karl marx the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles

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Karl Marx The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles.

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Karl Marx The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. Slide 2 Slide 3 Czar Alexander II Slide 4 Czar (Tsar) Alexander II Slide 5 Slide 6 The Crimean War was fought between Russia and the allied forces of the United Kingdom, France, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia. It began on the Crimean peninsula in 1853. The allies objected to expanding Russian power in the Black Sea area and to the seizing of land from the Ottoman Empire. Russia was defeated in 1856. Florence Nightingale Slide 7 Russian Serfdom % at the time of its abolishment Slide 8 Count Sergei Witte Minister of Finance Slide 9 The shell-shop of the Putilov works, St Petersburg 1903 Slide 10 Trans-Siberian line in red Slide 11 It is Too Soon to Thank God.' - The Assassination of Czar Alexander II" Slide 12 Lenin's older brother Alexander Ulyanov--Part of the Populist Terrorists Slide 13 Karl Marx--Co-Author of Communist Manifesto G. Plekhanov-- Father of Russian Marxism A young Lenin, around 1890 Slide 14 Czar Alexander III Slide 15 Alexander III Slide 16 Czar Nicholas II and Czarina Alexandra with children Slide 17 Winter Palace from across the Neva River One of St. Petersburg's many canals Slide 18 Slide 19 The Winter Palace built between 1754 and 1762 as the winter residence of the Russian tsars. Slide 20 Slide 21 Father Gapon, Iron Workers and the Mayor of St. Petersburg, 1905 Slide 22 The Tsar's soldiers shooting at demonstrators at the Winter Palace Bloody Sunday, 01-22-1905 (new calendar ) Slide 23 Painting of the Bloody Sunday massacre (Source: Brooklyn College History Department) Father Gapon (Source: Hulton Getty) Slide 24 Treaty of Portsmouth 1905 ended Russo-Japanese War Slide 25 Demonstrations of 1905 Slide 26 1905 (June)--Potemkin Mutiny Slide 27 Duma Slide 28 Session of the Duma 1906 Slide 29 Socialist Revolutionary Party. Goal. Their main goal, just like the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks, was to stop one part of society from exploiting the other. They differed, however, by targeting the bottom of the working class, not the educated "proletariats." They wanted the tsar overthrown. Slide 30 "Bolsheviks" because it meant "majority." Bolsheviks Slide 31 Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party "dictatorship of the proletariat." Constitutional Assembly, elected by the people, to rule. Slide 32 Why was the Revolution of 1905 NOT THE Revolution? Political Too many groups, no unity, no clear objectives. Tsar offers concessions offered by Witte and Duma extended limited rights speech & religion Most strikes eventually abandoned Tsar could revoke, and did, the Constitution Use of spies and secret police to infiltrate subversive groups. Arrest of many revolutionary leaders, including Soviets. Slide 33 why not the Revolution of 1905 contd. Military Mutinies, including the Potemkin, were crushed Lack of full military support for the revolution Tsar used force to put down demonstrations Slide 34 Slide 35 Slide 36 Table 1 Percentage Distribution of the World's Manufacturing Production, 1870 and 1913 (percentage of world total) 18701913 USA23.335.8 Germany13.215.7 U.K.31.814.0 France10.36.4 Russia3.75.5 Italy2.42.7 Canada1.02.3 Belgium2.92.1 Sweden0.41.0 Japan |1.2 India |-11.01.1 Other Countries | 12.2 Slide 37 Table 2 The Rate of Industrial Growth in Five Selected Countries Indices of Industrial Production (Base Figures - 1905-13 = 100) UKFranceGermanyRussiaItaly 1781-903.810.9--- 1801-147.112.3--- 1825-3418.821.5--- 1845-5427.533.711.7-- 1865-7449.249.824.213.542.9 1885-9470.568.245.338.754.6 1905-13100.0 % of world industrial production in 1913 14.06.417.75.52.7 Slide 38 Table 3 Output of Coal and Lignite - Selected Countries, Annual Averages (in million metric tonnes) UKFranceGermanyAustriaBelgiumRussia 1820-417. 1840-434. 1860-486.310. 1880-4158.920.265.717.017.53.7 1900-4230.433.0157.338.823.317.3 Slide 39 Table 4 Output of Pig Iron - Selected Countries, Annual Averages (in thousand metric tons) UKFranceGermanyAustriaBelgiumRussia 1781-9069141---- 1825-296692129085-164 1855-593,583900422306312254 1875-796,4841,4621,770418484424 1900-148,7782,6657,9251,4251,0702,773 Slide 40 Table 5 Growth of the Cotton Industry in Selected Countries (Cotton Spindles - Selected Countries, Annual Total Figures [in 1000's]) UKFranceGermanyAustria Belgiu m Russia 183410,0002,500626(`36)800200700 (1840) 187739,5005,0004,7001,5588002,500 191355,7007,40011,1864,9091,4929,212 Slide 41 Table 6 [See this data presented in a variety of ways - Table 6 Extra]Table 6 Extra Spread of Railways in Ten Selected Countries (Length of line open [in kilometers [1km = 5/8 mile]) 1840186018801900 Austria-Hungary1444,54318,50736,330 Belgium3341,7304,1124,591 France4969,16723,08938,109 Germany46911,08933,83851,678 Great Britain2,39014,60325,06030,079 Italy202,4049,29016,429 Netherlands173351,8462,776 Russia271,62622,86553,234 Spain-1,9177,49013,214 Sweden-5275,87611,303 Slide 42 Table 7 Illiteracy in Europe, c. 1850 (Approximate Percentage of Adult Illiterates is Indicated Where Known) Countries with less than 30% illiterate Countries with 30 to 50% illiterate Countries with over 50% illiterate DenmarkAustria 40-45%Bulgaria GermanyBelgium 45-50%Greece (Prussia 20%)England 30-33%Hungary NetherlandsFrance 40-45%Italy 75-80% Scotland 20%Portugal Sweden 10%Rumania SwitzerlandRussia 90-95% Serbia Spain 75% Slide 43 Table 8 Population (tentative estimates in millions - much of it guesswork) * 1750/11800/11850/11990 Great Britain7.410.520.857.1 France2127.335.856.1 Germany |34.079.0 |-[Germ+Aust]1823 Austria |17.57.6 Hungary3. Belgium2. Italy16.019.024.457.6 Netherlands1. Portugal2.32.93.510.5 Russia2840.068.5146.4 Spain8.210.515.039.6 Sweden1. EUROPE (approx) 132.0190.0260.0775.0 Slide 44 http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/indrevtabs1.html Slide 45