korean adults' attitudes towards varieties of english

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    Korean Adults’ Attitudes towards

    Varieties of English

     Young Soo Kim

    MSc in Applied Linguistics

    The Universit of Edin!urgh

    August "##$

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    Word count (excluding appendix): 14,729

    I have read and understood The Universit o! "din#urgh guidelines on $lagiaris% anddeclare that this &ritten dissertation is all % o&n &or' except &here I indicateother&ise # proper use o! uotes and re!erences 

    *oung +oo i%  "xa% -o ./0940  21st ugust 2007

    ii

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    Ac%nowledgements

    3irst o! all, I &ould li'e to than' % supervisor, r "ri' +chlee!, in the epart%ent

    o! 5inguistics and "nglish 5anguage at the Universit o! "din#urgh !or his expertadvice and guidance I a% also grate!ul to the students at the Universit o! "din#urgh,&ho &illingl recorded their voices !or the ver#al guise test, and to the o!!ice &or'ersin the 6ail +hin%un co%pan in aegu, orea, &ho spent their ti%e to co%plete theuestionnaire 3inall, I a% extre%el grate!ul to all % !a%il and !riends !or their encourage%ent and support

    iii

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    &ontents

    List of figures…………………………………………………………...ⅴ

    List of tables…………………………………………………………....ⅴAbbreviations…………………………………………………………..ⅵ

    Abstract………………………………………………………………...ⅶ

    1. Introduction…………………………………………………………..1

    2. Background…………………………………………………………...4  21 "nglish education in the orean context4  22 $revious studies7

    3. Method……………………………………………………………….11  1 $articipants11  2 6aterials12  $rocedure1/  4 ata analsis1.

    4. Results………………………………………………………………..1  41 $art : The ver#al guise test18

      411 $articipants evaluation o! six spea'ers on personalit traits and as %odelso! "nglish18

      412 uessing &here spea'ers &ere !ro%2.  42 $art ;:

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    List of figures

    3igure 41 $articipants agree%ent &ith +tate%ent 129

    3igure 42 $articipants agree%ent &ith +tate%ent 203igure 4 $articipants agree%ent &ith +tate%ent 13igure 44 $articipants agree%ent &ith +tate%ent 423igure 4/ $articipants agree%ent &ith +tate%ent /43igure 4. $articipants agree%ent &ith +tate%ent ./3igure 47 $articipants agree%ent &ith +tate%ent 7.3igure 48 $articipants agree%ent &ith +tate%ent 873igure 49 $articipants !irst pre!erence !or a variet o! "nglish93igure 410 $articipants second pre!erence !or a variet o! "nglish403igure 411 $articipants third pre!erence !or a variet o! "nglish41

    List of ta!les

    Ta#le 1 Text o! reading passage1Ta#le 2 ;ac'ground in!or%ation o! selected spea'ers1Ta#le The se%antic di!!erential scale !or the ver#al guise test14Ta#le 4 +tate%ents &ith a seven=point 5i'ert scale1/

    Ta#le 41 6ean ratings (and standard deviations) o! six spea'ers on ninetraits (-A4)18

    Ta#le 42 6ean ratings o! all nine traits19Ta#le 4 Tests o! &ithin=su#Bects e!!ects19Ta#le 44 Post hoc test: $air&ise co%parisons !or personalit traits20Ta#le 4/ 6ean ratings o! six spea'ers as %odels o! "nglish21Ta#le 4. Post hoc t est: $air&ise co%parisons !or a %odel o! "nglish22Ta#le 47 The nu%#er o! participants in the six orders o! spea'ers (-A4)2Ta#le 48 Post hoc test: 6ultiple co%parisons !or order e!!ects on ;r"24Ta#le 49 Post hoc test: 6ultiple co%parisons !or order e!!ects on o"2/Ta#le 410 uesses &here the spea'ers &ere !ro% (-A4)2.Ta#le 411 istinguishing native and non=native spea'ers (-A4)27Ta#le 412 6ean ratings !or +tate%ents on the goal o! learning "nglish (-A4)28Ta#le 41 6ean ratings !or +tate%ents on the -+ %odel o! "nglish (-A4)Ta#le 414 6ean ratings !or +tate%ents on the --+ %odel o! "nglish (-A4)Ta#le 41/ $aired sa%ples t =test !or +tate%ents on the -+ and --+ %odels o!

    "nglish

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    A!!reviations

    %": %erican "nglish

    ;r": ;ritish "nglish"I5: "nglish as an international language"35: "nglish as a !oreign language"53: "nglish as a lingua !ranca"5T: "nglish language teaching"-5: "nglish as a native language"+5: "nglish as a second languageCo": Cong ong "nglisho": orean=accented "nglish

     -+: -ative spea'er  --+: -on=native spea'er 

    ?$: ?eceived $ronunciationTa": Tai&anese=accented "nglish52: 3oreign or second languageT"+D5: Teaching "nglish to spea'ers o! other languagesU: United ingdo%U+: United +tates o! %erica

    vi

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    A!stract

    This stud investigates 4 orean adults attitudes to&ards native and non=native

    varieties o! "nglish in relation to the perspective o! "I5 ("nglish as an internationallanguage) This stud addresses three research uestions: 1) do orean adults pre!er certain varieties o! "nglish@ 2) do orean adults at least accept non=native varieties o! "nglish@, and ) are orean adults a&are o! di!!erent varieties o! "nglish@ In order toexa%ine participants language attitudes, this stud e%ploed #oth a ver#al guise testas an indirect approach and a ualitative uestionnaire as a direct approach 3or thever#al guise test, six varieties o! "nglish &ere selected to %easure participants

     perceptions o! native and non=native varieties o! "nglish #ased on achrus (198/)circles o! "nglish use: %erican and ;ritish "nglish in the inner circle, Cong ongand Indian "nglish in the outer circle, and orean and Tai&anese=accented "nglish inthe expanding circle The %ain !indings present i%portant insights into orean adults

     perspectives on "I5: 1) the pre!erred %erican "nglish as a %odel !or guidance anddid not discri%inate native and non=native varieties o! "nglish, 2) the regarded"nglish as an international language to co%%unicate not onl &ith native spea'ers

     #ut also &ith non=native spea'ers o! "nglish, and sho&ed positive attitudes to non=native varieties o! "nglish, and ) the &ere not &ell a&are o! varieties o! "nglishThis !inding i%plies that "nglish language teaching in orea should e%phasiEelearners a&areness o! varieties o! "nglish in order that the can co%%and "I5&ithout di!!icult This stud suggests that !urther co%prehensive investigations intochanges in oreans language attitudes and their needs as 52 learners #e %ade

     #ecause the should #e re!lected in "nglish language teaching &hich has e%phasiEed"35 rather than "I5

    vii

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    '( )ntroduction

    F P’illip’in sŏnsaengnimdŭlŭn suŏp chunbirŭl ch’ŏlchŏhi hago choŭn pundŭlisyŏtta.

     Kajang choattŏn chŏmŭn hyŏnjiindŭlgwa chayŏnsŭrŏpge yŏngŏro malhalsu innŭn

    nŭngnyŏki saenggyŏttanŭn kŏsidaG1  orean %iddle school students i%pression o! 

    "nglish ca%p in the $hilippines, reported in a orean dail ne&spaper, The Maeil 

    Shinmun (. 3e#ruar 2007), %ight #e strange to not a !e& oreans &ho thin' the

    should learn "nglish &ith a native spea'er (-+) in the inner circle countries 2 6an

    oreans have #een o#sessed &ith a native=li'e "nglish pronunciation, especiall

    %erican "nglish ?eports on orean childrens tongue surger in 2002 sho& ho&

    !renEied orean parents tr to i%prove their childrens "nglish pronunciations The

    "35 context in orea has #een !ull o! %erican as the "nglish nor% and culture (eg

    >hoi 200.H i% 200H &on 2000H ?oh 200.) The U+ is the countr that attracts

    the highest nu%#er o! oreans &ho see' to learn "nglish in a !oreign environ%ent

    >hang (200/: 22) indicates Fit is al%ost a stereotpe that "nglish %eans %erican

    "nglishG a%ong oreans i## (1999: 2) states that this strong pre!erence !or 

    %erican "nglish is Fin!luenced # political andor historical !a%iliaritG greater &ith

    the U+ than &ith other "nglish=spea'ing countries

    Co&ever, the situation has #een changing 6ore and %ore orean students have #een

    going to the $hilippines to learn "nglish ccording to statistics o! the I%%igration

    ;ureau in orea, the nu%#er o! oreans &ho have gone to the $hilippines to stud

    "nglish has rapidl increased in the past !ive ears 4  (Jang 200.) +outheast sian

    1 “$hilippine teachers &ere thorough in preparing classes and 'ind The #est thing &as to get a#ilities to

    spea' "nglish naturall &ith $hilippinesG (% o&n translation)2 achru (198/: 12=17) proposed three=concentric circle %odel o! World "nglishes The inner circle,

    such as the U+, the U, >anada, ustralia, and -e& Kealand, contains "nglish as a native language("-5) spea'ers and has provided nor%s !or non=native spea'ers o! "nglish The outer circle, such asIndia, the $hilippines, +ingapore, Cong ong, and 6alasia, consists o! "nglish as a second language("+5) spea'ers and has developed institutionaliEed varieties o! "nglish The expanding circle, such asorea, >hina, Tai&an, Japan, and ?ussia, contains "nglish as a !oreign language ("35) spea'ers andhas relied on nor%s o! the inner circle This %odel has #een criticiEed # the reason that Fthe centre=

     peripher dichoto%G ("rling 2004: 224) rein!orces superiorit o! native spea'ers !ro% the inner circleand cannot explain increasing #ilingual spea'ers &ho acuire #oth a native language and "nglishsi%ultaneousl (eg Jen'ins 2000H 6ca 2002H 6cenEie 200.) In spite o! the criticis%, the %odelis use!ul as a general taxono% and &ill #e applied in this stud3 The Korea erald  (1. pril 2002) at Lhttp:ne&snaverco%ne&sreadphp@

    %odeA5+Mo!!iceNidA044MarticleNidA00000290/MsectionNidA108M%enuNidA108O Pccessed 14ugust 2007Q4 In 200/, the !irst countr &here oreans &ent to learn "nglish &as the U+ (21,947 persons),

    1

    http://news.naver.com/news/read.php?mode=LSD&office_id=044&article_id=0000029305&section_id=108&menu_id=108http://news.naver.com/news/read.php?mode=LSD&office_id=044&article_id=0000029305&section_id=108&menu_id=108http://news.naver.com/news/read.php?mode=LSD&office_id=044&article_id=0000029305&section_id=108&menu_id=108http://news.naver.com/news/read.php?mode=LSD&office_id=044&article_id=0000029305&section_id=108&menu_id=108

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    countries, not onl the $hilippines #ut also +ingapore and 6alasia, are pleased &ith

    oreans co%ing to learn "nglish/  In addition, $hilippine teachers started to teach

    "nglish in a!ter=school progra%s in ele%entar schools in rural areas such as

    >heong&on, Jangsu, and a%ang, and even in the second largest cit, ;usan, in

    orea last ear. The are %ainl &o%en living &ith orean hus#ands n increase in

    international %arriages and !oreign &or'ers !ro% other countries has #een giving

    %ore opportunities !or oreans to experience di!!erent varieties o! "nglish

    3urther%ore, the 6inistr o! "ducation and Cu%an ?esources evelop%ent

    announced an "nglish education re!or% plan, last -ove%#er, to strengthen training o! 

    orean teachers o! "nglish in order that the can teach not onl &ritten "nglish #ut

    also spo'en "nglish &ithout help !ro% -+ teachers !ro% 2010 (i% 200.H i%, J=

    200.) orea, one o! the expanding circle countries, see%s to #e in the process o! 

    shi!ting !ro% an "35 to an "I5 ("nglish as an international language) context 7 

    I! the shi!t is going on, it %ust #e re!lected in oreans attitudes to&ards varieties o! 

    "nglish ;a'er (1992: 9) states that attitudes are Fsocial indicators o! changing

     #elie!sG With exposure to "I5, oreans stereotpical attitudes, ie strong pre!erence

    !or %erican "nglish, %a change into the direction to accepting other native and

    non=native varieties o! "nglish Co&ever, it is hard to !ind studies to investigate

    changes in oreans attitudes to&ards varieties o! "nglish 6ost results o! previous

    studies (i## 1997, 1999H Jung 200/H +hi% 2002H *oo' 200/) conducted in orea

    con!ir% oreans pre!erence !or %erican "nglish While one o! +hi%s (2002)

    surves sho&s changed attitudes o! oreans accepting non=native varieties o! 

    !ollo&ed # ustralia (1,.8/), >anada (12,928), the $hilippines (10,077), the U (8,800), and -e&Kealand (4,/92) The nu%#er to the $hilippines had increased a#out three ti%es during the ear !ro%

    2000 (,477) to 200/ (10,077)5 1,9.1 students !ro% pri%ar school to high school in orea &ent to +outheast sian countries to

    attend "nglish language training progra%s during su%%er vacation in 200. The outnu%#ered thoseto the U+ (1,.48) and >anada (1,091) (*ang 200.)6  K!S ne&s at Lhttp:ne&s'#sco'rne&sphp@idA1191220M'indAcO and

    L http:ne&s'#sco'rne&sphp@idA12181M'indAcO Pccessed 8 ugust 2007Q7 In the "35 context, a native=li'e co%petence is a goal o! "nglish language teaching #ased on the -+

    %odel and culture (eg Jen'ins 2000H +trevens 1992) oreans strong pre!erence !or %erican "nglishcan #e understood # the orean "35 context In contrast, in the "I5 context &here "nglish is used asa glo#al lingua !ranca, the -+ %odel and culture need not #e internaliEed # non=native spea'ers &hocan assert o&nership o! "nglish language (eg achru 1992H 6c'a 200H +%ith and -elson 200.)orean social pheno%ena such as the increase o! students studing "nglish in +outheast siancountries re!lect the "I5 perspective that recogniEes non=native spea'er (--+) teachers o! "nglish

    cade%ics &ho recogniEe "nglish is used as a lingua !ranca !or international co%%unication %a'e useo! various ter%s such as "I5, "53 ("nglish as a lingua !ranca), World "nglishes, etc I &ill use theter% "I5 3or !urther explanations, see "rling 2004, 200/

    2

    http://news.kbs.co.kr/news.php?id=1191220&kind=chttp://news.kbs.co.kr/news.php?id=1321381&kind=chttp://news.kbs.co.kr/news.php?id=1321381&kind=chttp://news.kbs.co.kr/news.php?id=1191220&kind=chttp://news.kbs.co.kr/news.php?id=1321381&kind=c

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    "nglish, it cannot #e interpreted as pu#lic attitudes #ecause the respondents &ere

    T"+D58 graduate students &ho &ere a&are o! varieties o! "nglish

    In this stud, I atte%pt to discover changes in oreans attitudes to&ards varieties o! 

    "nglish I a% pri%aril concerned &ith oreans attitudes to&ards native and non=

    native varieties o! "nglish in relation to the "I5 perspective In the era o! "I5, "nglish

    is needed to co%%unicate not onl &ith native spea'ers #ut also &ith non=native

    spea'ers o! "nglish !or a variet o! purposes >onsidering rapid increase o! non=

    native spea'ers &ho outnu%#er native spea'ers, a&areness o! non=native varieties o! 

    "nglish cannot #e neglected i! one is to co%%and "I5 success!ull (eg 3raser 200.H

    Jen'ins 2000H achru 1992H 6c'a 200H +trevens 1992) To investigate oreans

    attitudes to&ards native and non=native varieties o! "nglish is i%perative to get the

     picture o! ho& oreans perceive "I5 and &hat the need as 52 learners

    !ter loo'ing at "nglish education in the orean context and previous studies (section

    2), I exa%ine oreans attitudes to&ards native and non=native varieties o! "nglish #

    conducting #oth a ver#al guise test and a ualitative uestionnaire on 4 orean

    adults &ith the !ollo&ing research uestions: 1) do orean adults pre!er certain

    varieties o! "nglish@ 2) do orean adults at least accept non=native varieties o! 

    "nglish@, and ) are orean adults a&are o! di!!erent varieties o! "nglish@ (section )

    The results sho& changed attitudes o! oreans &ho do not discri%inate native and

    non=native varieties o! "nglish (section 4) iscussions on research uestions (section

    /) place e%phasis on conclusions and suggestions !or !uture studies (section .)

    8 Teaching "nglish to spea'ers o! other languages

    3

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    "( *ac%ground

    "(' English education in the Korean conte+t

    "nglish has #eco%e the %ost po&er!ul !oreign language in orea since "35

    education #egan in 188 capacit !or "nglish is needed to enter a good school, to

    get a #etter Bo#, and to #e pro%oted to a higher position in the &or'place although

    "nglish is rarel used in dail li!e >hang (200/: 2) states that Foreans have to learn

    "nglish !ro% their ele%entar school ears and continue !or the rest o! their lives i! 

    the &ant to have a #etter li!e, such as #etter econo%ic status, %ore prestigious Bo#s,

    or higher educational opportunitiesG "nglish in orea, as +hi% (1994: 28) points

    out, is not onl Fa s%#ol o! educationG #ut also Fa s%#ol o! success and !ortuneG

    >hoi (200.:) indicates that "nglish education has #een Fhighl interlin'ed to the

     political and econo%ical conditions o! oreaG >hoi (200.: /) de!ines six %aBor 

     periods in "nglish education in ter%s o! the i%pact o! politico=econo%ic conditions o! 

    orea:

    = the end o! Joseon nast (188 R 1910): the #eginning and expansion o!

    "nglish education

    = the Japanese colonial ti%e (1910 R 194/): the declination, revival, and

    oppression o! "nglish education

    = a!ter li#eration !ro% Japan till 19// including the U+ %ilitar govern%ent

      (194/ R 19//): the reesta#lish%ent o! "nglish education

    = !ro% the 3irst ?epu#lic to the %ilitar rule (+upre%e >ouncil !or -ational

    ?econstruction) (19// R 19.): the develop%ent o! "nglish education(the 3irst -ational >urriculu% in 19//)

    = !ro% the Third to the 3i!th ?epu#lic (19. R 1992): the sta#iliEation and

    stagnation o! "nglish education (the +econd (19.), the Third (197,

    1974),

    the 3ourth (1981), the 3i!th (1987, 1988) -ational >urriculu%)

    = !ro% the >itiEens overn%ent till the $articipator overn%ent (1992 R

    the present): the re!or% o! "nglish education (the +ixth (1992) and the

    +eventh (1997) -ational >urriculu%)

    4

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    The #eginning o! "nglish education &as in!luenced # the F%oderniEation and

    enlighten%ent %ove%entG initiated # ing oBong and govern%ent o!!icials, and #

    the Fpropagandis% o! >hristianitG o! %erican %issionaries (>hoi 200.: .) The !irst

    o!!icial "nglish teachers &ere T " Cali!ax (a ;ritish telegraph technician) and t&o

    >hinese &ho had attended universities in the U+ 6ost students &ho had alread

    learned >hinese characters in order to #e govern%ent o!!icials learned "nglish at the

    !irst govern%ent "nglish school, Tong%unha', o#eing the order o! ing oBong

    &ho needed o!!icial interpreters !or diplo%atic relations and trade &ith !oreign

    countries (6oon 197. cited in &on 2000)

    The Japanese colonial ti%e (1910 R 194/) &as a dar' period o! "nglish education

    The Japanese colonial govern%ent suppressed "nglish education lthough there &as

    a period o! revival o! "nglish education (1922 R 198) as a cultural polic to redirect

    oreans energies !ro% the independence %ove%ent, it &as replaced # the Japanese=

    onl polic Japanese #eca%e %ore prestigious than "nglish (>hoi 200.) uring the

    ti%e, the ra%%ar=Translation 6ethod and the Japanese ter%inolog !or gra%%ar in

    "nglish education &ere used (&on 2000)

    !ter li#eration !ro% Japan in 194/, the U+ %ilitar ad%inistration in!luenced

    orean societ and reesta#lished "nglish education In 194., the %iddle school

    "nglish curriculu%, &hich &as the !irst step to teach "nglish sste%aticall, &as

     pu#lished It encouraged students to gain 'no&ledge o! "nglish rather than to use

    "nglish practicall (>hoi 200.) aniel Jones The Pronouncing "ictionary &as

    adopted and ;ritish "nglish rather than %erican "nglish &as the standard o! 

     pronunciation #ecause %ericanis% &as avoided (6oon 200/) Co&ever, a!ter the

    orean War (19/0), the 3irst ?epu#lic &hich &as %ostl dependent on the U+

    govern%ent pu#lished the 3irst -ational >urriculu% adopting %erican "nglish as

    the standard in 19// (>hoi 200.) The prevalence o! %erican in!luence on orean

    societ and "nglish education has not di%inished until no&

    &on (2000: /1) states that there &ere Finnovative even revolutionarG changes in

    "nglish education in the 1990s The "nglish language #egan to #e taught as a regular 

    su#Bect !ro% rd  grade in ele%entar school in order to i%prove students

    5

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    co%%unicative co%petence in 1997 Dne o! the e!!orts to i%prove students

    co%%unicative co%petence &as the introduction o! "$I ("nglish $rogra% in orea)

    to i%port and assign native spea'er (-+) teachers to ele%entar and secondar

    schools ..0 -+ teachers &ere e%ploed !ro% the U+, the U, >anada, ustralia,

     -e& Kealand, and +outh !rica in 199. (&on 2000) lthough there have #een -+

    teachers o! "nglish since the #eginning o! "nglish education in orea, it &as the !irst

    trial !or the orean govern%ent to hire a large nu%#er o! -+ teachers -+ teachers

    have #een %ainl recruited !ro% the inner circle countries ever since In pril 2007,

    a#out 90S out o! 2,924 -+ teachers &or'ing in ele%entar and secondar schools in

    orea &ere %erican, >anadian, and ustralian9 

    The +eventh -ational >urriculu% (1997) %ani!ested its characteristics as Fdeveloping

    cultural understanding and positive attitudes to&ards other cultures, there# !ostering

    international a&areness, cooperative attitudes and 'no&ledge as &orld citiEensG

    3urther%ore, its o#Bectives &ere de!ined as F!or%ing a #asis !or developing our o&n

    culture and introducing it to other countries through a proper understanding o! !oreign

    culturesG (i% 200: 10) These state%ents sho& the perspective o! "I5: that

    "nglish is not si%pl one o! %an !oreign languages #ut an international language !or 

    glo#al cross=cultural co%%unication -evertheless, as i% (200: 10/) points out, Fit

    has #een the traditional practice in oreas "nglish education to !ocus on %erican

    cultureG although a speci!ic %odel o! culture is not indicated in the >urriculu%

    5ast -ove%#er, the 6inistr o! "ducation and Cu%an ?esources evelop%ent

    announced "nglish education re!or% plans to i%prove students practical "nglish

    a#ilities The %ain plan is to increase the nu%#er o! uali!ied orean teachers o! 

    "nglish &ho can teach not onl &ritten "nglish #ut also spo'en "nglish The 6inistr

    ai%s at the training o! pre=service and in=service orean teachers o! "nglish so that

    the can teach "nglish &ithout the help o! -+ teachers !ro% 2010 ;e!ore achieving

    this goal, it plans to i%port not onl -+ teachers #ut also --+ teachers such as

    orean #ilinguals a#road, $hilippines, Indians, etc in order to assign the% to

    secondar schools (i% 200.H i%, J= 200.)

    9 $ersonal co%%unication &ith an o!!icial in the 6inistr o! "ducation and Cu%an ?esources

    evelop%ent on . ugust 2007

    6

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    In short, the orean "35 context since 188 has #een slo&l %oving to&ards the "I5

    context in &hich orean culture and teachers o! "nglish can pla an i%portant role in

    "nglish education although it has not #een !ull realiEed

    "(" ,revious studies

    There are not %an studies to investigate oreans attitudes to&ards varieties o! 

    "nglish in the orean context descri#ed a#ove Dnl !our researchers (i## 1997,

    1999H Jung 200/H +hi% 2002H *oo' 200/) studies are availa#le at present *oo' 

    (200/:7) indicated that Fstudies on oreans attitudes to&ard varieties o! "nglish are

    rareG *oo' (200/) re!erred to i##s (1997, 1999) studies &hile other three

    researchers (i## 1997, 1999H Jung 200/H +hi% 2002) did not %ention related studies

    conducted in orea

     

    These studies %ainl exa%ined oreans attitudes to&ards native varieties o! "nglish

    Jung (200/) considered t&o %aBor native varieties, %erican and ;ritish "nglish

    i## (1997, 1999) loo'ed at three native varieties, %erican, ;ritish, and ustralian

    "nglish, although he additionall gave respondents options such as other(s) and no

     pre!erence in uestionnaires *oo' (200/) investigated !ive varieties, !rican

    %erican ernacular, "uropean %erican, ustralian, ;ritish, and orean=accented

    "nglish +hi% (2002) used !ive varieties, %erican, ustralian, >anadian, $a'istani,

    and orean=accented "nglish "ven though the non=native variet such as $a'istani

    and orean=accented "nglish &as exa%ined in t&o studies (+hi% 2002H *oo' 200/),

    native varieties &ere the %ain !ocus o! these studies

     

    The research instru%ents in i##s (1997, 1999) consecutive studies and +hi%s

    (2002) t&o surves &ere %ainl uestionnaires i## (1997, 1999) used

    uestionnaires containing closed and open=ended uestions 3or exa%ple, a closed

    uestion, The ;ritish accent is harder to learn than the %erican or ustralian

    accent, &as presented &ith a !ive=point 5i'ert scale o! 1 (disagree ver %uch) to /

    (agree ver %uch) points Dne o! the open=ended uestions &as Which accent do ou

    &ant to learn@ a) %erican #) ;ritish c) ustralian d) Dther(s)NN e) -$ +hi% (2002)

    conducted t&o surves &ith the sa%e uestions such as Is there a need to understand

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    the non=native varieties o! "nglish@ in 1997 and 1998 separatel These

    uestionnaires have li%itations Fsince the allo&ed respondents to disguise their true

    !eelings, either to proBect a di!!erent sel!=i%age andor to give responses the thought

    the intervie&er %ight %ost approve o!G ($reston 2002: 41)

    Cence, Jung (200/), *oo' (200/), and one surve o! +hi% (2002) e%ploed a ver#al

    guise techniue It is a %odi!ied version o! %atched guise techniue The %atched

    guise techniue developed # 5a%#ert et al (19.0) is Fa rigorous and elegant %ethod

    !or eliciting apparentl private attitudesG o! respondents &ho evaluate di!!erent

    language varieties, such as "nglish and 3rench, &ithout noticing that voices &ere

    recorded # the sa%e #ilingual spea'er (iles and ;illings 200/: 190) The ver#al

    guise is used Fout o! necessit, since it is not al&as possi#le to !ind a single person

    &ho can co%pletel produce the varieties reuired !or the studG (arrett et al 200:

    /) *oo's (200/) stud, !or instance, e%ploed the ver#al guise rather than the

    %atched guise # using !ive di!!erent spea'ers !or the !ive di!!erent accents o! 

    "nglish s l!ord and +trother (1990: 48.) indicate, the ver#al guise is good to

    overco%e Fa !eigned accentG o! the %atched guise To elicit respondents evaluations

    o! di!!erent spea'ers, Jung (200/) and *oo' (200/) used a se%antic di!!erential scale

    &hich &as re!ined # Dsgood (19.4) Jung (200/: 24/) e%ploed #i=polar se%antic

    di!!erential scales !or nine pairs o! adBectives such as Fstig%atiEed vs prestigiousG

    *oo' (200/: 1) used eleven personalit traits such as Fcon!ident, gentle, good=

    loo'ing,G etc It should #e noted that the ver#al guise techniue has also draac's

    s ;er'=+eligson (1984: 417) points out, it is not eas to control Fparalinguistic

    di!!erencesG o! spea'ers such as voice ualit, speech stle, etc

    "d&ards (1982: 20) states Fthe %ost use!ul assess%ent o! language attitudes &ould #e

    one #ased upon so%e eclectic approachG #ecause each research instru%ent has %erits

    and de%erits +o i## (1997, 1999) and +hi% (2002) added a !ollo&=up intervie&,

    and Jung (200/) and *oo' (200/) additionall used a ualitative uestionnaire to

    elicit su#Bects detailed responses

     

    6ost su#Bects o! the previous studies &ere orean universit students "ven though

    i## (1999) investigated orean universit students attitudes to&ards varieties o! 

    "nglish, he co%pared the% &ith attitudes o! pro!essionals studing at a language

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    institute There &as no di!!erence #et&een these t&o groups Jung (200/) co%pared

    attitudes o! pre=universit students &ith those o! universit students #ut did not !ind a

    di!!erence

    The over&hel%ing result o! previous studies has #een strong pre!erence !or %erican

    "nglish ccording to i##s (1999) stud, orean universit students and

     pro!essionals pre!erred to learn %erican "nglish i## (1999: 9) analEed this

    attitude # oreans !a%iliarit &ith %erican culture and Fperception o! %erica as

    an econo%ic po&er, &ith its advanced technolog and !acilities !or educationG Jungs

    (200/) stud sho&ed that orean pre=universit and universit students !avored

    %erican "nglish predo%inantl over ;ritish "nglish as the target and that this

     pre!erence &as correlated &ith !a%iliarit

    +hi%s (2002) ver#al guise stud in 199/ also presented orean universit students

    over&hel%ing pre!erence !or %erican "nglish In this surve, all students &anted to

    learn %erican "nglish and correctl identi!ied a !e%ale %ericans accent

    Co&ever, the did not regard $a'istani and orean=accented "nglish as good %odels

     #ecause o! F#ad accentG (+hi% 2002: 148) In addition, so%e students ans&ered that

    the did not need to understand Indian, +ingaporean, or 3ilipino "nglish and that the

    could not distinguish these varieties The result o! her surve in 1997 &as not

    di!!erent In contrast, her surve in 1998 sho&ed uite di!!erent results: 2 o! 27

    respondents thought internationall accepta#le "nglish should #e used as the

    teaching %odelH all responded the need to understand non=native varieties o! "nglish

    "ven though +hi% (2002) presented the results as evidence o! changes in oreans

    attitudes to&ards varieties o! "nglish, it is di!!icult to treat the% as pu#lic attitudes

     #ecause the respondents &ere T"+D5 graduate students &ho &ere alread a&are o! 

    varieties o! "nglish

    ccording to *oo's (200/) stud, orean universit students evaluated ;ritish

    "nglish %ore !avora#l than %erican "nglish at least on statusco%petence=related

    traits in the ver#al guise test ;ut she presented the spea'ers ver#al guises in the sa%e

    order so there &as a possi#ilit o! order e!!ect on the results although she %entioned

    the order e!!ect &as not signi!icant In her stud, students changed their evaluation o! 

    an %erican "nglish spea'er to a %ore positive one as a !riend, teacher, and a

    9

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    +tandard "nglish user rather than a ;ritish "nglish spea'er a!ter getting in!or%ation

    on ethnicit The also responded that oreans should learn and teach %erican

    "nglish *oo' (200/: =4) concluded Fit see%s that, at least !or the orean students

    o! this stud, there are t&o FrespectedG varieties o! "nglish: ;ritish "nglish as FtheG

    "nglish and "10  as an international language &hich is essential in the age o! 

    glo#aliEationG +he suggested that there exists a !urther need to investigate this

    dichoto% o! oreans attitudes

    To su% up, the previous studies %ainl exa%ined orean universit students

    attitudes to&ards native varieties o! "nglish # using uestionnaires and the ver#al

    guise techniue These studies did not !ull investigate attitudes and perspectives o! 

    oreans to&ards varieties o! "nglish 3irst, the studies did not give enough attention

    to oreans attitudes to&ards non=native varieties o! "nglish While discussions o! 

    non=native varieties o! "nglish in relation to the "I5 perspective have #een

    !lourishing a%ong acade%ics (eg Jen'ins 2000H achru 1992H 6c'a 2002), there is

    not %uch in!or%ation on ho& oreans loo' at "I5 and perceive non=native varieties

    o! "nglish +econd, it is not enough to investigate language attitudes o! orean

    universit students &ithout considering ordinar orean adults In general, educated

    orean adults have %ore experience o! studing "nglish in order to enter a good

    universit and to get a #etter Bo# 3urther%ore, F%ost orean parents are enthusiastic

    a#out providing a good "nglish education !or their children,G as >hang (200/: 2)

    indicates Their language attitudes can in!luence their childrens attitudes as &ell It is

    necessar to investigate orean adults language attitudes to !ind out oreans

    attitudes to&ards varieties o! "nglish co%prehensivel

    With an atte%pt to overco%e the li%itations o! previous studies, this stud !ocuses on

    orean adults attitudes to&ards native and non=native varieties o! "nglish in relation

    to the "I5 perspective The research %ethod e%ploed !or this purpose &ill #e

    descri#ed #elo&

    10 %erican "nglish

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    -( Method

    -(' ,articipants

    4/ orean adults living in aegu, the third largest cit in orea, participated in this

    stud The &ere educated o!!ice &or'ers in a %ediu%=siEed ne&spaper co%pan !or 

    &hich I had &or'ed With the per%ission o! the president o! the co%pan, the surve

    &as conducted in June 2007 It &as di!!icult to collect all participants at once so t&o

    to !our availa#le participants attended the surve separatel in the sa%e %eeting

    roo% The nu%#er o! participants totaled 4/ The &ere paid !or their participation

    ;ut 2 o! 4/ participants did not state their #ac'ground in!or%ation so the &ere

    excluded !ro% data analsis total o! 4 participants (29 %en, 14 &o%en) 11 could #e

    considered educated %iddle=class orean adults &ho &or' in an o!!ice a!ter 

    graduating !ro% universit Their age ranged !ro% 27 to 47 ears and averaged /9

    ears 4 (9S) participants &ere in their t&enties, 27 (.28S) in their thirties, and 12

    (279S) in their !orties The had learned "nglish !or 10. ears on average The

    rated their "nglish pro!icienc as #eginning (21 participants, 488S), inter%ediate

    (20, 4./S), and advanced (2, 47S)

    17 (9/S) o! the 4 participants had never #een to "nglish=spea'ing countries, &hile

    2. (.0/S) had #een to those countries %ong 2. participants &ho had #een to

    "nglish=spea'ing countries, 14 (/8S) had staed there !or less than one %onth, 4

    (1/4S) !or t&o to !our %onths, and 8 (08S) !or . %onths to one ear "nglish=

    spea'ing countries &here the participants had spent ti%e &ere the U+ (.1S),

    ustralia (194S), >anada (19S), -e& Kealand (111S), the U (8S), the

    $hilippines (8S), and +ingapore (28S) 7 (8.0S) o! the 4 participants had

    experiences o! spea'ing "nglish to !oreigners, &hereas . (140S) did not The

    nationalities o! !oreigners to &ho% 7 participants had spo'en &ere %erican

    (22/S), ;ritish (8.S), Japanese (8.S), >anadian (79S), ustralian (7S),

    $hilippine (40S), +ingaporean (40S), 3rench (40S) and so on These !oreigners

    can #e grouped into native spea'ers o! "nglish (497S) and non=native spea'ers o! 

    "nglish (/0S)

    11 ender #alance o! participants &as not considered #ecause this stud &as not !ocused on gender

    di!!erences in language attitudes

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    -(" Materials

    This stud addresses the !ollo&ing research uestions: 1) do orean adults pre!er certain varieties o! "nglish@ 2) do orean adults at least accept non=native varieties o! 

    "nglish@, and ) are orean adults a&are o! di!!erent varieties o! "nglish@ To ans&er 

    the%, I adopted #oth a ver#al guise techniue and a ualitative uestionnaire The

    ver#al guise techniue as an Findirect approachG (arrett, >oupland and Willia%s

    200: 1.) &as e%ploed to %easure ho& participants perceive di!!erent accents o! 

    native and non=native varieties o! "nglish The ualitative uestionnaire as a Fdirect

    approachG (arrett, >oupland and Willia%s 200: 1.) &as to as' participants ho&

    the consider native and non=native varieties%odels o! "nglish, and "nglish language

    learning These indirect and direct %easures o! language attitudes &ere to #e analEed

    separatel and then co%pared &ith each other so as to understand participants

     perspectives on varieties o! "nglish

    $art o! the uestionnaire &as constructed !or the ver#al guise test +ix varieties o! 

    "nglish &ere selected to investigate participants attitudes to&ards native and non=

    native varieties o! "nglish #ased on achrus (198/, 1992#) circles o! "nglish use:

    %erican "nglish (%") and ;ritish "nglish (;r") in the inner circle, Cong ong

    "nglish (Co") and Indian "nglish (In") in the outer circle, and orean=accented

    "nglish (o") and Tai&anese=accented "nglish (Ta") in the expanding circle

    The text !or recording o! the ver#al guise &as chosen !ro% those used in previous

    studies The selected text, as sho&n in Ta#le 1 #elo&, had #een used !or a stud #

    ;aard et al (2001) in -e& Kealand, ustralia, and the U+ 12 The text, containing a

    97=&ord passage as a !or% o! letter to parents, had #een designed to distinguish

    tpical phonological !eatures o! accents such as +tandard -orth %erican

    (postvocalic =r, intervocalic =t= !lapping, etc) and ?$=tpe "nglish "nglish (!inal

    =t= glottaliEation, ou centraliEation, etc) (;aard et al 2001: 2.=0)

    12 The text had also #een used in various countries such as the U, er%an, Japan, >hina, etc !or a

     proBect "valuation "nglish accents &orld&ide # ;aard et al to investigate attitudes to&ards !ourstandard accents o! "nglish such as -orth %erican, ?$=tpe "nglish, ustralian, and -e& Kealand

    "nglish The proBect is availa#le atLhttp:&&&otagoacnEanthropolog5inguistic?esults?esultsht%lO Pccessed 28 Jul 2007Q

    12

    http://www.otago.ac.nz/anthropology/Linguistic/Results/Results.htmlhttp://www.otago.ac.nz/anthropology/Linguistic/Results/Results.html

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    Table 3.1 Text of reading passage

    ear %u% and dad, CiV Co& are ou@ Well, here I a% in the #ig cit lthough the &eather isnice at the %o%ent, the !orecast is !or hail, #ut that should soon clear I #ought a ne& coatesterda #ecause the sa it gets reall cold I have to sta at aunt de#s house !or no&, #utI% hoping to get a !lat soon The trip up &as great, even though it too' ten hours Well, I%ust go *ou 'no& ho& rarel I &rite, #ut I &ill tr to do #etter this ear 5ove >lare >lar' 

    Using this text, thirteen %ale spea'ers !ro% the U, the U+, Cong ong, India,

    orea, and Tai&an recorded their voices on the sa%e 6$ plaer The &ere students

    !ro% 2/ to . ears o! age at the Universit o! "din#urgh To exclude other varia#les

    (eg voice ualit) except accent, recordings o! si%ilar voice ualit, speech rate,

     #ac'ground noise, etc &ere chosen The selected spea'ers are detailed in Ta#le 2 #elo& Their age range (2.=) &as narro& and averaged 287 ears The reading

    speed, ranging !ro% 24 seconds (;r") to 1 seconds (Ta") &ithout hesitation, &as

    si%ilar and its average &as 2.8 seconds The ualit o! the recording &as uni!or%l

    good The selection &as dou#le=chec'ed # a second evaluator (% supervisor)

    These speech sa%ples &ere also chec'ed # %ore than t&o native spea'ers o! each

    variet o! "nglish and evaluated to #e the tpical accent that its native spea'ers can #e

    a&are o! %" and ;r" &ere recogniEed as tpical spea'ers o! standard %erican

    and "nglish "nglish pronunciations respectivel 3our non=native accents (Co", In",

    o", and Ta") &ere regarded as those o! !luent spea'ers o! "nglish &ith non=native

     pronunciations The &ere considered suita#le accents to %easure participants

     perceptions o! the non=native spea'er (--+) %odel o! "nglish indirectl

    Table 3.2 Background information of selected speakers

    +pea'er ge -ationalit Co%eto&n $rogra% at "din#urghUniversit

    %" 28 %erican ?oc' +prings, Wo%ing 6;

    ;r" 28 ;ritish Ce%el Ce%pstead,Cert!ordshire, "ngland

      6;

    Co" 2. Cong ong>hinese

    Cong ong 5inguistics and "nglish5anguage

    In" Indian ;o%#a 6;

    o" 29 orean +eoul 3ire +a!et "ngineering

    Ta" 28 Tai&anese Taipei 5anguage Teaching

    In order to construct a se%antic di!!erential scale !or the ver#al guise test, t&o

    oreans in "din#urgh &ere as'ed to descri#e their i%pressions o! each accent &ith

    13

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    appropriate adBectives Their descriptions corresponded to personalit traits that had

     #een used in previous ver#al guise studies (eg ;aard et al 2001H >hi#a et al 199/H

    Jung 200/H 6c'enEie 200.H *oo' 200/H Kahn and Copper 198/) The Fstereotpical

    traitsG (iles and ;illings 200/: 188) !or %easuring oreans language attitudes

    to&ards six accents &ere o#tained: intelligent, con!ident, !luent, clear, pleasant,

    !a%iliar, gentle, trust&orth, and !riendl The &ere rando%l arranged &ith their 

    opposite adBectives and the positions o! positive and negative adBectives in a #i=polar 

    rating scale &ere #alanced These adBectives &ere translated into orean and chec'ed

     # t&o oreans in aegu, orea ccording to their !eed#ac', so%e translations &ere

    slightl changed to #e understood &ithout con!usion The !inal seven=point se%antic

    di!!erential scale in "nglish and orean is given in Ta#le #elo&

    Table 3.3 The semantic differential scale for the verbal guise test

    intelligent 1 2 4 / . 7 not intelligent(지적인) (지적이지 않은)

     pleasant 1 2 4 / . 7 not pleasant(유쾌한) (유쾌하지 않은)

    not con!ident 1 2 4 / . 7 con!ident(자신감 없는) (자신감 있는)

    !luent 1 2 4 / . 7 not !luent(유창한) (유창하지 않은)

    gentle 1 2 4 / . 7 not gentle(부드러운) (부드럽지 않은)

    not !a%iliar 1 2 4 / . 7 !a%iliar (낯선) (낯익은)

    not clear 1 2 4 / . 7 clear (명확하지 않은) (명확한)

    !riendl 1 2 4 / . 7 not !riendl(친근한) (친근하지 않은)

    not trust&orth 1 2 4 / . 7 trust&orth(신뢰 ! 없는) (신뢰 ! 있는)

    In addition, an ite% good %odel o! "nglish &as added to the end o! nine traits in

    order to investigate ho& participants perceive each accent as a %odel o! "nglish The

    last uestion o! guessing the spea'ers nationalit &as presented at the end o! 

    evaluation o! each accent list o! six possi#le options (Cong ong, India, orea,

    Tai&an, the U, and the U+) &as given in the evaluation sheet on the assu%ption

    that participants &ould not #e &ell a&are o! varieties o! "nglish (+ee ppendix)

    $art ; o! the uestionnaire contained eight uestions !or ualitative analses o! attitudes to the goal o! learning "nglish, the native spea'er (-+) %odel, and the non=

    14

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    native spea'er (--+) %odel "ach uestion &as presented as a state%ent &ith a

    seven=point 5i'ert scale (Ta#le 4)

    Table 3.4 Statements with a sevenpoint !ikert scale

    +tate%ent

    The goal o!  learning "nglish

    1 "nglish is i%portant to enter a good school and to get a #etter Bo#2 It is i%portant to learn "nglish as an international language

    "nglish is needed to co%%unicate &ith native spea'ers o! "nglish4 "nglish is needed to co%%unicate &ith non=native spea'ers o! "nglish

    ttitudes to the -+ %odel

    / It is i%portant to have a native=li'e pronunciation. "nglish should #e learned !ro% native spea'ers o! "nglish

    ttitudes to the --+ %odel

    7 orean teachers o! "nglish can e!!ectivel teach not onl gra%%ar #utalso spea'ing "nglish

    8 I a% (or % children are) interested in studing "nglish in sian countriessuch as the $hilippines, +ingapore, and India

    $art > o! the uestionnaire consisted o! t&o %ultiple=choice uestions: 1) &hich

    variet o! "nglish do ou &ant to learn and use@ and 2) to &hich countr do ou thin' 

    orea is %ost connected@ 3or the !irst uestion, participants &ere as'ed to indicate

    three varieties o! "nglish in order o! pre!erence This direct uestion &as to co%pare

    &ith their responses on the ite% good %odel o! "nglish in $art dditionall,

     participants &ere as'ed to state their experiences o! staing in "nglish=spea'ingcountries and spea'ing "nglish &ith !oreigners as &ell as their #ac'ground

    in!or%ation such as age, sex, "nglish pro!icienc, length o! ti%e spent studing

    "nglish, etc

    The !inal uestionnaire &ritten in #oth "nglish and orean &as piloted # t&o native

    oreans #e!ore the surve

    -(- ,rocedure

    ll three parts o! the uestionnaire &ere presented to the participants at once 3or the

    ver#al guise test ($art o! the uestionnaire), participants &ere given instructions on

    ho& to co%plete the evaluation sheet and &ere told the i%portance o! evaluating six

    accents as the perceive the% #ecause there is not a right or &rong ans&er The

     purpose o! the ver#al guise test &as given right a!ter the surve, since this in!or%ation

    %ight in!luence participants responses This 'ind o! FdeceptiveG (arrett, >oupland

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    and Willia%s 200: 1.) techniue &as understood # the participants

    The listened to six accents through the sa%e laptop co%puter # one o! six di!!erent

    orders o! accents ;e!ore the test, six accents had #een rando%l arranged # the

    order o! In", o", ;r", Co", %", and Ta" This order &as presented di!!erentl to

    each group (t&o to !our persons) that participated in the surve respectivel 3or 

    exa%ple, the !irst group heard In" !irst and then o", ;r", Co", %", and Ta"H the

    second group heard o" !irst and then ;r", Co", %", Ta", and In"H the third group

    heard ;r" !irst and then Co", %", Ta", In", and o"H li'e&ise, the !ourth group

    heard Co" !irst, the !i!th group heard %" !irst, and the sixth group heard Ta" !irst 1

    The total nu%#er o! participants &ho listened to each accent !irst &as si%ilar: 8 (In"),

    . (o"), 7 (;r"), 8 (Co"), 7 (%"), and 7 (Ta") !ter !inishing evaluation o! one

    accent and guessing &here the spea'er &as !ro%, participants listened to another 

    accent

    !ter the ver#al guise test, participants &ere given instructions on ho& to co%plete

    $art ; and > o! the uestionnaire $articipants &ere per%itted to as' uestions i! the

    did not understand instructions in the uestionnaire It too' a#out 2/ %inutes to !inish

    the surve

    -(. /ata analsis

    3or the data analsis, participants positive and negative evaluations on the nine

     personalit traits in the ver#al guise test &ere arranged # the sa%e criteria: 1 is the

    %ost un!avora#le evaluation, &hile 7 is the %ost !avora#le evaluation The total

    nu%#er o! participants in the &hole uestionnaire &as 4H Co&ever, 4 participants did

    not indicate three varieties o! "nglish in order o! pre!erence !or

    o! the uestionnaire so the total nu%#er o! participants in this part &as exceptionall

    9

    The data &ere analEed # using +$++ (version 140) $revious studies (;aard et al

    2001H >hi#a, 6atsuura and *a%a%oto 199/H Jung 200/H 6c'enEie 200.H *oo' 200/)

    13 The order e!!ects !ound in the ver#al guise test &ill #e detailed in section 411

    16

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    and #oo's on statistics (3ield 200/H ?u 200.) &ere consulted !or data analsis

    escriptive statistics &ere conducted in ter%s o! !reuencies in order to calculate

    %ean ratings, standard deviations, percentages, etc one=&a repeated=%easures

    analsis o! variance (-D) &as run to co%pare several %eans such as

     participants overall evaluations o! six accents o! "nglish paired=sa%ples t =test &as

    conducted to co%pare t&o %eans such as participants evaluations o! native and non=

    native accents o! "nglish 6ultivariate analsis o! variance (6-D) &as run to

    deter%ine order e!!ects on the participants evaluations o! the six accents in the ver#al

    guise test

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    .( 0esults

    .(' ,art A1 The ver!al guise test

    .('(' ,articipants’ evaluation of si+ spea%ers on personalit traits and as

    models of English

    t !irst, descriptive statistics conducted in ter%s o! !reuencies sho& the result o! 

    %ean ratings and standard deviations o! six spea'ers on nine traits, as given in Ta#le

    41 #elo&

    Table 4.1 "ean ratings #and standard deviations$ of six speakers on ninetraits #%&43$

    +pea'er Trait

    intelligent pleasant con!ident !luent gentle !a%iliar clear !riendl trust&orth

    %" 444  (1/8)

    02(142)

    4(1.7)

    472(179)

     40(171)

    49/(14)

     41.(17)

    77(1/9)

    449(1.2)

    ;r" 4  (1.1)

    2.(127)

    428(1)

     /2(1/1)

     488(140)

    440(1.1)

     77(1..)

    412(1/)

    4(12/)

    Co"   477

      (18)

    472

    (1/0)

    49/

    (140)

     4/.

    (1//)

     88

    (1/0)

    4/

    (148)

     498

    (124)

    412

    (147)

    472

    (12)In" 274

      (10)421

    (14.)477

    (181) 42(1./)

     22(11)

    14(1.0)

     .7(1/8)

    07(144)

    81(147)

    o" 4./  (1/)

    7(1.)

    4(1/7)

     421(1.8)

     40/(1/4)

    484(1.2)

     4/.(1//)

    41.(1/9)

    474(1/1)

    Ta" 440  (18)

    79(19)

    4/.(1/)

     8.(144)

     409(1/)

    4/(1/8)

     40(14.)

    4(144)

    444(1)

    (score 700Athe %ost !avora#le evaluation)

    To loo' at &hether statisticall signi!icant di!!erences existed in participants

    evaluations o! six spea'ers, the %ean ratings o! all nine traits o! the individualspea'ers &ere calculated and a one=&a repeated=%easures -D &as conducted

    Ta#le 42 #elo& sho&s the %ean ratings and standard deviations o! all nine traits !or 

    six spea'ers 6auchls test sho&ed that the assu%ption o! sphericit &as not

    violated ( 2 (14) = 1827, # O 0/) The %ain result o! -D (Ta#le 4) indicates

    that there &ere signi!icant di!!erences #et&een the spea'ers, $ (/, 210) A 89, # L

    001

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    Table 4.2 "ean ratings of all nine traits

      6ean +td eviation -

    %" 42429 8.8/7 4;r" 428.8 894/7 4

    Co" 4/.07 8/.20 4

    In" 4/22 .90.. 4

    o" 420 8171/ 4

    Ta" 42//8 .20/ 4

    Table 4.3 Tests of withinsub'ects effects

    +ource

    Tpe III+u% o! +uares d!  

    6ean+uare 3 +ig

    spea'er +phericit ssu%ed 078/ / .1/7 8929 000  reenhouse=eisser  078/ 41./ 792 8929 000

      Cunh=3eldt 078/ 4.80 ./78 8929 000

      5o&er=#ound 078/ 1000 078/ 8929 00/

    "rror(spea'er) +phericit ssu%ed 144800 210 .90

    reenhouse=eisser  144800 17491 828

    Cunh=3eldt 144800 19./.9 77

    5o&er=#ound 144800 42000 448

    To !ind &hich di!!erences la #et&een the spea'ers, a  post hoc test &as run $air&ise

    co%parisons (Ta#le 44) state that there &ere signi!icant di!!erences #et&een In" and

    the other !ive (%", ;r", Co", o", and Ta") spea'ers Co&ever, there &as no

    signi!icant di!!erence #et&een %", ;r", Co", o", and Ta" In other &ords,

     participants evaluated In" %ore negativel than other spea'ers #ut the did not

    di!!erentiate %", ;r", Co", o", and Ta" This result violated an assu%ption that

     participants &ould evaluate %" %ore !avora#l, since oreans strong pre!erence

    !or %erican "nglish has #een reported in the literature (eg >hoi 200.H i% 200H

    &on 2000H ?oh 200.)

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    Table 4.4 Post hoc test( )airwise comparisons for personalit* traits

     

    (I) spea'er (J) spea'er 

    6eani!!erence(I=J)

    +td"rror +ig(a)

    9/S >on!idenceInterval !or 

    i!!erence(a)

    5o&er ;ound

    Upper ;ound

    %" ;r" =044 1.7 1000 =/./ 477Co" =18 219 1000 =1001 ./

    In" 791(X) 18. 002 212 1.9

    o" =080 19 1000 =.79 /19

    Ta" =01 170 1000 =/42 /1.

    ;r" %" 044 1.7 1000 =477 /./

    Co" =274 208 1000 =921 7

    In" 8/(X) 197 002 22 144.o" =0. 17 1000 =/7. /0

    Ta" 01 1.7 1000 =488 //0

    Co" %" 18 219 1000 =./ 1001

    ;r" 274 208 1000 =7 921

    In" 1109(X) 1// 000 .27 1/90

    o" 28 19. 1000 =74 849

    Ta" 0/ 1.1 9.8 =19/ 80/In" %" =791(X) 18. 002 =1.9 =212

    ;r" =8/(X) 197 002 =144. =22

    Co" =1109(X) 1// 000 =1/90 =.27

    o" =871(X) 172 000 =1407 =/

    Ta" =804(X) 14. 000 =12/9 =48o" %" 080 19 1000 =/19 .79

    ;r" 0. 17 1000 =/0 /7.Co" =28 19. 1000 =849 74

    In" 871(X) 172 000 / 1407

    Ta" 0.7 1/9 1000 =428 /.2

    Ta" %" 01 170 1000 =/1. /42

    ;r" =01 1.7 1000 =//0 488

    Co" =0/ 1.1 9.8 =80/ 19/

    In" 804(X) 14. 000 48 12/9o" =0.7 1/9 1000 =/.2 428

    ;ased on esti%ated %arginal %eansX The %ean di!!erence is signi!icant at the 0/ levela dBust%ent !or %ultiple co%parisons: ;on!erroni

    To co%pare participants evaluations o! native (%" and ;r") and non=native (Co",

    In", o", and Ta") spea'ers, a paired=sa%ples t =test &as conducted The result

    sho&ed that there &as no signi!icant di!!erence in evaluations o! native ( M A 42., S% 

    A 11) and non=native ( M A 41/, S% A 0/, t  (42) A 8/, p A 98) spea'ers

    Then, ho& did the participants evaluate the six spea'ers on the ite% good %odel o! 

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    "nglish &hich &as given at the end o! nine traits in the uestionnaire@ one=&a

    repeated=%easures -D &as conducted to co%pare their evaluations o! six

    spea'ers as %odels o! "nglish The %ean ratings and standard deviations o! six

    spea'ers as %odels o! "nglish are presented in Ta#le 4/ #elo& 6auchls test

    indicated that the assu%ption o! sphericit &as %et ( 2 (14) A 2229, p O 0/) The

    result o! -D sho&ed a signi!icant di!!erence #et&een the spea'ers, $ (/, 210) A

    7//, p L 001

    Table 4.+ "ean ratings of six speakers as models of ,nglish14 

    6ean +td eviation -

    %"0 1884 4

    ;r"402 19 4

    Co"70 1/0/ 4

    In"212 981 4

    o"72 1709 4

    Ta"40 14 4

     post hoc (Ta#le 4.)  test %ani!ests a signi!icant di!!erence #et&een In" and the

    other !ive (%", ;r", Co", o", and Ta") spea'ers Co&ever, there &as not an

    signi!icant di!!erence #et&een %", ;r", Co", o", and Ta" This result is

    consistent &ith that o! personalit traits descri#ed a#ove

    14 I &ill discuss this in the discussion section

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    Table 4.- Post hoc t est( )airwise comparisons for a model of ,nglish 

    (I) spea'er (J) spea'er 

    6ean

    i!!erence(I=J)

    +td"rror +ig(a)

    9/S >on!idenceInterval !or 

    i!!erence(a)

    5o&er ;ound

    Upper ;ound

    %" ;r" =721 419 1000 =2024 /82Co" =9/ 80 1000 =1/77 78.

    In" 118.(X) 00 004 2/2 2120

    o" =419 90 1000 =1.2 79/

    Ta" =09 /0 1000 =118 997

    ;r" %" 721 419 1000 =/82 2024

    Co" 2. 92 1000 =894 1/4/

    In" 1907(X) 2. 000 89 2921o" 02 9/ 1000 =92. 1/0

    Ta" .28 /4 1000 =47 1729Co" %" 9/ 80 1000 =78. 1/77

    ;r" =2. 92 1000 =1/4/ 894

    In" 1/81(X) 2.7 000 7/1 2412

    o" =02 /1 1000 =1117 1070

    Ta" 02 40 1000 =7/7 1.1In" %" =118.(X) 00 004 =2120 =2/2

    ;r" =1907(X) 2. 000 =2921 =89

    Co" =1/81(X) 2.7 000 =2412 =7/1

    o" =1.0/(X) 0 000 =2/49 =..0

    Ta" =1279(X) 24 000 =20/ =/2

    o" %" 419 90 1000 =79/ 1.2;r" =02 9/ 1000 =1/0 92.Co" 02 /1 1000 =1070 1117

    In" 1.0/(X) 0 000 ..0 2/49

    Ta" 2. 01 1000 =.11 12.2

    Ta" %" 09 /0 1000 =997 118

    ;r" =.28 /4 1000 =1729 47

    Co" =02 40 1000 =1.1 7/7

    In" 1279(X) 24 000 /2 20/o" =2. 01 1000 =12.2 .11

    ;ased on esti%ated %arginal %eans

    X The %ean di!!erence is signi!icant at the 0/ levela dBust%ent !or %ultiple co%parisons: ;on!erroni

    paired=sa%ples t =test &as run to chec' ho& participants perceive native (%" and

    ;r") and non=native (Co", In", o", and Ta") spea'ers as %odels o! "nglish The

    result indicated that there &as no statistical di!!erence in evaluations o! native ( M A

    .., S%  A 20) and non=native ( M  A 2, S% A 11, t  (42) A 187, p A 0.8) spea'ers

    as %odels 

    3inall, 6-D &as conducted to exa%ine &hether the order o! spea'ers a!!ected

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     participants evaluations o! six spea'ers on all nine personalit traits Ta#le 47 sho&s

    the six orders o! spea'ers &ith the nu%#er o! participants

    Table 4. The number of participants in the six orders of speakers #%&43$

    Drder o! spea'ers

    a#cde! #cde!a cde!a# de!a#c e!a#cd !a#cde

    $articipants 8 . 7 8 7 7

    (aAIn", #Ao", cA;r", dACo", eA%", !ATa")

    s the result, ;oxs test o! eualit o! covariance %atrices indicated the assu%ption

    o! ho%ogeneit is %et ( p O 0/) 6ultivariate tests stated that the order o! spea'ers

    a!!ected participants evaluations: $illais trace ( p A 01.), Wil's la%#da ( p A 00.),

    Cotellings trace ( p A 002), and ?os largest root ( p A 000)

    To !ind out the di!!erence o! order e!!ects on participants evaluations o! six spea'ers,

    univariate tests &ere conducted 5evenes test o! eualit o! error variances !or six

    spea'ers &as not signi!icant so the assu%ption o! ho%ogeneit o! variance &as not

    violated Tests o! #et&een=su#Bects e!!ects indicated that there &ere signi!icant

    di!!erences in the evaluation o! ;r" ( p & 01), o" ( p & 002), and Ta" ( p & 04)

    due to the di!!erent order o! spea'ers

     post hoc test on the order e!!ect &as conducted to con!ir% the di!!erences a#riels

     procedure &as used #ecause the nu%#er o! participants in each order o! spea'ers &as

    slightl di!!erent 6ultiple co%parisons sho&ed that there &ere order e!!ects in the

    evaluations o! ;r" and o" ;ut %ultiple co%parisons indicated there &as no

    signi!icant order e!!ect on Ta" It is interesting to !ind that participants evaluated ;r"

    and o" %ore negativel &hen the listened to the% !irst in the order o! six spea'ers

    Ta#le 48 and 49 present the results o! order e!!ect on ;r" and o"

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    Table 4./ Post hoc test( "ultiple comparisons for order effects on Br,

    a#riel

    ependentaria#le 

    (I)order  

    (J)order  

    6ean

    i!!erence(I=J) 

    +td"rror  

    +ig 

    9/S >on!idenceInterval

    5o&er ;ound

    Upper ;ound

    ;r" a#cde! #cde!a =4444 42.19 992 =17.8 8794  cde!a# 9.8 4084 27/ =00 229/

      de!a#c =48.1 94/8 9.7 =171/0 7427

      e!a#cd =017 4084 1000 =100 129/

      !a#cde =9.8 4084 99. =1..81 8744

      #cde!a a#cde! 4444 42.19 992 =8794 17.8  cde!a# 14127(X) 490/ 08 04.4 27790  de!a#c =0417 42.19 1000 =1./. 12822

      e!a#cd 4127 490/ 997 =9/. 17790

      !a#cde 047. 490/ 1000 =1187 1419

      cde!a# a#cde!   =9.8 4084 27/ =229/ 00

      #cde!a =14127(X) 490/ 08 =27790 =04.4

      de!a#c =14/44(X) 4084 01/ =272/. =181

      e!a#cd =10000 42182 27. =217 17  !a#cde =1./1(X) 42182 0. =2.788 =0/14

      de!a#c a#cde!   48.1 94/8 9.7 =7427 171/0

      #cde!a 0417 42.19 1000 =12822 1./.

      cde!a# 14/44(X) 4084 01/ 181 272/.

      e!a#cd 4/44 4084 98. =81.9 172/.

      !a#cde 089 4084 1000 =11820 1.0/

      e!a#cd a#cde! 017 4084 1000 =129/ 100  #cde!a =4127 490/ 997 =17790 9/.

      cde!a# 10000 42182 27. =17 217

      de!a#c =4/44 4084 98. =172/. 81.9

      !a#cde =./1 42182 999 =1.788 948.

      !a#cde a#cde!   9.8 4084 99. =8744 1..81

      #cde!a =047. 490/ 1000 =1419 1187

      cde!a# 1./1(X) 42182 0. 0/14 2.788  de!a#c =089 4084 1000 =1.0/ 11820

      e!a#cd ./1 42182 999 =948. 1.788

    ;ased on o#served %eansX The %ean di!!erence is signi!icant at the 0/ level(aAIn", #Ao", cA;r", dACo", eA%", !ATa")

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    Table 4.0 Post hoc test( "ultiple comparisons for order effects on o,

    a#riel

    ependentaria#le 

    (I)order  

    (J)order  

    6ean

    i!!erence(I=J) 

    +td"rror  

    +ig 

    9/S >on!idenceInterval

    5o&er ;ound

    Upper ;ound

    o" a#cde! #cde!a 1/70(X) .71. 002 9./ 2.77.  cde!a# .429 /18. ./2 =4/2 1780

      de!a#c 7.9 99 48 =2947 1822/  e!a#cd 0714 /18. 1000 =1028 11...

      !a#cde 202 /18. 1000 =8./0 12/

      #cde!a a#cde!   =1/70(X) .71. 002 =2.77. =9./

      cde!a# =8942 782 278 =20712 2829

      de!a#c =771 .71. 49 =1917 .74

      e!a#cd =14./.(X) 782 00. =2.427 =288/

      !a#cde =10.9(X) 782 020 =2489 =1298  cde!a# a#cde!   =.429 /18. ./2 =1780 4/2

      #cde!a 8942 782 278 =2829 20712

      de!a#c 1210 /18. 1000 =9741 121.2

      e!a#cd =/714 .40 829 =1702 /.0

      !a#cde =4127 .40 98 =1/444 7190

      de!a#c a#cde!   =7.9 99 48 =1822/ 2947

      #cde!a 771 .71. 49 =.74 1917  cde!a# =1210 /18. 1000 =121.2 9741

      e!a#cd =.92/ /18. /44 =1787. 4027

      !a#cde =/7 /18. 8.0 =1.289 /.14

      e!a#cd a#cde!   =0714 /18. 1000 =11... 1028

      #cde!a 14./.(X) 782 00. 288/ 2.427

      cde!a# /714 .40 829 =/.0 1702

      de!a#c .92/ /18. /44 =4027 1787.  !a#cde 1/87 .40 1000 =970 1290/  !a#cde a#cde!   =202 /18. 1000 =12/ 8./0

      #cde!a 10.9(X) 782 020 1298 2489

      cde!a# 4127 .40 98 =7190 1/444

      de!a#c /7 /18. 8.0 =/.14 1.289

      e!a#cd =1/87 .40 1000 =1290/ 970

    ;ased on o#served %eansX The %ean di!!erence is signi!icant at the 0/ level(aAIn", #Ao", cA;r", dACo", eA%", !ATa")

     -ot&ithstanding the order e!!ect, overall %ean ratings o! ;r" and o" on nine

     personalit traits &ere not statisticall di!!erent In other &ords, the overall result o! 

     personalit traits !or the six spea'ers can #e relia#le With regard to participants

    evaluations o! six spea'ers !or the ite% good %odel o! "nglish, no order e!!ect &as

    !ound

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    To su% up, participants evaluated In" less !avora#l on the personalit traits and as a

    %odel o! "nglish in the ver#al guise test Co&ever, the did not discri%inate %",

    ;r", Co", o", and Ta" irrespective o! &hether the &ere native spea'ers o! "nglish

    or not I! the data are analEed in ter%s o! the native (%" and ;r") and non=native

    (Co", In", o", and Ta") spea'ers, there is no statistical di!!erence #et&een these

    t&o groups These results are uite di!!erent !ro% general attitudes o! oreans, ie

    strong pre!erence !or %erican "nglish, reported in the literature (eg >hoi 200.H

    i% 200H &on 2000H ?oh 200.) 6ore discussion &ill #e presented in section /

    .('(" 2uessing where spea%ers were from

    The participants &ere as'ed to guess &here the spea'ers &ere !ro%, !ollo&ing the

    evaluation o! each spea'er in the ver#al guise test In order to exa%ine &hether the

     participants &ere a&are o! varieties o! "nglish, their guesses o! spea'ers nationalities

    &ere analEed in percentages The results are detailed in Ta#le 410 #elo&

    Table 4.1 uesses where the speakers were from #%&43$

    +pea'er uesses (S)

    the U+ the U Cong ong India orea Tai&an

    %" !3.!   47 1. 1. 2 70

    ;r" 279 41.&   18. 47 0 70

    Co" 2 2/. 32.# 11. 47 2

    In" 2 2 2 !3.!  1. 2

    o" 11. 70 11. 47  !!.   9

    Ta" 47 18. 2/. 47 209 2!.#

    (>orrect guess !or each spea'er in bold)

     

    In general, the percentages o! correct identi!ication o! nationalities &ere not high The

     participants identi!ied their o&n accent, o" (//8S), %ost correctl !ollo&ed #

    %" (//S), In" (//S), ;r" (419S), Co" (2.S), and Ta" (2/.S) These

    results sho& that participants have di!!icult in identi!ing spea'ers accents +o%e

     participants could not distinguish native accents: 279S con!used ;r" &ith %erican

    There &ere also con!usions #et&een non=native accents: the %ost unidenti!ia#le

    accent, Ta", &as %isidenti!ied as Cong ongese (2/.S) and orean (209S)H In"

    &as &rongl guessed as Tai&anese (2S)

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    I! participants responses are analEed # the identi!ication o! native and non=native

    accents, correct percentages #eco%e %uch higher s given in Ta#le 411 #elo&, the

    %aBorit o! participants correctl distinguished native and non=native accents The

    identi!ied non=native accents %ore clearl: In" (9/S) O o" (814S) O Ta"

    (7.7S) O Co" (721S) ;ut the percentages o! correct identi!ication o! native

    accents &ere relativel lo&er: ;r" (.97S) and %" (/81S)

    In addition, there &ere participants &ho could not %a'e a distinction #et&een native

    and non=native accents: so%e participants con!used %" &ith Cong ongese

    (1.S) and Indian (1.S)H ;r" &as %isidenti!ied as Cong ongese (18.S)H Co"

    &as incorrectl regarded as ;ritish (2/.S), etc It see%s that participants &ere less

    a&are o! native and non=native varieties o! "nglish

    Table 4.11 istinguishing native and nonnative speakers #%&43$

    +pea'er   uesses (S)

     -ative accent -on=native accent

    %" !.1 419

    ;r" #&.% 02

    Co" 279 %2.1

    In" 47 &!.3o" 18.   1.4

    Ta" 2 %#.%

    (>orrect guess !or each spea'er in bold)

    .(" ,art *1 3uestions with a seven4point Li%ert scale

    .("(' 3uestion '4.1 2oal of learning English

    $art ; o! the uestionnaire &as to analEe participants language attitudes

    ualitativel It &as not #ased on the ver#al guises The !irst !our uestions in $art ;

    &ere concerned &ith the goal o! learning "nglish "ach uestion &as presented as a

    state%ent on a seven=point 5i'ert scale The %ean ratings and standard deviations !or 

    the !our +tate%ents are given in Ta#le 412 #elo&

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    Table 4.12 "ean ratings for Statements on the goal of learning ,nglish #%&43$ 

    +tate%ent 6ean+tdeviation

    1 "nglish is i%portant to enter a good school and to get a #etter Bo# //4 17.

    2 It is i%portant to learn "nglish as an international language //. 182 "nglish is needed to co%%unicate &ith native spea'ers o! "nglish /07 1.2

    4 "nglish is needed to co%%unicate &ith non=native spea'ers o! "nglish

     48. 171

    (score 1Aco%pletel disagree, 7Aco%pletel agree)

    The results generall sho&ed participants positive perspectives on "nglish language

    learning The %ean ratings !or all !our state%ents &ere higher than 400 &hich

    indicate neither agree nor disagree &ith the state%ent $articipants regarded "nglish

    as i%portant to enter a good school and to get a #etter Bo# (6A//4) This response

    can #e explained in the orean cultural context: the good co%%and o! "nglish is

    needed to pass exa%inations to enter universit and the &or'place

    3urther%ore, participants thought it is i%portant to learn "nglish as an international

    language (6A//.) In other &ords, the considered "nglish not Bust one o! %an

    !oreign languages #ut an international language !or glo#al co%%unication The

    si%ilar %ean ratings !or +tate%ent (/07) and 4 (48.) sho& participants vie&pointthat "nglish is needed to co%%unicate not onl &ith native spea'ers #ut also &ith

    non=native spea'ers o! "nglish This un#iased attitude to native and non=native

    spea'ers o! "nglish &as con!ir%ed # a paired=sa%ples t'test: there &as no signi!icant

    di!!erence #et&een the %ean ratings o! +tate%ents and 4 (t (42) A 80, p A 427)

    It can #e %eaning!ul to loo' at participants perspectives on the goal o! learning

    "nglish %ore closel in order to understand their attitudes to&ards varieties o! 

    "nglish ccordingl, percentages !or each +tate%ent &ere calculated 3irst, %ost

     participants (791S) agreed on the i%portance o! "nglish to enter a good school and

    to get a #etter Bo# -ot %an participants (209S) disagreed &ith this practical

     purpose o! learning "nglish in orea 6ore detailed percentages o! participants

    responses are given in 3igure 41 #elo&

    28

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    5igure 4.1 )articipants6 agreement with Statement 1

    completel*agree

    agreesomewhatagree

    somewhatdisagree

    disagreecompletel*disagree

     

    -

    +

    4

    3

    2

    1

         ,    e   r    c    e    n   t

    2+.-7

    +1.27

    2.37.7

    11.-7

    2.37

    English is important to enter a good school and to get a !etter 5o!(

    29

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    >oncerning +tate%ent 2, it is i%portant to !ind that the %aBorit o! participants

    sho&ed the "I5 perspective 6ost participants (791S) expressed that it is i%portant

    to learn "I5 There &ere %ore participants &ho strongl agreed (72S) or agreed

    (72S) &ith this point o! vie&, as detailed in 3igure 42 #elo& 187S disagreed &ith

    the%

    5igure 4.2 )articipants6 agreement with Statement 2

    completel*agree

    agreesomewhatagree

    neitheragree nordisagree

    somewhatdisagree

    disagreecompletel*disagree

     

    4

    3

    2

    1

         ,    e   r    c    e    n   t

    3.273.27

    4.72.37

    .7.74.7

    )t is important to learn English as an international language(

    30

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    With regard to +tate%ent , %ost participants (721S) thought "nglish is needed to

    co%%unicate &ith native spea'ers o! "nglish, as sho&n in 3igure 4 #elo& In

    contrast, 209S indicated the opposite opinion There &ere slightl %ore participants

    (70S) &ho did not express their exact position than those in the result o! +tate%ent 1

    and 2 a#ove

    5igure 4.3 )articipants6 agreement with Statement 3

    completel*agree

    agreesomewhatagree

    neitheragree nordisagree

    somewhatdisagree

    disagreecompletel*disagree

     

    3

    2

    1

         ,    e   r    c    e    n   t

    1/.-7

    3.27

     23.37

    .711.-7

    .7

    2.37

    English is needed to communicate with native spea%ers of English(

    31

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    3or +tate%ent 4, the %aBorit o! participants (.74S) indicated "nglish is needed to

    co%%unicate &ith non=native spea'ers o! "nglish, as presented in 3igure 44 #elo&

    Dn the other hand, 2S disagreed &ith the% There &ere also slightl %ore

     participants (70S) &ho did not state an agree%ent or disagree%ent

    5igure 4.4 )articipants6 agreement with Statement 4

    .("(" 3uestion 6471 Attitudes towards native and non4native models of 

    English

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    Table 4.13 "ean ratings for Statements on the %S model of ,nglish #%&43$

    +tate%ent 6ean +td eviation

    / It is i%portant to have a native=li'e pronunciation 81 189

    . "nglish should #e learned !ro% native spea'ers o! 

    "nglish

      414 1922

    (score 1Aco%pletel disagree, 7Aco%pletel agree)

    Table 4.14 "ean ratings for Statements on the %%S model of ,nglish #%&43$

    +tate%ent 6ean +td eviation

    7 orean teachers o! "nglish can e!!ectivel teach not onlgra%%ar #ut also spea'ing "nglish

    42. 18..

    8 I a% (or % children are) interested in studing "nglish insian countries such as the $hilippines, +ingapore, and India

    81 1842

    (score 1Aco%pletel disagree, 7Aco%pletel agree)

    To exa%ine &hether there &ere statistical di!!erences in participants attitudes to&ards

    the -+ and --+ %odels o! "nglish, paired=sa%ples t =tests &ere conducted The

    results sho& that there &as no signi!icant di!!erence #et&een the responses to the -+

    and those to the --+ %odel o! "nglish, as given in Ta#le 41/ #elo& In other &ords,

     participants did not di!!erentiate the -+ and --+ %odels o! "nglish

    Table 4.1+ )aired samples t test for Statements on the %S and %%S modelsof ,nglish

    $aired i!!erences

    t d! +ig (2=tailed)6ean

    +tdeviation

    +td"rror 6ean

    9/S >on!idenceInterval o! the

    i!!erence

    5o&er Upper  

    $air 

    1

    +tate%ent / =

    +tate%ent 7 =442 224 492 =144 //0

    =89

    9 42 74$air 2

    +tate%ent / =+tate%ent 8

    000 2498 81 =7.9 7.9 000 42 1000

    $air 

    +tate%ent . =+tate%ent 7

    =11. 171 484 =1092 8.0=24

    042 811

    $air 4

    +tate%ent . =+tate%ent 8

    2. 28.0 4. =//4 120. 747 42 4/9

    This un#iased attitude to the -+ and --+ %odels o! "nglish is consistent &ith the

    result o! the ver#al guise test detailed in section 411 In the ver#al guise test, there

    &as no statistical di!!erence in participants evaluations o! native (%" and ;r") and

    33

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    non=native (Co", In", o", and Ta") spea'ers as the %odel o! "nglish These results

    are di!!erent !ro% oreans general language attitudes reported in the literature, ie

    strong pre!erence !or %erican "nglish There!ore, it is necessar to exa%ine ho&

     participants di!!erentl loo'ed at the -+ and --+ %odels o! "nglish in ter%s o! their

    responses to +tate%ents / to 8

    >oncerning +tate%ent /, 418S thought it is i%portant to have a native=li'e

     pronunciation Co&ever, %ore participants (//S) indicated that a native=li'e

     pronunciation is not i%portant !or the% 3igure 4/ #elo& sho&s participants

    di!!erent perspectives

    5igure 4.+ )articipants6 agreement with Statement +

    completel*agree

    agreesomewhatagree

    neitheragree nordisagree

    somewhatdisagree

    disagreecompletel*disagree

     

    2+

    2

    1+

    1

    +

         ,    e   r    c    e    n   t

    11.-70.37

    2.07

    4.7

    23.372.07

    0.37

    )t is important to have a native4li%e pronunciation(

    34

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    $articipants opinions !or +tate%ent . ("nglish should #e learned !ro% native

    spea'ers o! "nglish) &ere divided The total percentage o! agree%ent and

    disagree%ent &as 442S respectivel 11.S (neither agree nor disagree) suspended

    their Budge%ent This percentage &as relativel higher than those !or other +tate%ents

    (3igure 4.)

    5igure 4.- )articipants6 agreement with Statement -

    completel*agree

    agreesomewhatagree

    neitheragree nordisagree

    somewhatdisagree

    disagreecompletel*disagree

     

    2+

    2

    1+

    1

    +

         ,    e   r    c    e    n   t

    1-.37

    11.-7

    1-.37

    11.-7

    23.37

    11.-7

    0.37

    English should !e learned from native spea%ers of English(

    35

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    In relation to orean teachers o! "nglish (+tate%ent 7), participants attitudes &ere

    relativel %ore positive /82S thought that orean teachers o! "nglish can

    e!!ectivel teach not onl gra%%ar #ut also spea'ing "nglish In contrast, 420S

    sho&ed an opposite point o! vie&, as given in 3igure 47 #elo&

    5igure 4. )articipants6 agreement with Statement

    completel*agree

    agreesomewhatagree

    somewhatdisagree

    disagreecompletel*disagree

     

    3

    2+

    2

    1+

    1

    +

         ,    e   r    c    e    n   t

    .7

    2.07

    23.37

    14.7

    23.37

    4.7

    Korean teachers of English can effectivel teach not onl grammar

    !ut also spea%ing English(

    36

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    3or state%ent 8 (I a% (or % children are) interested in studing "nglish in sian

    countries such as the $hilippines, +ingapore, and India), 489S expressed an opposite

    opinion Co&ever, not a !e& participants (442S) stated that the have interest in

    studing "nglish in those countries, as sho&n in 3igure 48 #elo& This positive

    response can #e explained # the recent increase o! oreans learning "nglish in the

    outer circle countries such as the $hilippines, +ingapore, 6alasia, etc (*ang 200.)

    5igure 4./ )articipants6 agreement with Statement /

    .(- ,art &1 Multiple4choice 8uestions

    $art > o! the uestionnaire contained t&o %ultiple=choice uestions These uestions

    &ere not #ased on the ver#al guises The !irst uestion &as to as' participants directl

    &hich variet o! "nglish the &ant to learn and use $articipants &ere as'ed to state

    three varieties o! "nglish in order o! pre!erence in a list o! t&elve options (%erican

    "nglish, ustralian "nglish, ;ritish "nglish, >anadian "nglish, Cong ong "nglish,

    Indian "nglish, orean=accented "nglish, -e& Kealand "nglish, $hilippine "nglish,+ingapore "nglish, +outh !rican "nglish, -o pre!erence) Co&ever, !our participants

    agreeagreesomewhat

    agreeneither

    agree nordisagree

    somewhatdisagree

    disagreecompletel*disagree

     

    2+

    2

    1+

    1

    +

         ,    e   r    c    e    n   t

    2.37

    23.37

    1/.-7

    .7

    2.07

    14.714.7

    ) am 9or m children are: interested in studing English in Asian

    countries such as the ,hilippines; Singapore; and )ndia(

    completel*

    37

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    did not indicate the order o! pre!erence so their responses &ere excluded in the data

    analsis There!ore, the total nu%#er o! participants !or this uestion &as 9

     

    s their !irst pre!erence (3igure 49), participants &anted to learn and use %erican

    "nglish (.92S) the %ost !avora#l, !ollo&ed # ;ritish "nglish (282S), and

    >anadian "nglish (2.S) The stated onl three varieties o! the inner circle as their

    !irst pre!erence Interestingl, their pre!erence !or %erican "nglish and then ;ritish

    "nglish &as si%ilar to those o! previous studies ccording to *oo's (200/) stud,

    orean universit students thought oreans should learn %erican "nglish (70S)

    and ;ritish "nglish (27S) In i##s (1999) stud, orean pro!essionals responded

    that the &ant to learn %erican "nglish (//9S) and ;ritish "nglish (20.S)

    This pre!erence !or %erican "nglish &as con!ir%ed # the second uestion, To

    &hich countr do ou thin' orea is %ost connected@ ll participants selected the

    U+ $articipants see% to thin' that the &ant to learn and use %erican "nglish

     #ecause orea is %ost connected to the U+ socio=econo%icall and culturall, as

    descri#ed in section 21

    38

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    5igure 4.0 )articipants6 first preference for a variet* of ,nglish

    8anadian ,nglishBritish ,nglish 9merican ,nglish

     

    -

    4

    2

         ,    e   r    c    e    n   t

    2.-7

    2/.27

    -0.27

    The first preference

    39

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     -onetheless, participants did not disregard ;ritish "nglish "ven though ;ritish

    "nglish &as ran'ed second !or the !irst pre!erence, it &as %ost pre!erred as the

    second choice The result sho&ed that participants selected ;ritish "nglish (/9S),

    %erican "nglish (08S), >anadian "nglish (2/.S), etc !or the second pre!erence

    (3igure 410)

    5igure 4.1 )articipants6 second preference for a variet* of ,nglish

    Singapore,nglish

    oreanaccented

    ,nglish

    8anadian,nglish

    British ,nglish 9ustralian,nglish

     9merican,nglish

     

    4

    3

    2

    1

         ,    e   r    c    e    n   t

    2.-72.-7

    2+.-7

    3+.07

    2.-7

    3./7

    The second preference

    40

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    $articipants stated %ore varieties o! "nglish as the third pre!erence (3igure 411)

    >anadian "nglish (S) &as selected !irst, !ollo&ed # ustralian "nglish (20/S)

    Interestingl, Cong ong "nglish (10S) &as ran'ed !ourth 77S selected orean=

    accented "nglish as the !i!th pre!erence There &ere participants &ho selected Indian

    "nglish (2.S) and +ingapore "nglish (2.S) even though the percentages &ere ver

    lo&

    5igure 4.11 )articipants6 third preference for a variet* of ,nglish

    %opreference

    Singapore,nglish

    oreanaccented

    ,nglish

    :ndian,nglish

    ;ong ong,nglish

    8anadian,nglish

    British,nglish

     9ustralian,nglish

     

    4

    3

    2

    1

         ,    e   r    c    e    n   t

    +.172.-7

    .7

    2.-7

    1.37

    33.37

    1.072.+7

    The third preference

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    6( /iscussion'6

    6('( 0esearch 8uestion '1 /o Korean adults prefer certain

    varieties of English<

    To !ind an ans&er to research uestion 1 (o orean adults pre!er certain varieties o! 

    "nglish@), participants &ere as'ed to respond to uestions in $arts , ;, and > o! the

    uestionnaire $art &as constructed to exa%ine participants perceptions o! 

    varieties%odels o! "nglish indirectl # using the ver#al guises $arts ; and > &ere

    to as' participants directl ho& the loo' at varieties%odels o! "nglish # using the

    ualitative uestionnaire The overall results indicate that orean adults language

    attitudes in the present stud re!lect the "I5 perspective on varieties%odels o! 

    "nglish That is to sa, orean adults in this stud regarded "nglish as an

    international language and did not discri%inate native and non=native varieties%odels

    o! "nglish This result &as con!ir%ed # their responses to #oth the indirect ($art )

    and direct ($art ;) uestions in the uestionnaire

    In $art ; o! the uestionnaire, the %aBorit o! participants (791S) indicated that it is

    i%portant to learn "I5 in order to co%%unicate not onl &ith native spea'ers (721S)

     #ut also &ith non=native spea'ers (.74S) There &as no statistical di!!erence

     #et&een each response to the necessit o! co%%unication &ith native and non=native

    spea'ers o! "nglish The "I5 perspective &as also re!lected in their perceptions o! six

    accents o! "nglish (%", ;r", Co", In", o", and Ta") in the ver#al guise test ($art

    ) The participants did not di!!erentiate !ive accents (%", ;r", Co", o", and

    Ta") in relation to the personalit traits The exception &as In" &hich &as evaluated

    less !avora#l Co&ever, i! the data are analEed in ter%s o! the native (%" and

    ;r") and non=native (Co", In", o", and Ta") accents, there is no di!!erence These

    results &ere con!ir%ed # the statistical analses

    >oncerning a %odel o! "nglish, participants evaluations o! six accents in the ver#al

    guise test &ere the sa%e as those o! the personalit traits a#ove There &as no

    di!!erence in the evaluation o! !ive accents (%", ;r", Co", o", and Ta") as a15 The i%portant results descri#ed in section 4 &ill #e reiterated &ith discussion

    42