b

    r rcvg or ro soo w or llsros lg or w cv cv. Svl c c y b ZxQgl, w, cpl g x Zc Cg , bc y

    Y sr Zzo do (107112) w ws mo Cgl. g gly Qgl w bc , bw b Qgl g v bbcy y. Qgl g ccp b,b l p cl bc , c

    ly cv dx Zc. d w ppyw w, ww p bb w -g b. vl, Qgl w by cl c-, C (..),5 v y, w gv , Qgl cl l x Zc. Conglin shengshi(Gl [C] ) wvy w y vl Qgl lyly glc, ggg Qgl cl j ly v ccp bc Zc.5

    hg Linjian lu (Rc [C] gv) llv c, b Fy Cg (..), w w vg y Fy Ly (10311098). WFy w b v y, p lcl p-c, qg Cg bc cc bb. W l Cg b , wv, Cg c v bbcy

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    Pc Pg Sg C Scl 9

    b cl Fy , c hglg h w ly . Fy ccp Cg l bc ; , cl g bc c Cg bbcy.Cg bbcy cl l hg-

    lg.6 O c, y l, Fy cl v b gb c Cg w ly hglg. h vg Cg wl b wllg cg llgc p bbcy. c, Fy py vg b Cg ccpg ppc b l c pc. Cclly,hg pp gg, Fy w l w cc b l Cg v bbcy p l bcFy .

    Conglin shengshic y gg w c cp w g C g , v p ppy. W l w hgz cpl Lg Sc (..),w lg c g pc hgz y, -p vg d Zgg d cly pSc c v y. Sc lyly wv, y hgz cpl.6 O c c Conglin shengshi: p pc ,hgz, w clly q ccc w w g

    l bv, x gly p lyl Sc.Pp pgly, Sg C l l c cbo ss wo wr o so loyl o r rs C srs. t Conglinshengshills o Yg Pcog (..), wo s w hogz or wlw cvg y lz. , l w Lj Cg Sqg (107112). S , lg- Sgqg lg. L, Pcg w pp pblc bbcy m ywg, w c cll Sqg. C X C (..)

    w v g hgz w: Obg Zg [ c hgz p cpl, Szg (108113)], lg Cg[Pcg]; Jg pl , bg c bc. vyw lg l.6 c v w cy w xy w c w - cly g pc w c bg l . y, l pv , l v p w ly w w pp pblcbbcy w w bc ccl.6

    Chan Transmission Families and the Educated Elite

    Oc w cl l bb p pblcy l pp ly lg, w c bg ppc cc w

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    70 hw Z Bc Z

    pp pblc bbc bv Sg l B, pclly C cl. c pv cp, v y pblc bc p - g g cl v .

    cl w lgly cl by gvg gv cl b c l cv pw v pp bbc pblc . pclly c l - l, B clgy cl ly xc l pw v bbpp g fc cl cl l, Fg c Cg Wx b gv bbcy. g cl pblc bbc C , gv cl fl l w vy l wy cl pc

    C cl. y ppg pblc bbc w gllyccv cplly by cl cl, b wc lcl pvy l. w v , Tiaoa shilei c vc bbc pblc l b lc by cgg bb p , w p cly lc ly g bb cl c p w c. Chanyuan qingguicb l c cl lb -

    cp w bb, c lc, w b v p p. gp y w vccy wl vl y w b v w lvg lg . vy wl bg w l c cl, y l, B cl , bb , ly p y, cl, l p wwg bb lcl b w b vg w ppcv bb ,

    . W cl w ppcv bb gr, c sl wol b orlly prs w v-. lcl l ppcv bb, lg wl w l l wl ly c q c y l .64

    lg c pc cl cl plyg cv cl l lc v w bb, y l cb pc vlv gv cbl fc g-g

    clgy. Tiaoa shileiclly gg w xpc cgg bb wl k lc ccpbl , v wl-c by, . pbly p c bbcy g cl p l xplc Chanyuanqinggui. y cb c w l plly l-

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    72 hw Z Bc Z

    pclly p . , l Y K (b. 1183) S Sg, b , pcl l w C, bc b-jc gl pl pp.6 ccg -cy

    sorc, owr vry o Sog, powrl ss S my(111233) y v k pg B clc pl pp bbc. lg c y pclly w l c, cl wx w pl Sg.6 y v, pp w l y plly pp bbc plc Sg.

    lg pl pp c g pg

    y cp, lvly w c wv pp c wy. mc c, cg cqc C B, w c pp pcl lvl, w ppg y w p-c. h, vg c b pp cl b y w pw cl cy, g cl cl gv lcl l w y c. Vlly ll C w wv bgpcl y l v b pp v pblc bbc by cl , c-

    g-g cl b c l.F xpl, dk p cpl L Fg vcv bbcy w pc Zz, L Gg (..), 1109 bbcy pg Xgg C y Sgvc ll Fg bb. L, Fg bcw by p hzg, w pp bbcy L Zg y Xgyg 1117 by pl .

    pbl c pp pblc bbc w bq C-l c gg. By l wl c-

    y, y v b pblc Sgpr. i ss lkly sclr ors brs o -c l ook rc rs bbcs o ll os osrs, pbbly y c lc pc cb Tiaoa shilei c w l llw. B C l w p g b cl sors wos brs v b rbr prsrv rrycp, c pp by cl v b .

    w ccl pc b l C - l b p ppv w gly plc ,gv cl, fl lcl l. Sc pp w ccl vvl pcl C lg lll p-l b y C , bc w y wl

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    Pc Pg Sg C Scl 73

    b lly cv bbc pblc wl b bl pc c lg. v w ly -cv pp p c cl pp pg pp wl bl c

    l pg cpl. c l l l c-c pw cl gv p cl pp y v. pl pp w cly l w C cv l cy, b bg l c w gly g . Sc pp wl cy w g l y wc wpp wll g c b cpl yly, y b wl c l lyppl.

    pg C w cv wllg pcp l cl. g cy pp,y b bl cc c w c l l w p w , ly ll, pl cv. y x bgpcl l vl x-v cc bw C b c l Sg, c yg cllc y C c p c l, wll l w . O c, C v c

    cl g l, pp l y lv l q cbl g. L cl l, Sg C lly clcl c, cl w py lgp, pcp ql gg l.4

    C qly c w cl l c--c g. c, p pbl C w vg cl g-g l. Lw l ccllyyb qlyp c w C gv , y C w v

    xv xcg l w b l. B, vc lw, p wy wc C c-c w b c l w g pblc.5 w c Sg wg C b c l pbl yulu, c yg. lg c yg pk w C ,c cllc wl c lly c b yp x, y wc w cly by , clg l,p, cp. C cllc lg

    w , p p l p l, lwy b clly cp x.lg cpl w lly c c ygcpl, ll b C lv wply vlv pg pbl pc. Oc pbl,

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    7 hw Z Bc Z

    cllc c yg wl b cz by -p lgly cg b c l. , l C v b vy w w y gv lc y w ccg w c w c lg

    cgg c w c w p bc p C ly bb l cy. l C cc w vyclly cc w ly p w cv g l.

    ly, w c yg cllc ll x gl Sg , glly pbl wvl p x c yg w pbl. a Sg c yg hgz Zgj, wv, b

    pv Jp. F , w c g pblc byhgz pbbly pp 1129, 1131, 1132, 113, 1137, 1138, l110, 117.6 alg hgz y v b lly plc, vc C l pbl w -qcy. g hgz w cvly pblgg ly p c pblc c v p bc cgly wll-bl lg C .

    Chan Buddhism and the Southern Song Literati

    c pv cp, y vc Sg bc l cv lcl lvl by wl c-y. w c clz xv v- lcl cy cy w Plc, l by Wg, gv p 1070108 g 1093112. plc b c ck by l c Oyg X (10071072) S S (10371101) w p

    by S Sg gv. S Sg c l-y v bc l cl cl lcl c. g y v b lcl l, b cvl bccy pp xpg, wc w w pp l b gv p-. F, l cl c gw clly v c Sg, ly bc vy lg b cl w vl wv ccb , b lg b g w wly l lw cl

    g. w Plc l p lcl c, kgcp gv p v . ,w Sg, cl-cl bc cl c c y w l yy cl pg bg w w Plc g.

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    Pc Pg Sg C Scl 7

    S Sg, cl c, c w p- ggv ly w J w l pg pc, p lg xpv b,w b wy pv . y c, lv c-

    y, l ly cl k g wl v bccy, w cvl vc cl lgxpc v llg c gv c: l, v-lly vy cl w b bc x p lg cl p. cb c cg ywll-c w bl c l gv p-, y p c.

    alog o ll sors gr s rr ro locl gov- S Sg, gl l

    lv cy w cgly w locl r. ts y v b cs prly bcs o vc l by , b l bc cgly lg b cl w w bl cvl vc bccy. , lcll bc cv fl lcl , v w l-g l c.

    pv ly py bb J yy l C 1127 w xly c l- cl. c y l lv ppy fg

    J c, l wlvw l. bl py h C cbc cgly cl v--lg w ccp by C c. ll c v p c g l l-clv c-c .

    my l w c by -Cc l S Sg w pclly vc by Z X (w daoxue, y wy), wc pz pl clv

    cl b c l cl lll cy cy w lg gv c. daoxuew l-cc; w fc l- cc pcpl, y p, w g y , cl b . p -B -c, daoxuey clly v p l g B, pclly C B, wc vy l g(, c, b p daoxue). F, y l- fg vg J c 1127 g g B -

    , w y c cc w B , wll wB cg l.4 B l w pclly g p C, w l bc cc l . ll y wll v l g B g y b c l. W c

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    7 hw Z Bc Z

    l wlg pw v y xbg g B, l pp bc ccl v B l pblc w wc yw c.

    ts cobo o socl cooc cors cs l Bs wl cy w c g x l l lcl gv cl b -cl plcl pp. Rfc v wl-cy c. cllc C c, Chanlin baoxun(Prcos oss ro grovs o C), ok W do-y (10911) v cpl y, w l cl c y, y wl bb gv pcl lk, wc wl wllgly . l y, y W,

    w l ; , b c l wl pcllyppc C l , w c w vl Sg l.5 v b q cl Ccl gp l B vv f, w ccl g pp l cl lcl gv. l p S Sg gv c cp pp g gp l c B- ly bw cl B b l b-w C .

    Conclusion

    pc l cl cl b l l B gl C cl pclc ly b xgg. y p g - Sg, b c l c ply ccl p lc wc C l w bl pc, g S Sg pc l ly .

    mc o sys vlop c b vw s opprssv sr-p lg y y. B cll lwy b glly vlv C B, C pcl, vlv w lgly ccp bc by c lp. F l Sg, pv cy lg wl b p p xcl, kg cl cl lg wvg g g pp cl. F vl ly b, y pblc cl l b

    c. ll b B cl g cbl fc w pwl l w b- c w y y w cv pblc pcl c ll bb.

    cc C lg w lg g -

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    Pc Pg Sg C Scl 77

    p bly wllg pcp l cl, C w wg, cv, lc ppl l ll cc cc. p cg yl l cy c c w pcl C lg

    w l ccl cc ll b lg. w ll x cp, cc vvl Cg bg l lv cy w clly l p lg cc g g l.

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    78

    ChPR

    A New Chan Tradition

    The Reinvention of the Caodong Lineagein the Song

    us ar, v g g fc c gv pl-

    c C cl Sg. v l w vl C lg w gly p gvcl b c l ccl plcl cc pp, w wc y wl v b bl c-c. F, v g p plcl cl plc S Sg gc pc C cl: gv plc bcl vbl C cl, cl c l b-c pwl lcl lvl w cg

    l-clv. c, g, l cp ly pg w l c B c v wc C l cp w - lvly c pp.

    l lv cy, cg w wy, Cg bg g bl vvl. F vgl , bc j c l c B vj w g. vv Cg b cw sgl ss s bs rbr bo Sog-ysy C B-

    s es as Bs worl: b bw propos l ll (mozhao) C . Sl ll xcbly l w Cg ,wl k C s s s llrk o Lj C ro. how-v, c b vlp l ll C b lly . ly w vg- c l ll by Lj Zgg, b c b w lly w w c. ll w l cp

    c g Cg cg Cg wl cry vlop pproc o Bs prcc lg y bly b cll l ll.

    lly, gc Cg c v l w l-cc w C c-

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    w C 79

    plll C y ly by cvy bw -cll S cl C g g yy. vlp, w v xo sory o oos rvvl o Sog Coog lg, wc

    wll b bjc cp.

    The Rise o the New Caodong Transmission Family

    alg C cl l B g ly Sg p, Cg w ccl l cclg Sg. g p, C - l , w cl cl c Y Wy Lj Yx pc jy ccl C

    . ccg , c Cg , g Lgj, y cpl, - Cos Bj, wo ws cosr coor o ro, c lg f vl g. By b-gg lv cy, wv, b Cg bc q ll. Chuandeng lu l y-v -gc Lgj b ly -g c, g ly p l. L vl - -g c C-

    g lg, b pc clly g lg . c, Cg w c v l p-p g lv cy. l, ly b 101,Qg p v C : y, l-lw l Y, Lj, Fy gbc. B Gyg [ly] ly bc xc, Cg bly x, bl l lly pg g g g. Cg pp v Qg, pbbly cp wll.

    B pcp Cg w b cg v Qg w wg, w c l c vvl C-g lg w ly wy. , wg 1108, l J hg l lg ly Lj Y lly f Cg - b wlg wy. B w cgg, hg: Yg p [1078108], g by w bg gly p Lyg. W w b lg, w w z Qg

    hy. m Qg w yg. []ws sv-gro sc o dogs [Lgj].4 t sbjc hg x w Cg Fg , w y 1082 w bb w Lyg . z Qg hy z Yqg (10321083),

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    80 hw Z Bc Z

    yg yg Jgx (921027), ly -g c- g Lgj l Cg lg bcl Chuandeng lu.5

    cl hg c ppc dk

    Lyg, w cpl Sg,6 p cv cg Cg . lg hg pp vxpc c b l w ( yg Jg-x l p c), by 1108 bc vy wllw l B ccl, b lybc bl bb pblc . F, llwcpl z Yqg, g B, w l gly c-cl ply lly gc l vvl Cg . x, hg pz lgcy

    z Yqg by g yg Jgx. lgcy Yqg cl wll b cll q: w ll ,ll cc cl cv yg Jgx plly b g Lj - w l Jgx.

    hg ly blg Lj , b w clly vy p w c, wsvrl or bogrps logs or brs o w Coog r- lg. wg v ply cl l

    g lgzg w Cg lg cl l. hg w g-pl C w, bc ly ll plc wg, w ppl w y lcy, w v c cbl wg. c hg v vg , lg - cpl K Fcg (10711128) 1119 lly w cqw x Zc, cpl, ly cl wy hgw c vc w Cg .

    Sll, hg w l . w y

    w x c bv, cl L Q (..) c pc cllc Fg wg: g[Lgj], w v g, l x-p. B g z [Yqg], w gly f-g. my Sg c ly yy, ly Y Lj v, b Cg cg w c lg. Xudeng lu, wc wcpl b 1101, dk B w ly bggv bl . v b ly w

    y B w p v p p bb w y c g c, y -c ly cc w pp l py w pcv l vv Cg .

    i s prc o Xudeng lu, scss cpr 1, pror h-

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    w C 81

    zg v C c bg g pl c x pc, hg. h : c p w fc p lx lg, b wros o Y Lj ow o wol worl.4 hzogs

    p Lj Y fc x g-z Xudeng lu, b wk l ccl cb ly g Cg vvl. ly dk Bc ly lg c, b Xudeng lu byclg w cpl.5 Sc cpl pp v b vy p (y w vlly w), wl cl Xudeng luly c c - . Xudeng lu c l w bgpy z Yqg, B, w y -

    l . l v c Yqg l Xudeng lu,6 b c ly cpl b B cl, s vry sor. t coplr os o v ccss o y rcors Yqg cpl. c Bg lg Cg Xudeng lu y c. lg l C - cpl Yqg, y lly bc, y c l yw. Oly B

    w c C . bgg wl cy, w Xudeng luw w, l B- ccl c B b ly xg cclrprsvs o Coog ro, s v ppr o rcp ( b lv) Cg l. y c Y-qg lg w w cv B lly w w vbl gc v.

    B dk B b