maid in india (april 2012) somo/icn

71
7/30/2019 Maid in India (April 2012) SOMO/ICN http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/maid-in-india-april-2012-somoicn 1/71 @olg li Liglo  \czin Goblw ^c`ji Dciwlizj wc Tzffjq Jx}bclwowlvj Dciglwlcit li Liglo“t Noq`jiw Ligztwq| O}qlb 1=?1 TC @ C TC@C - Djiwqj fcq Qjtjoqdh ci @zbwliowlciob Dcq}cqowlcit LDI - Liglo Dc``lwwjj cf whj Ijwhjqboigt

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Page 1: Maid in India (April 2012) SOMO/ICN

7/30/2019 Maid in India (April 2012) SOMO/ICN

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/maid-in-india-april-2012-somoicn 1/71

@olg li Liglo

 \czin Goblw ^c`ji Dciwlizjwc Tzffjq Jx}bclwowlvj Dciglwlcitli Liglo“t Noq`jiw Ligztwq|O}qlb 1=?1

TC @CTC@C - Djiwqj fcq Qjtjoqdh ci @zbwliowlciob Dcq}cqowlcit

LDI - Liglo Dc``lwwjj cf whj Ijwhjqboigt

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Li whlt qj}cqw whj Djiwqj fcq Qjtjoqdh ci @zbwliowlciob Dcq}cqowlcit (TC@C, oig whj Liglo

Dc``lwwjj cf whj Ijwhjqboigt (LDI, }qjtjiw whjlq iglint ci whj boaczq dciglwlcit li whj Tczwh

Ligloi noq`jiw oig wjxwlbj ligztwq|) Li Wo`lb Iogz |czin ~c`ji ~cqkjqt dciwlizj wc tzffjq

jx}bclwowlvj ~cqklin dciglwlcit ~hlbj `oklin noq`jiwt fcq ^jtwjqi aqoigt) Whcztoigt cf nlqbt

~cqk zigjq qjdqzlw`jiw oig j`}bc|`jiw tdhj`jt whow o`cziw wc acigjg boaczq)

‘@olg li Liglo“ fjowzqjt dotj twzgljt cf fczq boqnj Wo`lb Iogz—aotjg noq`jiw `oizfodwzqjqt

whow }qcgzdj fcq whj Jzqc}joi oig ZT `oqkjwt) Whj `oecqlw| cf whj ~cqkjqt oqj Goblw (czwdotwj,

nlqbt |czinjq whji ?8 holblin fqc` }ccq fo`lbljt ~hc oqj bzqjg ~lwh }qc`ltjt cf o gjdjiw ~onj"

dc`fcqwoabj oddc``cgowlci oig" li tc`j dotjt o tz` cf `cij| z}ci dc`}bjwlci cf whj dciwqodw

whow `o| aj ztjg fcq whjlq gc~q|) O boqnj iz`ajq cf whjtj boaczq `lnqoiwt blvj li (fodwcq|,

hctwjbt ~hjqj whj| hovj blwwbj wc icij liwjqodwlci ~lwh whj czwtlgj ~cqbg" bjw obcij wqogj zilcit

cq boaczq ogvcdowjt) ^cqkjqt oqj jx}jdwjg wc ~cqk bcin hczqt cf fcqdjg cvjqwl`j zigjq

zihjobwh| dciglwlcit) Wqogj zilcit oqj ~jok oig fodj jicq`czt c}}ctlwlci) Ncvjqi`jiw

jifcqdj`jiw cf boaczq bo~ lt icw qcaztw)

Noq`jiw aqoigt oig qjwolbjqt hovj `ogj }qc`ltjt wc oacblth boaczq oaztjt ow whjlq tz}}bljqt)

Tc`j dc`}oiljt oqj }oqw cf dcq}cqowj dc`}bloidj cq `zbwl-twokjhcbgjq lilwlowlvjt; cwhjqt

oqj gjvjbc}lin whjlq c~i o}}qcodh" lidbzglin li-gj}wh livjtwlnowlcit oig tcdlob ozglwt ow whjlq

tz}}bljqt) Whjtj jffcqwt hovj hog tc`j }ctlwlvj jffjdwt" jt}jdlobb| li whj noq`jiw-}qcgzdlin

zilwt whow tz}}b| glqjdwb| wc ^jtwjqi az|jqt) Twlbb" TC@C oig LDI dcidbzgj whow `oecq vlcbowlcit

dciwlizj" jt}jdlobb| li whj t}liilin zilwt ~jqj |oqi lt }qcgzdjg)

Whlt qj}cqw ol`t wc }qcvlgj qjbjvoiw twokjhcbgjqt — `oizfodwzqjqt" aqoigt" `zbwl-twokjhcbgjqt

lilwlowlvjt" ncvjqi`jiwt oig cwhjqt — ~lwh li}zw wc jioabj oig `cwlvowj fzqwhjq odwlci) Ci whj

aotlt cf whj jbg qjtjoqdh oig oiob|tlt cf }qc`ltjt oig odwzob twj}t wokji a| whj ligztwq| oig

cwhjq qjbjvoiw odwcqt" dcidbztlcit oqj fcq`zbowjg" ot ~jbb ot }qodwldob qjdc``jigowlcit)

@olg li Liglo

 \czin Goblw ^c`ji Dciwlizj wc Tzffjq Jx}bclwowlvj Dciglwlcit

li Liglo“t Noq`jiw Ligztwq|

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@olg li Liglo\czin Goblw ^c`ji Dciwlizj wc Tzffjq

Jx}bclwowlvj Dciglwlcit li Liglo·t Noq`jiw Ligztwq|

TC@C & LDI 

O`twjqgo`" O}qlb 1=?1

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@olg li Liglo

1

Dcbc}hci

@olg li Liglo\czin Goblw c`ji Dciwlizj wc Tzffjq Jx}bclwowlvj Dciglwlcitli Liglo·t Noq`jiw Ligztwq|

 O}lb 1=?1

Ozwhcqt5 Njog Ccik" ]ozblij Cvjjj`" @olei ]jj}jdo`}"

@owej Whjz~t

Dcvjq bo|czw5 Foit Tdhz}} 

Dcvjq }hcwc5 Wlz}z ]jc}bj“t Fcz` 

Wjxw dcqqjdwlci5 Jbltj Qj|icbgt 

LTAI5 <>8-<=->?187-<6-= 

Whlt }zabldowlci lt `ogj }cttlabj ~lwh flioidlob ottltwoidj fc` WhjGzwdh @liltw| cf Fcjlni Offolt) Whj dciwjiw cf whlt }zabldowlci lt

whj tcbj jt}citlalblw| cf TC@C oig LDI oig doi li ic ~o| aj

wokji wc jfbjdw whj vlj~t cf Whj Gzwdh @liltw| cf Fcjlni Offolt)

]zablthjg a|5

Twldhwlin Cigjqucjk @zbwliowlciobj Cigjqij`linji

Djiwqj fcq Qjtjoqdh ci @zbwliowlciob Dcq}cqowlcit

To}howltwoow 4=

?=?8 NB O`twjgo`Whj Ijwhjboigt

Wjb5 + 4? (=,1= 64<?1<?

J-`olb5 lifcMtc`c)ib

^jatlwj5 ~~~)tc`c)ib 

Liglo Dc``lwwjj cf whj Ijwhjqboigt 

@olo}boowt 7j

4:?? BH Zwjdhw

Whj Ijwhjboigt

Wjb5 +4? (=,4= - 141?47=

J-`olb5 lifcMligloijw)ib

^jatlwj5 ~~~)ligloijw)ib 

TC@C oig LDI oj }ow cf whj Dbjoi Dbcwhjt Do`}olni - Whj

Ijwhjboigt (~~~)tdhcijkbjji)ib, 

Whlt gcdz`jiw lt bldjitjg zigj whj Djowlvj Dc``cit Owwlazwlci-

IciDc``jdlob-IcGjlvowj^ckt 4)= Bldjitj)

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4

Dciwjiwt

Lifcq`owlci ci whj ozwhcqt )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) : 

Jxjdzwlvj tz``oq| )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 6 

?)  Liwqcgzdwlci )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ?= 

?)?)  Aodknczig)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ?= 

?)1)  Fcbbc~-z} j}cw - ol`t oig caejdwlvjt )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ?= 

?)4)  @jwhcgcbcn| )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ?? 

?)4)?)  Fljbg qjtjoqdh )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ?? 

?)4)1)  Oiob|tlt cf odwlcit zigjqwokji a| whj ligztwq| ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ?? 

?)4)4)  Tz}}b| dholi o}}lin ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ?1  

?)7)  Twzdwzj cf whj j}cw )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ?4 1)  Boaczq }qodwldjt li whj Wo`lb Iogz wjxwlbj oig noq`jiw ligztwq| ))))))))))))))))))))))) ?7 

1)?)  Whj dcwwci no`jiw tz}}b| dholi )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ?7 

1)1)  Whj Wo`lb Iogz wjxwlbj oig no`jiw ligztw| )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ?: 

1)4)  J`}bc|`jiw oig boacz }odwldjt li whj Wo`lb Iogz wjxwlbj oig no`jiw ligztw| )))) ?> 

1)4)?)  J`}bc|`jiw tdhj`jt oig qjdqzlw`jiw }qodwldjt )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ?>  

1)4)1)  Boaczq dciglwlcit li whj Wo`lb Iogz wjxwlbj oig noq`jiw ligztwq| ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 11  

1)7)  Dzjiw boacz }odwldjt ow fcz vjwldobb| liwjnowjg `oizfodwzjt ))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 1: 

1)7)?)  Aoiioql O``oi Nqcz} )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 1:  

1)7)1)  Jotw`oi Jx}cqwt Nbcaob Dbcwhlin)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 18  

1)7)4)  K)])Q) @lbb )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 44  

1)7)7)  TT@ Liglo )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 48  

1):)  Dcidbztlci ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 74 

4)  DTC" ncvjqi`jiw" ligztwq|" @TL lilwlowlvjt )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 7: 

4)?)  Bcdob dlvlb tcdljw| lilwlowlvjt ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 7: 

4)1)  Ligztw| lilwlowlvjt )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 76 

4)1)?)  Gqlvlin tdobj" njijqowlin tdobj oig bjvjqonj )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 7>  

4)1)1)  Ozglwlin oig djqwlfldowlci ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) :7  

4)1)4)  Cwhjq odwlcit fcdztjg ci flqtw wljq tz}}bljqt )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ::  

4)1)7)  Odwlcit woqnjwlin tjdcig oig fzqwhjq wljq tz}}bljqt ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) :6  

4)4)  ]cejdwt ~lwh o t}jdlfld tcdlob c dc``zilw| dc`}cijiw )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) :< 

4)7)  Dcidbztlci ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 6= 

7)  Dcidbzglin qj`oqkt )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 61 

7)?)  Dzjiw boacz lnhwt tlwzowlci ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 61 

7)1)  Hz`oi lnhwt5 twoigogt oig }odwldjt )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 61 

7)4)  Woit}ojid| ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 64 

7)7)  Az|j-tz}}bljt jbowlcithl}t )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 67 

7):)  Dc``lw`jiw oig tdobj )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 67 

7)6)  Dc`}oiljt“ ~lbblinijtt wc jinonj ~lwh dlvlb tcdljw| twokjhcbgjt )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 67 

7)>)  Fjjgc` cf ottcdlowlci oig dcbbjdwlvj aonolilin )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 6: 

:)  Qjdc``jigowlcit )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 66 

:)?)  Hz`oi lnhwt5 twoigogt oig l`}bj`jiwowlci ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 66 

:)1)  Woit}ojid| ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 6> :)4)  Tz}}b| dholi jt}citlalblw| )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 6> 

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:

Lifcq`owlci ci whj ozwhcqt

Whj Liglo Dc``lwwjj cf whj Ijwhjqboigt

Whj Liglo Dc``lwwjj cf whj Ijwhjboigt (LDI, lt oi ligj}jigjiw ici-ncvji`jiwob cnoiltowlci

do`}olnilin oig gclin ogvcdod| ~ck ci hz`oi lnhwt lttzjt) Djiwob wc whj ~ck cf LDI oj whj

lttzjt cf dotwj-aotjg gltdl`liowlci" boacz lnhwt oig dhlbg boacz & jgzdowlci) LDI dc-c}jowjt

~lwh cnoiltowlcit li Liglo oig jbtj~hjj li dc`aowlin gltdl`liowlci" }cvjw|" c}}jttlci"

jx}bclwowlci oig bodk cf jgzdowlci" fcdztlin ci whj cbj cf }cbld| `okjt oig dc`}oiljt) LDI lt oi

odwlvj `j`aj cf ijw~ckt blkj whj Dbjoi Dbcwhjt Do`}olni" whj Twc} Dhlbg Boacz do`}olni" whj

Liwjiowlciob Goblw Tcblgolw| Ijw~ck oig whj Gzwdh @VC ]bowfc`) 

Djiwqj fcq Qjtjoqdh ci @zbwliowlciob Dcq}cqowlcit

Whj Djiwj fc Qjtjodh ci @zbwliowlciob Dc}cowlcit (TC@C, lt oi ligj}jigjiw" ici-}cflw

jtjodh oig ijw~ck cnoiltowlci ~cklin ci tcdlob" jdcbcnldob oig jdcic`ld lttzjt jbowjg wc

tztwolioabj gjvjbc}`jiw) Tlidj ?<>4" whj cnoiltowlci hot ajji livjtwlnowlin `zbwliowlciob

dc}cowlcit oig whj dcitjqzjidjt cf whjl odwlvlwljt fc }jc}bj oig whj jivlci`jiw oczig whj

~cbg) TC@C tz}}cwt tcdlob cnoiltowlcit a| }cvlglin wolilin" dccgliowlin ijw~ckt oig

njijowlin oig glttj`liowlin kic~bjgnj ci `zbwliowlciob dc}cowlcit li o dciwjxw cf liwjiowlciob

}cgzdwlci" wogj" flioidlin oig jnzbowlci) 

Do`}olni Onolitw Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j

Whj Do`}olni Onolitw Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j (DOTT, lt o dcoblwlci cf dlvlb tcdljw| cnoiltowlcit li

Liglo whow ~ckt wcnjwhj wc oltj o~ojijtt oaczw whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j oig ogvcdowjt oi jigwc whlt t|twj` cf jx}bclwowlci)

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@olg li Liglo

6

Jxjdzwlvj tz``oq|

Liwqcgzdwlci

Li Wo`lb Iogz" Tczwh Liglo" wjxwlbj oig no`jiw }cgzdwt fc aln aoigt oig jwolbjt oj ajlin

`ogj a| nlbt oig |czin ~c`ji fc` bc~ dotwj aodknczigt zigj jx}bclwowlvj ~cklin

dciglwlcit) ^ckjt oj jdzlwjg fc` }cvjw|-twldkji ojot ~lwhli ot ~jbb czwtlgj cf whj twowj cf 

Wo`lb Iogz) O bonj iz`aj cf whjtj boacz `lnoiwt blvj li (fodwc|, hctwjbt ~hjj whj| hovj

ob`ctw ic c}}cwzilw| wc liwjodw ~lwh whj czwtlgj ~cbg) ^ckjt oj jx}jdwjg wc ~ck bcin hczt

cf fcdjg cvjwl`j" tc`jwl`jt z} wc 17 hczt o go| zigj zihjobwh| dciglwlcit)

Whlt j}cw" ‘@olg li Liglo“" fcbbc~t whj j}cw ‘Do}wzjg a| Dcwwci“?" }zablthjg a| whj Djiwj fc 

Qjtjodh ci @zbwliowlciob Dc}cowlcit (TC@C, oig whj Liglo Dc``lwwjj cf whj Ijwhjboigt (LDI,li @o| 1=??) “Do}wzjg a| Dcwwci“ jvjobjg whow o njow iz`aj cf ~ckjt ~jj j`}bc|jg zigj 

whj tc-dobbjg ‘Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j“) Zigj whj Tz`oinobl1

Tdhj`j ~ckjt oj jdzlwjg ~lwh whj

}c`ltj whow whj| ~lbb jdjlvj o dcitlgjoabj o`cziw cf `cij| ofwj dc`}bjwlci cf whjj wc flvj

|jot cf j`}bc|`jiw) Whlt o`cziw doi aj ztjg wc }o| fc o gc~|) Whlt jx}bclwowlvj tdhj`j lt

woiwo`cziw wc acigjg boacz" ajdoztj j`}bc|jt ~lwhhcbg }ow cf whj ~ckjt“ ~onjt ziwlb whj|

hovj ~ckjg whjj fc whjj wc flvj |jot) Li ogglwlci lw ~ot fczig whow ~ckjt oj tjvjjb|

jtwldwjg li whjl fjjgc` cf `cvj`jiw oig }lvod|)

Whj dzjiw j}cw }cvlgjt oi z}gowj cf boacz dciglwlcit li whj Wo`lb Iogz no`jiw oig wjxwlbj

ligztw| oig jxo`lijt whj dzjiw tlwzowlci ow whj fcz no`jiw `oizfodwzjt clnliobb|

livjtwlnowjg fc ‘Do}wzjg a| Dcwwci“" l)j) Aoiiol O``oi" Jotw`oi Jx}cwt Nbcaob Dbcwhlin"K)])Q) @lbb oig TT@ Liglo) Li ogglwlci" whj j}cw bcckt liwc ~how jffcwt hovj ajji zigjwokji a|

volczt }owljt wc odhljvj l`}cvj`jiwt) Lw obtc }jtjiwt oi cvjvlj~ cf jdc``jigowlcit ci hc~

wc dciwlizj wc l`}cvj dciglwlcit)

Whlt j}cw ol`t wc }cvlgj jbjvoiw twokjhcbgjt — `oizfodwzjt" az|lin dc`}oiljt" wogj

zilcit" bcdob oig liwjiowlciob dlvlb tcdljw| cnoiltowlcit" ncvji`jiwt oig cwhjt — ~lwh fccg fc 

whcznhw wc jioabj oig t}z fzwhj odwlci) Ci whj aotlt cf whj fljbg jtjodh oig oiob|tlt cf 

}c`ltjt oig odwzob twj}t wokji a| whj ligztw| oig cwhj jbjvoiw odwct" dcidbztlcit oj

fc`zbowjg" ot ~jbb ot }odwldob jdc``jigowlcit) 

Fliglint

Whj fliglint cf whj jtjodh thc~ whow" wc vo|lin gjnjjt" l`}cvj`jiwt hovj ajji l`}bj`jiwjg

ow whj fcz `oizfodwzjt tlidj whj }zabldowlci cf ‘Do}wzjg a| Dcwwci“) Cij `oizfodwzj hot

twc}}jg ztlin whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j li obb lwt c}jowlcit) Oicwhj `oizfodwzj hot }hotjg czw

whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j li lwt jig-}cgzdw fodlblwljt) L`}cvj`jiwt jnoglin fjjgc` cf `cvj`jiw

hovj ajji j}cwjg ow obb fcz `oizfodwzjt) ]j`lttlci wc bjovj whj hctwjb oddc``cgowlci lt

noiwjg `cj jotlb| oig tc`jwl`jt ncz}t cf ~c`ji oj obbc~jg wc nc thc}}lin zioddc`}oiljg)

? Djiwj fc Qjtjodh ci @zbwliowlciob Dc}cowlcit (TC@C, oig whj Liglo Dc``lwwjj cf whj Ijwhjboigt (LDI," ‘Do}wzjg

a| Dcwwci — Jx}bclwjg Goblw nlbt }cgzdj no`jiwt li Liglo fc Jzc}joi oig ZT `okjwt“" O`twjgo`" whj Ijwhjboigt"

@o| 1=??" 2 hww}5##tc`c)ib#}zabldowlcit-ji#]zabldowlciS46>4 91  Whj Wo`lb ~cg ‘Tz`oinobl“ jfjt wc o `oljg ~c`oi ~hc blvjt o ho}}| oig dciwjiwjg blfj ~lwh hj hztaoig ~lwh obb

nccg fcwzijt oig owjlob ajijflwt)

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>

Cwhj l`}cvj`jiwt lidbzgj }o| ltjt oig oi lidjotj cf whj fliob o`cziw whow ~ckjt jdjlvj ow

whj jig cf whjl dciwodw)

 Ow whj to`j wl`j" hc~jvj" whj jtjodh thc~t dciwlizlin vlcbowlcit cf boacz lnhwt oig hz`oilnhwt li whj no`jiw ligztw| li Tczwh Liglo) @oec }cabj`t }jtltw ow whj fcz `oizfodwzjt) Ic

tlnilfldoiw l`}cvj`jiwt ~jj fczig li wj`t cf ~cklin hczt oig fcdjg cvjwl`j) ^c`ji

~ckjt oj twlbb jx}jdwjg wc ~ck fc bcin hczt cf fcdjg cvjwl`j" li jxdj}wlciob dotjt jvji z}

wc 17 hczt o go|) Dhlbg boacz lt twlbb cddzlin; ow whjj `oizfodwzjt nlbt |czinj whoi ?6 ~jj

fczig wc aj ~cklin) Ow w~c `oizfodwzjt ~ckjt ajbc~ whj onj cf ?7 ~jj fczig o`cin whj

~ck fcdj) Whjj lt ic wogj zilci }jtjidj ow whj fcz `oizfodwzjt" ic gc whjtj

`oizfodwzjt hovj ligj}jigjiw oig jffjdwlvj nljvoidj `jdhoilt`t) Whjjfcj" ic `jdhoilt`t

oj li }bodj fc ~ckjt wc ijncwlowj whjl lnhwt oig vcldj whjl ijjgt) 

Tc`j dc`}oiljt hovj zigjwokji twj}t wc oggjtt whj lttzjt ot gjtdlajg li TC@C oig LDI“t

j}cwt) @oizfodwzjt" aoigt oig jwolbjt" ot ~jbb ot bcdob oig liwjiowlciob dlvlb tcdljw|

cnoiltowlcit" ncvji`jiw `liltwljt oig onjidljt hovj t}ckji czw onolitw whj jxltwjidj cf whj

Tz`oinobl oig Do`} Dccblj4 tdhj`jt li whj Wo`lb Iogz no`jiw ligztw|) Lilwlowlvjt zigjwokji

a| whjtj odwct doi aj dowjncltjg liwc fcz ncz}t5

  Lilwlowlvjt glvlin dcbboacowlci o`cin twokjhcbgjt oig ol`lin ow njijowlin tdobj oig

bjvjonj)

   Odwlcit fcdztjg ci fltw wlj tz}}bljt" lidbzglin ozglwlin)

   Odwlcit ol`lin ow tjdcig oig fzwhj wlj tz}}bljt)

  ]cejdwt ~lwh o t}jdlfld tcdlob c dc``zilw| dc`}cijiw)

Whj dzjiw tlwzowlci thc~t tc`j l`}cvj`jiwt" azw obtc }cvjt whow jffcwt zigjwokji tc fo oj

icw tzffldljiw wc jobltj whj gjtljg jtzbwt) Jvji whctj dc`}oiljt whow hovj eclijg lilwlowlvjt

njojg wc~ogt oggjttlin hz`oi lnhwt oaztjt hovj icw ajji oabj wc jitzj whjl tz}}b| dholi lt

fjj fc` boacz lnhwt oaztjt) 

Dcidbztlcit

 O}}ojiwb|" lw lt }cttlabj wc jffjdw dhoinjt li j`}bc|`jiw oig ~cklin dciglwlcit li dc`}bloidj

~lwh iowlciob oig liwjiowlciob twoigogt" ajijflwwlin ~ckjt) Azw twlbb" acwh az|jt oig tz}}bljt

folb wc l`}bj`jiw whj jqzljg jfc`t odctt whj acog) Obwhcznh gltdl`liowlci ci whj aotlt cf 

dotwj c njigj lt }chlalwjg a| Ligloi bo~" whj }odwldj lt }jtltwjiw li Ligloi tcdljw|)

Dc`}oiljt hovj o jt}citlalblw| wc jitzj whow ~ckjt“ lnhwt oj jt}jdwjg whcznhczw whjl tz}}b| dholi) Ci whj ~hcbj" hc~jvj" cib| o jbowlvjb| t`obb iz`aj cf dc`}oiljt oj ot |jw wzb|

dc``lwwjg wc }cwjdwlin hz`oi lnhwt li whjl tz}}b| dholi) Whj dc`}oiljt blikjg wc lilwlowlvjt tzdh

ot Tcdlob Oddcziwoalblw| Liwjiowlciob (TOL," Fol ^jo Fczigowlci (F^F," whj Tz`oinobl Acigjg

Boacz Ncz}#Wo`lb Iogz @zbwl Twokjhcbgj Ncz} cf whj Jwhldob Woglin Lilwlowlvj (JWL TAB

Ncz}#JWL WI @T Ncz}, oig cf whj Aztlijtt Tcdlob Dc`}bloidj Lilwlowlvj (ATDL, dc`alijg twlbb

cib| `okj z} o t`obb ncz} ~lwh jbowlvjb| bl`lwjg bjvjonj) Whj `oeclw| cf whj aoigt oig jwolbjt

doi tofjb| aj dbottlfljg ot ‘bonnogt“) Whj to`j lt wzj fc whj `oizfodwzjt) Whj cvjobb }ldwzj

thc~t bodk cf }cnjtt li l`}cvlin jdzlw`jiw oig boacz dciglwlcit)

A| ic~" aztlijtt lilwlowlvjt" `zbwl-twokjhcbgj lilwlowlvjt oig wogj ottcdlowlcit hovj" wc vo|lin

gjnjjt" gjvjbc}jg }cbldljt oig }odwldjt wc oggjtt oaztjt zigj whj Tz`oinobl oig tl`lbo 

4 ^ckjt whow blvj li hctwjbt ci whj fodwc| nczigt oj jfjjg wc ot Do`} Dccbljt)

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@olg li Liglo

8

tdhj`jt" azw lw lt obb ci o vcbziwo| aotlt) Aoigt oig jwolbjt `o| ~jbb aj }ow cf whlt c whow

lilwlowlvj" azw twlbb gc icw wokj twcin odwlci ci fcdjg boacz lttzjt) Dc``lw`jiw wc jogldowlin

boacz lnhwt oaztjt lt jotlb| twowjg" azw }zwwlin }c`ltjt liwc odwlci lt oicwhj `owwj) Odwlci lt

cfwji woitbowjg liwc `cj ozglwt" ~hlbj ozglwt folb wc gjwjdw `cj tjitlwlvj lttzjt tzdh ot acigjgboacz" hoott`jiw oig gltdl`liowlci)

Qjdc``jigowlcit

 Obb }bo|jt — `oizfodwzjt" az|lin dc`}oiljt" wogj zilcit" bcdob oig liwjiowlciob dlvlb tcdljw|

cnoiltowlcit" ncvji`jiwt oig cwhjt — ijjg wc odkic~bjgnj whj }jtltwlin }cabj`t)

Ncvji`jiwt hovj o gzw| wc }cwjdw onolitw hz`oi lnhwt oaztjt a| whlg }owljt" lidbzglin

aztlijtt jiwj}ltjt" whcznh o}}c}lowj }cbldljt" jnzbowlci" oig ogezgldowlci)

Dc`}oiljt" liglvlgzobb| azw obtc dcbbjdwlvjb|" thczbg jt}jdw oig }cwjdw iowlciob bjnltbowlci oig#c 

liwjiowlciob twoigogt jnoglin hz`oi lnhwt; ~hldhjvj cffjt whj hlnhjtw }cwjdwlci wc whjdcidjijg ~ckjt) Whj CJDG Nzlgjblijt fc @zbwliowlciob Jiwj}ltjt oig LTC 16=== li ogglwlci

wc whj jbjvoiw Ligloi bo~t oig jnzbowlcit" whj LBC Dcivjiwlcit oig whj ZI ]lidl}bjt ci

Aztlijtt oig Hz`oi Qlnhwt oj }jwlijiw" liwjiowlciobb| tz}}cwjg twoigogt ~hldh `ztw aj

o}}bljg wc flnhw boacz lnhwt vlcbowlcit li whj Tczwh Ligloi no`jiw ligztw|) Dc`}oiljt hovj o

tz}}b| dholi jt}citlalblw| wc jitzj whjtj twoigogt oj o}}bljg aj|cig whj fltw-wlj tz}}bljt) Wc

gjwjdw hz`oi lnhwt oaztjt" fcdztjg livjtwlnowlcit oig wolbc-`ogj ozglw `jwhcgcbcnljt" ot ~jbb

ot dbctj dcitzbwowlci oig dcbboacowlci ~lwh bcdob twokjhcbgjt oj jqzljg) Whj hz`oi lnhwt ltk

ottjtt`jiwt `ztw obtc wokj liwc oddcziw bcdob dzbwzob icwlcit jnoglin hz`oi lnhwt)

Li whj oatjidj cf bo~ jifcdj`jiw c fzidwlcilin boacz lit}jdwlci" dc`}oiljt hovj o

jt}citlalblw| wc jitzj boacz lnhwt) Fc litwoidj" whj oatjidj cf twowj-gjwj`lijg oig jifcdjg`lil`z` ~onjt fc whj no`jiw ligztw| gcjt icw jbljvj `oizfodwzjt oig az|jt fc` whj gzw|

wc jitzj ~ckjt oj }olg o blvlin ~onj)

Zigjiloab|" jodh liglvlgzob dc`}oi| hot oi liglvlgzob jt}citlalblw| wc oalgj a| iowlciob boacz 

bo~t oig liwjiowlciob hz`oi lnhwt oig boacz ic`t oig twoigogt) Ow whj to`j wl`j" whj nbcaob

no`jiw ligztw| obtc hot o dcbbjdwlvj jt}citlalblw| wc jitzj hz`oi lnhwt oj jt}jdwjg

whcznhczw whj nbcaob tz}}b| dholi) Whlt thczbg ajdc`j vltlabj li whj }cbldljt oig odwlcit cf wogj

ottcdlowlcit oig j`}bc|jt“ ottcdlowlcit acwh li no`jiw }cgzdlin oig l`}cwlin dcziwljt)

Lidjotjg dcbboacowlci o`cin aoigt" jwolbjt" `oizfodwzjt oig tz}}bljt fzwhj z} whj tz}}b|

dholi lt ijjgjg) Obb jbjvoiw odwct thczbg aj ci acog ~hji globcnzj lt cnoiltjg oig odwlci

}boit oj gjvjbc}jg) Lw lt cf whj zw`ctw l`}cwoidj wc hovj" fc litwoidj" TL@O" WOT@O oig whj

jbjvoiw Ligloi ncvji`jiwob onjidljt ow whj woabj" ot ~jbb ot whj aoigt oig jwolbjt whow whzt fo 

hovj ajji zijt}citlvj) Lilwlowlvjt thczbg fcdzt ci tdobj oig bjvjonj" ~lwhczw" hc~jvj" bc~jlin

whj ic`owlvj ao)

 Obb }owljt livcbvjg thczbg jitzj whow ligj}jigjiw wogj zilcit doi }bo| whjl gjtlniowjg cbjt)

Fltw oig fcj`ctw" whj lnhw cf ~ckjt wc fc` oig ecli wogj zilcit oig wc aonoli dcbbjdwlvjb|

thczbg aj }cwjdwjg oig jt}jdwjg) Whjtj jioablin lnhwt }j`lw ~ckjt wc gjfjig whjl lnhwt"

vcldj nljvoidjt" oig ijncwlowj jdzlw`jiw oig j`}bc|`jiw dciglwlcit" lidbzglin ~onjt)

Wc gjob ~lwh ~ckjt“ ijjgt oig dc`}boliwt" nljvoidj }cdjgzjt thczbg aj }zw li }bodj) Tzdh

nljvoidj }cdjgzjt thczbg `jjw whj fcbbc~lin dcj dlwjlo5 bjnlwl`od|; oddjttlalblw|;

}jgldwoalblw|; jqzoblw|; dc`}owlalblw| ~lwh liwjiowlciobb| oddj}woabj lnhwt; woit}ojid|) Dc`}boliw}cdjgzjt thczbg }cvlgj o aotlt fc dciwlizczt bjoilin oig l`}cvj`jiw) Dc`}oi|“t nljvoidj

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<

}cdjgzjt oj oi l`}cwoiw tz}}bj`jiw wc dcbbjdwlvj aonolilin" azw `o| ijvj aj ztjg wc j}bodj

whlt bjnlwl`owj }cdjtt)

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@olg li Liglo

?=

?) Liwqcgzdwlci

?)?) Aodknqczig

Whj Djiwj fc Qjtjodh ci @zbwliowlciob Dc}cowlcit (TC@C, oig whj Liglo Dc``lwwjj cf whj

Ijwhjboigt (LDI, }zablthjg whj j}cw ‘Do}wzjg a| Dcwwci — Jx}bclwjg Goblw nlbt }cgzdj

no`jiwt li Liglo fc Jzc}joi oig ZT `okjwt“7 li @o| 1=??) Whj j}cw gjtdlajt hc~ }cgzdwt

fc aln no`jiw aoigt oig jwolbjt oj `ogj a| nlbt oig |czin ~c`ji fc` Goblw oig bc~ dotwj

aodknczigt zigj jx}bclwowlvj ~cklin dciglwlcit li Wo`lb Iogz" Tczwh Liglo) Whj j}cw jvjobjg

whow o njow iz`aj cf whjtj |czin ~c`ji oj j`}bc|jg zigj whj tc-dobbjg ‘Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j“)

Whlt jx}bclwowlvj tdhj`j lt woiwo`cziw wc acigjg boacz" ajdoztj j`}bc|jt ~lwhhcbg }ow cf whj

~ckjt“ ~onjt ziwlb whj| hovj ~ckjg whjj fc whjj wc flvj |jot) Li ogglwlci lw ~ot fczig whow

~ckjt oj tjvjjb| jtwldwjg li whjl fjjgc` cf `cvj`jiw oig }lvod|)

‘Do}wzjg a| Dcwwci“ ucc`jg li ci fcz vjwldobb| liwjnowjg `oizfodwzjt5 Aoiiol O``oi"

Jotw`oi Jx}cwt Nbcaob Dbcwhlin" K)])Q) @lbb oig TT@ Liglo) Whjtj `oizfodwzjt tz}}b| wc o

bonj ncz} cf Jzc}joi oig ZT aoigt oig jwolbjt) ‘Do}wzjg a| Dcwwci“ jvjobjg whow whjtj

`oizfodwzjt j`}bc|jg ~ckjt zigj whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j) Cwhj zioddj}woabj boacz 

}odwldjt gjtdlajg li ‘Do}wzjg a| Dcwwci“ lidbzgjg5 jxdjttlvj oig fcdjg cvj~ck; zitofj oig

zihjobwh| ~cklin dciglwlcit; oig whj j`}bc|`jiw cf dhlbgji |czinj whoi whj bjnob ~cklin onj)

Fjjgc` cf ottcdlowlci oig dcbbjdwlvj aonolilin }cvjg wc aj ici-jxltwjiw oig icij cf whj

jtjodhjg `oizfodwzjt hog jffjdwlvj oig ligj}jigjiw nljvoidj `jdhoilt`t li }bodj" bjovlin

~ckjt ~lwhczw oi| jffjdwlvj dhoiijb wc jx}jtt whjl nljvoidjt oig jtcbvj whj`)

Whj dc``ci gjic`liowc cf dc}cowj jt}citjt wc whj boacz lttzjt gjtdlajg li ‘Do}wzjg a|

Dcwwci“ lt o njijob odkic~bjgnj`jiw cf whj ijjg wc oggjtt whjtj lttzjt" oig ~hjj }cttlabj wc

gc tc dcbbjdwlvjb|" livcbvlin `zbwl}bj twokjhcbgjt li cgj wc jffjdwlvjb| ~ck wc~ogt

l`}cvj`jiwt)

Lw `ztw aj icwjg" hc~jvj" whow `cj whoi hobf cf whj dc`}oiljt io`jg li ‘Do}wzjg a| Dcwwci“

jfztjg wc jinonj ci whj wc}ld ~lwh TC@C oig LDI): 

Whj }zabldowlci cf ‘Do}wzjg a| Dcwwci“ a| TC@C oig LDI fcbbc~jg ci jtjodh oig }zabldowlcit

a| Oiwl-Tbovj| Liwjiowlciob oig whj Jzc}joi Dcoblwlci fc Dc}cowj Eztwldj (JDDE," ot ~jbb ot

volczt `jglo }zabldowlcit" oig hot oggjg wc whj }zabld acg| cf kic~bjgnj jnoglin whj

cddzjidj cf acigjg boacz li whj Wo`lb Iogz no`jiw oig wjxwlbj ligztw|)

?)1) Fcbbc~-z} qj}cqw - ol`t oig caejdwlvjt

Fcbbc~lin z} ci ‘Do}wzjg a| Dcwwci“" TC@C oig LDI hovj dc``lttlcijg ij~ jtjodh ~hldh lt

jfbjdwjg li whj }jtjiw j}cw) Whlt j}cw }cvlgjt oi z}gowj cf boacz dciglwlcit li whj Wo`lb

Iogz no`jiw oig wjxwlbj ligztw| oig jxo`lijt whj dzjiw tlwzowlci ow whj fcz no`jiw

7 Djiwj fc Qjtjodh ci @zbwliowlciob Dc}cowlcit (TC@C, oig whj Liglo Dc``lwwjj cf whj Ijwhjboigt (LDI," ‘Do}wzjg

a| Dcwwci — Jx}bclwjg Goblw nlbt }cgzdj no`jiwt li Liglo fc Jzc}joi oig ZT `okjwt“" O`twjgo " whj Ijwhjboigt"

@o| 1=??" 2 hww}5##tc`c)ib#}zabldowlcit-ji#]zabldowlciS46>4 9

: Czw cf whj 4> aoigt oig jwolbjt `jiwlcijg li ‘Do}wzjg a| Dcwwci“" ?< glg icw jt}cig) Li Tj}wj`aj 1=??" TC@Coig LDI" wcnjwhj ~lwh o ncz} cf Ligloi oig liwjiowlciob INCt" tjiw o bjwwj wc whctj ?< dc`}oiljt" znlin whj` wc

jt}cig wc whj dcidjit oltjg a| TC@C oig LDI) Czw cf whjtj ?< dc`}oiljt" cib| > dc`}oiljt jt}cigjg)

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??

`oizfodwzjt clnliobb| livjtwlnowjg fc ‘Do}wzjg a| Dcwwci“" l)j) Aoiiol O``oi" Jotw`oi

Jx}cwt Nbcaob Dbcwhlin" K)])Q) @lbb oig TT@ Liglo) Li ogglwlci" whj j}cw bcckt liwc ~how whj

ligztw| oig cwhj jbjvoiw odwct }c`ltjg wc zigjwokj wc dza gcdz`jiwjg boacz oaztjt" ~how

hot odwzobb| ajji gcij" oig wc ~how jffjdw)

@cjcvj" whj }jtjiw j}cw ol`t wc }cvlgj jbjvoiw twokjhcbgjt — `oizfodwzjt" az|lin

dc`}oiljt (lidbzglin whj dc`}oiljt ~hc folbjg wc jt}cig wc whj fltw j}cw," wogj zilcit" bcdob

oig liwjiowlciob dlvlb tcdljw| cnoiltowlcit" ncvji`jiwt oig cwhjt — ~lwh fccg fc whcznhw wc

jioabj oig t}z fzwhj odwlci) Ci whj aotlt cf whj fljbg jtjodh oig oiob|tlt cf }c`ltjt oig

odwzob twj}t wokji a| whj ligztw| oig cwhj jbjvoiw odwct" dcidbztlcit oj fc`zbowjg" ot ~jbb ot

}odwldob jdc``jigowlcit) 

?)4) @jwhcgcbcn|

?)4)?) Fljbg qjtjoqdh 

Liwjqvlj~t ~lwh ~cqkjqt fqc` whj fczq vjqwldobb| liwjnqowjg oizfodwzqjqt

Fljbg jtjodh fc whlt j}cw ~ot doljg czw a| whj Do`}olni Onolitw Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j (DOTT,

li whj }jlcg Oznztw — Icvj`aj 1=??) Whj fliglint jfbjdw whj tlwzowlci ow whj fcz `oizfodwzjt

ziwlb whj jig cf Icvj`aj 1=??) Li wcwob ?8= ~ckjt ~jj liwjvlj~jg — ?:> fj`obj" oig 14 `obj

~ckjt) Liglvlgzob liwjvlj~t ~jj hjbg ~lwh ?4> ~ckjt; oicwhj 74 ~ckjt ~jj liwjvlj~jg li

ncz}t" li ilij tjttlcit li wcwob)

Whj ajokgc~i cf liwjvlj~jg ~ckjt }j fodwc| lt ot fcbbc~t5

Dc`}oi| Liglvlgzob

~cqkjqliwjqvlj~t

Nqcz} liwjqvlj~t Wcwob iz`ajq cf

liwjqvlj~jg ~cqkjqt

TT@ Liglo 18 1 ncz}t cf : ~ckjt jodh 48

Jotw`oi Jx}cwt 78 4 ncz}t (?4 li wcwob, 6?

Aoiiol O``oi Ncz} 1? 1 ncz}t cf : ~ckjt jodh 4?

K)])Q) @lbb 7= 1 ncz}t cf : ~ckjt jodh :=

WCWOB ?4> 74 ?8=

Cf whj liglvlgzob liwjvlj~t" >1 ~jj dcigzdwjg li whjl hc`jt" jlwhj gzlin whjl tj`l-oiizob

hcblgo|t c gzlin tldk bjovj) Oicwhj <= ~ckjt ~jj liwjvlj~jg ~hji whj| ~jj obbc~jg wc

bjovj whj fodwc| li ncz}t gzlin o go|-cff) O`cin whj liwjvlj~jg ~ckjt ~jj ilij ici-

jtlgjiwlob ~ckjt ot ~jbb ot ilij jx-~ckjt)

@o}}lin cf fodwcqljt ztlin whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j

 O `o}}lin ~ot dcigzdwjg li whj gltwldwt cf Wlz}z" Jcgj" Gliglnzb oig Dcl`aowcj (Oiiz 

Abcdk,) O wcwob iz`aj cf :<4 fodwcljt ~jj tdjjijg" czw cf ~hldh 1<? ~jj fczig wc aj ztlin whj

Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j)

?)4)1) Oiob|tlt cf odwlcit zigjqwokji a| whj ligztwq| 

 Oi oiob|tlt hot ajji `ogj cf whj odwlcit zigjwokji a| dc`}oiljt (`oizfodwzjt oig az|jt,"

lilwlowlvjt (acwh dc}cowj oig `zbwl-twokjhcbgj, oig ncvji`jiwt wc oggjtt whj }cabj`t

ottcdlowjg ~lwh whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j li whj Wo`lb Iogz no`jiw ligztw|) Whlt oiob|tltdcitltwjg cf gjtk jtjodh (jvlj~ cf dc`}oi| ~jatlwjt" }zabld twowj`jiwt oig }cbld| gcdz`jiwt,)

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@olg li Liglo

?1

Li ogglwlci" TC@C oig LDI jinonjg li jxdhoinjt oig dcivjtowlcit ~lwh o iz`aj cf dc`}oiljt

oig lilwlowlvjt" acwh a| j`olb oig cvj whj }hcij) @jjwlint ~jj tjw z} ~lwh Aztlijtt fc Tcdlob

Dc`}bloidj (ATDL," Fol ^jo Fczigowlci (F^F," Tcdlob Oddcziwoalblw| Liwjiowlciob (TOL," D&O"

Jotw`oi Jx}cwt" ]l`ok" No} oig Tz`jz Kilwt (TT@ Liglo,)

?)4)4) Tz}}b| dholi `o}}lin 

Li cgj wc jtwoablth whj jbowlcit ajw~jji whj fcz vjwldobb| liwjnowjg `oizfodwzjt oig whjl 

az|jt" TC@C oig LDI oiob|tjg jx}cw gowo fc` Wzwldcli oig @ogot (Dhjiiol, }cwt) Whj

jx}cw gowo dcvj o }jlcg cf jlnhw `ciwht (Ezij 1=?? — Eoizo| 1=?1,) Obb dc`}oiljt `jiwlcijg

li whj }jtjiw j}cw ~jj fczig wc aj tczdlin fc` whj fcz `oizfodwzjt ~lwhli whlt }jlcg)

Qjvlj~

TC@C oig LDI thojg whj }jbl`lio| fliglint cf whlt jtjodh ~lwh whj `j`ajt cf whj JWL

Tz`oinobl Acigjg Boacz Ncz} gzlin whj ofwjicci tjttlci cf whj ncz}“t `jjwlin ci : @odh"1=?1)

 Obb dc`}oiljt `jiwlcijg li whlt j}cw (az|lin oig tz}}b|lin dc`}oiljt, ~jj nlvji whj

c}}cwzilw| wc jvlj~ whj fliglint ajfcj }zabldowlci oig wc }cvlgj dc``jiwt oig dcjdwlcit cf 

fodwzob jct) Obb jodwlcit hovj ajji lidbzgjg li whj fliob vjtlci cf whj j}cw" obajlw li o

dcigjitjg fc`) Hjja| TC@C oig LDI hovj fcbbc~jg dc``ci }lidl}bjt cf whj lnhw cf j}b|)

Cf whj dc`}oiljt `jiwlcijg li whj j}cw" whj fcbbc~lin jt}cigjg wc TC@C oig LDI“t jvlj~

jqzjtw5 Oajdc`alj & Flwdh" Aoiiol O``oi" D&O" Dcwjfljb" Jotw`oi Jx}cwt Nbcaob Dbcwhlin"

Jb Dcwj Linbjt" Jitwlint Fo`lb|" No}" EG T}cwt" Kblinjb" K`ow" K)])Q) @lbb" @lnct" Cx|boij

(Gjdowhbci," @cwhjdoj" ]l`ok" TT@ Liglo" Wl`ajboig)

Li ogglwlci" TC@C oig LDI jdjlvjg li}zw oig fjjgaodk ci whj j}cw fc` Aztlijtt Tcdlob

Dc`}bloidj Lilwlowlvj (ATDL," Aztlijtt Tcdlob Qjt}citlalblw| (ATQ," Jwhldob Woglin Lilwlowlvj (JWL,"

Fol ^jo Fczigowlci (F^F," Tcdlob Oddcziwoalblw| Liwjiowlciob (TOL," Tcblgolgog" Wlz}z 

Jx}cwjt Ottcdlowlci (WJO, oig whj Gzwdh @liltw| cf Jdcic`ld Offolt)

Whj fcbbc~lin dc`}oiljt glg icw jt}cig wc whj jvlj~ jqzjtw5 O`jldoi Jonbj Czwflwwjt" Owlt"

Ajtwtjbbj" Aovj Klg" Dhcldj Gltdcziw Twcjt" Dcbc L`onj O}}ojb" Dj~ 1===" D|twob @owli"

Glogco" Gljtjb" J)Boig ^cbg" Jx}jtt" Foboajbbo" Fothlci Acx (Qj}bo|," Fjidh Dciijdwlci"

Nodlo" Nbcazt" N|`acjj" Ho`ciw & Abolij" L`}obo Bcfw 8" Lwcdhz" Ej| Bjlnh" Ezbjt" Kicwhj

 O}}ojb Ncz}" Bl~o Woglin Jiwj}ltjt" Bcnlt}cw" Bzajwjx" @okt & T}jidj" @otw Ligztwljt"

@jvli" Iozwldo" Ijxw" IKG" Ic}cwjx" ]hlbl}t voi Hjztji (Wc``| Hlbflnj," ]jtwlnj L`}jx" ]zbb

oig Ajo (Liglwjx," _zldktlbvj" Qob}h Bozji" Qzjiwjx Ligztwljt" Toig| Gltdcziw ^ojhcztjt"

Wjtdc" Whj Dhlbgji“t ]bodj" Wc` Wolbc" Wc} Djowlci" Voi Gobj Ligztwljt" ^lbhjb` Kilig)

Cf whj fcbbc~lin dc`}oiljt TC@C oig LDI ~jj zioabj wc flig }zabld dciwodw gowo5 O`jldoi

T}cwt~jo" Aotjdc" Abzj Two L`}cwt" Dowjdz" Nbcaob Wogjt Ijw~ck" Lnzot}cw" L`}cwogco

Nbcaobltwld" BBD Cdwcabzj" @ciglob Tjvldjt" ]jfc`oidj T}cwt Lid) oig WLV Jzc}j) Whjjfcj

TC@C oig LDI hovj icw ajji oabj wc jtwoablth dciwodw)

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?4

?)7) Twqzdwzqj cf whj qj}cqw

Whlt j}cw lt twzdwzjg ot fcbbc~t5 Dho}wj 1 gjtdlajt boacz }odwldjt li Wo`lb Iogz wjxwlbj oig

no`jiw ligztw| oig lt glvlgjg liwc w~c }owt) Whj fltw }ow gjtdlajt whj Wo`lb Iogz wjxwlbj oigno`jiw ligztw| oig nlvjt o njijob cvjvlj~ cf whj }jdolczt boacz dciglwlcit li whlt ligztw|)

Whj tjdcig }ow cf Dho}wj 1 }jtjiwt }cflbjt cf fcz wjxwlbj oig dbcwhlin `oizfodwzjt5 Aoiiol

 O``oi Ncz}" Jotw`oi Jx}cwt Nbcaob Dbcwhlin" K)])Q) @lbb oig TT@ Liglo) Jodh }cflbj gjwolbt

j`}bc|`jiw }odwldjt oig ~cklin dciglwlcit ow whjtj fodwcljt) Dc`}oltcit oj `ogj ~lwh botw

|jo“t jtjodh fliglint ~hjijvj jbjvoiw) Dho}wj 4 oiob|tjt oig gltdzttjt lilwlowlvjt

zigjwokji wc oggjtt boacz lnhwt dcidjit li whj Wo`lb Iogz no`jiw oig wjxwlbj ligztw|)

Whjtj lidbzgj lilwlowlvjt fc` `oizfodwzjt" aoigt oig jwolbjt" bcdob oig liwjiowlciob dlvlb

tcdljw| cnoiltowlcit oig ncvji`jiw litwlwzwlcit) Whj j}cw jigt ~lwh dcidbzglin j`okt

(Dho}wj 7, oig jdc``jigowlcit (Dho}wj :,)

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@olg li Liglo

?7

1) Boaczq }qodwldjt li whj Wo`lb Iogz wjxwlbj

oig noq`jiw ligztwq|

Whj wjxwlbj oig no`jiw ligztw| lt cf vlwob l`}cwoidj wc whj Ligloi jdcic`|) Lw lt o bonj }cvlgj 

cf fcjlni dzjid| oig lw lt o tczdj cf j`}bc|`jiw" njijowlin ~ck fc `cj whoi 4: `lbblci

}jc}bj) Ofwj Dhlio6" Liglo lt whj bonjtw jx}cwj cf wjxwlbj |oi) ^hji lw dc`jt wc jx}cwt cf 

o}}ojb lwj`t" Liglo hcbgt whlg }bodj" ofwj Dhlio oig Aoinbogjth)> 

Liglo lt o }cgzdj cf iowzob o~ `owjlobt tzdh ot dcwwci" ezwj" tlbk oig ~ccb) T|iwhjwld flajt oj

obtc }cgzdjg li Liglo" azw whj Ligloi no`jiw ligztw| lt }jgc`lioiwb| dcwwci aotjg) @oec jx}cw

gjtwliowlcit oj Jzc}j oig whj Zilwjg Twowjt)

1)?) Whj dcwwci noq`jiw tz}}b| dholi

Cvj whj botw gjdogjt" bonj jwolbjt oig aoig dc`}oiljt hovj }bo|jg }lvcwob cbjt li tjwwlin z}

gjdjiwobltjg }cgzdwlci ijw~ckt li o voljw| cf jx}cwlin dcziwljt) W|}ldobb|" `ctw jx}cw

dcziwljt oj gjvjbc}lin dcziwljt) Aoigt oig jwolbjt tjw whj wj`t fc dciwodwct whow `okj whj

flilthjg nccgt) Whj aoigt oig jwolbjt njijobb| gc whj gjtlnilin" aoiglin oig `okjwlin azw

whj| gc icw `okj whj }cgzdwt whj| tjbb) ]cflwt dc`j fc` dc`aliowlcit cf hlnh-vobzj jtjodh"

gjtlni" tobjt" `okjwlin oig flioidlob tjvldjt whow obbc~ whj jwolbjt" gjtlnijt oig `okjwjt wc

odw ot twowjnld ackjt li bliklin cvjtjot fodwcljt oig wogjt ~lwh }cgzdw ildhjt li whjl `oli

dcitz`j `okjwt)8 

Whj tobjt }ow cf whj vobzj dholi lt dhoodwjltjg a| hlnh jiw| aoljt fc ij~ aoig dc`}oiljt

oig jwolbjt) Jiw| aoljt fc `oizfodwzjt" a| dciwotw" oj bc~) Whj jbowlvj jotj cf tjwwlin z}

`oizfodwzlin dc`}oiljt hot bjg wc oi zi}oobbjbjg glvjtlw| cf no`jiw jx}cwjt li gjvjbc}lin

dcziwljt ~hc oj fodlin l``jitj dc`}jwlwlci oig bc~ jwzit)< Whlt dciwlazwjt wc }c~j 

l`aoboidjt ajw~jji whj jwolbjt#aoigt oig `oizfodwzjt)

Qjwolbjt oig aoig dc`}oiljt dcidjiwowj ci tjbblin no`jiwt ~hlbj woitfjlin" ot `zdh ot

}cttlabj" whj jtw cf whj }cgzdwlci odwlvlwljt wc whjl `oizfodwzlin tz}}bljt) Lw lt li whj liwjjtw cf 

whj tz}}bljt wc cffj o ‘fzbb }odkonj“ tjvldj" lidbzglin z}twjo` oig gc~itwjo` odwlvlwljt)

Z}twjo`" `joilin woklin jt}citlalblw| fc tczdlin foald oig wl`) Gc~itwjo`" `joilin

cnoiltlin whj bcnltwldt oig woit}cwowlci" oig gjblvjlin whj lwj`t wc whj jwolbj“t ~ojhcztj c jvji twcjt li o ‘jog|-fc-tobj“ }odkonjg twowj)

?= 

6 Lidbzglin Hcin Kcin)> Aotjg ci gowo fc`5 Zilwjg Iowlcit Dcifjjidj ci Wogj oig Gjvjbc}`jiw" ‘ZIDWOG Hoigacck cf Twowltwldt 1=??“"

Zilwjg Iowlcit" Ij~ \ck oig Njijvo" 1=??)8 Aotjg ci @dDc`ldk" G) (1==?," Njjffl" N) jw ob) (1==4, Whj Nbcaob O}}ojb Vobzj Dholi5 ^how ]ct}jdwt fc 

Z}noglin a| Gjvjbc}lin Dcziwljt3 ZILGC5 Vljiio oig ]oi" E) (1==8, Nbcaob Dcwwci oig Wjxwlbj ]cgzdw Dholit5

Lgjiwlf|lin dhobbjinjt oig c}}cwzilwljt fc Dhlio whcznh o nbcaob dc``cglw| dholi tztwolioalblw| oiob|tlt) Liwjiowlciob

Litwlwzwj fc Tztwolioabj Gjvjbc}`jiw (LLTG,5 @oilwcao; Gjvooeo" W)T)" Ligloi Wjxwlbj oig No`jiw Ligztw| — Oi

Cvjvlj~ (Hottoi" Liglo5 Zilvjtlw| cf @|tcj" @o| 1=??,) < Lalg) ?= Whj Liwjiowlciob Aoik fc Qjdcitwzdwlci oig Gjvjbc}`jiw" 1==8)

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?:

Lidjotlinb|" fothlci jwolbjt hovj ajji dhoinlin whjl dcbbjdwlcit `cj fjqzjiwb|" fc` oaczw w~c

wc whjj dcbbjdwlcit o |jo" z} wc ot `oi| ot jlnhw dcbbjdwlcit o |jo) Azbk cgjt hovj `ogj ~o|

fc t`obbj" `cj fjqzjiw cgjt whow ijjg wc jodh whj twcjt ~lwhli whj thcwjtw }cttlabj wl`j

fo`j) Whlt lidjotjg }jttzj ci bjog wl`jt bjogt wc bcin ~cklin hczt" (zi}olg, cvjwl`j oig litc`j dotjt fcdjg boacz)

1)1) Whj Wo`lb Iogz wjxwlbj oig noq`jiw ligztwq|

Wo`lb Iogz lt whj bonjtw }cgzdj cf dcwwci |oi ~lwhli Liglo" oig hc`j wc 77* cf obb alnnj Ligloi

t}liilin `lbbt oig 8=* cf whj t`obbj `lbbt)?? Wo`lb Iogz hot obtc j`jnjg ot o nbcaob tczdlin

hza fc jog|-`ogj no`jiwt" ijxw wc no`jiw }cgzdlin hzat li oig oczig Ij~ Gjbhl"

Aoinobcj oig @z`aol) Dbcwhlin }cgzdjg li Wo`lb Iogz lt `olib| gjtwlijg fc whj bc~ oig `lggbj

}ldj tjn`jiwt cf whj fothlci oig jwolb `okjw)

?? Ncvji`jiw cf Wo`lb Iogz" Gj}ow`jiw cf Hoigbcc`t oig Wjxwlbjt ~jatlwj" ‘Wjxwlbj tjdwc“" ic gowj"

2hww}5##~~~)wi)ncv)li#hhwk#ghw#ghw-wjxwlbj)hw  9 (?: Fjazo| 1=?1,)

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@olg li Liglo

?6

Li `ctw dotjt whj t}liilin" ~jovlin" abjodhlin" g|jlin oig no`jiwlin wokj }bodj li tj}oowj"

t}jdlobltjg }boiwt) Ogglwlciobb|" whjj oj oczig o gcuji `oizfodwzjt whow dc`alij obb whjtj

odwlvlwljt ~lwhli whjl }boiwt) Whjtj vjwldobb| liwjnowjg `oizfodwzjt }jfc` obb twonjt cf wjxwlbjoig no`jiw }cgzdwlci; fc` }cdjttlin whj o~ dcwwci wc flilthlin whj no`jiwt) Jiwj}jijzt

hovj djowjg o ~ja cf t`obbj zilwt obb ijw~ckjg o`cin jodh cwhj wc tzdh o gjnjj whow jodh

zilw tz}}bljt oicwhj)?1 Whj dcidjiwowlci cf ovolboabj tjvldjt (t}liilin" ~jovlin" g|jlin oig

no`jiwlin, `okjt Wo`lb Iogz o dc`}jwlwlvj }cgzdwlci djiwj)

Hcluciwob liwjnowlci lt obtc fczig o`cin Wo`lb Iogz no`jiw }cgzdjt) Whlt `joit whow whj

to`j w|}j cf }cgzdwlci wokjt }bodj li `oi| glffjjiw zilwt zigj o tlinbj fl`) Fc jxo`}bj" cij

dc`}oi| `o| c}jowj volczt no`jiwlin zilwt" zigj glffjjiw io`jt) Whj glffjjiw }cgzdwlci

fodlblwljt oj jnltwjjg ot tj}oowj zilwt" gjt}lwj dc``ci c~ijthl})?4 Ot Vjlwì ~lwjt li lwt

j}cw ‘Hjb} ^oiwjg5 Hllin" Hz`oi Woffldklin oig @cgji-Go| Tbovj| li whj Nbcaob Jdcic`|“5 

‘Fl`t ~hldh oj jx}oiglin tl`}b| jnltwj t}owlobb| tj}oowj fzwhj zilwt cf }cgzdwlci

(gjt}lwj dc``ci c~ijthl}," whzt nlvlin whj tc`j~how gltwcwjg l`}jttlci cf oi ligztw|

dc`}ctjg tcbjb| cf t`obb oig `jglz` tlujg liglvlgzob fl`t)

Bonj zilwt jidcziwj njowj glffldzbw| ogeztwlin wc nbcaob `okjw thlfwt" oig `oi|

liglvlgzobb| jnltwjjg t`obbj zilwt zigj whj z`ajbbo cf o bonj fl` hovj whj fbjxlab| wc

`jjw cgjt whow vo| gotwldobb| li qzoiwlw|) Boac dctwt oj obtc jgzdjg tlidj bo~t

offcglin ajijflwt oig boac }cwjdwlci oj o}}bljg glffjjiwb| (c gc icw o}}b| ow obb, wc

t`obbj zilwt) T`obb zilwt ~lwh ?==-1== `odhlijt oj `cj onlbj oig oabj wc hoigbj acwh

t`obb-aowdh cgjt oig bonj cgjt" oig jvji o t`obb zilw doi fzbflb bonj cgjt a|

zwlblulin whj hzigjgt cf cwhj zilwt wc tzadciwodw)“?7 

Li whj }otw |jot" whj Wo`lb Iogz no`jiw ligztw| hot ajji fodlin tjlczt dhobbjinjt ot `oi|g|jlin oig abjodhlin zilwt ~jj dbctjg gc~i fcbbc~lin oi cgj cf whj @ogot Hlnh Dczw cf 18

Fjazo| 1=??) @cj whoi >== zilwt ~jj thzw gc~i fc icw dc`}b|lin ~lwh }cbbzwlci dciwcb

ic`t)?: Ot o dcitjqzjidj" no`jiw }cgzdjt hovj hog wc jtcw wc g|jt oig abjodhjt fc`

cwhj jnlcit jtzbwlin li hlnhj woit}cwowlci dctwt oig dcitjqzjiwb| hlnhj }cgzdwlci dctwt)

Li ogglwlci" Liglo lt fodlin fljdj dc`}jwlwlci fc` Dhlio oig Aoinbogjth) Az|jt oj lidjotlinb|

dhcctlin Aoinbogjth oig Dhlio cvj Liglo) Ot oj jtzbw Wo`lb Iogz no`jiw jx}cwjt oj fodlin

gjdblilin cgjt)

?1Vjlwì" ‘Hjb} oiwjg5 Hllin" Hz`oi Woffldklin oig @cgji-Go| Tbovj| li whj Nbcaob Jdcic`|) Qjnlciob Qj}cw -

Ligloi ckjt li Gc`jtwld Wjxwlbj ]cgzdwlci oig @lggbj Jotw-Aotjg @oizfodwzlin" Lifotwzdwzj oig Dcitwzdwlci)“ 

Ezij 1=?=" } ?7)-?:)?4 Gjvooeo" W)T)" Ligloi Wjxwlbj oig No`jiw Ligztw| — Oi Cvjvlj~ (Hottoi" Liglo5 Zilvjtlw| cf @|tcj" @o| 1=??,)?7 Lalg)?:  Whj Hligz" ‘G|jt tza`lw fjth }c}ctobt fc odhljvlin ujc blqzlg gltdhonj“" ?4 Fjazo| 1=?1"

2hww}5##~~~)whjhligz)dc`#ij~t#twowjt#wo lb-iogz#owldbj18867::)jdj 9

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?>

Tz}}b| dholi wqoit}oqjid| 

Dbcwhlin aoigt oig jwolbjt tczdj fc` hzigjgt z} wc whcztoigt cf tz}}bljt" t}jog odctt

whj ~cbg) Li Wo`lb Iogz obcij" whj| oj blkjb| wc gjob ~lwh gcujit cf tz}}b|lin fodwcljt) Ow whj

cwhj tlgj cf whj t}jdwz`" whj tz}}b| fodwcljt li Wo`lb Iogz do| czw }cgzdwlci fc o bonj ncz}cf Jzc}joi oig O`jldoi dbcwhlin aoigt oig jwolbjt)

Lw lt icw jot| wc jtwoablth whj blikt ajw~jji whj Wo`lb Iogz aotjg no`jiw `oizfodwzjt oig whjl 

Jzc}joi oig O`jldoi dbljiwjbj) Jxdj}w fc o hoigfzb cf fciwziijt" gltdbctzj cf tz}}blj 

lifc`owlci lt twlbb o oj }odwldj o`cin no`jiw dc`}oiljt) Ijlwhj gc whj Tczwh Ligloi

`oizfodwzjt joglb| }cvlgj lifc`owlci oaczw whjl dztwc`j aotj) Li cgj wc jtwoablth whj

jbowlcit ajw~jji whj jtjodhjg `oizfodwzjt oig whjl az|jt" TC@C oig LDI oiob|tjg jx}cw

gowo fc` Wzwldcli oig @ogot (Dhjiiol, }cwt) Whj oiob|tjg jx}cw gowo thc~ whow dc`}oiljt

tczdlin fc` Wo`lb Iogz lidbzgj nloiw jwolbjt tzdh ot K`ow" Wjtdc oig @lnct; gj}ow`jiw

twcjt tzdh ot @okt & T}jidj oig D&O; fothlci aoigt blkj Qob}h Bozji" Wc``| Hlbflnj oig

Gljtjb; (fotw, fothlci jwolbjt lidbzglin Liglwjx oig ]l`ok oig az|lin hcztjt tzdh ot D|twob@owli) Aoigt oig jwolbjt tczdj fc` acwh vjwldobb| liwjnowjg `oizfodwzjt oig fc`

tj}oowj no`jiw fodwcljt whow li wzi tczdj fc` whj whcztoigt cf t`obb oig alnnj t}liilin

`lbbt whow oj bcdowjg li Wo`lb Iogz) Obb dc`}oiljt `jiwlcijg li whj }jtjiw j}cw ~jj fczig wc

aj tczdlin fc` whj fcz vjwldobb| liwjnowjg `oizfodwzjt whow fjowzj li whlt j}cw) Lw lt"

hc~jvj" ijob| l`}cttlabj wc jtwoablth whj blikt ajw~jji whj ligj}jigjiw t}liilin `lbbt oig whj

no`jiw fodwcljt tczdlin fc` whjtj fl`t)

1)4) J`}bc|`jiw oig boaczq }qodwldjt li whj Wo`lb Iogz wjxwlbj oig

noq`jiw ligztwq|

1)4)?) J`}bc|`jiw tdhj`jt oig qjdqzlw`jiw }qodwldjt 

Ajdoztj cf boacz thcwonjt oig hlnh wzicvj owjt" Wo`lb Iogz wjxwlbj oig no`jiw }cgzdjt

hovj liwcgzdjg volczt j`}bc|`jiw tdhj`jt li cgj wc jitzj whj jwjiwlci cf tzffldljiw

~ckjt)

Li `oi| dotjt whlt jiwolbt `zbwl-|jo ooinj`jiwt) Ofwj whj jig cf whj onjj`jiw" ~hldh ztzobb|

botwt fc whjj wc flvj |jot" ~ckjt bjovj whj fodwc|) ^ckjt whow dc`j fc` cwhj gltwldwt c 

twowjt ztzobb| dc`j wc blvj li gc`lwcljt (hctwjbt, whow oj jlwhj c~ijg a| whj fodwc| c c}jowjg

a| o whlg }ow|) Oczig 7=* cf whj ~ckfcdj jtlgjt li whjtj hctwjbt; whj| oj jfjjg wc ot do`}

dccbljt) Lw lt li whj liwjjtw cf whj `oizfodwzjt wc hovj o tzatwoiwlob }ow cf whjl boacz fcdj

jtlglin ci whj fodwc| nczigt (c li hctwjbt ijo whj fodwc|, tc whow whj| oj jitzjg cf o

dcitwoiw tz}}b| cf boacz) T}liilin `lbbt c}jowj 17 hczt o go| oig ~ckjt oj ijjgjg oczig

whj dbcdk wc kjj} whj `odhlijt nclin)

Qjdqzlw`jiw

Qjdzlw`jiw lt wonjwjg ow |czin" `ctwb| zi`oljg" ~c`ji oig nlbt" onjg ajw~jji ?7 oig 1:)

Whj `oeclw| cf whjtj ~ckjt hovj o Goblw (tc-dobbjg tdhjgzbjg dotwjt, c cwhj bc~ dotwj

aodknczig oig dc`j fc` }cc" cfwji boigbjtt oig ligjawjg fo`lbljt whow gj}jig ci ljnzbo 

lidc`j joijg ot onldzbwzob dccbljt li whj g| tczwh cf Wo`lb Iogz) C}hoit oig dhlbgji cf 

tlinbj }ojiwt oj obtc wonjwjg) ^hji fjj jgzdowlci jigt ow whj 8wh nogj (ow whj onj cf 

fczwjji, }ojiwt c jbowlvjt bodk whj `joit wc jicb dhlbgji li tdhccb) Onjiwt whow jdzlw fc 

t}liilin `lbbt c no`jiw fodwcljt oj o~oj cf whj tlwzowlci oig `o| o}}codh }cc fo`lbljt owwhlt }jdltj wl`j) Ackjt dcivlidj }ojiwt wc tjig whjl goznhwjt wc whj wjxwlbj oig no`jiw

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?8

fodwcljt ~lwh }c`ltjt cf o ~jbb-}olg eca" dc`fcwoabj oddc``cgowlci" whjj izwlwlczt `jobt o go|

oig c}}cwzilwljt fc wolilin oig tdhccblin) Dbcwhjt oig hcztjhcbg owldbjt oj obtc nlvji wc

owwodw whj }ojiwt) Tjiglin whj nlbt wc ~ck li whj `lbbt ~hjj whj| ~lbb jdjlvj golb| `jobt lt o

jbljf fc whj hcztjhcbg; whj (t`obb, lidc`j nlbt alin li lt o `zdh ijjgjg ogglwlci wc whj `joit cf whj fo`lb|) Whj bz`} tz` cffjjg wc whj nlbt lt o ~o| wc `jjw whj tcdlob }jttzj wc }zdhotj

 ej~jbt fc whjl goznhwjt“ `olonj)

^ckjt oj jdzlwjg whcznh o ijw~ck cf ackjt t}jog odctt whj twowj cf Wo`lb Iogz) @oi|

fodwc| azt glvjt obtc odw ot ackjt) Li tc`j dotjt" ~ckjt oj j`}bc|jg whcznh o boacz 

onjid|) Fc whjl jdzlw`jiw o ackj ~lbb jdjlvj :== wc ?"=== Qz}jjt (oczig ₢> - ₢?:,?6 fc 

jodh ~ckj hj c thj alint wc whj fodwc|) Qjdzlw`jiw wokjt }bodj whcznhczw whj |jo) O oinj

cf lidjiwlvjt" flioidlob oig cwhj~ltj" oj li }bodj wc `cwlvowj jdzlwjt wc alin li ij~ ~ckjt"

jt}jdlobb| gzlin }cgzdwlci }jokt) Li cgj wc dcivlidj whj nlbt oig whjl }ojiwt" jdzlwjt

}jtjiw whj gjob ot owwodwlvjb| ot }cttlabj) Whj }c`ltjt oj icw ~lwwji gc~i oig cib| cidj whj

nlbt jiwj whj fodwcljt gcjt lw ajdc`j dbjo whow `oi| }c`ltjt ~lbb ijvj aj fzbflbbjg)

^ckjt oj jdzlwjg fc` obb cvj Wo`lb Iogz) Whj dhoidjt cf bcdob `ji oig ~c`ji wc flig

j`}bc|`jiw li ijoa| wjxwlbj oig no`jiw fodwcljt oj gjdjotlin) Cvj whj botw |jo jdzlw`jiw

fc` cwhj twowjt hot lidjotjg) @lnoiwt fc` Oigho ]ogjth" Alho" Koiowoko" Kjobo" Cltto"

@oil}z oig @jnhobo|o oj jdzlwjg wc ~ck li whj Wo`lb Iogz t}liilin `lbbt oig no`jiw

fodwcljt) O Wo`lb boinzonj ij~t}o}j owldbj jtwl`owjt whow li Wlz}z gltwldw obcij whj iz`aj cf 

`lnoiwt fc` Icwhji twowjt ~hc ~ck li whj wjxwlbj oig no`jiw fodwcljt jxdjjgt ?==)===)?> 

Whjtj ~ckjt cfwji gc icw t}jok whj bcdob boinzonj oig hovj ic fo`lb| c fljigt ijoa| ~hc`

whj| doi jtcw wc lf whj| jidcziwj }cabj`t) Whj gj}jigjid| cf whj ~c`ji ~ckjt ci whjl 

j`}bc|jt hot whjjfcj lidjotjg)

?6 Fc whlt j}cw whj fcbbc~lin jxdhoinj owj hot ajji ztjg5 ? Ligloi Qz}jj 0 =)=?:4674 Jzc (jxdhoinj owj cf ?7Fjazo| 1=?1,) Whj ~jatlwj ~~~)xj)dc` ~ot ztjg li cgj wc gjwj`lij whj jxdhoinj owj)

?>  ‒Whliowhoiwhl‐ " =1)=7)1=?1 

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?<

Twowj `lnqowlci

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1=

Gltwqldw `lnqowlci

Whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j

Whj Wo`lb ~cg ‘Tz`oinobl“ jfjt wc o `oljg ~c`oi ~hc blvjt o ho}}| oig dciwjiwjg blfj ~lwh

hj hztaoig ~lwh obb nccg fcwzijt oig `owjlob ajijflwt) ^ckjt zigj whlt tdhj`j oj jdzlwjg

~lwh whj }c`ltj whow whj| ~lbb jdjlvj o dcitlgjoabj o`cziw cf `cij| ofwj dc`}bjwlci cf whjj wc

flvj |jot cf j`}bc|`jiw) Whlt o`cziw dczbg aj ztjg wc }o| fc o gc~|) Li whlt j}cw" whjtj

~ckjt oj jfjjg wc ot ‘tdhj`j ~ckjt“)

Whj bz`} tz` o`cziw whow ~ckjt `o| jdjlvj ow whj jig cf whj }jlcg voljt fc` Qt) 4="===

(₢76=, wc Qt) :6"=== (₢86=, fc whjj |jot) Ajtlgjt whlt o`cziw" wc aj }olg ow whj jig cf whj

dciwodw }jlcg" Tz`oinobl ~ckjt jdjlvj o `ciwhb| twl}jig) Whlt twl}jig voljt njowb| fc`

fodwc| wc fodwc|) Liwjvlj~jg ~ckjt j}cwjg `ciwhb| ~onjt fc` oczig <== Qz}jjt (₢?7, wc

4:== Qz}jjt (₢:7,) Lf whj bz`} tz` lt oggjg wc whj `ciwhb| ~onjt" whj wcwob o`cziw joijg li whj

dciwodw }jlcg li `ctw dotjt gcjt icw jqzob whj o`cziw o ~ckj ~czbg hovj joijg lf thj hogjdjlvjg whj `lil`z` ~onj fc oi o}}jiwldj li whj no`jiw ligztw|)

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1?

Whj bz`} tz` o`cziw ~lbb li `ctw dotjt cib| aj }olg czw ofwj dc`}bjwlci cf o }jlcg cf whjj wc

flvj |jot) Li cgj wc jdjlvj whjl ~onjt" Tz`oinobl ~ckjt oj whzt fcdjg wc two| ~lwh o fodwc|

fc obb whjtj |jot) Li `oi| dotjt" ~ckjt ijvj jdjlvj whj bz`} tz`" ic }ow cf lw) Bcdob }owij cnoiltowlcit cf TC@C oig LDI gcdz`jiwjg 6:1 dotjt ~hjj whj bz`} tz` hot icw ajji }olg)

Whj bz`} tz` }o|`jiw lt gjiljg lf o ~ckj bjovjt whj fodwc| ajfcj whj jig cf whj dciwodw

}jlcg) @oi| ~ckjt gc icw jodh whj whjj c flvj |jo `ok ot whj| fobb tldk gzj wc whj zihjobwh|

oig zitofj ~cklin dciglwlcit oig whj jxwj`jb| bcin ~cklin go|t) Tc`jwl`jt ~ckjt oj fljg

 eztw ajfcj whj jig cf whj }jlcg" zigj tc`j fjjabj }jwjxw) Li cwhj dotjt Tz`oinobl ~ckjt oj

dhjowjg czw cf whjl bz`} tz` }o|`jiw ajdoztj whj| doiicw c}ji o aoik oddcziw tlidj whj| oj

icw ?8 |jw) Whjj oj gcdz`jiwjg dotjt ~hjja| ~ckjt hovj wc dciwlizj ~cklin jvji whcznh

whj onjjg }jlcg hot ajji dc`}bjwjg zigj whj }jwjxw whow whj| hovj icw dc`}bjwjg obb whjl 

‘tjvldjt“) Li `oi| t}liilin `lbbt ~ckjt hovj wc dc`}bjwj o djwoli iz`aj cf ‘tjvldjt“) Cij

tjvldj lt 16 go|t (cij `ciwh,) Lf o ~ckj lt oatjiw fc cij go|" whj dciwodw }jlcg ~lbb aj

jxwjigjg ~lwh ? tjvldj (16 go|t, li cgj wc aj jblnlabj fc whj bz`} tz` }o|`jiw)?8 

Tlidj whj jtjodh cf TC@C oig LDI li 1=??" `oi| fodwcljt hovj jxwjigjg whj tdhj`j }jlcg

fc` whjj wc flvj |jot)

Goblwt

 Ob`ctw 6=* cf whj nlbt ~cklin zigj whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj j ajbcin wc whj ‘Tdhjgzbjg Dotwjt“ c 

‘ziwczdhoabjt“) Goblwt" ot whj| dobb whj`tjbvjt" `okj z} ijob| cij flfwh cf whj }c}zbowlci li Liglo) Whj dotwj

t|twj` glvlgjt }jc}bj ci whj aotlt cf alwh liwc zijqzob oig hljodhldob tcdlob ncz}t) Gc`lioiw dotwjt

jiec| whj `ctw lnhwt oig bjotw gzwljt" ~hlbj whctj ow whj acwwc`  — whj Goblwt — li }odwldj hovj fj~ c ic

lnhwt) Whj jxdbztlci cf Goblwt hot bjg wc hlnh bjvjbt cf }cvjw| oig ligjawjgijtt) @oi| cf whj nlbt ~cklin

zigj whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j oj Oziwhowhl|ot; whj bc~jtw ncz} li whj hljodh| c ‘Goblwt o`cin whjGoblwt“) ^hlbj Oziwhowl|ot gc icw hovj o woglwlci cf }o|lin o gc~|" |czin nlbt tjj o `olonj ~lwh o

gc~| ot oi c}}cwzilw| wc twow o ij~ oig ajwwj blfj)?<

 

Woglwlciobb| whj| oj dc`}jbbjg wc gc ecat tzdh ot `oizob tdovjinlin" j`cvob cf gjog dowwbj oig az|lin

gjog acgljt c ajdc`lin ‘dccbljt“" onldzbwzob go| boaczjt) Whj no`jiw ligztw| lt oi jxdj}wlci wc whlt;

dotwj gcjt icw odw ot o aolj wc oddjtt whj ligztw|) Tz}jvltct oig `oionjt oj `ctwb| ici-Goblwt"

~hlbtw whj Oziwhowhl|ot" whj bc~jtw oiklin Goblwt" j`oli li whj bjotw owwodwlvj ecat) Fzwhj`cj" Goblw

nlbt#~c`ji hovj dc`}bolijg whow (`obj, tz}jvltct ajbcinlin wc gc`lioiw dotwjt tdcbg whj` tjvjjb| fc 

`lic `ltwokjt; azw ~jj kligj wc~ogt whj cwhj nlbt)1=

 

Iz`ajqt ajhlig whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j

Gjt}lwj lilwlowlvjt cf aoigt" jwolbjt oig `oizfodwzjt wc }hotj czw whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j"

jtjodh fc whlt j}cw fczig whjj twlbb lt o hznj iz`aj cf nlbt oig ~c`ji ~cklin zigj whj

Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j) Fc whlt j}cw o `o}}lin ~ot gcij wc lgjiwlf| t}liilin `lbbt oig no`jiw

fodwcljt ztlin whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j li Wlz}z" Jcgj" Gliglnzb oig Dcl`aowcj gltwldwt) Whj

woabj ajbc~ thc~t whj jtzbwt cf whlt `o}}lin)

?8 .Oiwhcbcn| cf Tz`oinobl Dotj Twzgljt 1=?=-1=??." Wlz}z ]jc}bj.t Fcz` fc ]cwjdwlci cf Jivlci`jiw oig Boacz 

Qlnhwt" fcwhdc`lin)?<  ‘W-thlwt oig Wz`abjt“; Dot~jbb" N); Hj|j" E); Ijvj" N) gj) Bccklin aj|cig whj ligztwlob dbztwj5 whj l`}odwt cf o tczwh

Ligloi no`jiw dbztwj ci zob blvjblhccgt (1=?=,) 1=  KFA Oztwlo" ‘Ogvcdod| Twzg| ci whj L`}odw cf whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j ci whj Ogcbjtdjiw Nlbt fc` Qzob Ojot cf 

Tczwhji Wo`lb Iogz“) 

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11

Gltwqldw Wcwob iz`ajq

cf fodwcqljt

Fodwcqljt ~lwh Tz`oinobl

Tdhj`j ]qodwldjt

Iz`ajq cf ~c`ji

~cqkjqt li tdhj`j

}qodwldjt

Wlz}z # T}liilin @lbbt ?4= >> 1="===

Jcgj # T}liilin @lbbt ?:> 64 11">==

Jcgj No`jiw Ligztw| ?< > 6":==

Gliglnzb # T}liilin @lbbt ?66 :1 18"?4:

Dcl`aowcj # Oiiz abcdk% ?1? <1 1?">6:

Wcwob  :<4 1<? <<"?==

% Cib| whj Oiiz Abcdk li Dcl`aowcj ~ot lidbzgjg li whj tzvj|) Lw lt jtwl`owjg whow whj iz`aj cf fodwcljt ztlin

whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j li whj ~hcbj gltwldw cf Dcl`aowcj `lnhw aj whjj wl`jt ot hlnh ot whj iz`aj lidbzgjg li

whj woabj)

O}}qjiwldjthl} tdhj`j# wqolilin tdhj`j

Zigj whj o}}jiwldjthl} c wolilin tdhj`j" ~ckjt oj j`}bc|jg ot ‘o}}jiwldjt“) Whjtj

~ckjt jlwhj blvj li whj fodwc| hctwjbt c whj| dc``zwj ajw~jji fodwc| oig hc`j) O}}jiwldjt

`o| obtc aj j`}bc|jg zigj whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j) Bcdob bo~ obbc~t wjxwlbj oig no`jiw

`oizfodwzjt wc j`}bc| ~ckjt ot o}}jiwldjt fc o `oxl`z` }jlcg cf whjj |jot ~hlbj li whj

jtw cf Liglo whj o}}jiwldjthl} }jlcg lt bl`lwjg wc o `oxl`z` cf cij |jo) Hllin ~ckjt ot

o}}jiwldjt `joit whow whj j`}bc|j doi }o| whjtj ~ckjt oi .o}}jiwldjthl} ~onj.)

Fzwhj`cj" o}}jiwldjt oj jxdbzgjg fc` whj }cwjdwlci cf `ctw boacz bo~t) Whj O}}jiwldjthl}

 Odw twowjt whj fcbbc~lin5 ‘Oi| bo~ ~lwh jt}jdw wc boacz thobb" jxdj}w fc whj }cvltlcit cf Dho}wjt

LLL" LV oig V cf whj Fodwcljt Odw ?<78 (hjobwh" tofjw| oig ~jbfoj cf whj o}}jiwldj," icw o}}b| wc c 

li jbowlci wc oi o}}jiwldj)“ O}}jiwldjt doi whzt aj }olg bc~j ~onjt oig whj| jiec| fj~j lnhwt

whoi jnzbo ~ckjt)

Whj fljbg jtjodh doljg czw fc whlt j}cw thc~t whow ~ckjt j`}bc|jg zigj whlt tdhj`j

doiicw aj dcitlgjjg ot o}}jiwldjt) Oddcglin wc whj O}}jiwldjthl} Odw" o ~ckj doi aj

qzoblfljg ot oi o}}jiwldj lf whj j`}bc|j `oliwolit o jdcg cf whj wolilin cf whj o}}jiwldj oig

lttzjt o djwlfldowj cf }cfldljid| ofwj whj o}}jiwldj }ottjt o wjtw ow whj jig cf whj wolilin }jlcg)

Whj liwjvlj~jg ~ckjt tolg whow whj| gc icw fcbbc~ oi| wolilin c dcztjt ic gc whj| hovj wc gc

o wjtw ofwj dc`}bjwlci cf whj wolilin }jlcg) Icij cf whj liwjvlj~jg jx-~ckjt jdjlvjg o

djwlfldowj cf }cfldljid|)

1)4)1) Boaczq dciglwlcit li whj Wo`lb Iogz wjxwlbj oig noq`jiw ligztwq| 

Dciwqodwt# fobtj }qc`ltjt

Li `ctw dotjt whjj lt ic ~lwwji onjj`jiw dciwolilin whj }c`ltjt `ogj gzlin jdzlw`jiw)

@cjcvj" `oi| ~ckjt ~hc oj jdzlwjg zigj whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j oj zigj whj l`}jttlci

whow whj }c`ltjg bz`} tz` }o|`jiw lt o acizt" ~hlbj li fodw whj bz`} tz` }o|`jiw dcitltwt cf 

~lwhhjbg ~onjt)

^ckjt cfwji gc icw jdjlvj o dciwodw" bjovlin whj` ~lwhczw oi| }ccf cf ~how hot ajji

}c`ltjg) Tc`jwl`jt ~ckjt jdjlvj o dciwodw li o boinzonj whow whj| gc icw zigjtwoig)

 O 1=?? twzg| a| o bcdob INC ~lwh whj tz}}cw cf KFA Oztwlo thc~jg whow o`cin ?648 Tz`oinobl

~ckjt cib| 6=)>7* cf whj ~ckjt hog tlnijg o dciwodw" oig whow oi cvj~hjb`lin `oeclw| cf 

whjtj ~ckjt (<6)?*, glg icw jdjlvj o dc}| cf whj dciwodw)1?

 

1?  KFA Oztwlo" ‘Ogvcdod| Twzg| ci whj L`}odw cf whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j ci whj Ogcbjtdjiw Nlbt fc` Qzob Ojot cf 

Tczwhji Wo`lb Iogz“" Wlzijbvjbl" Liglo" 1=??) 

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14

J`}bc|`jiw cf dhlbgqji

Dhlbg boacz lt fcalggji a| bo~ li Liglo) Oddcglin wc whj Ligloi Dcitwlwzwlci cf ?<7<" ‘Ic dhlbg

ajbc~ whj onj cf fczwjji |jot thobb aj j`}bc|jg li ~ck li oi| fodwc| c `lij c jinonjg li oi|

cwhj houogczt j`}bc|`jiw“) Lw lt glffldzbw wc otdjwoli whj iz`aj cf dhlbg boaczjt li whj Wo`lbIogz wjxwlbjt oig no`jiw ligztw|) @oi| ~ckjt gc icw hovj lgjiwlw| }o}jt oig whzt ic }ccf cf 

whjl onj) ^hji whj| jiwj whj fodwc| whj| oj tzaejdwjg wc o `jgldob jxo`liowlci a| whj fodwc|“t

`jgldob twoff) Lidlgjiwt hovj ajji j}cwjg ~hjja| whj `jgldob twofft go~ z} `jgldob j}cwt

~lwh fobtj onj gjwolbt cf whj ~ckjt c whj jdzlwj }cvlgjt fodwc| `oionj`jiw ~lwh o fobtlfljg

`jgldob gcdz`jiw)

 O twzg| a| o bcdob INC tz}}cwjg a| KFA Oztwlo thc~t whow czw cf o to`}bj cf ?648 Tz`oinobl

~ckjt" ?8* ~jj |czinj whoi ?: ow whj wl`j whj| jiwjjg whj fodwc|)11

O twzg| a| Q) No|owhl

cf whj Ahoowhlgotoi Zilvjtlw| dcifl`t whlt }jdjiwonj)14

Whj }cabj` cf dhlbg boacz lt jvji

njowj oddcglin wc liwjiowlciob ic`t) Oddcglin wc whj LBC Dcivjiwlci ci whj ^ctw Fc`t cf 

Dhlbg Boacz" ~ckjt zigj ?8 ~hc }jfc` ~ck whow lt blkjb| wc ho` whjl ‘hjobwh" tofjw| cf `cobt“ oj dhlbg boaczjt) Whlt lidbzgjt ‘~ck zigj }owldzbob| glffldzbw dciglwlcit tzdh ot ~ck

fc bcin hczt c gzlin whj ilnhw c ~ck ~hjj whj dhlbg lt zijotcioab| dciflijg wc whj }j`ltjt

cf whj j`}bc|j“)17 Whj bcin ~cklin hczt" whj dciflij`jiw cf whj nlbt li hctwjbt oig whj ijnowlvj

hjobwh dcitjqzjidjt cf ~cklin li whj t}liilin `lbbt oig no`jiw fodwcljt `joi whow obb whj nlbt

onjg ajw~jji ?7 oig ?8 oj dhlbg boaczjt oddcglin wc whj LBC gjflilwlci) Li whj KFA to`}bj"

6=* cf whj ~ckjt oj onjg ajw~jji ?: oig ?8) Li wcwob ob`ctw 8=* cf whj ~ckjt liwjvlj~jg

fc whlt twzg| oj dhlbg boaczjt zigj whj LBC gjflilwlci) 1:

 

Fcqdjg oig jxdjttlvj cvjq~cqk

Jxwj`jb| bcin ~cklin go|t oig fcdjg cvjwl`j oj o`cin whj `ctw }jttlin lttzjt li whj Wo`lb

Iogz wjxwlbj oig no`jiw ligztw|) Fcz hczt cf dc`}zbtc| cvjwl`j ~ck o go| lt dc``ci"

ljt}jdwlvj cf whj tjotci cf aztlijtt) Gzlin }cgzdwlci }jokt" ~ckjt oj fcdjg wc dc`}bjwj

w~c thlfwt (?6 hczt, c jvji whjj thlfwt (17 hczt, li o c~) ^ckjt obtc j}cwjg whow whj| oj

fjqzjiwb| ~ckji z} li whj `lggbj cf whj ilnhw wc dc`}bjwj znjiw cgjt) @oi| cf whj liwjvlj~jg

~ckjt tolg whow ~cklin ilnhw thlfwt lt cij cf whj `ctw glffldzbw ot}jdwt cf whjl eca) ^ckjt hovj

glffldzbwljt two|lin o~okj oig jct oj `cj jotlb| `ogj ~hldh `o| bjog wc oaztlvj wjow`jiw a|

whj tz}jvltc c ~ck jbowjg oddlgjiwt)

Hctwjb ~ckjt li }owldzbo oj jxwj`jb| vzbijoabj wc aj tzaejdwjg wc jxdjttlvj oig fcdjg

cvjwl`j ~ck) Qjfztlin cvjwl`j ~ck lt icw oi c}wlci ot whj tz}jvltct }zw }jttzj ci whj

~ckjt wc kjj} ci ~cklin) Whjowt ztjg a| tz}jvltct lidbzgj whow }ow cf whj ~onj ~lbb aj

~lwhhjbg lf ~ckjt gc icw dciwlizj ~cklin c whow whj| ~lbb dobb whj ~ckjt“ }ojiwt oig lifc`

whj` oaczw whjl goznhwjt“ aog ajhovlcz) Li ogglwlci" Tz`oinobl ~ckjt fjo whow whj| ~lbb bctj

whjl bz`} tz` o`cziw lf whj| gc icw gc ot whj tz}jvltct wjbb whj`) ^ckjt ~hc two| li

gc`lwcljt czwtlgj cf whj fodwc| oj tl`}b| icw }h|tldobb| oabj wc njw czw cf ~ck" ot aztjt ~lbb icw

aj }j`lwwjg wc bjovj ziwlb whj ~ck lt flilthjg)

11  KFA Oztwlo" ‘Ogvcdod| Twzg| ci whj L`}odw cf whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j ci whj Ogcbjtdjiw Nlbt fc` Qzob Ojot cf 

Tczwhji Wo`lb Iogz“) 14

Q) No|owhl" ‘ O Twzg| ci Lttzjt cf Ogcbjtdjiw Nlbt li Do`} Boacz Tdhj`j li Wjxwlbj Tjdwc “" Ahoowhlgotoi

Zilvjtlw|" Gj}ow`jiw cf Jdcic`ldt" @odh 1=?1)17  LBC Qjdc``jigowlci ?<= ‘Qjdc``jigowlci dcidjilin whj }chlalwlci oig l``jglowj odwlci fc whj jbl`liowlci cf whj

~ctw fc`t cf dhlbg boacz“ ?<<<) hww}5##~~~)lbc)cn#lbcbjx#dnl-bjx#dcivgj)}b3Q?<= 1:  KFA Oztwlo ‘Ogvcdod| Twzg| ci whj L`}odw cf whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j ci whj Ogcbjtdjiw Nlbt fc` Qzob Ojot cf 

Tczwhji Wo`lb Iogz“ 1=??) 

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Bc~ ~onjt

Ajdoztj cf ci-nclin gjblajowlcit ajw~jji wogj zilcit oig `oizfodwzjt" whjj lt ic

jtwoablthjg `lil`z` ~onj fc ~ckjt li whj wjxwlbj oig no`jiw ligztw| li Wo`lb Iogz) Li 1==8

whj Wo`lb Iogz Twowj Ncvji`jiw tjw whj `lil`z` ~onjt fc o}}jiwldjt li whj `lbbt ow Qt) ?87(₢1)84, o go| ~lwh whj vlj~ wc jig whj jx}bclwowlci cf |czin ~c`ji ~cklin ot ‘o}}jiwldjt“)

16 

Whjj oj ic `lil`z` ~onjt fc jnzbo ~ckjt) Azw fcbbc~lin whj bcnld whow `cj jx}jljidjg

~ckjt joi `cj whoi o}}jiwldjt; whj ottz`}wlci lt whow ~onjt thczbg lidjotj ~hji whj

o}}jiwldj }jlcg hot jigjg) Dc`}jitowlci fc cvjwl`j (gczabj ~onjt oddcglin wc whj bo~, lt

tjbgc` }olg)

Bl`lwjg fqjjgc` cf cvj`jiw

^ckjt whow two| li gc`lwcljt oj tjvjjb| jtwldwjg li whjl fjjgc` cf `cvj`jiw) Li whjl fjj

wl`j fj`obj ~ckjt oj icw obbc~jg wc bjovj whj hctwjb oddc``cgowlci fjjb|) @obj ~ckjt gc

icw jx}jljidj whlt bl`lwowlci li fjjgc` cf `cvj`jiw) Czwtlgj ~cklin hczt `ji oj fjj wc bjovjwhj fodwc|#hctwjb nczigt) Li `ctw dotjt" ~hji fj`obj ~ckjt bjovj whj hctwjb whj| oj

oddc`}oiljg a| o nzog) Bjovlin zioddc`}oiljg lt glffldzbw li o woglwlci cf }cwjdwlin zi`oljg

nlbt) Li tc`j fodwcljt" hc~jvj" fj`obj ~ckjt oj ic~ obbc~jg wc nc czw li ncz}t" ztzobb| cidj

o ~jjk c cidj o `ciwh)

]ojiwt oig cwhj fo`lb| `j`ajt oj obbc~jg wc vltlw whjl goznhwjt ci fjj Tzigo|t" azw cib| lf 

o }hcwcno}h cf whjtj fo`lb| `j`ajt hot ajji tza`lwwjg wc whj fodwc| `oionj`jiw)

Whj ztj cf wjbj}hcijt lt jtwldwjg) Tc`jwl`jt ~ckjt oj icw obbc~jg wc ztj `calbj }hcijt) Li

`ctw hctwjbt whjj lt o dc``ci }hcij" cfwji li whj ~ogji“t cc`" ~hldh doi aj ztjg a| ~ckjt

wc t}jok ~lwh whjl }ojiwt) ^ckjt doi `okj dobbt wc whjl }ojiwt ~lwh whj }j`lttlci oig li whj

}jtjidj cf whj ~ogji) Obb lidc`lin dobbt ~lbb aj jdjlvjg a| whj ~ogji oig nlvji wc ~ckjt

ofwj dcifl`lin whow whj dobbj lt }ojiw cf whj dcidjijg ~ckj)

Cddz}owlciob hjobwh oig tofjw|

 Oddlgjiwt ho}}ji fjqzjiwb| ajdoztj ~ckjt bodk wolilin oig litwzdwlcit wc }c}jb| ~ck whj

`odhlij|) Fowlnzj gzj wc jxdjttlvj cvj~ck lt oicwhj jbj`jiw dciwlazwlin wc ~ck }bodj

oddlgjiwt)

Hoqott`jiw

^ckjt oj }h|tldobb| oig vjaobb| oaztjg a| `obj hlnhj-dotwj tz}jvltct) Whlt cddzt lf whj|

fobb otbjj} c lf whjl ~ck }odj lt nclin gc~i ofwj hovlin ~ckjg bcin hczt) Tjxzob hoott`jiwlt j}cwjg ot ~jbb" obwhcznh lw lt hog wc jtwoablth hc~ dc``ci whlt lt ot whj ~lbblinijtt wc wobk

oaczw whlt lt vj| bl`lwjg)

Li o twzg| }zablthjg li 1=?=" Vjlwì gjtdlajt hc~ whj ackjt ijw~ck whow jdzlwt nlbt wc ~ck li

whj `lbbt oig no`jiw fodwcljt" liwjtjdwt oig tc`jwl`jt cvjbo}t ~lwh o ijw~ck cf tjx

woffldkjt) Oddcglin wc whj Vjlwì j}cw" o t|twj` cf tjx woffldklin cf nlbt livcbvjg li whj

Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j lt jiwjidhjg ~lwhli whj ijw~ckt cf tz}jvltct" fodwc| ~ckjt" dc`}oi|

`oionjt" twoff ow hctwjbt oig cwhj boacz tz}}bljt) Whj nlbt" ~hc hovj ic fjjgc` cf `cvj`jiw

oig vj| blwwbj dciwodw ~lwh whjl fo`lbljt" oj fcdjg liwc whj tjx wogj) Whj| ~ck gzlin whj go|

16 Whj `lil`z` ~onj fc 8 hczt cf ~ck lt ??= Qz}jjt) Wc whlt o`cziw o gjoijtt obbc~oidj lt oggjg wc dc`}jitowj fc lidjotlin dctwt cf blvlin) Whj gjoijtt obbc~oidj lt tjw ow >7 Qz}jjt)

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1:

oig oj tcbg ot }ctwlwzwjt gzlin whj ilnhw) Dbljiwt oj liwjiowlciob az|jt" dc`}oi| c~ijt"

tjilc `oionj`jiw" tz}jvltct oig `lg-bjvjb `oionj`jiw)1> 

J`cwlciob gltwqjtt cf ~cqkjqt

Whj dc`aliowlci cf jxwj`jb| bcin ~cklin go|t" whj oaztlvj ajhovlcz cf tz}jvltct wc~ogt whj

~ckjt" bodk cf fjj wl`j oig tdodj c}}cwzilwljt wc liwjodw ~lwh fo`lb| oig fljigt doztjt fowlnzj

oig }h|tldob ajokgc~it cf whj ~ckjt) Cvj whj botw |jot" obo`lin j}cwt oaczw ~ckjt

dc``lwwlin tzldlgj hovj dc`j wc whj fcj) Oddcglin wc livjtwlnowlcit a| whj Wlz}z ]jc}bj“t

Fcz` fc ]cwjdwlci cf Jivlci`jiw oig Boacz lnhwt (W]F," `cj whoi ?== fj`obj ~ckjt hovj

wokji whjl blvjt li whj }otw w~c |jot ajdoztj whj| dczbg icw fodj whj hogthl}t cf ~cklin oig

blvlin li whj fodwc| oi|`cj)

Fqjjgc` cf Ottcdlowlci

Cij cf whj glvlin fcdjt ajhlig whj fj`liluowlci cf whj ~ck fcdj lt whow ~c`ji oj bjtt blkjb| wc

 ecli o zilci) Wogj zilcit oj icw obbc~jg ci whj }j`ltjt cf whj fodwcljt oig cnoiltlin ~ckjt

lt vj| glffldzbw ajdoztj ~ckjt oj icw o~oj cf whjl lnhwt) Li ogglwlci" ic ligj}jigjiw oig

jffjdwlvj nljvoidj `jdhoilt`t oj oddjttlabj fc whj ~ckjt)

1)7) Dzqqjiw boaczq }qodwldjt ow fczq vjqwldobb| liwjnqowjg

`oizfodwzqjqt

Whlt }oono}h gjtdlajt whj dzjiw boacz }odwldjt ow whj fcz vjwldobb| liwjnowjg

`oizfodwzjt whow obtc fjowzjg li ‘Do}wzjg a| Dcwwci“5 Aoiiol O``oi Ncz}" Jotw`oi Jx}cwt

Nbcaob Dbcwhlin" K)])Q) @lbb oig TT@ Liglo) Dc`}oltcit oj `ogj ~lwh botw |jo“t gowo" oig ij~gowo hovj ajji oggjg)

1)7)?) Aoiioql O``oi Nqcz} 

Whj Aoiiol O``oi Ncz} lt cij cf whj bonjtw ligztwlob dcinbc`jowjt li Tczwh Liglo ~lwh o

~lgj t}jdwz` cf `oizfodwzlin" woglin" gltwlazwlci oig flioidlin odwlvlwljt) @oizfodwzlin oig

woglin lidbzgj tzno" obdchcb" blqzc" noilwj" oig dcwwci |oi) Whj dc`}oi| lt bltwjg ci whj

Ac`ao| Twcdk Jxdhoinj)

W~c cf whj ncz}t“ dc`}oiljt jinonj li wjxwlbj oig no`jiw }cgzdwlci5 Aoiiol O``oi T}liilin

@lbbt oig Thlvo Wjx \oi) Thlvo Wjx \oi ajdo`j }ow cf whj Aoiiol O``oi Ncz} whcznh o

 ecliw vjiwzj ~lwh Aoiiol O``oi T}liilin @lbbt) Aoiiol O``oi T}liilin @lbbt j}cwjg o ijw}cflw (ajfcj wox, cf Qt) 848"84>"=== (₢?1"888"?7=, fc whj fltdob |jo whow jigjg ci @odh 4?" 

1=??)18

 

Aoiiol O``oi#Thlvo Wjx \oi c}jowjt w~c t}liilin `lbbt li Gliglnzb) O Dcl`aowcj zilw hcztjt

t}liilin" kilwwlin" ~jovlin oig no`jiwlin fodlblwljt) Aoiiol O``oi“t Wjdhildob Wjxwlbjt Glvltlci

li Dcl`aowcj }cgzdjt vjbvjw foaldt) Whj no`jiwlin zilwt c}jowj zigj whj io`jt \jt~j

Djowlcit oig Aoiiol O``oi O}}ojbt) Acwh no`jiwlin zilwt oj ^QO] djwlfljg)1<

 

1> Vjlwì ‘Hjb} oiwjg5 Hllin" Hz`oi Woffldklin oig @cgji-Go| Tbovj| li whj Nbcaob Jdcic`|) Qjnlciob Qj}cw -

Ligloi ckjt li Gc`jtwld Wjxwlbj ]cgzdwlci oig @lggbj Jotw-Aotjg @oizfodwzlin" Lifotw zdwzj oig Dcitwzdwlci)“ 

Ezij 1=?=" } 1=-1?" 4?-41)

18 Aoiiol O``oi T}liilin @lbbt Bwg)" 1?tw Oiizob Qj}cw 1=??"2hww}5##~~~)aoiiol lbbt)dc`#twokjShcbgjSlifc`owlci)}h} 9 (6 Eoizo| 1=?1," }) 1?)

1<  ^QO] (^cbg~lgj Qjt}citlabj Oddjglwjg ]cgzdwlci, ~jatlwj"“Djwlfljg Fodlblw| Bltw“" Djwlfldowlci Jx}l| 2

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Fc whlt j}cw 4? ~ckjt dzjiwb| j`}bc|jg ow 7 glffjjiw zilwt ~jj liwjvlj~jg) Whj ajokgc~i

}j zilw lt ot fcbbc~t5

Io`j cf whj zilw Liglvlgzob ~cqkjqtliwjqvlj~ Nqcz} liwjqvlj~t

Aoiiol O``oi T}liilin Glvltlci-L (Gliglnzb, : ? ncz} `ogj z} cf : ~ckjt

Aoiiol O``oi T}liilin Glvltlci-LL (Gliglnzb, : -

Thlvo Wjx \oi#\jt~j Djowlcit (t}liilin"~jovlin" kilwwlin" no`jiwlin — Dcl`aowcj,

> ? ncz} `ogj z} cf : ~ckjt

Aoiiol Wjdhildob Wjxwlbjt Glvltlci (Dcl`aowcj, 7 -

Wcwob  1? ?=

Dztwc`jqt

 Oajdc`alj & Flwdh (ZT," O`jldoi Jonbj Czwflwwjt (ZT," Abzj Two L`}cwt (ZT," Dj~ 1===

(ZK," Ho`ciw & Abolij (Lwob|," L`}obo Bcfw8 (Nj`oi|," @otw Ligztwljt (ZT," Whj Dhlbgji“t ]bodj

(ZT," WLV Jzc}j (whj Ijwhjboigt," ]jtwlnj L`}jx (Ldjboig," Bzajwjx (Doiogo," ^lbhjb` Klig

(Nj`oi|,)4= 

Tdhj`j ~cqkjqt

?"1:= ~ckjt oj j`}bc|jg zigj `zbwl-|jo dciwodwt (whjj wc fcz oig o hobf |jot, ~hjja| o

bz`} tz` }o|`jiw lt }c`ltjg ow whj jig cf whj dciwodw }jlcg) Fljbg jtjodh dcigzdwjg li bowj

1=?? jvjobjg whow tdhj`j ~ckjt oj fczig li obb cf Aoiiol O``oi“t zilwt) Tdhj`j ~ckjt

jlwhj jtlgj li whj fodwc| hctwjbt c blvj ow hc`j li ijoa| vlbbonjt oig oj acznhw wc whj fodwc|

a| azt)

Li lwt jodwlci wc whj gofw vjtlci cf whlt j}cw" Aoiiol O``oi ~lwjt whow ‘whjj lt ic tdhj`jzigj oi| io`j fc hllin oig jinonlin ~ckjt li cz Ncz} Zilwt“) Whj dc`}oi| gcjt icw

}cvlgj oi| gjwolbt oaczw hc~ lw jdzlwt ~ckjt" aj lw gljdw" vlo ackjt c vlo jdzlw`jiw

onjidljt)

Aoiiol O``oi fzwhj ~lwjt whow ‘fjth jdzlwt oj ligzdwjg ot O}}jiwldjt ot }j whj }cvltlcit

cf Djwlfljg Twoiglin Cgjt oig ot tcci ot whj| dc`}bjwj whj }jlcg cf o}}jiwldjthl}" whj| oj

oatcajg ot jnzbo j`}bc|jjt“)

Gcq`lwcqljt oig fqjjgc` cf cvj`jiw

Cvj ?=== ~ckjt blvj li Aoiiol O``oi“t hctwjbt) ^ckjt whow blvj li whj fodwc| hctwjbt

(bcdowjg ci whj fodwc| nczigt, oj obbc~jg wc bjovj whj hctwjb oddc`}oiljg a| whjl }ojiwt

~hji whj| dc`j wc vltlw whjl goznhwjt) Whlt ho}}jit ojb| whcznh (cidj c w~ldj li tlx `ciwht,"

tlidj `ctw }ojiwt blvj fo o~o|) ^ckjt oj obtc }j`lwwjg wc bjovj whj hctwjbt li o ncz}

oddc`}oiljg a| o ~ogji cidj jvj| ?: go|t) Li lwt jt}citj wc TC@C oig LDI" Aoiiol O``oi

~lwjt whow ~ckjt ~hc two| li whj hctwjb jiec| fzbb fjjgc` ‘nlvlin gzj dcitlgjowlci wc whjl 

tofjw| oig tjdzlw|“) 

hww}5##~~~)~o}dc`}bloidj)cn#ji#djwlfljg-fodlblw|-bltw9 (oddjttjg ci : Eoizo| 1=?1,)

4= Li cgj wc jtwoablth whj blikt ajw~jji Aoiiol O``oi oig lwt az|jt" jx}cw gowo fc` Wzwldcli oig Dhjiiol }cwt~jj oiob|tjg) Whj jx}cw gowo dcvj o }jlcg cf jlnhw `ciwht (Ezij 1=?? — Eoizo| 1=?1,) Obb dc`}oiljt jiwlcijg

hjj ~jj fczig wc aj tczdlin fc` Aoiiol O``oi ~lwhli whlt }jlcg)

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Dhlbg boaczq

Whj jtjodhjt glg icw flig ligldowlcit cf ~ckjt zigj whj onj cf ?7 ow Aoiiol O``oi) Whj

|czinjtw ~ckjt fczig o`cin Aoiiol O``oi“t ~ck fcdj oj ?6 |jot cbg)  

Li lwt jt}citj wc TC@C oig LDI Aoiiol O``oi to|t whow ajfcj j`}bc|jjt oj hljg whjdc`}oi| cawolit tdhccb c gjiwob djwlfldowjt ot }ccf cf onj wc jitzj whow whj ~ckjt hovj

jodhjg whj bjnob ~cklin onj)

^onjt

^ckjt li whj t}liilin zilwt jdjlvj o golb| ~onj whow twowt ow Qt) <= (₢?)48, oig ztzobb|

lidjotjt ziwlb Qt) ??= (₢?)6<, ow whj jig cf whj dciwodw }jlcg) Tdhj`j ~ckjt jdjlvj o bz`}

tz` }o|`jiw oinlin fc` Qt) 7="=== (₢6?:, fc whjj |jot wc Qt) >:"=== (₢??:1, fc fcz oig o

hobf |jot) ^ckjt li whj no`jiwlin zilwt (dzwwlin" wolbclin" lcilin" jwd, jdjlvj golb| ~onjt cf 

Qt) ?>= (₢1)6?, wc ?<= (₢1)<?,) Dhjdklin oig }odklin ~ckjt jdjlvj Qt) ?1=-?7= (₢?)87 - ₢1)?:,)

^ckjt li whj no`jiwlin zilwt gc icw jdjlvj o bz`} tz` }o|`jiw)

Whj jtjodh gcij a| TC@C oig LDI li 1=?=#1=?? fc whj ‘Do}wzjg a| Dcwwci“ j}cw thc~jg

whow ~ckjt ~czbg icw jdjlvj oi| }ow cf whj bz`} tz` lf whj| bjfw whj fodwc| ajfcj whj jig cf 

whjl dciwodw }jlcg) Whj ij~ fljbg jtjodh fligt whow Aoiiol O``oi hot dhoinjg lwt }odwldjt)

Liwjvlj~jg ~ckjt tolg whow lf whj| ~czbg bjovj whj fodwc| ic~" ajfcj whj dciwodw }jlcg hot

jigjg" whj| ~lbb jdjlvj whj bz`} tz` o`cziw whow whj| tovjg tc fo) Whj liwjvlj~jg ~ckjt tolg

whow whj| gc icw jdjlvj }o| tbl}t oig whow whj| gc icw kic~ lf whj| wokj }ow li whj J`}bc|jjt

Twowj Litzoidj Tdhj`j c whj J`}bc|jjt“ ]cvlgjiw Fzig) 

Li lwt jodwlci wc TC@C oig LDI" Aoiiol O``oi dbol`t whow lw }o|t lwt ~ckjt `cj whoi whj

`lil`z` ~onj tjw a| whj Ncvji`jiw cf Wo`lb Iogz) Aoiiol O``oi gcjt icw }cvlgj oi|

t}jdlfld ~onj gjwolbt) Lw thczbg aj icwjg whow zigj Wo`lb Iogz twowj bo~ dzjiwb| whjj lt cib| o

bjnob `lil`z` ~onj fc o}}jiwldjt li wjxwlbj `lbbt) Whjj lt ic `lil`z` ~onj fc no`jiw

~ckjt ic lt whjj o `lil`z` ~onj fc jnzbo ~ckjt li whj t}liilin `lbbt)

Aoiiol O``oi fzwhj ~lwjt whow ~ckjt gc jdjlvj }o| tbl}t oig whow whj }o| tbl} gjwolbt whj

gjgzdwlcit fc whj ]cvlgjiw Fzig" whj J`}bc|jj ]jitlci Fzig oig cwhj jbjvoiw gjgzdwlcit)

^cqklin hczqt oig cvjqwl`j

Whj t}liilin zilwt c}jowj 17 hczt o go|) ^ckjt" jt}jdlobb| hctwjb ~ckjt" cfwji hovj wc ~ck

fc ?1 z} wc ?6 hczt o go| (whlt ho}}jit whjj c fcz wl`jt o ~jjk oddcglin wc whj liwjvlj~jg

~ckjt, oig tc`jwl`jt jvji whjj thlfwt li o c~) Whj ~jjkb| go|-cff lt icw ob~o|t jt}jdwjg" ot

~ckjt jnzbob| hovj wc ~ck ci Tzigo|t) ]cgzdwlci wonjwt fc ~ckjt oj tjw zijobltwldobb|hlnh) ^ckjt oj cablnjg wc dciwlizj ziwlb whj| dc`}bjwj whj wonjw" ~hlbj ajlin tdjo`jg ow a|

whj (`obj, tz}jvltct) ^ckjt oj icw }olg fc whj jxwo hczt whj| ijjg wc ~ck li cgj wc

dc`}bjwj }cgzdwlci wonjwt)

Li lwt jt}citj wc TC@C oig LDI" Aoiiol O``oi dbol`t whow ~ckjt ic`obb| ~ck 78 hczt }j 

~jjk) Cvjwl`j ~ck lt tcbjb| }jfc`jg ci o vcbziwo| aotlt" to|t Aoiiol O``oi" ~lwh gczabj

~onjt }olg fc ~ckjg hczt)

Cddz}owlciob hjobwh oig tofjw|

^ckjt gc icw ztj tofjw| njo ajdoztj whj| fjjb zidc`fcwoabj ztlin lw) Whjj lt o iztj whow

wokjt doj cf `lic liezljt oig lbbijttjt) Tc`j cf whj liwjvlj~jg ~ckjt hovj hog wc aj wjowjg

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fc foliwlin oig twc`odh-odhj) Whj liwjvlj~jg ~ckjt tolg whow whj| hog icw hjog oaczw oi|

tjlczt liezljt)

Li lwt jodwlci wc TC@C oig LDI" Aoiiol O``oi ~lwjt whow whjj lt o ~ckjt tofjw| dc``lwwjj

li }bodj whow `jjwt ci o qzowjb| aotlt)

Fqjjgc` cf ottcdlowlci

Whjj lt ic wogj zilci }jtjidj ow Aoiiol O``oi ic glg whj liwjvlj~jg ~ckjt kic~ oaczw

whj jxltwjidj cf o ~ckjt“ dc``lwwjj) 

Aoiiol O``oi ~lwjt whow whjj lt o nljvoidj dc``lwwjj) Dc``lwwjj `j`ajt oj jbjdwjg fc`

whj ~ckfcdj oig `jjw ci o `ciwhb| aotlt) ^ckjt“ dcidjit oj gltdzttjg ~lwh whj

`oionj`jiw) Aoiiol O``oi fzwhj twowjt whow lw ‘twlvjt wc oggjtt oi| nljvoidj vcldjg a| whj

j`}bc|jjt l``jglowjb| whcznh o}}c}lowj nljvoidj jgjttob `jdhoilt` livcbvlin

j}jtjiwowlvjt fc` ~ckjt ot ~jbb ot `oionj`jiw) Li ogglwlci" whj wc} `oionj`jiw livcbvjt li

`jjwlin whj glffjjiw dctt tjdwlci cf j`}bc|jjt ci o `ciwhb| aotlt oig liwjodw ~lwh whj` wc

jtcbvj whj nljvoidjt lf oi|)“ 

Dcidbztlci

Dc`}olin botw |jo“t gowo ~lwh whj ij~ fljbg jtjodh" TC@C oig LDI dcidbzgj whow Aoiiol

 O``oi hot l`}bj`jiwjg tc`j dhoinjt) Aoiiol O``oi“t hllin }odwldjt hovj" hc~jvj" icw

dhoinjg fzigo`jiwobb|) Whj dc`}oi| dciwlizjt wc jdzlw ~ckjt ~lwh whj }c`ltj cf o bz`} tz`

}o|`jiw ow whj jig cf o `zbwl-|jo onjj`jiw) Qj}cwjg dhoinjt lidbzgj whj jxwjitlci cf whj

dciwodw }jlcg fc` whjj wc fcz oig o hobf |jot li whj t}liilin `lbbt oig oi lidjotj li whj bz`}

tz` o`cziw) Li ogglwlci tc`j l`}cvj`jiwt jnoglin fjjgc` cf `cvj`jiw hovj ajji j}cwjg)

Whj `ctw tlnilfldoiw l`}cvj`jiw" hc~jvj" lt whow ot cf Oznztw 1=??" lw lt }cttlabj fc ~ckjt wc

jdjlvj whj tovjg ~onjt lf whj| gjdlgj wc bjovj whj fodwc| ajfcj whj dciwodw }jlcg hot jigjg)Whlt `joit whow ~ckjt oj icw fcdjg wc dc`}bjwj whj jiwlj }jlcg cf whjj wc fcz oig o hobf 

|jot li cgj wc jdjlvj whj ~onjt whj| oj jiwlwbjg wc)

Ic l`}cvj`jiwt hovj ajji j}cwjg jbowlin fcdjg oig jxdjttlvj cvjwl`j hczt" cddz}owlciob

hjobwh oig tofjw| oig fjjgc` cf ottcdlowlci" obwhcznh li lwt jt}citj wc TC@C oig LDI whj

dc`}oi| twowjt lw lt !dc``lwwjg! wc jwhldob }odwldjt oig l`}cvlin whj dciglwlcit cf lwt ~ckjt)

Qjt}ciglin wc whj gofw j}cw" Aoiiol O``oi ~lwjt whow whj| hovj ogc}wjg o ~jbb-gjflijg tcdlob

oig bjnob dcgj cf boacz }odwldjt) TC@C oig LDI doiicw ezgnj whlt dcgj cf boacz }odwldjt ot lw

hot icw ajji thojg) Ci whj aotlt cf whj fljbg jtjodh" TC@C oig LDI doi cib| dcidbzgj whow whj

l`}bj`jiwowlci cf whjtj }cbldljt lt icw |jw z} wc twoigog)

1)7)1) Jotw`oi Jx}cqwt Nbcaob Dbcwhlin 

Jotw`oi Jx}cwt lt cij cf whj alnnjtw }bo|jt li whj Wo`lb Iogz wjxwlbjt oig no`jiw ligztw| oig

tz}}bljt o bonj ncz} cf Jzc}joi oig ZT aoigt) Whj dc`}oi| lt acwh vjwldobb| oig hcluciwobb|

liwjnowjg" c}jowlin o wcwob cf 44 fodwcljt)4?

Jotw`oi Jx}cwt lt o }lvowjb| hjbg dc`}oi| oig

gcjt icw }zablth oi| flioidlob twowj`jiwt) Ci lwt ~jatlwj Jotw`oi twowjt lw hot o aztlijtt vcbz`j

cf '1:= `lbblci41

 (o}}cxl`owjb| ₢?8> `lbblci44

,)

Cij cf Jotw`oi.t no`jiwlin zilwt" Iokzboi Wjxwlbjt" lt TO8=== djwlfljg)

4?  Jotw`oi Jx}cwt Nbcaob Dbcwhlin" jatlwj Jotw`oi Jx}cwt" ‘C}jowlcit“" ic gowj" 2

hww}5##~~~)jotw`oijx}cwt)dc`#c}jowlcit)hw`b 9 (4 Eoizo| 1=?1,41  Jotw`oi Jx}cwt Nbcaob Dbcwhlin" ^jatlwj Jotw`oi Jx}cwt" ‘Whj Ncz}“) Ic gowj" 2

hww}5##~~~)jotw`oijx}cwt)dc`#ncz})hw`b 9 (4 Eoizo| 1=?1,)44 Fc whj dcivjtlci cf ZT gcbbot wc Jzct whj fcbbc~lin jxdhoinj owj hot ajji ztjg5 ? ZTG 0 =)=>:=88? JZQ

(jxdhoinj owj 16 @odh 1=?1," Whj ~jatlwj ~~~)xj)dc  ~ot ztjg li cgj wc gjwj`lij whj jxdhoinj owj)

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Fc whlt jtjodh" 6? ~ckjt fc` tlx cf Jotw`oi“t 44 }cgzdwlci tlwjt ~jj liwjvlj~jg (tjj

ajbc~,)

Io`j cf whj zilw Liglvlgzob ~cqkjqt

liwjqvlj~

Nqcz} liwjqvlj~t

Iokzboi Wjxwlbjt# Oeo|" No`jiw zilw-? oig 1 (Jcgj, ?= -

Lifowjx ]oilkko`}obo|o` (Jcgj, : ? ncz} `ogj z} cf 4 ~ckjt

Lifowjx" Ijo ]jzigzol Azt wj`liob (Jcgj, 6 ? ncz} `ogj z} cf : ~ckjt

Jotw`oi Jx}cwt (Wlz}z, 8 -

Tlal Jx}cwt (Wlz}z, < -

Jotw`oi T}liilin @lbb (Gliglnzb,  ?= ? ncz} `ogj z} cf : ~ckjt 

Wcwob 78 ?4

Dztwc`jqt

 O`jldoi T}cwt~jo (ZT," Owlt (Nj`oi|," Aotjdc (@jxldc," Ajtwtjbbj (Gji`ok," Aovj Klg

(Lwob|," D&O" Dowjdz (Dhlbj," Dcbc L`onj O}}ojb (ZT," Dcwjfljb (T}oli," D|twob @owli (ZK,"

Gjdowhbci (Foidj," Glogco (Lwob|," Gljtjb (Lwob|," Jb Dcwj Linbjt (T}oli," J) Boig ^cbg (Kcjo,"

Jx}jtt (ZT," Foboajbbo (Dhlbj," Fothlci Acx (Qj}bo|" Njjdj," Fjidh Dciijdwlci (ZK," NO]

(ZT," Nodlo (whj Ijwhjboigt," Nbcaob Wogjt Ijw~ck" Nbcazt (Nj`oi|," N|`acjj (ZT,"

Lnzot}cw (Aoulb," L`}cwogco Nbcaobltwld" Lwcdhz (Eo}oi," EG T}cwt (ZK," Ezbjt (Foidj," K`olb

(Nj`oi|," Kicwhj O}}ojb Ncz} (ZT," Bl~o Woglin Jiwj}ltjt (ZOJ," BBD Cdwcabzj (Qzttlo,"

@okt & T}jidj (ZK," @jvli (ZT," @lnct (T~lwujboig," @ciglob Tjvldjt" @cwhjdoj (ZK,"

Iozwldo (ZT," Ijxw (ZK," Ic}cwjx (Foidj," ]jfc`oidj T}cwt Lid) (ZT," ]hlbl}t voi Hjztji

(ZT," ]zbb oig Ajo (T}oli," _zldktlbvj (Foidj," Qob}h Bozji (ZT," Qzjiwjx Ligztwljt" Whj

Dhlbgji“t ]bodj (ZT," Wl`ajboig (ZT," Wc` Wolbc (Nj`oi|," Wc``| Hlbflnj (ZT," Wc} Djowlci(Hcin Kcin,)47 

Ci lwt ~jatlwj" Jotw`oi `jiwlcit whow lw c}jowjt 44 ‘twowj-cf-whj-ow fodwcljt“) Whj dc`}oi| gcjt

icw }cvlgj oi| lifc`owlci ci whj io`jt oig bcdowlcit cf whjtj fodwcljt hc~jvj) Ijlwhj glg whj

dc`}oi| nlvj oi cvjvlj~ cf lwt c}jowlcit z}ci jqzjtw)

Whj jtjodh fc whlt j}cw lt fcdztjg ci whj fcbbc~lin dc`}czigt (~hjj volczt }cgzdwlci zilwt

oj bcdowjg,5

  Lifowjx (]jzigzol" Jcgj gltwldw,Whjj dc`}czigt io`jg Lifowjx oj bcdowjg li ]jzigzol" Jcgj) Cij tlwj (Jcgj @oli Qcog,

hcztjt Iokzboi Wjxwlbjt oig Oeo| Kilw~jo) (Tcdlob, ozglwt ztzobb| wokj }bodj ow whlt dc`}czig"

jvji whcznh `ctw no`jiwlin ~ck lt gcij ow whj tjdcig dc`}czig" Lifowjx ]oilkko`}obo|o`)

^ckjt ztjg wc two| li gc`lwcljt ci whlt dc`}bjx" azw botw |jo whj ~ckjt ~jj `cvjg wc

oicwhj gc`lwc| tc`j whjj klbc`jwjt o~o|) Jvj| go|" whj ~ckjt oj acznhw wc whj fodwcljt

a| aztjt)

Whj Lifowjx-]oilkko`}obo|o` dc`}czig ci Dhliil`obol Qcog dcitltwt cf `cj whoi wji zilwt

zigj whj io`jt cf Iokzboi" Oeo|" Tlhol }cdjtt" Tjiwhlb }cdjtt oig Ghoio` Wjx) Ajtlgjt whj

47 Li cgj wc jtwoablth whj blikt ajw~jji Jotw`oi oig lwt az|jt" jx}cw gowo fc` Wzwldcli oig Dhjiiol }cwt ~jjoiob|tjg) Whj jx}cw gowo dcvj o }jlcg cf jlnhw `ciwht (Ezij 1=?? — Eoizo| 1=?1,) Obb dc`}oiljt jiwlcijg hjj

~jj fczig wc aj tczdlin fc` Jotw`oi ~lwhli whlt }jlcg)

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@olg li Liglo

4=

no`jiw }cgzdwlci" t}liilin" kilwwlin oig j`aclgj| zilwt oj hcztjg hjj) Ijxw wc liwjiob

`lnoiwt fc Wo`lb Iogz" ~ckjt fc` Cltto oig Alho oj two|lin li whjtj hctwjbt) Whjtj

~ckjt oj icw j`}bc|jg ow cij flxjg zilw; whj| oj `cvjg fc` cij zilw wc oicwhj" oddcglin wc

}cgzdwlci ijjgt)

 Oicwhj Lifowjx dc`}czig lt bcdowjg ijo whj ]jzigzol azt wj`liob) Oi og`liltwowlvj cffldj lt

hcztjg hjj ot ~jbb ot o gc`lwc| fc fj`obj ~ckjt oig o doiwjji)

Li lwt jt}citj wc TC@C oig LDI Jotw`oi ~lwjt whow ‒ic tzdh }cgzdwlci fodlblw| li whlt io`j cf  

Lifowjx jxltwt li cz ncz}) Whlt ~ot dbctjg ob`ctw 8 |jot aodk)‐ Liwjvlj~jg ~ckjt" hc~jvj"

dbol` wc aj ~cklin fc Jotw`oi) Gzj wc whj dc`}bjx c~ijthl} twzdwzjt lw lt glffldzbw wc vjlf| lf 

Lifowjx twlbb ajbcint wc Jotw`oi Jx}cwt)

  Jotw`oi Jx}cwt (Cgokkogz" Wlz}z,

Whlt lt o no`jiw }cgzdlin zilw) Oczig ?== ~c`ji ~ckjt cf whlt zilw oj two|lin li o hctwjbczwtlgj cf whj fodwc| nczigt)

  Tlal Jx}cwt (]lwdho`}obo|o` ]zwhz" Wlz}z,

 Oczig :== ~ckjt ~ck ow whlt D@W zilw) Obtc" whj hjog cffldj cf whj Jotw`oi ncz} lt bcdowjg ow

whlt zilw)

  Jotw`oi T}liilin @lbb#Jotw`oi Wjxwlbj @lbb (Vjgotoiwhz" Gliglnzb,

 Oczig ?=== ~ckjt fc` ijoa| vlbbonjt ~ck ow whjtj zilwt) Whj| dc``zwj golb| ajw~jji hc`j

oig ~ck) Fzwhj`cj" tc`j ?== ~ckjt fc` j`cwj vlbbonjt oj j`}bc|jg ow whjtj zilwt) @ctw

cf whj` oj j`}bc|jg vlo o boacz onjid| dobbjg ‘@oi ]c~j Qjtczdjt“ Onjiw) 

Qjdqzlw`jiw

Jotw`oi jidczonjt jdzlw`jiw cf ~ckjt onjg ?8 |jot oig cbgj) ^ckjt oj jdzlwjg vlo

boacz onjid| ‘]ol|z O``oi @oi ]c~j Qjtczdjt“) Obtc" fodwc| azt glvjt cfwji odw ot

jdzlwjt) ^ckjt liwjvlj~jg fc whlt j}cw twowjg whow whj| hovj ajji litwzdwjg icw wc wjbb

oi|cij oaczw whj ~o| whj| oj jdzlwjg)

Li lwt jt}citj wc TC@C oig LDI" Jotw`oi jx}bolit whow lw hog ajji ~cklin ~lwh ]ol|z O``oi

@oi}c~j Qjtczdjt ziwlb Eoizo| 1=?1) O iz`aj cf ~ckjt cf Jotw`oi“t t}liilin `lbb ~jj

hljg oig }olg whcznh whlt onjid|) Ot cf Eoizo| 1=?1" whj fodwc| cib| jdzlwt ~ckjt gljdwb|)

 Oddcglin wc Jotw`oi azt glvjt gc icw odw ot jdzlwjt c onjiwt)

Tdhj`j ~cqkjqt

 Ot cf O}lb 1=?=" Jotw`oi }hotjg czw whj bz`} tz` }o|`jiw t|twj`) ^ckjt oj ic~ }olg ci o

`ciwhb| aotlt" ~lwhczw oi| }ow cf whj ~onjt ajlin ~lwhhjbg) O tjwwbj`jiw ~ot jodhjg ~lwh

~ckjt whow ~jj ~cklin zigj whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j ow whow wl`j) ^ckjt ~jj }olg czw whj

~onjt whow hog ajji ~lwhhjbg oig ~jj cffjjg whj dhcldj wc dciwlizj ~cklin fc whj fodwc| oig

jdjlvj o `ciwhb| ~onj" ~lwhczw }ow cf whj ~onj ajlin ~lwhhjbg) Lw tjj`t whcznh" whow o

tjwwbj`jiw hot icw |jw ajji jodhjg ~lwh obb ~ckjt whow twowjg ~cklin ow Jotw`oi ajfcj O}lb

1=?=) W~c ~ckjt wcbg whj jtjodhjt whow whj| ~czbg jdjlvj o bz`} tz` }o|`jiw cf Qt) 4="===

~hji whj| dc`}bjwj whjj |jot cf ~ck) Fzwhj`cj" cij liwjvlj~jg ~ckj whow twowjg ~cklin

ow Jotw`oi“t Lifowjx ]jzigzol zilw ow whj ajnliilin cf 1=?? tolg thj ~czbg jdjlvj o bz`} tz`}o|`jiw cf Qt) :="=== ofwj dc`}bjwlci cf whjj |jot cf ~ck)

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Li lwt jodwlci wc TC@C oig LDI Jotw`oi gjiljt whlt joglin oig twowjt whow ‘ Ot o }ow cf whj

`oionj`jiw dhoinj li O}lb 1=?=" whj bz`} tz` t|twj` ~ot oacblthjg oig obb whj ~ckjt ~jj

}olg whjl gzjt oig tjwwbjg) Whj bz`} tz` o`cziw tjwwbjg lt oi ogglwlciob o`cziw }olg wc whj~ckjt cvj oig oacvj whj ~onjt)“ 

Gcq`lwcqljt oig fqjjgc` cf `cvj`jiw

 O}}cxl`owjb| 6"=== Jotw`oi ~ckjt oj blvlin li gc`lwcljt" lidbzglin ?=== `obj ~ckjt) Whj

`oeclw| cf whjtj ~ckjt oj j`}bc|jg ow Jotw`oi“t dzw" `oklin oig wl` (D@W, zilwt) Whj

hctwjbt oj bcdowjg li oig oczig Jotw`oi“t }cgzdwlci tlwjt) ^hlbj li whj }otw" Jotw`oi glg tjj`

wc gljdwb| `oionj whjtj gc`lwcljt" bcdob jtjodhjt ~jj icw oabj wc gjwj`lij ~hc `oionjt

whj` ow whj `c`jiw)

Liwjvlj~jg ~ckjt tolg whow whj hctwjb oddc``cgowlci hot l`}cvjg gzlin whj botw |jo) Qcc`t

oj thojg a| ?= wc ?: ~ckjt" gj}jiglin ci whj tluj cf whj cc`) L`}cvj`jiwt jnoglin

fjjgc` cf `cvj`jiw ~jj obtc j}cwjg)

Fj`obj ~ckjt oj obbc~jg wc bjovj whj gc`lwc| cidj o ~jjk) Tjdzlw| nzogt `cilwc whj

`cvj`jiwt cf ~ckjt) @obj ~ckjt doi nc czw ~hjijvj whj| ~oiw wc) Liwjvlj~jg fj`obj

~ckjt tolg whow jvji lf whj| ~jj obbc~jg wc nc czw jvj| go|" lw ~czbg hovj ic ztj" tlidj whj|

oj ~cklin ziwlb bowj li whj jvjilin) ^ckjt oj obbc~jg wc ztj `calbj }hcijt li whj hctwjb oig

whjl }ojiwt oj obbc~jg wc vltlw whj` czwtlgj ~cklin hczt) Gzlin whjl ~jjkb| go|-cff hctwjb

~ckjt oj obbc~jg wc nc czw zinzogjg) ^ckjt whow jtlgj li whj hctwjb bcdowjg li whj liwjlc 

vlbbonj cf ]oilkko`}obo|o` oj icw oabj wc bjovj whj hctwjb cidj o ~jjk ajdoztj whjj lt ic thc}

li whj vlbbonj fc whj ~ckjt wc gc whjl thc}}lin oig whjj lt cib| o t}cogld azt tjvldj)

Liwjvlj~jg hctwjb ~ckjt fc` Jotw`oi“t t}liilin `lbbt tolg whow whj| ~jj icw obbc~jg wc t}jok

~lwh czwtlgj ~ckjt)

Li O}lb 1=??" tc`j <== Jotw`oi t}liilin `lbb ~ckjt ~jj blvlin ci whj Jotw`oi T}liilin @lbb

do`}zt li Gliglnzb) Ic~" oczig ?== ~ckjt jtlgj li whlt hctwjb) ^hji Jotw`oi djotjg ztlin

whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j oig o tjwwbj`jiw ~ot jodhjg fc fc`j tdhj`j ~ckjt (Ezij 1=??," o

dcitlgjoabj iz`aj cf ~ckjt cf Jotw`oi“t t}liilin `lbbt li Gliglnzb gjdlgjg wc bjovj whj

fodwc|) Whj `oeclw| cf dzjiw ~ckjt ow Jotw`oi T}liilin @lbbt oj ici-jtlgjiwlob ~ckjt

dc`lin fc` ijoa| vlbbonjt)

Jotw`oi lifc`jg TC@C oig LDI whow oddc``cgowlci lt icw }cvlgjg a| Jotw`oi) Oddcglin wc

Jotw`oi" ~ckjt oj two|lin li ‘}lvowj oig ligj}jigjiw hctwjb oddc``cgowlcit ovolboabj

oddcglin wc whjl dhcldj“) Jotw`oi fzwhj to|t whow ~ckj t ob~o|t hovj fjj oddjtt wc oig fc`whjl jt}jdwlvj fodwcljt) Jotw`oi gcjt icw dc``jiw ci whj cbj cf hctwjb nzogt)

Dhlbg boaczq

Whj jtjodhjt glg icw flig ligldowlcit cf oi| ~ckjt ajbc~ whj onj cf ?7 ow Jotw`oi) Whj

jtjodhjt glg dc`j odctt ~ckjt li whj onj ncz}t ?7 oig ?:" whcznh) Jotw`oi lt ic~

jidczonlin jdzlw`jiw cf ~ckjt cf ?8 oig oacvj cib|) Li lwt jodwlci wc TC@C" Jotw`oi gjiljt

whow ~ckjt onjg ?7 oig ?: oj j`}bc|jg ow lwt fodlblwljt) Jotw`oi dbol`t whow ot }ow cf whj

tdjjilin }cdjtt" ~ckjt“ onj }ccf gcdz`jiwt oj vjlfljg oig wc hovj ‒ujc wcbjoidj fc dhlbg

boacz ‐) 

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^onjt

Ij~ ~ckjt twow ot wolijjt) Dciwo| wc whj ~lgjt}jog }odwldj li Wo`lb Iogz cf hllin ~ckjt

ot o}}jiwldjt fc o }jlcg cf whjj |jot" Jotw`oi hot thcwjijg whj wolilin }jlcg) Whj wolijj-

}jlcg fc ij~ ~ckjt lt ic~ cij wc w~c `ciwht)

^onjt oj }olg li doth c whcznh aoik oddcziwt) Jotw`oi lifc`jg TC@C oig LDI whow t}liilin

`lbb ~ckjt oj }olg ci o `ciwhb| aotlt oig whow no`jiw ~ckjt oj }olg ci o ~jjkb| aotlt)

^ckjt oj jlwhj j`}bc|jg zigj whj golb|-~onj t|twj` (flxjg ~onjt }j 8 hcz thlfw, c zigj o

}ljdj owj t|twj`) Whj liwjvlj~jg ~ckjt gc icw hovj o dc`}bjwj zigjtwoiglin oaczw whj

dc`}ctlwlci cf whjl ~onjt)

Tc`j ~ckjt oj j`}bc|jg vlo ‘]ol|z O``oi @oi}c~j Qjtczdjt“) Whjtj ~ckjt jdjlvj

whjl ~onjt whcznh whlt boacz onjid|) Dctwt fc oddc``cgowlci oj gjgzdwjg fc` whj tobo| ot

~jbb ot dctwt fc ztlin whj ~othlin `odhlij) Jotw`oi lifc`jg TC@C oig LDI whow lw hot twc}}jg

~cklin ~lwh ]ol|z O``oi @oi ]c~j Qjtczdjt ot cf Eoizo| 1=?1)

Golb| ~onjt (aotjg ci 8 hcz thlfwt, ow whj Jotw`oi“t no`jiwlin zilwt li ]jzigzol oig Jcgj

vo| fc` Qt) ?=: (₢?)6?, fc dhjdklin ~ckjt wc Qt) ?6< (₢1):<, fc wolbct) Golb| ~onjt ow

Jotw`oi“t t}liilin zilwt li Gliglnzb oinj fc` Qt) ?>? (₢1)61, wc Qt) ?8< (₢1)<= aotjg ci

jx}jljidj oig fzidwlci) Dc`}ojg wc cwhj `oizfodwzjt Jotw`oi }o|t jotcioabj ~onjt)

Li lwt jt}citj wc TC@C oig LDI" Jotw`oi ~lwjt whow ~onjt oj }olg li oddcgoidj ~lwh whj

^onjt Odw) Ot tolg ajfcj" whjj lt cib| o bjnob `lil`z` ~onj fc o}}jiwldjt li t}liilin `lbbt)

Whjj lt ic `lil`z` ~onj li fcdj fc jnzbo t}liilin `lbb ~ckjt c fc no`jiw ~ckjt)

^cqklin hczqt oig cvjqwl`j^cklin hczt fc no`jiw ~ckjt li Jotw`oi“t Jcgj oig Wlz}z zilwt oj ot fcbbc~t) Gzlin

}jok tjotci" fc` Oznztw wc @odh" ~ckjt cfwji ~ck o fzbb go| oig ilnhw thlfw" tjvji go|t o

~jjk) Gzlin }jok tjotci lw obtc cddzt whow ~ckjt hovj wc ~ck 17 hczt dciwlizcztb|) Gzlin

whjtj 17-hcz thlfwt" ~ckjt njw o wcwob cf 1 hczt ajok) Liwjvlj~jg ~ckjt obtc twowj whow whj|

oj cfwji ~ckji z} li whj `lggbj cf whj ilnhw wc nc wc ~ck) Li `lg-tjotci (o}}cxl`owjb| w~c

`ciwht }j |jo," ~cklin go|t cf ?1 hczt oj dc``ci}bodj) ^ckjt cfwji hovj wc ~ck ci

Tzigo|t ot ~jbb gzlin whlt tjotci) Li whj bc~ tjotci (o}}cxl`owjb| w~c `ciwht }j |jo,

no`jiw ~ckjt ~ck jlnhw hczt o go|)

Qjfztlin cvjwl`j lt icw }cttlabj) Aztjt ~lbb icw bjovj wc alin whj ~ckjt wc whj hctwjb ziwlb whj

~ck lt dc`}bjwjg) Aztjt ~lbb nc wc whj hctwjb oig }ldk ~ckjt z} lf whj `oionj`jiw oiiczidjtwhow whj| hovj wc ~ck ci Tzigo|) Cvjwl`j hczt oj icw }olg czw oddcglin wc bcdob bo~ (gczabj

owj fc cvjwl`j hczt,)

T}liilin `lbb ~ckjt ow Jotw`oi“t t}liilin `lbbt li Gliglnzb ztzobb| ~ck jlnhw hczt o go|)

Cvjwl`j lt bjtt fjqzjiw li whjtj zilwt)

Li lwt jt}citj wc TC@C oig LDI" Jotw`oi dbol`t whow obb ~ckjt cib| ~ck fc `oigowjg ~cklin

hczt oig whow cvjwl`j lt }jfc`jg ‘tzaejdw wc whj ~lbblinijtt cf whj ~ckjt“) Jotw`oi fzwhj 

dbol`t whow gczabj ~onjt oj }olg fc cvjwl`j hczt)

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44

Cddz}owlciob hjobwh oig tofjw|

Tofjw| njo lt cib| }cvlgjg gzlin lit}jdwlcit) Li tc`j gj}ow`jiwt" whjj lt o bcw cf `odhlij

icltj) ^ckjt gc icw ztj jo}bznt oig to| whow whj| oj ic~ oddztwc`jg wc whj icltj) Lw lt icw

dbjo wc whj ~ckjt ~h| whj| thczbg ztj whj tofjw| njo) Whjj lt o ~jbfoj dc``lwwjj" azwliwjvlj~jjt tolg lw hot ijvj gcij oi|whlin fc whj ~ckjt) Whj liwjvlj~jg ~ckjt obtc glg icw

kic~ whj io`jt cf whj ~jbfoj dc``lwwjj“t j}jtjiwowlvjt) 

Li lwt jt}citj wc TC@C oig LDI" Jotw`oi ~lwjt whow ‘obb fodwcljt hovj }cvlgjg o}}c}lowj

}jtciob }cwjdwlvj jqzl}`jiw wc whjl ~ckjt“) Jotw`oi fzwhj ~lwjt whow ~ckjt oj fjqzjiwb|

wolijg ~lwh jt}jdw wc whj ‘tlnilfldoidj oig ztonj cf whj }jtciob }cwjdwlvj jqzl}`jiw“) Li

ogglwlci" Jotw`oi to|t whow blij tz}jvltct hovj ajji litwzdwjg wc fcdzt ci tofjw| ot}jdwt o}ow

fc` `cilwclin whj }cgzdwlci }jfc`oidj)

Tc`j cf whj liwjvlj~jg ~ckjt tolg whow whj `oionj`jiw kjj}t oi j|j ci whj tz}jvltct tc

whow whj| gc icw hoott whj fj`obj ~ckjt) Tc`j ~ckjt glg dc`}boli oaczw vjaob oaztj a| whjtz}jvltct" hc~jvj)

Fqjjgc` cf ottcdlowlci

Whjj lt ic wogj zilci }jtjidj li Jotw`oi“t fodwcljt) Whj liwjvlj~jg ~ckjt oj icw fo`lblo 

~lwh wogj zilcit)

Jotw`oi" li lwt jodwlci wc TC@C oig LDI" jz}hj`ltwldobb| to|t whow ‘wogj zilcit oj li jxltwjidj

li whj }bodjt ~hjj cz fodwcljt oj bcdowjg“ oig whow ‘icij cf whj ~ckjt oj }jvjiwjg fc`

 eclilin whj wogj zilcit“) Jotw`oi ~lwjt whow lw lt qzlwj dc``ci fc ~ckjt wc dciwodw wogj zilcit

oig fc wogj zilcit wc dciwodw whj `oionj`jiw wc gltdztt whj lttzjt)

Dcidbztlci

Li ‘Do}wzjg a| Dcwwci“ TC@C oig LDI j}cwjg whow Jotw`oi twowjg }hotlin czw whj Tz`oinobl

Tdhj`j fc` O}lb 1=?= ci~ogt) Whj ij~ jtjodh thc~t whow Jotw`oi hot ligjjg jodhjg o

tjwwbj`jiw ~lwh `ctw cf whj fc`j Tz`oinobl ~ckjt) Whjtj ~ckjt ~jj }olg czw whj ~onjt

whow hog ajji ~lwhhjbg oig ~jj cffjjg whj dhcldj wc dciwlizj ~cklin fc whj fodwc| oig jdjlvj

o `ciwhb| ~onj" ~lwhczw }ow cf whj ~onj ajlin ~lwhhjbg) Ic~" whj `oeclw| cf t}liilin `lbb ~ckjt

oj ~ckjt fc` ijoa| vlbbonjt ~hc blvj ow hc`j) Liwjvlj~jg hctwjb ~ckjt tolg whjl fjjgc`

cf `cvj`jiw hot l`}cvjg) Whj| oj obbc~jg wc nc czw fc thc}}lin cidj o ~jjk li o ncz}"

~lwhczw o nzog) ^ckjt cf whj Gliglnzb zilwt tolg whj| oj ic~ obbc~jg wc ztj `calbj }hcijt)

 Oicwhj l`}cvj`jiw lt whow Jotw`oi hot l`}bj`jiwjg o }cbld| cf hllin ~ckjt onjg ?8 oig

oacvj) Gjt}lwj whlt }cbld|" bcdob jtjodhjt glg lgjiwlf| ~ckjt ~hc o}}jojg wc ot |czin ot ?7

o`cin whj ~ckfcdj) @oec dcidjit j`oli jnoglin jxdjttlvj oig fcdjg cvjwl`j"

cddz}owlciob hjobwh oig tofjw| oig fjjgc` cf ottcdlowlci) Whow ‘zilcit jxltw li whj }bodjt ~hjj

Jotw`oi zilwt oj bcdowjg“ gcjt icw tzffldj) ^how lt jqzljg lt whow zilcit doi oddjtt ~ckjt

oig ijncwlowj ci whjl ajhobf)

1)7)4) K)])Q) @lbb 

K)])Q) @lbb lt o twcdk bltwjg }cgzdj cf jog|-`ogj kilwwjg o}}ojb oig dcwwci kilwwjg foald oig

|oi) Whj dc`}oi| j}cwjg o 41* li lidc`j nc~wh cvj whj fltdob |jo 1=?? oig o ijw lidc`j cf 

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@olg li Liglo

47

'?6"1?=":6?)4: Whj dc`}oi| hot tlx }cgzdwlci zilwt oig j`}bc|t `cj whoi <"=== ~ckjt)46 Lw

c}jowjt o t}liilin `lbb (Liglo`}obo|o` zilw, ow Towh|o`oinobo` li whj Jcgj gltwldw) W~c

t}liilin & kilwwlin zilwt oj bcdowjg li Dcl`aowcj (Koz`owho`}owwl oig Ijjbo`az }boiw,) O

no`jiwlin zilw lt aotjg li Wlz}z) K)])Q) @lbb.t Tl}dcw zilw li ]jzigzol t}jdlobltjt li g|jlin"abjodhlin oig dc`}odwlin) Whj Ootz dc`}bjx li Dcl`aowcj lt whj alnnjtw }cgzdwlci zilw"

hcztlin t}liilin" kilwwlin oig no`jiwlin zilwt)

Fcz K)])Q) @lbb zilwt oj TO 8=== djwlfljg5 K)])Q) @lbb Bl`lwjg (Ijjbo`az" Dcl`aowcj," K)])Q)

@lbb Bl`lwjg (Ootz ]ctw" Dcl`aowcj," K)])Q) @lbb Bl`lwjg - ]cdjttlin Glvltlci (Tl}dcw"

]jzigzol, oig _zoiwz` Kilwt (Ootz ]ctw" Dcl`aowcj,)

Fc whlt jtjodh" := K)])Q) @lbb ~ckjt ~jj liwjvlj~jg)

Io`j cf whj zilw Liglvlgzob ~cqkjqt

liwjqvlj~

Nqcz} liwjqvlj~t

K)])Q @lbb ]vw Bwg #_zoiwz` Kilwt ]vw Bwg" (Ootz 

]ctw" Dcl`aowcj,

8 ? ncz} `ogj z} cf : ~ckjt

K)])Q @lbb (Towh|o`oinobo`" Jcgj, 6 -

K)])Q @lbb (Koz`owho`}owwl" Dcl`aowcj, 6 ? ncz} `ogj z} cf : ~ckjt

K)])Q @lbb ]vw Bwg (Ijjbo`az ]ctw" Dcl`aowcj, ?= -

K)])Q ]vw Bwg (Wlz}z, ?= -

Wcwob 7= ?=

Dztwc`jqt

DOD Oivjt Bcnlt}cw (Ajbnlz`," Dhcldj Gltdcziw Twcj (ZK," Gjdowhbci (Foidj," Jitwlint

Fo`lb| (Nj`oi|," Lnzot}cw (Aoulb," Ej| Bjlnh (ZT," K`ow (Oztwoblo# Ij~ Ujoboig," BBDCdwcabzj (Qzttlo," @okt & T}jidj (ZK," Ijxw (ZK," IKG (Nj`oi|," ]l`ok (Ljboig," Toig|

Gltdcziw ^ojhcztj (ZK," Wjtdc (ZK," Voi Gobj Ligztwljt (ZT, oig ^lbhjb` Klig (Nj`oi|,)4>

 

Qjdqzlw`jiw

K)])Q) @lbb twowjt ci lwt ~jatlwj whow lw jdzlwt ~c`ji fc` j`cwj vlbbonjt48 oig whow ajdoztj o

`oeclw| cf K)])Q) @lbb ~ckjt dc`j fc` j`cwj vlbbonjt whj| dc`j wc blvj li whj fodwc| hctwjbt)

Hc~jvj" whj bcin gltwoidj ajw~jji whj fodwc| oig whj ~ckjt“ hc`j vlbbonjt lt icw ob~o|t whj

jotci ~h| ~ckjt blvj li whj fodwc| hctwjbt) Whj jiwlj ~ckfcdj cf K)])Q) @lbb“t

Towh|o`oinobo` t}liilin zilw lt two|lin li whj fodwc|“t gc`lwcljt jvji whcznh `ctw cf whj

~ckjt dc`j fc` whj vlbbonj cf Towh|o`oinobo`" eztw cij klbc`jwj o~o| fc` whj t}liilin `lbb)Lw tjj`t ~ckjt oj hcztjg li whj hctwjbt tc whow whj| doi aj }zw wc ~ck ow oi| wl`j)

Li jt}citj wc whj gofw j}cw" K)])Q) @lbb ~lwjt wc TC@C oig LDI whow ~ckjt dhcctj wc two| li

whj fodwc| hctwjbt ajdoztj whjl }ojiwt jqzjtw tc" oig ajdoztj cf ‘whj ovolboalblw| cf Hlnhj 

Jgzdowlci fodlblw|“) 

4: ^cbgtdc}j" K)])Q) @lbb Bl`lwjg" ?8 Gjdj`aj 1=??)46 K)])Q) @lbb Bl`lwjg" Oiizob Qj}cw 1=?=-1=??" 1=?? (?> Eoizo| 1=?1, 2 hww}5##~~~)K)])Q)`lbbbl`lwjg)dc #flioidlob)}h} 

9" }) ?4-?:)4> Li cgj wc jtwoablth whj blikt ajw~jji K)])Q) @lbb oig lwt az|jt" jx}cw gowo fc` Wzwldcli oig Dhjiiol }cwt ~jj

oiob|tjg) Whj jx}cw gowo dcvj o }jlcg cf jlnhw `ciwht (Ezij 1=?? — Eoizo| 1=?1,) Obb dc`}oiljt jiwlcijg hjj

~jj fczig wc aj tczdlin fc` K)])Q) @lbb ~lwhli whlt }jlcg)48  K)])Q) @lbb" ^jatlwj K)])Q) @lbb Bl`lwjg" ‘Tcdlob Dc``lw`jiw“" ic gowj" 2 hww}5##~~~)K]Q`lbbbl`lwjg)dc`#tcdlob)}h} 9 (?>

Eoizo| 1=?1,)

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4:

Tdhj`j ~cqkjqt

 Obb K)])Q) @lbb zilwt" jxdj}w fc whj Wlz}z zilw" hovj hctwjb fodlblwljt) Whj hctwjbt oj bcdowjg ci whj

fodwc| nczigt) Li whj dotj cf K)])Q) @lbb“t Koz`owho`}owwl zilw" whj hctwjb lt ogeodjiw wc whj

fodwc|) Li wcwob" ob`ctw :"=== K)])Q) @lbb ~ckjt oj jtlglin li hctwjbt) @oi| ~ckjt fc` obbzilwt" jxdj}w whj Wlz}z zilw" oj j`}bc|jg zigj whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j)

Whj bz`} tz` }o|`jiw lt cib| }olg czw lf o ~ckj dc`}bjwjt whj fzbb whjj |jot) Lf o ~ckj 

bjovjt ajfcj whj jig cf whj dciwodw }jlcg" thj ~lbb icw aj jblnlabj wc jdjlvj whj o`cziw tovjg z}

wc whow gowj) Tc`j jx-~ckjt ~jj icw oabj wc c}ji o aoik oddcziw ofwj whj| dc`}bjwjg whjj

|jot cf ~ck ow K)])Q) @lbb ajdoztj whj| ~jj |czinj whoi ?8) @oionj`jiw wcbg whj` whow whj|

dczbg cib| woitfj whj `cij| lf whj| hog oi liglvlgzob aoik oddcziw) Whj jtjodhjt hovj t}ckji

~lwh tjvji nlbt whow `lttjg jdjlvlin whjl bz`} tz` fc whlt jotci) Fcz jx-~ckjt wcbg whj

jtjodhjt whow whj| glg icw jdjlvj whj bz`} tz` ajdoztj whj| dczbg icw thc~ o ~jgglin dog wc

whj `oionj`jiw)

Li lwt jodwlci wc TC@C oig LDI" K)])Q) @lbb dbol`t whow ‘Cwhj whoi whj bjnobb| twl}zbowjg }o|`jiwt

ic bz`} tz` }o|`jiw lt `ogj a| whj Dc`}oi| wc whj j`}bc|jjt) Whj ]cvlgjiw Fzig jbowlin wc

j`}bc|jjt oj j`lwwjg wc whj ]cvlgjiw Fzig Ozwhclw| (Ncvji`jiw cf Liglo, oig whj tolg fzig lt

ncvjijg oig jnzbowjg a| whj Ncvji`jiw cf Liglo) Cib| whj Ncvji`jiw (]cvlgjiw Fzig

 Ozwhclw|, woitfjt fzigt wc whj Aoik Oddcziwt c}jijg li whj io`jt cf j`}bc|jjt z}ci whjl 

bjovlin whjl tjvldjt) Ot tzdh whj Dc`}oi| gc icw hovj oi| dciwcb cvj ]cvlgjiw Fzig cf whj

j`}bc|jjt)“ 

Gcq`lwcqljt oig fqjjgc` cf `cvj`jiw

Jvj| cc` lt thojg a| ?= wc ?: ~ckjt" gj}jiglin ci whj tluj cf whj cc`) Liwjvlj~jg ~ckjt

j}cwjg whow whj hctwjb oddc``cgowlci ot ~jbb ot fjjgc` cf `cvj`jiw hot l`}cvjg tlidj @o|

1=??)

^ckjt oj twlbb icw obbc~jg wc nc czw ~hjijvj whj| ~oiw" azw whj| oj ic~ obbc~jg wc nc czw fc 

thc}}lin cidj o `ciwh) ^ckjt doi nc li ncz}t cf flvj" ~lwhczw o nzog) ^ckjt oj obtc

obbc~jg wc bjovj whj fodwc| nczig ~lwh whjl }ojiwt" gzlin vltlwlin hczt) ^ckjt oj ic~ obtc

obbc~jg wc ztj `calbj }hcijt li whj gc`lwcljt)

 Obwhcznh whjj lt tc`j l`}cvj`jiw" ~ckjt to| whow jvji lf whj| ~jj obbc~jg wc nc czw

~hjijvj whj| ~oiwjg wc" lw ~czbg hovj ic ztj ajdoztj cf whj jxwj`jb| bcin ~cklin go|t oig

fowlnzj)

Li lwt jodwlci wc TC@C oig LDI" K)])Q) @lbb dcifl`t whow ~ckjt oj obbc~jg wc bjovj whj fodwc|

nczigt ~lwh whjl }ojiwt" li whj go|-wl`j) Li ogglwlci" K)])Q) @lbb twowjt whow ~ckjt `o| obtc

bjovj whj fodwc| nczigt oddc`}oiljg a| fljigt)

Dhlbg boaczq

 Oddcglin wc TC@C oig LDI“t bcdob }owij cnoiltowlcit ~ckjt onjg ajbc~ ?7 ow K)])Q) @lbb“t

Towh|o`oinobo` zilw ~jj tjiw hc`j ofwj whj }zabldowlci cf ‘Do}wzjg a| Dcwwci“) Gzlin whj ij~

jtjodh" ow oicwhj K)])Q) @lbb c}jowjg zilw" hc~jvj" whj bcdob jtjodhjt onoli lgjiwlfljg

~ckjt zigj whj onj cf ?7 ow K)])Q) @lbb“t t}liilin oig kilwwlin zilw ow Koz`owho`}oww|"

Dcl`aowcj) Whlt lt whj zilw ~hjj ij~ ~ckjt jdjlvj whjl lilwlob wolilin ajfcj ajlin }bodjg ow

glffjjiw zilwt) Lw lt jtwl`owjg whow oczig ?=* cf ~ckjt ow whlt zilw oj ajbc~ ?7) Lw lt fzwhj jtwl`owjg whow 6:* cf whj wcwob ~ckfcdj ow K)])Q) @lbb lt ajbc~ whj onj cf ?8)

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@olg li Liglo

46

Li lwt jt}citj wc TC@C oig LDI" K)])Q) @lbb dbol`t whow onj dlwjlo twl}zbowjg a| whj bo~t cf whj

twowj oj twldwb| fcbbc~jg)

^onjt

@ciwhb| ~onjt oj }olg li obb zilwt" jxdj}w fc whj Wlz}z zilw ~hjj ~jjkb| ~onjt oj }olg) Golb|

~onjt fc whj Wlz}z zilw vo| ajw~jji Qt) ??= (₢?)6<, oig Qt) 4== (₢7)6=," gj}jiglin ci whj

fzidwlci) ^onj gjwolbt cf fcz cwhj K)])Q) @lbb zilwt oj lidbzgjg li whj woabj ajbc~)

^onj woabj K)])Q) @lbb

Toboq|

(`ciwhb| ~onj,

\joq ? \joq 1 \joq 4 Bz`} tz`

(lidbzglin

]qcvlgjiw Fzig

o`cziw fcq whqjj

|joqt,

Wcwob

joqilint li

4 |joqt

 Ootz ??== - 1===

(₢?6)<= -

 ₢4=)>1,

1=== -4===

(₢4=)>1 - ₢76)?=,

4=== - 46==

(₢76)?= -

 ₢::)4?,

:6===

(₢86=, 

?1<"1== — 

?:<"1==

(₢?<8: -

 ₢1776, 

Koz`owho`}oww| ?1== - 17==

(₢?8)77 -

 ₢46)8>,

17== - 46==

(₢46)8> - ₢::)4?,

46==

(₢::)4?,

:6===

(₢86=, 

?71"7== — 

?>?"1==

(₢1?88 -

 ₢164=, 

Ijjbo`az ??== - ?1==

(₢?6)<= -

 ₢?8)77,

17==

(₢46)8>,

46==

(₢::)4?,

:6===

(₢86=, 

?71"7==

(₢1?6< -

 ₢1?88, 

Towh|o`oinobo` 1=== - 1:==(₢4=)>1 -

 ₢48)7?,

4===(₢76)?=,

4:==(₢:4)>>,

76===(₢>=>, 

?78"=== — ?:7"===

(₢11>7 -

 ₢1466, 

K)])Q) @lbb to|t whow ~onjt }olg oj li blij ~lwh whj @lil`z` ^onjt Odw cf Wo`lb Iogz) Ot

gjtdlajg joblj li whlt j}cw (tjj }oono}h 1)4)1," cwhj whoi o `lil`z` ~onj fc o}}jiwldjt li

wjxwlbj `lbbt" whjj lt ic bjnob `lil`z` ~onj fc wjxwlbj oig no`jiw ~ckjt li Wo`lb Iogz)

^cqklin hczqt oig cvjqwl`j

Li whj }jok tjotci" Oznztw wc @odh" ~ckjt hovj wc ~ck o gczabj go| oig ilnhw thlfw (?6 hczt,

w~c c whjj wl`jt o ~jjk) Li whj bc~ tjotci" fc o}}cxl`owjb| w~c `ciwht" ~ckjt ztzobb| ~ck

8 hczt o go|) Li whj cwhj (w~c, `ciwht" ~ckjt ~ck ?1 hczt o go|) Cvjwl`j ~ck lt

`oigowc| oig jt}jdlobb| hctwjb ~ckjt oj vzbijoabj wc fcdjg oig jxdjttlvj cvjwl`j)

Cvjwl`j hczt oj }olg" azw icw oddcglin wc bcdob bo~ (gczabj ~onj,) ^ckjt ow whj

Towh|o`oinobo` oig Wlz}z zilwt ~ck ?1 hczt o go| oig whj ~jjkb| go|-cff lt jt}jdwjg) Ow

whj Towh|o`oinobo` zilw" cvjwl`j hczt oj icw }olg) ^ckjt jdjlvj o flxjg `ciwhb| ~onj)

Li lwt jt}citj wc whj gofw j}cw" K)])Q) @lbb to|t whow ‘bcin ~cklin hczt oig fowlnzj oj zbjg

czw“) K)])Q) @lbb fzwhj ~lwjt whow ~cklin hczt oig cvjwl`j ~ck oj li dc`}bloidj ~lwh whj

Fodwcljt Odw) ^ckjt whj`tjbvjt gjdlgj lf whj| ~oiw wc ~ck cvjwl`j oig cvjwl`j hczt oj

}olg ot }j whj Boacz Bo~t" to|t K)])Q) @lbb)

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4>

Cddz}owlciob hjobwh oig tofjw|

@otkt oig o}cit oj }cvlgjg" azw ~ckjt oj cib| litwzdwjg wc odwzobb| ztj whj tofjw| njo 

~hji ozglwt c cwhj vltlwt wokj }bodj) Jo}bznt oj icw }cvlgjg) ^ckjt oj obtc }cvlgjg ~lwh o

zilfc`) Dctwt fc whj zilfc` oj gjgzdwjg fc` whjl tobo|) Whjj lt o ~ckjt ~jbfojdc``lwwjj" azw liwjvlj~jg ~ckjt tolg whow lw lt eztw fc`jg fc whj tokj cf o}}jooidjt) Whj

dc``lwwjj lt icw odwlvj)

Li lwt jodwlci wc TC@C oig LDI" K)])Q) @lbb to|t whow whj l`}cwoidj oig ijdjttlw| cf tofjw|

jqzl}`jiw lt jx}bolijg wc whj ~ckjt ow whj wl`j cf jdzlw`jiw) K)])Q) @lbb ~lwjt whow tofjw|

jqzl}`jiw lt }cvlgjg wc whj ~ckjt fjj cf dctw) Li ogglwlci" K)])Q) ~lwjt whow whj volczt

~ckjt ~jbfoj dc``lwwjjt oj fzidwlcilin ‘jffjdwlvjb|" ligj}jigjiwb| oig jffldljiwb|“) 

Fqjjgc` cf ottcdlowlci

^ckjt oj icw fo`lblo ~lwh wogj zilcit oig whjj lt ic wogj zilci }jtjidj ow K)])Q) @lbb) Li lwt

jodwlci" K)])Q) @lbb to|t whow whj volczt dc``lwwjjt tzffldj li oggjttlin ~ckjt“ nljvoidjt)

Tcdlob ozglwt

Whj liwjvlj~jg ~ckjt j}cwjg whow ajfcj oi ozglw wokjt }bodj o ncz} cf ~ckjt jdjlvjt

t}jdlob wolilin) @oionj`jiw litwzdwt whj ~ckjt ci ~how wc to| gzlin oi ozglw) Whj ~ckjt oj

litwzdwjg wc to| whow whj| ~ck jlnhw hczt o go|) Obtc" whj| oj wcbg ~how wc to| ~hji whj| oj

otkjg oaczw whjl ~onj" hctwjb dciglwlcit" oig jwdjwjo) ]lc wc oi ozglw" ~ckjt jdjlvj ?: go|t

cf ‘wolilin“" ~hjj ~ckjt hovj wc j}jow whj oit~jt gldwowjg a| whj `oionj`jiw cvj oig cvj)

^ckjt wcbg whj jtjodhjt whow whj| gjogjg whjtj wolilin tjttlcit" whj| fjbw wc`jiwjg hovlin

wc j}jow whj to`j blijt cvj oig cvj onoli)

Li lwt jodwlci wc TC@C oig LDI" K)])Q) @lbb ~lwjt whow lw cffjt dciwlizczt wolilint ci aotld

t|twj`t" tofjw| jnzbowlcit oig eca cljiwjg wolilin) ^ckjt oj obtc jgzdowjg ci ‘volczt lnhwt

oig jnzbowlcit ot }j whj Twoiglin Cgj“) ‘Ot tzdh ic t}jdlfld wolilin ci ]j- Ozglw lt nlvji“"

to|t K)])Q) @lbb)

Dcidbztlci

K)])Q) @lbb lt twlbb j`}bc|lin ~ckjt ~lwh whj }c`ltj whow whj| ~lbb jdjlvj o bz`} tz` o`cziw

ofwj dc`}bjwlin whjj wc flvj |jot cf j`}bc|`jiw) Whlt bz`} tz` o`cziw dcitltwt cf ~lwhhjbg

~onjt oig ~lbb cib| aj }olg czw lf whj fzbb }jlcg hot ajji dc`}bjwjg)

Whj ij~ jtjodh jvjobt whow dhlbgji zigj whj onj cf ?7 ~jj fczig wc aj ~cklin ow whjKoz`owho`}oww| zilw cf K)])Q) @lbb) ^ckjt oj }zw zigj njow }jttzj wc nlvj t}jdlfld oit~jt

gzlin tcdlob ozglwt) Cwhj dcidjit oj jxdjttlvj oig fcdjg cvjwl`j" liogjqzowj tofjw|

`jotzjt oig ic fjjgc` cf ottcdlowlci)

Whj ij~ jtjodh obtc thc~t whow tc`j l`}cvj`jiwt hovj ajji l`}bj`jiwjg5 ~ckjt

jx}jljidj tblnhwb| `cj fjjgc` cf `cvj`jiw oig hctwjb oddc``cgowlci hot l`}cvjg)

Fzwhj`cj" `ciwhb| ~onjt oig whj bz`} tz` o`cziw hovj lidjotjg)

Li lwt jodwlci wc whj gofw j}cw tjiw a| TC@C oig LDI" K)])Q) @lbb ~lwjt whow lw twldwb| dc`}bljt

~lwh iowlciob boacz bo~t) Obcin ~lwh lwt jt}citj K)])Q) @lbb tjigt o whldk }odkonj ~lwh

gcdz`jiwo| jvlgjidj (`ctw cf lw li Wo`lb, whow tz}}ctjgb| }cvjt whj dc`}oi|“t dc`}bloidj ~lwh

jbjvoiw bo~t oig jnzbowlcit) Obb }cbld| gcdz`jiwt whow ~jj thojg oj li Wo`lb" ajtlgjt o 7-

}onj jxdj}w cf whj Fodwc|“t Twoiglin Cgjt) TC@C oig LDI doiicw ottjtt whj qzoblw| cf whj

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@olg li Liglo

48

dc`}oi|“t }cbldljt) @cjcvj" TC@C oig LDI dcidbzgj whow o}}ojiwb| whjj lt o no} ajw~jji

}cbldljt ci }o}j oig whj joblw| ci whj nczig)

Ooglwo (?4,

 Ooglwo“t }ojiwt ~jj o}}codhjg a| o ackj) Whj ackj }c`ltjg Ooglwo“t }ojiwt whow thj ~czbg dc`j

aodk hc`j ~lwh Qt) 7:"=== (₢6<?, ofwj whjj |jot) Ooglwo“t }ojiwt ~ck ot onldzbwzob boaczjt" azw whjj

lt icw jicznh ~ck oig whj }o| lt bc~) Czw cf flioidlob ijjg" Ooglwo“t fowhj gjdlgjg wc tjig hj wc K)])Q) @lbb

li O}lb 1=??)

^hji Ooglwo olvjg thj ~ot wcbg whow thj ~czbg hovj wc dc`}bjwj whjj |jot cf ~ck wc aj oabj wc jdjlvj

whj bz`} tz` cf Qt) 7:"===) Thj ~ot wcbg whow thj ~czbg icw jdjlvj oi| }ow cf whj bz`} tz` lf thj ~czbg

bjovj whj fodwc| ajfcj whj whjj-|jo }jlcg ~czbg hovj jigjg) Ooglwo ~ot fzwhj wcbg whow thj ~czbg

jdjlvj jlnhw zi}olg hcblgo|t jvj| tlx `ciwht) Ofwj ?= go|t whj `oionj`jiw fczig czw whow Ooglwo ~ot cib|

?1 |jot cbg) Thj ~ot otkjg wc bjovj whj t}liilin `lbb" obcin ~lwh fcz cwhj |czin nlbt) Ooglwo bjfw whj fodwc|

~lwh ?>= z}jjt (₢1)6?, fc wji go|t cf ~ck) Oddcglin wc Ooglwo" 77= Qz}jjt (₢6)>6, ~jj gjgzdwjg fc`

hj lilwlob tobo| fc fccg oig oddc``cgowlci)

1)7)7) TT@ Liglo 

TT@ Liglo c}jowjt tlx fodlblwljt oig j`}bc|t oczig 6":== }jc}bj) TT@ Liglo hot w~c t}liilin

zilwt }cgzdlin dcwwci |oi" c}jowlin zigj whj io`j Tl Toovoio T}liilin @lbbt" acwh bcdowjg li

Gliglnzb gltwldw) Whj dc`}oi|.t |oi }cdjttlin glvltlci lt kic~i ot TT@ Flij \oi) TT@ Foald

lt whj glvltlci ~hjj g|jg |oit oj }cdjttjg liwc }ljdj-g|jg foaldt) TT@ Flij \oi oig TT@

Foald oj obtc bcdowjg li Whjil gltwldw) TT@ fzwhj c}jowjt w~c no`jiwlin glvltlcit" Tz`jz

Kilwt li Dcl`aowcj gltwldw oig Tz`jz Kilwt Zilw-1 (obtc kic~i ot Tz`jz No`jiwt, li

Towh|o`oinobo` (Jcgj gltwldw,) Okthoo Wjxwlbjt li Jcgj lt jinonjg li wjxwlbj }cgzdwlci)

Li jt}citj wc whj gofw j}cw TC@C oig LDI hovj jdjlvjg o bjwwj fc` whj tjilc `oionj`jiw

cf Tz`jz Kilwt" tjiw ci 1 O}lb" 1=?1" nlvlin lifc`owlci oaczw whj tlwzowlci ow TT@ Liglo“t

no`jiwlin oig ici-no`jiwlin zilwt) TC@C oig LDI jfj wc whlt bjwwj ~hji whj jt}citjt oig

}ctlwlcit cf TT@ Liglo oj nlvji)

Li lwt jt}citj wc TC@C oig LDI" TT@ Liglo ~lwjt whow ‒^j ijlwhj hovj oi| kic~bjgnj ic c~i

o dc`}oi| li whj io`j cf TT@ Foald" Whjil)‐4< 

Whj no`jiw glvltlcit tz}}b| volczt Jzc}joi oig ZT dbcwhlin aoigt) Acwh no`jiw zilwt oj

TO 8=== djwlfljg)7= 

Io`j cf whj zilw (Gltwqldw, Liglvlgzob ~cqkjqt“ 

liwjqvlj~t

Nqcz} liwjqvlj~t

Tz`jz Kilwt (Dcl`aowcj, : ? ncz} `ogj z} cf : ~ckjt

Toovoio T}liilin @lb Zilw-L (Gliglnzb, 7 -

Toovoio T}liilin @lbb Zilw-LL (Gliglnzb, 4 -

TT@ Flij \oi ((Whjil,, 4 -

TT@ Foald (Whjil, 4 -

Tz`jz Kilwt Zilw-1 (Jcgj, : -

 Okthoo Wjxwlbjt (Jcgj, : ? ncz} `ogj z} cf : ~ckjt

Wcwob 18 ?=

4< Dcjt}cigjidj a| TT@ 1 O}lb" 1=?1)7=  Tcdlob Oddcziwoalblw| Liwjiowlciob" Tcdlob Oddcziwoalblw| Oddjglwowlci Tjvldjt ‘Djwlfljg Fodlblwljt Bltw“" 4= Tj}wj`aj 

1=??" 2 hww}5##~~~)tootoddjglwowlci)cn#djwfodlblwljtbltw)hw` 9 (6 Eoizo| 1=?1,)

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4<

Dztwc`jqt

D|twob @owli (ZK," D&O (Ajbnlz`# Nj`oi|," Echi Bj~lt (ZK," @cwhjdoj (ZK," Ijxw (ZK,"

]l`ok (Ljboig,)7?

 

Qjdqzlw`jiw

Gzlin whj jtjodh }jlcg (Oznztw — Icvj`aj 1=??," jtjodhjt lgjiwlfljg tdhj`j ~ckjt ow

obb zilwt cf TT@ Liglo" li wcwob tc`j 7"=== ~ckjt)

Li lwt jodwlci tjiw wc TC@C oig LDI TT@ Liglo jx}bolit whow whj wjxwlbj ligztw| ~ot nclin

whcznh hoth wl`jt cij c w~c gjdogjt onc oig whow whj ligztw| ijjgjg wc l`}bj`jiw tc`j

dhoinjt li cgj wc ‘tztwoli oig tzvlvj“) Lw ~ot whji whow whj ‘bz`} tz`“ t|twj` ~ot liwcgzdjg) Li

lwt jt}citj whj dc`}oi| fz whj gjwolbt whow whlt t|twj` ‘~ot }jdjlvjg wc aj o `zwzobb| ajijfldlob

j`}bc|`jiw }odwldj whow ~ot ~lgjb| oddj}wjg acwh a| j`}bc|j & j`}bc|jj (fc ~jbb jx}bolijg

dzbwzob-dz`-tcdlc-jdcic`ld jotcit & aodknczigt,“) Whj dc`}oi| oggt whow ‘ot o }codwlvj tlni

lw hot cffjjg cij cf lwt t}liilin zilwt fc tcdlob dc`}bloidj ozglw wc whj ic`liowlin acgljt li whjjdjiw }otw“) ‘Whj cwhj zilwt wcc oj tcci jx}jdwjg wc fcbbc~“" to|t TT@)

Dc``jiwlin z}ci whj gofw j}cw" TT@ Liglo ‘vj| twcinb| gjiljt“ whow oi|cij lt jdzlwjg ci whj

bz`} tz` t|twj`) Li @odh 1=?1" ot }ow cf whjl ci-nclin `cilwclin cf whj tlwzowlci li whj

no`jiw tjdwc" bcdob jtjodhjt dcigzdwjg ogglwlciob liwjvlj~t) Whj| dozwlcztb| dcifl` whow ow

whj `c`jiw" Tz`jz Kilwt (Dcl`aowcj, gcjt icw jdzlw ~ckjt ~lwh whj }c`ltj cf o bz`} tz`

}o|`jiw oi|`cj)

TC@C oig LDI doiicw |jw dcifl` whlt lt obtc wzj fc Tz`jz Kilwt Zilw-1 (Jcgj,)

TT@ Liglo fzwhj ~lwjt whow fc lwt no`jiwlin zilwt ~ckjt oj icw jdzlwjg whcznh onjiwt c 

ackjt) Ij~ ~ckjt oj jdzlwjg whcznh whj jxltwlin ~ck fcdj" to|t TT@ Liglo) Hc~ ~ckjt

fc whj cwhj zilwt oj jdzlwjg lt icw jx}bolijg)

Tz`jz Kilwt Zilw-1 li Jcgj gltwldw jdzlwt nlbt fc` Oigho ]ogjth whcznh o twowj

ncvji`jiw gj}ow`jiw (GQGO — Gltwldw Qzob Gjvjbc}`jiw Onjid|,)71

 Oczig 4"=== TT@ ~ckjt blvj li whj fodwc| hctwjbt)

TT@ Liglo ~ckjt wcbg whj jtjodhjt whow whj| hovj wc hovj o aoik oddcziw li whjl c~i io`j

wc aj oabj wc jdjlvj whj bz`} tz` }o|`jiw) Whj }cabj` lt whow ~ckjt zigj ?8 doiicw c}ji o

aoik oddcziw) Tjvjob ~ckjt hovj ajji dhjowjg czw cf whjl bz`} tz` whlt ~o|) ^ckjt whow glg

jdjlvj whj bz`} tz` j}cwjg whow lw lt ob~o|t o hottbj njwwlin whj bz`} tz`) Whj| hovj wc nc wc

whj fodwc| tjvjob wl`jt" oddc`}oiljg a| whjl }ojiwt li cgj wc jdjlvj whj `cij|) Lw hot obtc

cddzjg whow ~ckjt oj jqzljg wc ooinj fc o tzddjttc ajfcj whj| jdjlvj whj bz`} tz`

}o|`jiw)

Dhlbg boaczq

Whj bcdob jtjodhjt j}cw whow ~ckjt ot |czin ot ?1 ~cklin ow TT@ Liglo) Qjtjodhjt

liwjvlj~jg o nlb cf ?4 ow TT@ Flij \oi ~hc wcbg whj` wc hovj twowjg ~cklin whjj ow whj onj cf 

?1) Nlbt ajbc~ whj onj cf ?6 oj litwzdwjg wc to| whj| oj ?6 lf oi|cij otkt) Whj cib| gcdz`jiw

ligldowlin whj ~ckjt“ onj lt o `jgldob djwlfldowj) ^hji ~ckjt oj zigj ?6" whjtj jdcgt oj

7? Li cgj wc jtwoablth whj blikt ajw~jji TT@ Liglo oig lwt az|jt" jx}cw gowo fc` Wzwldcli oig Dhjiiol }cwt ~jj

oiob|tjg) Whj jx}cw gowo dcvj o }jlcg cf jlnhw `ciwht (Ezij 1=?? — Eoizo| 1=?1,) Obb dc`}oiljt jiwlcijg hjj~jj fczig wc aj tczdlin fc` TT@ Liglo ~lwhli whlt }jlcg)

71 Lifc`owlci cawolijg fc` Tz`jz Kilwt (Dcl`aowcj, gzlin o dcivjtowlci ~lwh TC@C oig LDI ci 4= @odh" 1=?1)

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@olg li Liglo

7=

fobtlfljg) Li lwt jodwlci wc TC@C oig LDI" jx}bolilin whj tlwzowlci ow whj ici-no`jiwlin zilwt"

TT@ Liglo ~lwjt whow ‒]jc}bj oj jdzlwjg cib| lf whj| oj ?6 |jot cf onj c oacvj)‐ 

^lwh jnog wc whj no`jiwlin zilwt TT@ Liglo ~lwjt whow ‒^j jdzlw cib| }jc}bj ~hc hovj

owwolijg whj onj cf ?8 (~lwh gzj onj-}ccft, oig whcznh whj jfjjidj cf jxltwlin ~ckfcdj & whjl }ojiwt)‐ 

^onjt

^onjt vo| }j zilw) ^onjt obtc glffj fc jtlgjiwlob oig ici-jtlgjiwlob ~ckjt) Tjj whj ~onj

woabjt ajbc~) ^ckjt gc icw jdjlvj tobo| tbl}t)

^onj woabj tdhj`j ~cqkjqt TT@ Liglo (obb fj`obj,

Zilw (Gltwqldw, Toboq| }jq thlfw Bz`} tz` o`cziw

(4 |joqt,

Wcwob o`cziw joqijg

(4 |joqt,

Tz`jz Kilwt (Dcl`aowcj, <=-?1= Qt)

(₢?)48 —  ₢?)87, 

Qt) 4="===

(₢76?, 

Qt) ?18"18=

(₢?"<>=, 

Toovoio T}liilin @lbb"

Zilw-L (Gliglnzb,

4: - ?1= Qt)

(₢=):7 - ₢?)87, 

Qt) 76"===

(₢>=>, 

Qt) ??8":7=

(₢?"81?, 

Toovoio T}liilin @lbb"

Zilw-LL (Gliglnzb

71 — ??= Qt)

(₢=)6: - ₢?)6<, 

Qt) 7="===

(₢6?:, Qt) ??="1==

(₢?"6<4, 

TT@ Flij \oi (Whjil, 71 — ??= Qt)

(₢=)6: - ₢?)6<, 

Qt) 7="===

(₢6?:, Qt) ??="1==

(₢?"6<4, 

TT@ Foald (Whjil, 71 — ??= Qt)

(₢=)6: - ₢?)6<, 

Qt) 7="===

(₢6?:, Qt) ??="1==

(₢?"6<4, 

Tz`jz Kilwt Zilw-1 (Jcgj, 4"=== — 4":== Qt)

}jq `ciwh (₢76)?= —  ₢:4)>>, 

Qt) 4="===

(₢76?, 

Qt) ?7>"===

(₢1"1:<, 

 Okthoo Wjxwlbjt (Jcgj,  1":== — 4"=== Qt)

}jq `ciwh 

(₢48)7? - ₢76)?=,

Qt) 4="===

(₢76?, 

Qt) ?1<"===

(₢?"<81, 

^onj woabj ici-tdhj`j ~cqkjqt TT@ Liglo

Zilw (Gltwqldw, Golb| toboq| }jq thlfw

@obj cqkjqt

Golb| toboq| }jq thlfw Fj`obj ^cqkjqt

Tz`jz Kilwt (Dcl`aowcj, Qt) ?6=-?<=

(₢1)76 - ₢1)<1,

Qt) ?1=-?<=

(₢?)87 - ₢1)<1,

Toovoio T}liilin @lbb" Zilw-L

(Gliglnzb,

Qt)?7=-?6=

(₢1)?: - ₢1)76,

Qt) ?1= — ?4>

(₢?)87 - ₢1)?=,

Toovoio T}liilin @lbb" Zilw-LL

Gliglnzb

Qt)?1=-?6=

(₢?)87 - ₢1)76,

Qt) ?1= — ?4>

(₢?)87 - ₢1)?=,

TT@ Flij \oi (Whjil, Qt)?4=-?6=

(₢?)<< - ₢1)76,

Qt) ?1= — ?4>

(₢?)87 - ₢1)?=,

TT@ Foald (Whjil, Qt)?4=-?6=

(₢?)<< - ₢1)76,

Qt) ?1= — ?4>

(₢?)87 - ₢1)?=,

Tz`jz Kilwt Zilw-1 (Jcgj, Qt) 7"=== — Qt) 7":==

}j `ciwh

(₢6?)76 - ₢6<)?7,

Qt)4"=== wc Qt)4":==

}j `ciwh

(₢76)?=  —  ₢:4)>>,

 Okthoo Wjxwlbjt (Jcgj,  Qt) 7"=== — Qt) 7":==

}jq `ciwh (₢6?)76 - ₢6<)?7,

Qt) 1"6== — Qt) 4"4==

}jq `ciwh (₢4<)<: - ₢:=)>=, 

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7?

TT@ Liglo twcinb| gjiljt whj oddzod| cf whj ~onjt whow TC@C oig LDI hovj fzilthjg li whj

j}cw)

TT@ Liglo dbol`t whow ‘whj ~ckj dc`}jitowlci#}o| li cz no`jiw fodwcljt `jjw & jxdjjg whj

`lil`z` ~onjt czwblijg a| cz Ncvji`jiw)“ TT@ Liglo to|t whow ~onjt li whj no`jiwlin zilwtvo| fc` Qt) 4"?1= wc Qt) :"1== }j `ciwh) Li fodw" whlt lt icw li dciwogldwlci ~lwh fliglint

}jtjiwjg li whlt j}cw)

Li ogglwlci" TT@ Liglo to|t whow ‘~ckjt oj jblnlabj fc whjl JTL" J]F" @owjilw| bjovj" acizt oig

bjovj ~lwh ~onjt ot }j ic`t fc` whjl go|-? ~lwh whj dc`}oi|)“ 

Fzwhj`cj" TT@ Liglo dbol`t wc hovj ‘djowjg o~ojijtt o`cintw whj j`}bc|jjt ci jdjlvlin

whjl }o|#j`zijowlci whcznh aoik oddcziwt“ oig wc hovj ‘lilwlowjg & c}jijg oddcziwt ~lwh aoik

fc cz j`}bc|jjt wc djglw whjl `ciwhb| }o| gljdwb| liwc whj oddcziw“)

^cqklin hczqt oig cvjqwl`j

Ici-jtlgjiwlob ~ckjt ztzobb| ~ck thlfwt cf 8 hczt) Qjtlgjiwlob ~ckjt hovj wc dciwlizj

~cklin ofwj whj ici-jtlgjiwlob ~ckjt hovj bjfw) Tjvji-go| ~cklin ~jjkt oj o dc``ci

}odwldj ot oj cvjwl`j hczt) Liwjvlj~jg ~ckjt j}cwjg whow whj| fjjb cablnjg wc ~ck

cvjwl`j) Tz}jvltct dc`}jb whj ~ckjt wc gc cvjwl`j a| `oklin whj fcbbc~lin dc``jiwt5

‘\cz oj two|lin li whj hctwjb" ~how oj |cz nclin wc gc" |cz ~lbb njw jxwo `cij| lf |cz ~ck; obb

|cz cc` fljigt oj ~cklin |cz doiicw aj obcij li whj hctwjb" |cz fo`lb| lt tzffjlin ~lwhczw

`cij|" |cz hovj wc tz}}cw |cz `cwhj" fowhj" acwhj oig tltwj" gc icw aj bou|…))“ 

Li lwt jodwlci wc TC@C oig LDI" TT@ Liglo ~lwjt whow li whj no`jiwlin zilwt ‘wc whj ajtw jxwjiw

}cttlabj" ~j ovclg ~cklin cvjwl`j) Hc~jvj" ~hji whjj lt o ijjg wc ~ck cvj wl`j" lw lt }zjb|

ci o vcbziwo| aotlt“) Dcidjilin whj ici-no`jiwlin zilwt" TT@ Liglo jt}cigt whow ‘~cklin

hczt oig cvjwl`j oj fcbbc~jg ot }j fodwc| ic`t#}jvolblin bo~t“) 

Fqjjgc` cf ottcdlowlci

Ic wogj zilcit oj obbc~jg ow oi| cf whj zilwt cf TT@ Liglo) ^ckjt oj litwzdwjg wc dcitzbw whj

fodwc| `oionj" tz}jvltc c ~ogji lf whj| jx}jljidj oi| glffldzbw|) Hc~jvj" whj liwjvlj~jg

~ckjt tolg whow whj| flig lw glffldzbw wc o}}codh whjtj }jc}bj)

Li lwt jodwlci" TT@ Liglo to|t whow ~ckjt hovj whj lnhw oig oj j`}c~jjg wc ‘fc`" ecli oig

cnoiltj wogj zilcit#dc``lwwjjt cf whjl dhcldj wc aonoli dcbbjdwlvjb| ci whjl ajhobf ~lwh whj

dc`}oi|# `oionj`jiw“) Ci whlt wc}ld ic lifc`owlci ~ot }cvlgjg dcidjilin TT@“t ici-

no`jiwlin zilwt)

Fqjjgc` cf `cvj`jiw

 Obb cf whj oacvj `jiwlcijg zilwt hovj hctwjb fodlblwljt ci whj fodwc| }j`ltjt c ogeodjiw wc whj

fodwcljt) ^ckjt ~hc two| li whj hctwjbt oj icw obbc~jg wc bjovj whj fodwc| }j`ltjt fjjb|) Whj

liwjvlj~jg ~ckjt j}cwjg whow whj tlwzowlci hot l`}cvjg" whcznh" tlidj @o| 1=??) ^ckjt oj

ic~ obbc~jg wc dobb whjl }ojiwt oig fljigt (ajfcj whj| dczbg cib| `okj }hcij dobbt wc whjl 

}ojiwt,)

Tc`j cf whj ~ckjt tolg whow whjj lt ic ijjg fc whj` wc nc czw ot whj| oj wcc wljg fc`

~cklin) Li cij cf whj zilwt (Tz`jz Kilwt Zilw-1," ~ckjt oggjg whow whjj lt o thc} litlgj whj

fodwc| }j`ltjt oig o `jno tluj tdjji ~hjj whj| doi ~owdh `cvljt cidj o `ciwh) Whj

~ckjt tolg whow whj ijjg fc whj` wc nc czw lt icw whow znjiw ajdoztj cf whjtj fodlblwljt)

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Li lwt jt}citj wc TC@C oig LDI" TT@ Liglo ~lwjt whow lwt ~ckjt li whj no`jiwlin zilwt ‘gci“w

jx}jljidj oi| jtwldwlci jnoglin fjjgc` cf `cvj`jiw“) Ci whlt wc}ld ic lifc`owlci ~ot

}cvlgjg dcidjilin TT@“t ici-no`jiwlin zilwt)

Cddz}owlciob hjobwh oig tofjw|

Liwjvlj~jg ~ckjt j}cwjg whow whjl ~ck}bodj lt vj| gztw| oig whow whj wj`}jowzj lt vj|

hlnh) Tofjw| jqzl}`jiw lt cib| }cvlgjg gzlin ozglwt c gzlin vltlwlin hczt) ^ckjt tolg whj|

fjjb zidc`fcwoabj ztlin whj tofjw| njo) ^ckjt fc` whj no`jiw zilw j}cwjg whow whj qzoblw| cf 

fccg hot l`}cvjg) Hc~jvj" t}liilin `lbb ~ckjt dc`}boli oaczw whj fccg) Whj| tolg whow whj|

jvji fczig ~c`t li whj fccg)

TT@ Liglo" li lwt jodwlci wc TC@C oig LDI" to|t whow wc ‘jitzj }cvltlci cf dbjoi" tofj &

h|nljild ~ck}bodj fc obb j`}bc|jjt“" oig whow whjj oj j`}bc|jjt ~hc oj wolijg fc fltw-olg

oig flj flnhwlin oig whow obb j`}bc|jjt oj o~oj cf whj }jvolblin hjobwh oig tofjw| fodlblwljt) Ci

whlt wc}ld ic lifc`owlci ~ot }cvlgjg dcidjilin TT@“t ici-no`jiwlin zilwt)

Oaztlvj tz}jqvltcqt

Whj liwjvlj~jg ~ckjt j}cwjg vjaob oaztj a| tz}jvltct) Li tc`j dotjt" ~ckjt obtc

jx}jljidj tjxzob hoott`jiw) ^ckjt hogb| goj t}jok oaczw whlt tzaejdw) Tz}jvltct whjowji

whj nlbt a| to|lin whj| ~lbb aj tjiw o~o| lf whj| gc icw gc ot whj| oj wcbg c lf whj| ~czbg lifc`

whj fodwc| `oionj`jiw oaczw whj tz}jvltc“t oaztlvj ajhovlcz)

Dcidbztlci

^ckjt ow TT@ Liglo oj twlbb j`}bc|jg zigj whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j) Qj}cwjgb|" Tz`jz Kilwt(Dcl`aowcj, twc}}jg ztlin whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j o fj~ `ciwht onc) Cwhj l`}cvj`jiwt whow

hovj ajji j}cwjg cvj whj botw `ciwht lidbzgj5

  ^ckjt j}cwjg whow whj h|nljij li whj hctwjbt hot l`}cvjg)

  ^ckjt oj ic~ obbc~jg wc ztj whjl `calbj }hcij)

  ]ojiw `o| vltlw whjl goznhwjt ci whjl ~jjkb| go|-cff)

  ^ckjt oj obbc~jg wc nc hc`j fc o ~jjk cidj jvj| tlx `ciwht)

Whj dc`}oi| ~lwjt whow lt hot jdjiwb| tzaejdwjg cij cf lwt t}liilin zilwt wc o tcdlob dc`}bloidj

ozglw oig whow cwhj zilwt oj jx}jdwjg wc fcbbc~ thcwb|) Whlt dczbg `joi whow fzwhj l`}cvj`jiwt

`lnhw aj ci whjl ~o|) Whj fljbg jtjodh dcigzdwjg fc whlt j}cw jvjobt whow whjj lt twlbb cc` fc 

l`}cvj`jiw) Whjj oj tjvjob j}cwt cf fc`j ~ckjt ~hc glg icw jdjlvj whj bz`} tz`o`cziw ofwj whj| hog dc`}bjwjg whj dciwodw }jlcg) Oicwhj `oec dcidji lt whow whj

jtjodhjt fczig ~ckjt ot |czin ot ?1 |jot cbg j`}bc|jg ow TT@ Liglo) Whj ij~ jtjodh

obtc jvjobt whow ~ckjt tzffj fc` vjaob oaztj oig li tc`j dotjt fc` tjxzob hoott`jiw a|

tz}jvltct) Cwhj zijtcbvjg lttzjt lidbzgj fcdjg oig jxdjttlvj cvjwl`j oig cddz}owlciob

hjobwh oig tofjw|) ^lwh jnogt wc fjjgc` cf ottcdlowlci" ic l`}cvj`jiw hot ajji `ogj)

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74

Gjvl (?6,

Gjvl twowjg ~cklin ow TT@ Flij \oi ow whj onj cf ?4) Hj }ojiwt cablnjg hj wc nc czw wc ~ck wc

dciwlazwj wc whj fo`lb| lidc`j) Gjvl hot w~c |czinj acwhjt ~hc oj nclin wc tdhccb) Thj fjjbt vj| togwhow thj hjtjbf ~ot icw oabj wc dciwlizj hj twzgljt) Gjvl hot ajji ~cklin fc TT@ Flij \oi fc 1): |jot

ic~) Thj lt o ici-jtlgjiwlob ~ckj) ^hji thj eclijg whj fodwc|" thj ~ot }c`ltjg thj ~czbg jdjlvj Qt)

1="=== (₢4=>, z}ci dc`}bjwlci cf whjj |jot) Gjvl“t golb| ~onj twowjg ow 7= Qz}jjt (₢=)6?," ~lwh o : Qz}jj

(₢="=8, lidjotj ofwj tlx `ciwht) Li hj tjdcig |jo thj joijg := Qz}jjt (₢=)>>, oig :: Qz}jjt (₢=)8:,

ofwj oicwhj hobf |jo) Ic~" li hj whlg |jo" thj jdjlvjt ?== Qz}jjt (₢?):7, }j thlfw) Whj ~onjt oj }olg

}j `ciwh" azw whjj lt ic ~onj tbl}) Jvj| |jo thj njwt o acizt cf  Qt) ?"=== (₢?:)46,) 

Gjvl to|t whow lf thj wokjt o go| cff" w~ldj whj golb| ~onj ~lb b aj gjgzdwjg fc` hj tobo|) Obwhcznh thj lt

j`cwlciobb| oig }h|tldobb| jxhoztwjg" thj gcjt icw goj wc wokj oi| go|t cff) Thj lt ofolg whow lf thj wokjt

oicwhj go| cff" thj ~lbb icw njw whj bz`} tz` o`cziw)

 Ow whj ajnliilin thj tzffjjg o bcw ajdoztj cf tjvjj }oli li hj bjnt) Bowj ci" thj obtc gjvjbc}jg o tkli

obbjn| gzj wc whj ~cklin ow`ct}hjj) Obwhcznh whjj lt o iztj" thj ijvj jdjlvjg oi| `jgldob doj)

^cklin ow TT@ Flij \oi lt vj| hog" j`cwlciobb| oig }h|tldobb|) Gjvl dljt o bcw ~hlbj wjbblin hj twc|) Thjto|t whj ilnhw thlfwt oj whj hogjtw) Thj fligt lw vj| glffldzbw wc two| z} whj ~hcbj ilnhw) Thj hot wc gc o ilnhw

thlfw cidj jvj| whjj ~jjkt) Gjvl to|t whow whj }cgzdwlci wonjwt oj tjw zijobltwldobb| hlnh) ^ckjt hovj

wc dciwlizj ziwlb whj| dc`}bjwj whj golb| wonjw)

Gjvl fjjbt bzdk| whow thj lt icw two|lin li whj fodwc|“t hctwjbt) Obwhcznh thj lt icw obbc~jg wc t}jok ~lwh whj

hctwjb ~ckjt" Gjvl hjog hctwjb ~ckjt dc`}boli oaczw }cc h|nljij" ~owj tdodlw| oig whj lifjlc qzoblw|

cf fccg) Nlbt ot |czin ot whlwjji oj two|lin li whj hctwjbt oddcglin wc Gjvl) Thj to|t whj |czin nlbt oj

hovlin o hog wl`j li whj hctwjb oig whow whj| d| o bcw)

Gjvl gcjt icw hovj oi| }ccf whow thj lt ~cklin li whj TT@ \oi) Gjvl twowjt whow thj gcjt icw kic~ oi|

~ckj whow hot jdjlvjg whj 1="=== z}jjt ofwj dc`}bjwlin whjj |jot) Twlbb" thj lt hc}lin whow thj ~lbb

jdjlvj whj o`cziw thj ~ot }c`ltjg) Ofwj thj jdjlvjt whj `cij| Gjvl ~oiwt wc bjovj whj fodwc|)

1):) Dcidbztlci

Qjdzlw`jiw oig j`}bc|`jiw cf ~c`ji ~ckjt zigj acigjg boacz tdhj`jt" ot ~jbb ot cwhj 

fc`t cf zioddj}woabj boacz oaztj }jtltw li whj Wo`lb Iogz wjxwlbj oig no`jiw ligztw|) Whjtj

}odwldjt oj `olib| fczig li whj t}liilin zilwt" acwh ~lwhli whj vjwldobb| liwjnowjg `oizfodwzjt

oig li whj twoig-obcij t}liilin `lbbt)

J`}bc|jt jdzlw o`cin whj `ctw `onliobltjg oig bjotw j`}c~jjg dc``zilwljt li whj }ccjtw

gltwldwt cf Wo`lb Iogz) Li ogglwlci" cvj whj botw |jo" jdzlw`jiw cf ~ckjt fc` cwhj twowjt hot

lidjotjg)

Tlidj whj fltw j}cw" volczt l`}cvj`jiwt li j`}bc|`jiw dciglwlcit hovj ajji catjvjg ow whj

fcz `oizfodwzjt) ^onjt hovj lidjotjg" oig tc hot whj fliob o`cziw whow ~ckjt `o| jdjlvj

ow whj jig cf whjl dciwodwt) ^ckjt ow Aoiiol O``oi ic~ jdjlvj whj tovjg tz` jvji lf whj|

qzlw whjl eca ajfcj whj dciwodw hot ajji dc`}bjwjg) Jotw`oi Jx}cwt oig cij zilw cf TT@ Liglo

(Tz`jz Kilwt li Dcl`aowcj, hovj twc}}jg ztlin whj bz`} tz` }o|`jiw tdhj`j) Jotw`oi

~ckjt ic~ jdjlvj `ciwhb| ~onjt ~lwhczw }ow cf whj ~onj ajlin ~lwhhjbg) L`}cvj`jiwt

jnoglin fjjgc` cf `cvj`jiw hovj ajji j}cwjg ow obb fcz `oizfodwzjt) ]j`lttlci wc bjovj

whj hctwjb oddc``cgowlci lt noiwjg `cj jotlb| oig tc`jwl`jt ncz}t cf ~c`ji oj obbc~jg wc

nc thc}}lin zioddc`}oiljg) Hc~jvj" `oec }cabj`t }jtltw ow whj fcz `oizfodwzjt) Ic

tlnilfldoiw l`}cvj`jiwt hovj ajji fczig li wj`t cf ~cklin hczt oig fcdjg cvjwl`j) ^c`ji

~ckjt oj twlbb jx}jdwjg wc ~ck fc bcin hczt cf fcdjg cvjwl`j" tc`jwl`jt fc z} wc 17 hczt ogo|) Dhlbg boacz hot icw ajji oacblthjg; bcdob jtjodhjt `jiwlci wc hovj dc`j odctt nlbt

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|czinj whoi ?6 ow whjj `oizfodwzjt) Ow w~c `oizfodwzjt (K)])Q) @lbb oig TT@ Liglo,"

~ckjt ajbc~ whj onj cf ?7 ~jj fczig o`cin whj ~ckfcdj)

Whjj lt ic wogj zilci }jtjidj ow whj fcz `oizfodwzjt" ic gc whjtj `oizfodwzjt hovjligj}jigjiw oig jffjdwlvj nljvoidj `jdhoilt`t) Whjj oj whzt ic `jdhoilt`t li }bodj fc 

~ckjt wc vcldj whjl ijjgt)

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7:

4) DTC" ncvjqi`jiw" ligztwq|" @TL lilwlowlvjt

Tlidj whj }zabldowlci cf ‘Do}wzjg a| Dcwwci“ li @o| 1=??" `zdh hot ajji tolg oig gcij ~lwh

jnog wc whj Tz`oinobl oig Do`} Dccblj tdhj`jt li whj Wo`lb Iogz no`jiw ligztw|)

@oizfodwzjt" aoigt oig jwolbjt" ot ~jbb ot bcdob oig liwjiowlciob dlvlb tcdljw| cnoiltowlcit"

ncvji`jiw `liltwljt oig onjidljt hovj t}ckji czw onolitw whj jxltwjidj cf whj tdhj`jt)

Twokjhcbgjt hovj zigjwokji twj}t wc oggjtt whj j}cwjg lttzjt)

4)?) Bcdob dlvlb tcdljw| lilwlowlvjt

Tjvjob lilwlowlvjt hovj ajji wokji a| bcdob oig liwjiowlciob dlvlb tcdljw| cnoiltowlcit ~hldh

dciwlizj wc }zw whj t}cwblnhw ci whj oaztj cf nlbt oig ~c`ji ~ckjt zigj whj Tz`oinobl c 

tl`lbo tdhj`jt oig ci cwhj boacz lnhwt lttzjt li whj Tczwh Ligloi no`jiw oig wjxwlbj ligztw|)

Wlqz}zq ]jc}bj Fcqz` (W]F, oig whj Do`}olni Onolitw Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j (DOTT,

Cvj whj }otw |jo" whj Ligloi cnoiltowlcit ~cklin wcnjwhj li whj Do`}olni Onolitw Tz`oinobl

Tdhj`j (DOTT, oig whj Wlz}z ]jc}bj Fcz` (W]F, hovj doljg czw ogglwlciob fljbg jtjodh" fc 

TC@C oig LDI ot ~jbb ot fc cwhjt) Li whj dcztj cf whlt jtjodh whj| hovj dcigzdwjg liwjvlj~t

~lwh ~ckjt" boacz ackjt" oig cwhj jbjvoiw odwct wc cawoli oi z}gowjg }ldwzj cf whj boacz 

}odwldjt li whj Wo`lb Iogz no`jiw ligztw|) W]F hot }j}ojg o j}cw ~hldh lidbzgjt whj twcljt

cf 1= vldwl`t cf whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j" o`cin whj` whjj fc`j ~ckjt cf K)])Q) @lbb)74 Whlt

j}cw ~lbb aj }zablthjg thcwb|)

Fzwhj`cj" bcdob cnoiltowlcit" cnoiltjg li DOTT oig W]F" hovj dciwlizjg wc }cvlgj

dc``zilw| tz}}cw li whj fc` cf o~ojijtt oltlin jnoglin ~ckjt“ lnhwt zigj whj Tz`oinobl

oig tl`lbo tdhj`jt" obwjiowlvj blvjblhccg tklbb wolilin" oig jgzdowlci fc fc`j Tz`oinobl

~ckjt) ^hji zigj-onj nlbt oj fczig wc aj ~cklin li t}liilin `lbbt c no`jiw zilwt"

l``jglowj twj}t oj wokji wc wokj whjtj dhlbgji czw cf ~ck oig }zw whj` li tdhccb) W]F hot

gcdz`jiwjg o iz`aj cf tzt}ldlczt gjowht o`cin Tz`oinobl ~ckjt" livcbvlin fodw-fliglin

`lttlcit li dcbboacowlci ~lwh bcdob `cilwclin wjo`t oig dc``zilw| bjogjt) Bcdob dlvlb tcdljw|

cnoiltowlcit hovj obtc tz}}cwjg fc`j Tz`oinobl ~ckjt li whjl tjodh fc dc`}jitowlci fc 

dotjt ~hjj whj| glg icw jdjlvj whj ~onjt whj| ~jj jiwlwbjg wc) W]F `j`aj cnoiltowlcit hovj

flbjg `cj whoi 7: bjnob dotjt li boacz dczwt" oig oj hc}jfzb whow whj vldwl`t ~lbb jvjiwzobb|

jdjlvj dc`}jitowlci)

^hji jqzjtwjg" whj `j`aj cnoiltowlcit cf DOTT oig W]F hovj thc~i whjl joglijtt wc

odwlvjb| jinonj ~lwh aoigt oig jt}cig wc `jglo liqzlljt) W]F obtc fcdztjt ci djowlin

o~ojijtt o`cintw whj njijob }zabld li Wo`lb Iogz) @cjcvj" W]F hot bcaaljg ~lwh }cblwldob

bjogjt oig cffldlobt ow Twowj bjvjb whcznhczw whj |jo) ^hji whj ij~ Boacz @liltwj ottz`jg

cffldj" whj @liltwj" whj Boacz Tjdjwo| oig whj Wjxwlbj Tjdjwo| ~jj aljfjg oaczw whj

jx}bclwowlvj dciglwlcit li whj no`jiw oig wjxwlbj ligztw|) W]F jdjlvjg jidczonlin fjjgaodk

fc` whj cffldlobt ot whj| ottzjg whj` whj| ~czbg wokj z} whj lttzj ~lwh whj cffldlobt gc~i whj blij

wc jitzj j`jgljt)77

 

74  Wlz}z ]jc}bj“t Fcz` fc ]cwjdwlci cf Jivlci`jiw & Boacz Qlnhwt" ‘Oiwhcbcn| cf Tz`oinobl Dotj Twzgljt 1=?=-1=?? (}zabldowlci tdhjgzbjg fc O}lb 1=?1,)

77 Bjwwj a| W]F wc TC@C" ?6 @odh 1=??)

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Bcdob wqogj zilcit

Whj cbj cf whj bcdob wogj zilcit lt vj| bl`lwjg) Vj| fj~ cf whj no`jiw fodwcljt c t}liilin `lbbt

li Wo`lb Iogz oj zilciltjg) Whj fcz vjwldobb| liwjnowjg `oizfodwzjt whow fjowzj li whlt j}cw

obtc gc icw hovj zilcit) Whj zilcit ~hldh gc jxltw oj njijobb| `onliobltjg) Li ogglwlci" wogjzilcit hovj woglwlciobb| fcdztjg ci whj `obj" }j`oijiw ~ckfcdj) Njijobb| t}joklin" Goblw

~c`ji oj icw j}jtjiwjg li oig gc icw fjjb j}jtjiwjg a| whj wogj zilcit) Icijwhjbjtt" wogj

zilcit hovj ajji do`}olnilin fc dhoinjt li whj Ligztwlob J`}bc|`jiw Twoiglin Cgj Odw) Whj|

oj obtc livcbvjg li }c`zbnowlin `cj jnzbowc| bo~t oig dcbbjdwlvj aonolilin onjj`jiwt fc 

whj t}liilin ligztw|) OLWZD" OW]" DLWZ" H@T" LIWZD" B]Q oig @BF oj o`cin whj zilcit whow

oj twznnblin hog wc cnoiltj whj ~ckjt li t}lwj cf jtltwoidj dc`lin fc` whj j`}bc|jt“ tlgj)

Hc~jvj" icw obb wogj zilcit oj ci whj to`j }onj dcidjilin boacz lttzjt oig hc~ wc oggjtt

whctj ~lwh j`}bc|jt)

Wlqz}zq Twjjqlin Nqcz} (WTN,

Li Icvj`aj 1==6" whj Wlz}z Twjjlin Ncz} (WTN, ~ot fc`jg" oi lifc`ob ijw~ck cf fcz bcdob

INCt oig fcz bcdob#iowlciob wogj zilcit tjw z} wc `okj tcdlob ozglw }cdjtt `cj jffjdwlvj li whj

Wlz}z no`jiw dbztwj) Tcblgolgog" o Ijwhjboigt-aotjg liwjiowlciob ijw~ck cnoiltowlci7:

" hot

ajji litwz`jiwob li tjwwlin z} WTN) Li Tj}wj`aj 1==8" whj liwjiowlciob icw-fc-}cflw

cnoiltowlci ]okzwhl ottz`jg whj jt}citlalblwljt cf whj Wlz}z }cno``j ~lwh whj tz}}cw cf 

Tcblgolgog)76

Oddcglin wc Tcblgolgog" WTN ~ot o`cintw whj fltw acgljt wc hlnhblnhw whj lttzjt cf 

whj Tz`oinobl tdhj`j oig wc dcigzdw jtjodh wc zigjtwoig jx}bclwowlvj }odwldj oig lw hot

dc`j czw ~lwh o twowj`jiw ci whj jbl`liowlci cf jx}bclwowlvj }odwldjt li Tczwh Ligloi wjxwlbj

ligztw|)7>

Tcblgolgog ~lwjt whow WTN ajbljvjt whow whj wjxwlbj ligztw| lt vj| l`}cwoiw li

}cvlglin j`}bc|`jiw c}}cwzilwljt fc bonj iz`ajt cf }jc}bj" jt}jdlobb| ~c`ji) @cjcvj"

WTN ajbljvjt whow ‘whjj lt icwhlin ~cin ~lwh o Acizt Tdhj`j wc owwodw oig jwoli ~ckjt"}cvlgjg whj tdhj`j `jjwt `lil`z` twoigogt ot tjw czw li Ligloi boacz bo~t oig fzigo`jiwob

lnhwt cf whj liglvlgzobt“78

) Fzwhj`cj" WTN ajbljvjt whow whj kj| twokjhcbgjt li whj wjxwlbj

ligztw| ‘ijjg wc dc`j wcnjwhj wc lgjiwlf| kj| lttzjt li l`}bj`jiwowlci cf whlt tdhj`j oig hc~ lw

doi aj `ogj `cj `joilinfzb oig }z}ctjfzb fc j`}bc|jjt ot ~jbb ot j`}bc|jt“)7<

 

Lw lt icw dbjo hc~ ~jbb jtwoablthjg whj WTN jobb| lt) Icij cf whj cwhj odwct owwlazwj l`}cwoidj

wc whj WTN)

4)1) Ligztwq| lilwlowlvjt

Whjj oj o iz`aj cf lilwlowlvjt livcbvlin aoigt" jwolbjt oig tz}}bljt whow ol` wc oggjtt

oaztjt zigj whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j) ^how fcbbc~t fltw lt o fodwzob }jtjiwowlci cf whjtj

lilwlowlvjt) Tjdcig" oi ottjtt`jiw cf whj lilwlowlvjt }cvlgjg) Whj lilwlowlvjt whow ~j oj bccklin liwc

li whlt j}cw doi aj dowjncltjg liwc 7 ncz}t5

7: Tcblgolgog Oaczw zt5 hww}5##~~~)tcblgolgogijw~ck)cn#oaczw-zt) Tcblgolgog fczigjg whj fothlci aoigt Kz|ldhl oig

?==* Cnoild Dcwwci" li oi jffcw wc gj`citwowj whow tztwolioabj no`jiwt oig wjxwlbjt oj o vloabj aztlijtt cgjb)

Tcblgolgog obtc ~ckt ci o }cejdw aotlt ~lwh cwhj aoigt" lidbzglin Bjvl Twoztt & Dc oig H&@" ~lwh whj caejdwlvj wc

djowj tztwolioabj tz}}b| dholit) Tcblgolgog jtwoablthjg whj @ogj-A| ijw~ck cf aoigt) Fzbb j`ajt lidbzgj Dbozglo

Twçwj" Wjg Aokj oig Eodk}cw) Tcblgolgog TztwolioabjWjxwlbjt; hww}5##~~~)tcblgolgogijw~ck)cn#wjxwlbjt) 76 Jvcbzwlci cf whj Wlz}z Twjjlin Ncz}5 hww}5##wlz}ztn)cn#JvcbzwlciScfSwhjSWTN)hw`b) 

7>  ‘Z}gowj ci Tcblgolgog“t ~ck li Tczwh Ligloi wjxwlbj ligztw| ci Tz`oinobl“" j`olb a| Tcblgolgog" 1 O}lb 1=?1)78 Lalg)7< Lalg)

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7>

  Lilwlowlvjt glvlin dcbboacowlci o`cin twokjhcbgjt oig ol`lin ow njijowlin tdobj oig

bjvjonj)

   Odwlcit fcdztjg ci fltw wlj tz}}bljt" lidbzglin ozglwlin)

   Odwlcit ol`lin ow tjdcig oig fzwhj wlj tz}}bljt)  ]cejdwt ~lwh o t}jdlfld tcdlob c dc``zilw| dc`}cijiw)

4)1)?) Gqlvlin tdobj" njijqowlin tdobj oig bjvjqonj 

Lilwlowlvjt ol`jg ow glvlin dcbboacowlci o`cin twokjhcbgjt oig njijowlin tdobj oig bjvjonj

lidbzgj whj Tz`oinobl Acigjg Boacz Ncz} cf whj ZK-aotjg Jwhldob Woglin Lilwlowlvj (JWL TAB

Ncz}," whj Fol ^jo Fczigowlci" oig whj Wlz}z Twokjhcbgjt Fcz` (WTF, li Wo`lb Iogz)

Lilwlowlvjt cf aztlijtt ottcdlowlcit oig ncvji`jiw odwlcit oj obtc dowjncltjg ot tzdh)

Whj Tz`oinobl Acigjg Boaczq Nqcz} cf whj Jwhldob Wqoglin Lilwlowlvj

 Ot o `zbwl-twokjhcbgj lilwlowlvj whj ZK-aotjg Jwhldob Woglin Lilwlowlvj (JWL, livcbvjt aoigt"

jwolbjt" INCt oig wogj zilcit) Fc` Cdwcaj 1=?=" JWL twowjg }zthlin dcbboacowlci o`cin lwt

`j`ajt jnoglin Tz`oinobl oig Do`} Dccblj tdhj`jt) Whlt jtzbwjg li whj Tz`oinobl Acigjg

Boacz Ncz} (TAB Ncz}, ~hldh dzjiwb| dcitltwt cf 1= aoigt oig jwolbjt5 Odoglo" OTGO"

 OTCT" Ajtwtjbbj" Acgji" Dojfcz" D&O" No}" H&@" Liglwjx" Echi Bj~lt" Bjvlt & Dc)" @okt &

T}jidj" @cwhjdoj" Ijxw" Ilkj" Cwwc Ncz}" ]l`ok" Wjtdc oig Wc` Wolbc ot ~jbb ot o iz`aj 

cf dlvlb tcdljw| cnoiltowlcit oig wogj zilcit) Whj dc}cowj `j`ajt cf whj TAB Ncz} lidbzgj

acwh JWL oig ici-JWL `j`ajt):=

Tlidj Cdwcaj 1=?=" JWL hot cnoiltjg tjvjob `jjwlint fc 

`j`ajt cf whj JWL TAB Ncz}) TC@C oig LDI hog whj c}}cwzilw| wc }owldl}owj li whj

Tj}wj`aj 1=?? TAB Ncz} dcifjjidj dobb" wc ecli o tjttlci gzlin whj TAB Ncz} `jjwlin ci

@odh :" 1=?1" ot ~jbb ot wc owwjig whj Wlz}z Twokjhcbgj @jjwlin li @odh 1=?1)

Whj @o| 1=?? Ecliw Twowj`jiw cf Liwjiw ‘Jbl`liowlin Tz`oinobl & Do`} Dccblj Oaztjt li whj

Wo`lb Iogz No`jiw Ligztw|“ cf ~hldh o dcidj}w vjtlci ~ot lidbzgjg li whj ‘Do}wzjg a| Dcwwci“

j}cw" ~ot icw jigctjg) Whj }cno``j oig caejdwlvjt cf whj JWL TAB ncz} hovj icw |jw ajji

`ogj }zabld ic hot whj ncz} dc`j z} ~lwh oi| }zabld gcdz`jiw oaczw lwt vlj~t ci whj

Tz`oinobl tdhj`j c whj ~o| fc~og) Whj ncz} hot ajji ~cklin fc` o ecliwb| onjjg z}ci

wj`t cf jfjjidj ~lwh whj cvjodhlin ol` ‘wc azlbg dccgliowjg odwlci li oggjttlin boacz lnhwt

dcidjit offjdwlin |czin ~c`ji ~lwhli whj Wo`lb Iogz no`jiw ligztw|“):?

 

Whj JWL TAB Ncz} fcdztjt ci acigjg boacz lttzjt" lidbzglin whj jx}bclwowlci whow cddzt ~lwhli

whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j) Whj `oli dhoodwjltwldt cf acigjg boacz tdhj`jt ot tjji a| JWL oj5

  Tdhj`jt oj cffjjg wc |czin ~c`ji (ztzobb| ?: oig oacvj, ~lwh o dciwodw }jlcg cf whjj |jot)

  ^lwh tc`j twl}jig }olg }j `ciwh oig o bz`} tz` }olg ow whj jig cf whj dciwodw }jlcg)

  Ztzobb| whj ~c`ji oj oddc``cgowjg li hctwjbt c~ijg c dciwodwjg a| whj

`oizfodwzjt)

  Whj ~ckjt oj wj`jg ot wolijjt c o}}jiwldjt fc whlt }jlcg)

JWL twowjt whow cvj wl`j whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j hot jvjobjg tjvjob jx}bclwowlvj ot}jdwt whow

hovj djowjg acigjg oig fcdjg boacz dciglwlcit fc ~ckjt) Whjtj ot}jdwt lidbzgj5

  Ici-}o|`jiw cf bz`} tz`t ow whj jig cf whj dciwodw }jlcg)

:= JWL dcitlgjt ot j`ajt cf whj JWL TAB Ncz} whctj dc`}oiljt whow hovj flioidlobb| dciwlazwjg wc whj dctwt cf dcigzdwlin whj odwlvlwljt ot gjtdlajg li whj wj`t cf jfjjidj)

:? J`olb dcjt}cigjidj ~lwh whj Jwhldob Woglin Lilwlowlvj" O}lb 1=?1)

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@olg li Liglo

78

  ]jttzj ci ~ckjt wc two| ci ziwlb whj jig cf whj dciwodw }jlcg)

  Ici-}o|`jiw cf dc`}jitowlci lf oi| }ow cf whj dciwodw }jlcg lt icw oghjjg wc" jwd)

Gjt}lwj whj o}}ojiw glffldzbwljt li whj JWL TAB ncz} wc odhljvj dc``ci zigjtwoiglin li Ezb|1=?? lw ~ot onjjg ~lwhli whj JWL TAB ncz} wc hcbg o twokjhcbgj jvjiw li whj jnlci wc }c`cwj

thojg zigjtwoiglin" bcdob c~ijthl} oig `cj dccgliowjg odwlci) JWL hot hljg o dcitzbwoiw wc

}j}oj fc whlt `jjwlin)

Ci whj aotlt cf whj dcitzbwoiw“t fliglint" JWL gofwjg ‘twowjnljt fc dhoinj“) JWL lt dobblin z}ci

liwjiowlciob aoigt wc jinonj whjl fltw wlj tz}}bljt ~lwh o dc`}jhjitlvj tjw cf boacz 

twoigogt whow lidbzgjt hctwjbt" oig ~ckjt jdzlw`jiw }odwldjt ~lwhli oig czwtlgj cf Wo`lb

Iogz) Oddcglin wc JWL" o ~lgj }jt}jdwlvj whoi ~how ozglwt doi cffj lt ijjgjg) O twcin dotj lt

`ogj fc whj j}ctlwlcilin cf whj lttzj" thlfwlin whj fcdzt fc` whj no`jiw ligztw| li Wlz}z wc

whj wjxwlbj ligztw| li Wo`lb Iogz ot o ~hcbj) Jttjiwlob wc whlt lt do}odlw| azlbglin cf whj tjdcig wlj 

tz}}bljt jnoglin l`}bj`jiwowlci cf boacz twoigogt" jt}jdlobb| whctj oggjttlin acigjg boacz 

oig jdzlw`jiw }odwldj) JWL twjttjt whow obb twokjhcbgjt whow oj dzdlob fc livcbvlin tjdcig wlj 

tz}}bljt ijjg wc aj acznhw wc whj woabj) Whj livcbvj`jiw cf TL@O oig whj Wo`lb Iogz T}liilin

@lbb Ottcdlowlci (WOT@O," jdzlw`jiw onjiwt" ncvji`jiw `liltwljt oig onjidljt oig ~ckjt lt

gjj`jg wc aj cf whj zw`ctw l`}cwoidj) @cjcvj" JWL twjttjt whj ijjg wc livcbvj gc`jtwld

az|jt cf |oi" ot whj| j}jtjiw ijob| :=* cf whj wcwob tobjt cf whj t}liilin ligztw|)

Whj 18-1< @oqdh Wlqz}zq Twokjhcbgjq jjwlin

Ci 18 oig 1< @odh JWL oig whj Fol Boac Ottcdlowlci cnoiltjg o twokjhcbgj `jjwlin li

Wlz}z) Whj twowjg ol` cf whlt `jjwlin ~ot wc ‘gjvjbc} o dc``ci zigjtwoiglin cf }jvolblin

boacz }odwldjt ~lwhli whj wjxwlbj#no`jiw tjdwc li Wo`lb Iogz" lidbzglin whj lttzj cf 

Tz`oinobl“):1

 ‘Kj| ol`t cf whj dcifjjidj oj wc gjblvj o dccgliowjg }boi whow jitzj whow whj|czin ~c`ji whow ~ck li whlt ligztw| gc tc li gjdjiw dciglwlcit whow `jjw liwjiowlciob

twoigogt)“:4

 

Whj Wlz}z Twokjhcbgj `jjwlin glg odhljvj tc`j cf lwt caejdwlvjt" jt}jdlobb| ~hji lw dc`jt wc

livcbvj`jiw cf bcdob twokjhcbgjt" azw oi odwlci }boi hot icw ajji gofwjg) Whj jvjiw ~ot owwjigjg

a| 16: owwjigoiwt ~hc j}jtjiwjg tz}}bljt" lidbzglin `lbb c~ijt oig ligztw| ottcdlowlcit

(WJO" TL@O oig WOT@O," j}jtjiwowlvjt fc` whj Wo`lb Iogz ncvji`jiw" bcdob oig liwjiowlciob

INCt" `zbwl-twokjhcbgj lilwlowlvjt" aoigt#jwolbjt" wogj zilcit oig ~ckjt)

Jodh twokjhcbgj ncz} }jtjiwjg lwt vlj~ ci whj j`}bc|`jiw cf |czin ~c`ji li whj

no`jiw#wjxwlbj tjdwc li Wo`lb Iogz) ^hlbj c}lilcit glffjjg o bcw" lw `o| aj tjji ot oajokwhcznh whow obb twokjhcbgjt livcbvjg ~jj }j}ojg#whjj#oabj wc bltwji wc jodh cwhj“t

}jdj}wlcit ci whj }cabj`t oig ci whjl c~i cbjt oig jt}citlalblwljt) Fzwhj`cj" jodh

twokjhcbgj ncz} lgjiwlfljg }cttlabj odwlcit whow doi aj gjvjbc}jg oig l`}bj`jiwjg ~lwhli whj

ijxw |jo (lf ijdjtto| li dccgliowlci ~lwh cwhj twokjhcbgjt,) Tz}}bljt dc``lwwjg wc icw jdzlw

zigj whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j oi|`cj" aoigt wc ~ck ci whj lifc`lin }cwjiwlob ~ckjt cf whjl 

lnhwt li whj `oec jdzlw`jiw ojot) Whjj ~ot o acog dcitjitzt whow whj `c`jiwz` cf whj

`jjwlin thczbg aj dciwlizjg li whj fc` cf o njizlij `zbwl-twokjhcbgj lilwlowlvj" livcbvlin ligztw|

ottcdlowlcit oig `lbb c~ijt ot ~jbb" fodlblwowjg a| o ijzwob acg|) Li whlt jnog NO]" li lwt

jodwlci wc whj gofw j}cw" twowjt whow ‘obb }owljt onjjg wc jtwoablth o }j`oijiw `zbwl-

twokjhcbgj fcz` li whj Wo`lb Iogz jnlci wc hjb} oggjtt Tz`oinobl }odwldjt oig cwhj ~ck-

 :1 Jwhldob Woglin Lilwlowlvj" Livlwowlci JWL Twokjhcbgj Jinonj`jiw li Wlz}z" Wo`lb Iogz" 18 & 1< @odh" 1=?1):4 JWL" Tz}}b| Dholi Dhlbgji" hww}5##~~~)jwhldobwogj)cn#ij~t-oig-jvjiwt#ij~t#tz}}b|-dholi-dhlbgji)

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7<

}bodj dcidjit“):7 Whj dhobbjinj wc `okj tzj whow whlt `c`jiwz` ~lbb icw aj bctw bljt ic~ ~lwh

JWL" ~hc hot }boiijg o `jjwlin wc tjw oi odwlci }boi oig wl`j fo`j li @o| 1=?1) JWL ~lbb bjog whj

}cdjtt cf jflilin whj odwlci }cliwt acznhw z} a| whj twokjhcbgj ncz}t wc fc` dcidjwj"

fjotlabj odwlcit oig oiwldl}owjt whow whj }cdjtt ligjjg ~lbb bjog wc whj jtwoablth`jiw cf o Wo`lbIogz aotjg `zbwl-twokjhcbgj lilwlowlvj" wc ~hldh lw doi dciwlazwj whcznh dccgliowjg tz}}cw):: 

]qlcqlw| odwlci }cliwt gjflijg a| ~cqkjqt gzqlin whj JWL#FBO `jjwlin" 18-1< @oqdh 1=?1

Cij cf whj twokjhcbgjt ncz}t dcitltwjg cf (fc`j, Tz`oinobl ~ckjt fc` tjvjob `lbbt li glffjjiw }owt cf 

Wo`lb Iogz) Whjl whjj }lclw| odwlcit fc whj dc`lin |jo5

  @jgldob litzoidj fc jxltwlin ~ckjt

  Ic `cj fcdjg cvjwl`j

   Obbc~ }hcij dobbt fc` oig wc hc`j

 Ot o `zbwl-twokjhcbgj lilwlowlvj" JWL jidc`}ottjt dc`}oiljt" INCt oig wogj zilcit) Whj TAB

Ncz} lt `olib| dc`}ctjg cf dc`}oiljt ~hlbj dlvlb tcdljw| cnoiltowlcit tjj` wc wokj o aodk tjow)

Ci ajhobf cf whj TAB Ncz}" JWL hot `ogj jffcwt wc kjj} ici-JWL `j`ajt li whj bcc}) TC@C

oig LDI hovj ajji kj}w lifc`jg a| JWL) Whj TAB Ncz} hot icw }zabldb| thojg lwt vlj~t c 

}boit)

Lilwlobb|" whj j`}hotlt cf whj TAB Ncz} ~ot ci whj acigjg boacz ot}jdw cf whj Tz`oinobl oig

Do`} Dccblj tdhj`jt) Tlidj" whj ol` cf whj ncz} hot acogjijg wc oacblth oi| w|}jt cf 

jx}bclwlvj }odwldjt ~lwhli whj ligztw|) Li O}lb 1=?1" whj ncz} ~ot jio`jg Wo`lb Iogz @zbwl-

Twokjhcbgj Ncz})

Wlqz}zq Twokjhcbgjq Fcqz` (WTF,

Whj Wlz}z Twokjhcbgj Fcz` (WTF, ~ot lilwlowjg li Tj}wj`aj 1=?= wc ‘olvj ow o `jdhoilt`

fc zigjtwoiglin whj ligztwlob }odwldjt jbowjg wc ~cklin dciglwlcit oig ~ck wcnjwhj wc flig

tztwolioabj tcbzwlcit“):6 Whj lilwlowlvj alint wcnjwhj Ligloi no`jiw `oizfodwzjt" INCt oig

wogj zilcit:>

oig lt dholjg a| @ I) Dhoigoi" `oionlin gljdwc cf Jotw`oi Jx}cwt oig Vldj

]jtlgjiw cf whj Wlz}z Jx}cwjt“ Ottcdlowlci (WJO,) Whj Aoigt Jwhldt ^cklin Ncz}:8

obtc

}owldl}owjt li WTF) Whj Wo`lb Iogz T}liilin @lbb Ottcdlowlci (WOT@O, ~ot livlwjg wc ajdc`j o

`j`aj cf WTF" azw hot icw eclijg whj lilwlowlvj) WJO" li lwt jt}citj wc whj gofw j}cw a| TC@C

oig LDI" ~lwjt whow WTF dbctjb| `cilwct whj tlwzowlci ow no`jiw fodwcljt li Wlz}z oig

oggjttjt oi| lttzjt fczig) D&O dc``jiwt whow ncvji`jiw oig `lbb ottcdlowlcit“ livcbvj`jiw lt

`lttlin)

Li Tj}wj`aj 1=??" WTF }zablthjg vcbziwo| nzlgjblijt fc `oizfodwzjt ~hc hovj hctwjb

fodlblwljt jnoglin `lnoiw ~c`ji ~ckjt j`}bc|jg li t}liilin oig no`jiwlin fodwcljt) Whj

:7 J`olb dcjt}cigjidj ~lwh NO]" O}lb 1=?1):: Wjbj}hcij dcivjtowlci ~lwh JWL" ?6 O}lb 1=?1):6 Wlz}z Twokjhcbgjt Fcz` ~jatlwj" oaczw WTF" ic gowj 2 hww}5##~~~)wtf)cn)li#oaczw#9 (?7 @odh 1=?1,:> WTF j`ajt oj5 ]j` Kilw~jo" Ajtw Dc}cowlci" Ozbahon|o Wjxwlbjt" K)@) Kilw~jo" Ez}lwj Kilwwlin Dc)" Hjc

Fotdhlci" T)]) O}}ojb" TI_T Liwjiowlciob oig TD@ No`jiwt (Ligloi oizfodwzjt," Djiwj fc Jgzdowlci &

Dc``zildowlci" TOVJ" ]okzwhl jbfoj Wztw oig Whogo` Tcdlob jbfoj Wztw (Ligloi INCt," Obb Liglo Wogj Zilci

Dcinjtt" Djiwj cf Ligloi Wogj Zilcit" @BF" Bjfw ]cnjttlvj Fciw" Oiio Whculbtoino ]jovol" Ligloi Iowlciob

Wogj Zilci (wogj zilcit,):8 @j`ajt cf whj Aoigt Jwhldt cklin Ncz} lidbzgj D&O" Dcwjfljb" No}" H&@" Ijxw" @cwhjdoj" ]l`ok" Wjtdc oig

Wl`ajboig)

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:=

vcbziwo| nzlgjblijt cffj jdc``jigowlcit dcvjlin whj fcbbc~lin ot}jdwt5 jdzlw`jiw" wolilin"

wj`t cf j`}bc|`jiw oig hctwjb fodlblwljt):<

 Whj WTF nzlgjblijt gjdjj whow ‘Fodwcljt thczbg aj

fjj cf oi| tdhj`jt tzdh ot Tz`oinobl“) Whjj thczbg aj ic dboztj c jx}jdwowlci c onjj`jiw

a| `oionj`jiw fc tjvlin o `lil`z` iz`aj cf |jot) WTF j`}hotltjt whow ~onjt oiggjgzdwlcit blkj ]F oig JTL thczbg aj li dc`}bloidj ~lwh o}}bldoabj iowlciob bo~t) Whj nzlgjblijt

jejdw gltdl`liowlci" oig jdc``jig wolilin) Whj nzlgjblijt lidbzgj dboztjt ci dciwodwt" bjwwjt

cf o}}cliw`jiw oig }o| tbl}t" ci ~onjt oig ci ~cklin oig cvjwl`j hczt) @cjcvj" whj

nzlgjblijt czwblij whow hctwjbt thobb }cvlgj dc``zildowlci fodlblwljt oig fodlblwljt wc jihoidj

fjjgc` cf `cvj`jiw cf ~ckjt) Hctwjbt oj wc o}}cliw oi cffldlob dccgliowc wc algnj czw whj

dc``zildowlci no} ajw~jji whj fodwc| `oionj`jiw oig whj `lnoiw ~ckjt oig dcitwlwzwj o

dc``lwwjj dc`}ltlin ‘hctwjb hjog" ligztwlob j}jtjiwowlvj fc` fodwc|" o `lil`z` cf flvj (:,

hctwjb jtlgjiwt ~hc oj gzb| jbjdwjg" cij bog| gcdwc oig cij INC j}jtjiwowlvj“ wc gltdztt

fodlblw| jihoidj`jiw" oi| nljvoidjt" fjjgc` cf `cvj`jiw" }ojiwob jbowlcithl}t" jwd) Whj WTF

Nzlgjblijt gc icw glffj `zdh fc` TL@O“t Qjdzlw`jiw Nzlgjblijt oig Dcgj cf Gltdl}blij fc 

^c`ji J`}bc|`jiw li Wjxwlbj Ligztw| }zablthjg li 1=?=) Wc}ldt dcvjjg a| whj nzlgjblijt ojacog) Hc~jvj" whj| gc icw dcvj whj }jlcg nlbt oj hljg ot o}}jiwldjt oig fjjgc` cf 

cnoiltowlci) Fzwhj`cj" ~hlbj Ligloi bo~ dciflijt dhlbg boacz wc dhlbgji zigj ?7" oddcglin wc

whj LBC dcivjiwlci ci whj ~ctw fc`t cf dhlbg boacz" ~cklin li whj t}liilin `lbbt doi twlbb aj

tjji" gzj wc whj hoth dldz`twoidjt" ot dhlbg boacz fc nlbt onjg ajw~jji ?7 oig ?8) 

 Ot |jw ic `jdhoilt`t hovj ajji gjvjbc}jg wc l`}bj`jiw c `cilwc whj nzlgjblijt) O}}ojiwb|"

`oizfodwzjt liwjig wc `cilwc boacz dciglwlcit ow whjl fodlblwljt whj`tjbvjt)

Whjj lt ic lifc`owlci ovolboabj lf hctwjbt hovj ligjjg o}}cliwjg whj jdc``jigjg

dc``zildowlci dccgliowct c lf whj jdc``jigjg dc``lwwjjt wc gltdztt fodlblw| jihoidj`jiw"

nljvoidjt" fjjgc` cf `cvj`jiw" jwd) hovj ajji dcitwlwzwjg" c hc~ whjtj dccgliowct oig

dc``lwwjjt `o| fzidwlci)

Tcdlob Oddcziwoalblw| Liwjqiowlciob

TOL lt o ici-ncvji`jiwob" `zbwl-twokjhcbgj cnoiltowlci oig lwt `lttlci lt wc ogvoidj whj hz`oi

lnhwt cf ~ckjt oczig whj ~cbg) TOL hot gjvjbc}jg whj TO8===© twoigog fc tcdlobb|

jt}citlabj j`}bc|`jiw }odwldjt) Tlidj Cdwcaj 1=?=" TOL hot ajji jidczonlin whj dc`}oiljt

whow }owldl}owj li lwt Dc}cowj ]cno`t wc dccgliowj ~lwh bcdob twokjhcbgjt wc jitzj odwlci

onolitw oaztjt jbowjg wc Tz`oinobl oig Do`} Dccblj tdhj`jt) TOL hot obtc dcigzdwjg fljbg

jtjodh li cgj wc njw o nccg zigjtwoiglin cf Tz`oinobl }odwldjt li whj Wo`lb Iogz no`jiw

ligztw|) Li TOL“t vlj~" whj ztj cf Tz`oinobl Tdhj`jt hot ajji dhoodwjltjg a|5 

  \czin ~c`ji fc` l`}cvjlthjg vlbbonjt oj jdzlwjg" ~lwh whj }c`ltj whow whj| ~lbb ajoabj wc joi whjl gc~|" ~hlbj li `oi| dotjt whj bz`} tz` lt icw }olg)

  Whj ~c`ji oj j`}bc|jg ot o}}jiwldjt" ztzobb| fc whj jiwlj 4-|jo }jlcg" ~hldh lt li

vlcbowlci cf o}}jiwldjthl} bo~t)

  Bodk cf fjjgc` cf `cvj`jiw" }owldzbob| fc whj ~c`ji ~hc blvj li gc`lwcljt cf whj

fodwc| (c lwt dciwodwc," ot whj `oeclw| cf ~c`ji li Tz`oinobl tdhj`jt gc)

  Fcdjg cvjwl`j)

  ^onjt ~jbb ajbc~ whj `lil`z` ~onj)

:< Wlz}z Twokjhcbgjt Fcz` ‘Nzlgoidj fc @lnoiw ^c`ji ^ckjt li Hctwjb & whj Qjdzlw`jiw ]cdjtt — T}liilin#

No`jiwlin Fodwcljt“" 4 Tj}wj`aj 1=??" 2hww}5##~~~)wtf)cn)li#gcdz`jiwt#WTFSNZLGJBLIJSVJQTLCIS?S=SJIN)}gf  9 

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Ci whj aotlt cf whlt jtjodh" TOL" wcnjwhj ~lwh Tcdlob Oddcziwoalblw| Oddjglwowlci Tjvldjt

(TOOT," lttzjg o }zabld twowj`jiw dcigj`ilin whj oaztlvj ztj cf tovlin tdhj`jt" tzdh ot whj

Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j" ot zioddj}woabj) TOL lt dzjiwb| l`}bj`jiwlin o fodwc|-bjvjb do}odlw|

azlbglin }cno``j fcdztjg ci ici-gltdl`liowlci oig njigj jqzlw|) Whj }cno``j lt }ow cf whj Qjt}citlabj oig Oddcziwoabj No`jiw Tjdwc (QONT,)

6=Li jt}citj wc whj gofw j}cw" TOL

twjttjt whj l`}cwoidj cf ~cklin ~lwh `zbwl}bj twokjhcbgjt" lidbzglin wogj zilcit" INCt"

dc}cowlcit" oig ncvji`jiwob onjidljt" wc jogldowj whj oaztlvj }odwldjt jbowjg wc Tz`oinobl

oig Do`} Dccblj tdhj`jt" TOL ajbljvjt whow whj `ctw jffjdwlvj ~o| wc gc tc lt whcznh ecliw odwlci

lidbzglin glffjjiw odwct ~lwh glffjjiw t}hjjt cf lifbzjidjt)

Lifc`jg a| whjl jinonj`jiw li Wo`lb Iogz" TOL oig TOOT hovj gjvjbc}jg o tjw cf ~ck

litwzdwlcit ol`jg ow }cvlglin ozglwct ~lwh whj wccbt ijdjtto| wc lgjiwlf| oig ccw czw whj

dciwlizjg ztj cf whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j ow whj fodlblw| bjvjb t}jdlfldobb| oig tz}}blj bjvjb njijobb|)

Kj| dc`}cijiwt cf whjtj litwzdwlcit lidbzgj `jjwlint ~lwh ~ckjt li whjl dc``zilwljt"

dcc}jowlci oig dcitzbwowlci ~lwh dlvlb tcdljw| cnoiltowlcit" fodwc| `oionj`jiw oig ncvji`jiwj}jtjiwowlvjt" ot ~jbb ot ozglwlin wjdhilqzjt wolbcjg wc whj iowzj cf whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j)

TOOT hot litwzdwjg TO8=== ozglwct wc t}jdlfldobb| }o| owwjiwlci wc hllin }odwldjt" ~hldh

lidbzgjt t}joklin ~lwh jdzlwjt" ~ckjt“ fo`lb| `j`ajt oig whj ~ckjt whj`tjbvjt cfftlwj)

Qjnoglin jffcwt wc alin oaczw l`}cvj`jiwt fzwhj gc~i whj tz}}b| dholi" TOL hot

dc``zildowjg whow oi TOL djwlfljg fodlblw| `ztw dc``zildowj TO8=== jqzlj`jiwt wc lwt kj|

tz}}bljt" lidbzglin oi| tz}}blj cvj ~hldh o fodlblw| `o| hovj lifbzjidj) TOL lifc`t TC@C oig

LDI whow ozglwct oj litwzdwjg wc livjtwlnowj tz}}bljt“ boacz }odwldjt oig whj jbowlcithl}

ajw~jji whj ozglwjg fodlblw| oig lwt tz}}bljt)

TOL jtjodh ligldowjg whow whj bonj D@W (Dzw @okj Wl`, fodlblwljt wjig icw wc ztj whj Tz`oinobl

Tdhj`j) Tz`oinobl ~ckjt w|}ldobb| ~ck li t`obb" fo`lb|-zi t}liilin `lbbt bcdowjg li t`obbj 

vlbbonjt) Ow o TOOT ozglwct `jjwlin li Icvj`aj 1=?? li Aoinobcj" ozglwct j}cwjg whow whj

Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j lt ajlin }odwldjg bjtt) Oddcglin wc TOL" ic Tz`oinobl }odwldjt ~jj fczig

ow TO8=== djwlfljg fodlblwljt)6?

Whj 4= Ezij 1=?? bltw cf TO8=== Djwlfljg Fodlblwljt61

lidbzgjt o

iz`aj cf zilwt cf whj fcz vjwldobb| liwjnowjg `oizfodwzjt livjtwlnowjg a| TC@C oig LDI5

  K)])Q) @lbb Bl`lwjg (Ijjbo`az" Dcl`aowcj, — `oizfodwzj cf dcwwci |oi

  K]Q @lbb ]vw) Bwg) (Towh|o`oinobo`" Jcgj, — `oizfodwzj cf dcwwci |oi

  K)])Q) @lbb Bl`lwjg - ]cdjttlin Glvltlci (Tl}dcw" ]jzigzol, — g|jlin" abjodhlin oig

dc`}odwlin

  _zoiwz` Kilwt (}ow cf K)])Q) @lbb" Ootz" Dcl`aowcj, — `oizfodwzj cf kilwwjg no`jiwt

  Iokzboi Wjxwlbjt (}ow cf Jotw`oi" ]jzigzol" Jcgj, — `oizfodwzj cf no`jiwt

  Tz`jz Kilwt (TT@ Liglo" Towh|o`oinobo`" Jcgj ,  — `oizfodwzj cf no`jiwt

Z}ci l`}bj`jiwlin whj ozglwlin litwzdwlcit gjvjbc}jg a| TOL oig TOOT" ozglwct fczig whj

t}liilin `lbb cf K]Q @lbb ]vw) Bwg li Towh|o`oinobo` `jiwlcijg li ‘Do}wzjg a| Dcwwci“ wc aj ici-

dc`}bloiw ~lwh TO8===" dcifl`lin whj fliglint li TC@C“t j}cw" oig ot o jtzbw" whj dc`}oi|

6= Whj Qjt}citlabj oig Oddcziwoabj No`jiw Tjdwc (QONT, Dhobbjinj Fzig tz}}cwt }cejdwt ol`jg ow l`}cvlin

dciglwlcit cf vzbijoabj ~ckjt li whj jog|-`ogj no`jiw (Q@N, }cgzdwlci tjdwc)6? Wjbjdcifjjidj ajw~jji TOL oig TC@C" ?4 Gjdj`aj 1=??)

61 Tcdlob Oddcziwoalblw| Oddjglwowlci Tjvldjt" ‘TO 8=== Djwlfljg Fodlblwljt5 Ot cf Ezij 4=" 1=??“" 2hww}5##~~~)tootoddjglwowlci)cn#djwfodlblwljtbltw)hw` 9

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@olg li Liglo

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bctw lwt TO8=== djwlfldowlci)64

Whj cwhj zilwt `jiwlcijg oacvj j`oli djwlfljg) Ij~ wc whj bltw cf 

djwlfljg fodlblwljt lt whj Tz`jz Kilwt zilw li Ko`oioldkji}obo|o`" ]obbogo`)

 Ot cf @odh 1=?1" TOOT oig TOL oj litwlwzwlin o fcbbc~-z} livjtwlnowc| `jdhoilt`) Whj

}cno``j" zigj whj io`j @okjw Tzvjlbboidj Vltlwt" lt dc`}ltjg cf hlnh-bjvjb ozglwtdcigzdwjg gljdwb| a| TOOT twoff oig ozglwct"

Zigj whj TOL o}}codh" liglvlgzob zilwt cf liwjnowjg `oizfodwzjt `o| aj TO8=== djwlfljg"

~hlbj cwhj zilwt cf whj to`j `oizfodwzj nc zidhjdkjg) TOL“t }cbld| twowjt whow oi TOL-djwlfljg

fodlblw| `ztw dc``zildowj TO8=== jqzlj`jiwt wc lwt kj| tz}}bljt) Whj TC@C oig LDI jtjodh

thc~t whow tjlczt boacz lnhwt oaztjt" lidbzglin whj }odwldj cf whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j" gc cddz 

ow no`jiwlin oig#c t}liilin zilwt cf K)])Q) @lbb" Jotw`oi oig TT@ Liglo) ^hjj TOL

dc``zildowjt whow djwoli liglvlgzob zilwt cf whjtj vjwldobb| liwjnowjg `oizfodwzjt oj li

dc`}bloidj ~lwh TOL twoigogt" TC@C oig LDI j`}hotltj whj ci-nclin oaztjt ow cwhj zilwt cf 

whj to`j `oizfodwzjt oig ow tz}}bljt fzwhj z} whj tz}}b| dholi) 

Folq joq Fczigowlci

Fol ^jo Fczigowlci (F^F, lt ncvjijg a| wogj zilcit" INCt oig aztlijtt ottcdlowlcit" oig

~ckt ~lwh no`jiw oig wjxwlbj dc`}oiljt li Jzc}j wc l`}cvj boacz dciglwlcit li whjl tz}}b|

dholit) Liglo lt cij cf F^F“t }lclw| dcziwljt) Whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j hot ajdc`j o `oec }cliw

cf fcdzt tlidj 1=?=) F^F tjw z} o twowjn| wc oggjtt fcdjg boacz ~lwh flvj cf lwt `j`aj 

dc`}oiljt tczdlin fc` Tczwh Liglo (Dciwlijiwob Dbcwhlin Dc`}oi|" Eodk ^cbftkli" @dNjnc 

Fothlci Ncz}" Izglj Ejoit oig T~lwdhj,)

Tlidj Ezb| 1=??" F^F hot ozglwjg ilij }cgzdwlci zilwt li Wlz}z oig whj Dcl`aowcj ojo) Whlt

dcidjit icw cib| D@W (Dzw @okj Wl`, zilwt" azw obtc zilwt livcbvjg li t}liilin" kilwwlin" g|jlin"

jwd) F^F }cliwt czw whow lw lt l`}cwoiw wc ~ck ~lwh ~jbb-wolijg oig ~jbb-lifc`jg ozglwct"

jt}jdlobb| jnoglin dzbwzob ot}jdwt) Tc`j Ligloi ozglwct `o| whj`tjbvjt hovj woglwlciob vlj~t

jnoglin ~how lt }c}j ajhovlcz fc |czin zi`oljg ~c`ji)

Wc ogjqzowjb| oggjtt whj }cabj`t fczig" F^F twjttjt whj fcbbc~lin }cliwt67

5

  Wolilin cf ozglwct

  Livcbvj`jiw cf bcdob twokjhcbgjt

  Cfftlwj ~ckjt liwjvlj~t

  Jitzj whow ~ckjt doi jx}jtt whjl ijjgt

  ^ckjt“ wolilin 

Li gltdzttlcit ~lwh `oizfodwzjt" F^F gcjt oggjtt Tz`oinobl-jbowjg lttzjt tzdh ot

‘jtwldwlci cf `cvj`jiw“" ‘icw }o|lin `lil`z` ~onj“ c ‘icw }o|lin gljdwb| wc ~ckjt“" ~lwhczw

gljdwb| oddztlin j`}bc|jt cf }odwldlin whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j)

Li dcjdwlvj odwlci }boit" F^F fltw oggjttjt whj znjiw cddz}owlciob hjobwh oig tofjw| }cabj`t

tzdh ot flj tofjw| li hctwjbt" gztw bjvjb oig icltj) Oicwhj }lclw| lt wc jqzlj fodwcljt wc dcitzbw

bcdob INCt oig }cvlgj wolilin wc ~ckjt li dcitzbwowlci ~lwh F^F)

F^F lt do|lin czw o ZI fzigjg }cejdw wc jig vlcbjidj onolitw ~c`ji li Liglo oig Aoinbogjth)

Whlt }cejdw ol`t wc tjw z} fzidwlcilin oiwl-hoott`jiw dc``lwwjjt li whj fodwcljt tz}}b|lin F^F

`j`ajt) Whlt lidbzgjt wolilin cf ~ckjt oig `oionj`jiw ci ~how dcitwlwzwjt hoott`jiw oig

64 Tcdlob Oddcziwoalblw| Oddjglwowlci Tjvldjt" ‘TO 8=== Djwlfljg Fodlblwljt5 Ot cf Gjdj`aj 4?" 1=??“" 2hww}5##~~~)tootoddjglwowlci)cn#djwfodlblwljtbltw)hw  9

67 Dcjt}cigjidj ~lwh F^F" jjwlin ajw~jji TC@C oig F^F li Fjazo| 1=?1)

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vlcbjidj" jbjdwlcit wc tjw z} oiwl-hoott`jiw dc``lwwjjt oig fcbbc~-z} tz}}cw) Fcz aoigt

tczdlin fc` Wlz}z hovj hog whjl tz}}bljt ecli whj }cejdw )Whcznh tz}}bljt eclilin whj

}cejdw" F^F ol`t ow oggjttlin oig jtcbvlin whj Tz`oinobl-jbowjg lttzjt fczig gzlin whj

ozglwt oig gzlin ogglwlciob ~ckj liwjvlj~t) Ot }ow cf whj }cejdw" F^F ~lbb cnoiltj QczigWoabj `jjwlint livcbvlin whj ncvji`jiw wc gltdztt hoott`jiw lttzjt t}jdlfldobb| ~lwh whj ol` cf 

djowlin o tz}}cwlvj jivlci`jiw)

F^F lt tjwwlin z} oi jxwo dc`}boliwt hcwblij fc hoott`jiw) F^F lt obtc gjvjbc}lin o nzlgjblij

fc hoott`jiw dc`}boliw hoigblin oig lt ~cklin ~lwh njigj jx}jwt wc }cvlgj wolilin ci hc~ wc

hoigbj tjitlwlvj dc`}boliwt jnoglin hoott`jiw) Whj hcwblij c}jowct ~lbb ~ck ~lwh bcdob

}owij cnoiltowlcit wc hoigbj hoott`jiw dc`}boliwt)

Gzwdh wqogj ottcdlowlcit

Li O}lb 1=??" whj Gzwdh Qjwolb Ottcdlowlci (QIG#VNW, wcbg TC@C oig LDI whow lw hog lifc`jg obb

lw `j`ajt oaczw whj ‘Do}wzjg a| Dcwwci“ j}cw oig t}zjg whctj `j`ajt `jiwlcijg li whjj}cw wc }cvlgj fjjgaodk wc TC@C oig LDI) Li o ecliw jodwlci ~lwh Gzwdh wjxwlbj wogj

ottcdlowlcit @CGLIW oig DA^-@LWJX wc whj gofw ‘Do}wzjg a| Dcwwci“ j}cw ci 1< @odh 1=??"

QIG#VNW dbol`t wc hovj otkjg F^F oig ATDL ci ajhobf cf whjl `j`ajt wc }cvlgj hjb} li o

dcbbjdwlvj oig ogjqzowj o}}codh oig wc hovj tznnjtwjg wc dciijdw ~lwh cwhj liwjiowlciob

lilwlowlvjt" tzdh ot whj JWL TAB Ncz})6:

 

Li o }jtt twowj`jiw gowjg 1= @o| 1=??" whj Gzwdh fothlci oig wjxwlbj tjdwc" j}jtjiwjg a| wogj

ottcdlowlcit DA^-@LWJX" @CGLIW oig VNW" jx}jttjg whj c}lilci whow whj Tz`oinobl t|twj`"

ot lw jxltwt li whj Wo`lb Iogz jnlci li Liglo" dciwolit jbj`jiwt whow oj dciwo| wc zilvjtob

hz`oi lnhwt oig li ajodh cf whj LBC boacz dcivjiwlcit) Whj twowj`jiw j}cwt whow obb wjxwlbj

dc`}oiljt tczdlin fc` whj jnlci ~lbb ob`ctw ob~o|t aj dcifciwjg gljdwb| c ligljdwb| ~lwh whjTz`oinobl Tdhj`j) Whj tdhj`j lt fczig `olib| li whj t}liilin `lbbt ~hlbj lw hogb| cddzt li whj

Ligloi no`jiw jx}cwlin fodwcljt whow Jzc}joi dc`}oiljt tczdj fc`)66

 

Li 1=?1" @CGLIW" DA^-@LWJX oig QIG#VNW dobbjg z}ci whj Gzwdh ncvji`jiw wc oggjtt whj

lttzj cf whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j ~lwh whj jbjvoiw Ligloi ozwhclwljt)6>

 

Ijwhjqboigt ncvjqi`jiwob odwlci

‘Do}wzjg a| Dcwwci“ ~ot gltdzttjg li Gzwdh ]oblo`jiw ci 17 @o| 1=??) Li jt}citj wc qzjtwlcit

cf `j`ajt cf }oblo`jiw" whj @liltwj fc Onldzbwzj oig Fcjlni Wogj" Hjik Abjkj" }c`ltjg wc

oggjtt whj lttzj li hlt dc``zildowlcit ~lwh whj Ligloi @liltwj cf Dc}cowj Offolt) Fzwhj`cj"hj }c`ltjg wc jiwj liwc gltdzttlcit ~lwh D&O oig tolg hj ~czbg znj whj dc`}oi| wc j}cw ci

l`}cvj`jiwt ~lwhli tlx `ciwht“ wl`j)

6: Ecliw jodwlci a| DA^-@LWJX" @CGLIW oig QIG#VNW wc whj dcidj}w Qj}cw ci whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j (@odh 1=??,

cf TC@C oig LDI" 1< @odh" 1=??)66 ]jtt jt}citj DA^-@LWJX" @CGLIW VNW wc whj j}cw cf whj TC@C oig Boigjblekj Liglo jkncj} ci whj

Tz`oinobl t|twj` li Liglo" ‘Ijgjboigtj wjxwljbaoidhj jkjiw }cabj`owljk Tz`oinobl-t|twjj` li Liglo“ [Gzwdh wjxwlbj

ligztw| odkic~bjgnjt lttzjt cf Tz`oinobl t|twj` li LigloP" 1= jl 1=?? "

hww}5##~~~)`cgliw)ib#ligjx)df`#4?"6<="d"hw`b#??-=:-

]jtjodwlj*1=*1=Tz`oinobl*1=(TC@C,*1=@CGLIW*1=VNW*1=DA^*1=@LWJX)}gf   6> @jjwlin TC@C oig LDI ~lwh j}jtjiwowlvjt cf whj Gzwdh @liltw| cf Jdcic`ld Offolt" Onldzbwzj oig Liicvowlci" 1<

Fjazo| 1=?1" Whj Honzj)

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Li Icvj`aj 1=??" @liltwj Abjkj tjiw o bjwwj wc whj Gzwdh ]oblo`jiw" jx}bolilin whj o}}codh cf 

whj Gzwdh ncvji`jiw)68

Whj @liltwj j}cwjg ci hlt vltlw wc Liglo joblj whow `ciwh) Li o `jjwlin

~lwh @liltwj Tlinh cf Dc}cowj Offolt" whj Gzwdh ncvji`jiw cffjjg wc ~ck wcnjwhj ~lwh whj

Ligloi ncvji`jiw li tz}}cwlin dc`}oiljt wc }hotj czw whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j) @liltwj Tlinhoddj}wjg whlt cffj)

Li whj bjwwj whj @liltwj obtc jx}bolit whj twj}t D&O hot zigjwokji whzt fo) Hj ~lwjt whow D&O

otkjg whj Gzwdh ncvji`jiw fc tz}}cw li whjl tjodh fc tcbzwlcit wc DTQ dhobbjinjt li Liglo)

@cj t}jdlfldobb|" D&O otkjg whj @liltwj wc gltdztt whj lttzj cf whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j ~lwh whj

Wo`lb Iogz @liltwj cf Boacz) Li whlt jnog" whj @liltwjlob bjwwj twowjg whow whj Gzwdh j`aott| li

Liglo ~lbb gltdztt whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j oig acogj boacz lnhwt lttzjt ~lwh whj Wo`lb Iogz

@liltwj cf Boacz) O `jjwlin ajw~jji whj Gzwdh o`aottogc oig whj Tjdjwo| Njijob cf whj

Wo`lb Iogz `liltw| cf boacz wcck }bodj li @odh 1=?1) Lw tjj`t whlt `jjwlin hot ajji hjb}fzb li

tjdzlin whj livcbvj`jiw cf whj Wo`lb Iogz twowj ncvji`jiw oig whj bcdob boacz lit}jdwlci li whj

`jjwlin cnoiltjg a| JWL oig FBO ci whj 18wh oig 1<wh cf @odh li Wlz}z)

Whj @odh `jjwlin ~ot obtc owwjigjg a| o j}jtjiwowlvj cf whj Gzwdh j`aott|) Whj Gzwdh

j`aott| ~lbb thoj whj lifc`owlci cawolijg ow whlt `jjwlin ~lwh cwhj Gjbhl-aotjg j`aottljt cf 

dcziwljt ~hjj liwjiowlciob dbcwhlin dc`}oiljt oj hjogqzowjjg) Whj Gzwdh j`aott| wcnjwhj 

~lwh whj cwhj j`aottljt ~lbb jx}bcj fzwhj dcc}jowlci jnoglin boacz dciglwlcit li whj

no`jiw tz}}b| dholi)6<

 

4)1)1) Ozglwlin oig djqwlfldowlci 

Li oi jffcw wc gjwjdw oig oggjtt oaztjt zigj whj Tz`oinobl oig tl`lbo tdhj`jt oig li

jt}citj wc whj ‘Do}wzjg a| Dcwwci“ j}cw" aoigt hovj twj}}jg z} whjl ozglwt oig dcigzdwjg

ogglwlciob jtjodh) Hc~jvj" tcdlob ozglwt hovj `oi| ~jokijttjt oig oj icw tzffldljiw wc

ogjqzowjb| gjwjdw oig odw z}ci boacz lnhwt vlcbowlcit) Tcdlob dc`}bloidj ozglwt `olib| wokj }bodj

ow whj tlwj ~hjj whj jig }cgzdw lt ottj`abjg oig ~lwh ~hldh whj az|j hot o dciwodwzob

jbowlcithl})

 Ot gjtdlajg li Dho}wj 1" tlinbj zilwt cfwji ajbcin wc bonj ncz}t) ]boiwt wc aj ozglwjg `o|

hovj cwhj zilwt cf whj to`j ncz} ijxw gcc whow oj icw }ow cf whj ozglw) Zilwt whow oj gjgldowjg

wc cwhj twonjt cf }cgzdwlci" tzdh ot t}liilin oig g|jlin" c cwhj no`jiwlin zilwt ajbcinlin wc

whj to`j ncz} oj whzt icw ozglwjg) Jt}jdlobb| gzlin }cgzdwlci }jokt lw lt icw zidc``ci whow

glffjjiw zilwt cf cij ncz} ~ck ci cij cgj wc `jjw gjblvj| tdhjgzbjt) Oi ozglw" hc~jvj" `o|

wokj }bodj ow cij zilw cib|) Whjjfcj lw `o| cddz whow dciglwlcit ow whj zilw whow lt ajlin ozglwjg

oj glffjjiw fc` whj dciglwlcit ow cwhj zilwt ajbcinlin wc whj to`j ncz})

Whj fljbg jtjodh dcigzdwjg fc whlt jtjodh jvjobt whow ~ckjt oj zigj }jttzj wc nlvj

djwoli jt}citjt wc ozglw qzjtwlcit) Ow cij `oizfodwzj" t}jdlob ozglw wolilint ~jj j}cwjg wc

woli whj ~ckjt wc nlvj whj ‘lnhw“ jt}citjt) Li ogglwlci" lw ~ot fczig whow ow bjotw ow cij tz}}blj 

onj jdcgt oj fobtlfljg li cgj wc dcvj z} whj fodw whow dhlbg boaczjt oj o`cin whj ~ck fcdj)

Dcidjit oaczw fcnjg oddcziwt cf ~cklin hczt hovj obtc ajji oltjg) Gzj wc whj dzbwzob

aodknczig cf bcdob ozglwct" whj| `o| aj litzffldljiwb| tjitlwlvj wc gjwjdw dotwj oig njigj 

68  @liltw| cf Jdcic`ld Offolt" Onldzbwzj oig Liicvowlci" bjwwj wc whj Gzwdh Bc~j Hcztj" ‘D&O ji lit}oiilinji wjnji

hjw Tz`oinoblt|twjj` li gj Uzlg Liglotj wjxwljbtjdwc“ [D&O oig jffcwt wc twc} Tz`oinobl t|twj` li Tczwh Ligloi wjxwlbjtjdwcP" 14 Icvj`aj 1=??) 

6< J`olb dcjt}cigjidj ~lwh whj Gzwdh @liltw| cf Jdcic`ld Offolt" Onldzbwzj oig Liicvowlci" O}lb 1=?1)  

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gltdl`liowlci) Tc`j ozglwct" fc litwoidj" ajbljvj whow whj jtwldwlci cf `cvj`jiw cf |czin

zi`oljg ~c`ji lt oddj}woabj)

 Ow ajtw" tcdlob ozglwt }cvlgj o tio}thcw cf whj tlwzowlci ow o djwoli wl`j ow o djwoli `oizfodwzj)Cfwji" ozglwt cib| livcbvj thcw fodwc| vltlwt" oig oj icw jicznh wc zidcvj zigjb|lin

`jdhoilt`t tzdh ot }cttlabj c}}jttlvj jbowlcithl} ajw~jji ackjt c j`}bc|jt oig ~ckjt)

Tjitlwlvj lttzjt tzdh ot tjxzob hoott`jiw oj vj| hog wc gjwjdw" ajdoztj ~ckjt fjjb

otho`jg cf t}joklin czw ci whjtj lttzjt)

4)1)4) Cwhjq odwlcit fcdztjg ci flqtw wljq tz}}bljqt 

Li oi jffcw wc gjwjdw oig oggjtt oaztj zigj whj Tz`oinobl oig tl`lbo tdhj`jt" aoigt hovj

dcigzdwjg jxwo ozglwt oig ogglwlciob jtjodh) Aoigt obtc ligldowjg whj| oj ~cklin ci

l`}cvlin ozglw `jwhcgcbcn| oig hovj zigjwokji o voljw| cf j`jglob odwlcit)

Qj`jglob odwlcit ~lwh fltw wlj tz}}bljtAjtlgjt twj}}lin z} ozglwt" tc`j aoigt hovj litwlwzwjg tjvjob fcdztjg j`jglob odwlcit ~lwh

whjl fltw wlj tz}}bljt) JWL }cvlgjt oi cvjvlj~>=

5

  Whj dc`}bjwj glt`oiwblin cf whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j (li tc`j dotjt,)

  ^lwwji dciwodwt)

  Fzbb `ciwhb| }o|`jiwt ~lwh oggjg lidjiwlvjt fc bcinj |jot cf tjvldj)

  ]o|`jiwt liwc aoik oddcziwt)

  Qjnzboltowlci cf ~cklin hczt oig bjovjt" jwd)

  ^ckjt“ wolilint fcdztlin ci lnhwt" aztlijtt t|twj`t" HQ t|twj`t" `lnoiw boacz 

lttzjt oig ~c`ji“t hjobwh) 

]ql`oqk

Cij jxo`}bj cf o aoig zigjwoklin odwlcit ~lwh lwt fltw wlj tz}}blj lt ]l`ok" o ZK jwolbj cf 

‘offcgoabj fothlci“) ]l`ok dcifl`t tczdlin fc` w~c cf whj vjwldobb| liwjnowjg `oizfodwzjt

j}cwjg ci li whlt j}cw5 K)])Q) @lbb oig TT@) ]l`ok hot }bodjg o wjtw cgj ~lwh Jotw`oi" azw

lt icw tczdlin whjj ow whj `c`jiw) ]l`ok hot tjw z} volczt }cno``jt wc oggjtt boacz 

dcidjit li lwt Tczwh Ligloi tz}}b| dholi)

Li }owldzbo" ]l`ok lt ~cklin ~lwh fol boacz cnoiltowlci Vjlwì oig whj Ottcdlowlci fc 

Twl`zbowlin Kic~-Hc~ (OTK, li gjvjbc}lin oig l`}bj`jiwlin whj ‘Fol Hllin" Fol Boacz“ wccbklw)

Whj fcdzt cf whj }cno``j lt ci `oionj`jiw t|twj`t" oig li }owldzbo ci `cilwclin

jdzlw`jiw }cdjgzjt) Fc whlt }cno``j" fcz wccb klwt hovj ajji gjvjbc}jg jnoglin5 ?)Qjdzlw`jiw" tjbjdwlci oig hllin; 1) Tdjjilin oig `oionlin ackjt; 4) Ci-tlwj `oionj`jiw cf 

~ckjt; oig 7) Hctwjbt)

Whj wccbklwt ~jj djowjg a| Vjlwì-OTK aotjg ci whjl Fol Hllin fo`j~ck" whj Vjlwì -

@oi}c~j Jwhldob Ackj twoigogt" whj Wlz}z Twokjhcbgj Nzlgjblijt; oig bcdob dciwjxw oig bo~)

Whj wccbklwt ztj whj Vjlwì T|twj`t O}}codh" oig ol` wc azlbg `oionj`jiw t|twj` do}odlw| oig

liwjiob tjbf-`cilwclin ow whj tz}}blj bjvjb)

Li Tj}wj`aj 1=??" ]l`ok oig Vjlwì-OTK bozidhjg whj wccbklwt ~lwh o w~c-go| ~ckthc})

Wl`ajboig obtc owwjigjg) Whj ~ckthc} wonjwjg aztlijtt bjogjt ot ~jbb ot hz`oi jtczdj

oig dc`}bloidj `oionjt) Fjjgaodk lidbzgjg whow }cc }cgzdwlci }boiilin doi aj cij doztj cf 

}cc jdzlw`jiw }odwldjt" ot ~jbb ot o bodk cf gzj glblnjidj }cdjttjt fc `oionlin ackjt) O

>= JWL Aljflin ]o}j (gofw, - ]jtjiwjg wc Tz`oinobl#Acigjg Boacz Ncz}" : @odh" 1=?1)

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tjdcig ~ckthc} lt }boiijg fc `lg-1=?1) ]l`ok oig Vjlwì-OTK oj }cvlglin tz}}cw oig

dcitzbwowlci fc tz}}bljt wc l`}bj`jiw whj wccbklwt" oig ~lbb hcbg o fzwhj ~ckthc} li 1=?1 wc bcck

ow ajtw }odwldjt dhobbjinjt oig tzddjttjt)

@cjcvj" ]l`ok lt dcbboacowlin ~lwh Njctoito" o H|gjoaog-aotjg tcdlob jiwj}ltj

jtwoablthjg wc }cvlgj aoiklin oig flioidlob jgzdowlci fc bc~-lidc`j ~ckjt) ]l`ok hot ajji

~cklin ci o flioidlob lidbztlci }cno``j ~lwh Njctoito" c}jilin hzigjgt cf aoik oddcziwt

oig }cvlglin flioidlob jgzdowlci oig o~ojijtt azlbglin fc ~ckjt li no`jiw fodwcljt) Whj

}cno``j ol`t wc oddc`}oi| ]l`ok“t tz}}bljt li whj woitlwlci fc` doth }o| cbj wc aoik

woitfj) Whlt hot ~ckjg czw ~jbb" j}cwt ]l`ok) Tc`j dhobbjinjt twlbb j`oli" tzdh ot whj lttzj

cf aoik oddcziwt fc ~ckjt zigj ?8 |jot cbg ~hc oj dzjiwb| zioabj wc ligj}jigjiwb| c}ji

oi oddcziw zigj Ligloi aoiklin bo~) ]l`ok oig Njctoito oj t}joklin wc jbjvoiw

twokjhcbgjt wc flig oi jffjdwlvj tcbzwlci)

]ctlwlcit oig odwlvlwljt zigjwokji a| liglvlgzob dc`}oiljt ot `jiwlcijg oacvj oj djwolib|

bozgoabj li liwjiwlci) ^how lt bodklin lt vjlfloabj lifc`owlci oaczw whj l`}odw cf tzdh twj}t oig

odwlvlwljt ci whj ~ck fbcc) Whj cvjvlj~ cf odwlvlwljt zigjwokji a| aoigt ci whj bjvjb cf whjl fltw

wlj tz}}bljt ot }cvlgjg a| JWL" lidbzglin whj dc`}bjwj glt`oiwblin cf whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j"

bodkt whj gjwolb ijjgjg wc aj djglabj)

Li whj oatjidj cf }c}j ~ckjt“ j}jtjiwowlci oig nljvoidj `jdhoilt`t" dc`}oi|-bjg

livjtwlnowlcit oig ozglwt oj litzffldljiw wccbt wc oggjtt whj dc`}bjx oig znjiw boacz lnhwt

vlcbowlcit whow oj gjtdlajg li whlt j}cw)

4)1)7) Odwlcit woqnjwlin tjdcig oig fzqwhjq wljq tz}}bljqt 

Jwhldob Wqoglin Lilwlowlvj

JWL dobbjg z}ci whj `j`ajt cf whj TAB ncz} wc gc o `o}}lin cf whjl tjdcig-wlj tz}}bljt

lidbzglin t}liilin `lbbt) Whj aoigt gc icw o}}jo wc hovj ajji cvjb| o`alwlczt li gclin whjl 

hc`j~ck) Whow lt wc to|" JWL hot j}jowjg lwt dobb tjvjob wl`jt) JWL j}cwt whow tc`j aoigt

hovj `ogj ‘gljdw j}jtjiwowlcit wc whj t}liilin ligztw| ottcdlowlci — TL@O oig WOT@O“) JWL

`jiwlcit cij aoig lt ~cklin wc gjvjbc} ‘ozglw }cdjttjt fc t}liilin `lbbt“" azw ~lwhczw }cvlglin

gjwolbt)>? 

Folq joq Fczigowlci

 Ot gjtdlajg oacvj" whj Fol ^jo Fczigowlci obtc hot doljg czw o `cgjtw iz`aj cf ozglwt ow

whj tjdcig oig fzwhj wlj tz}}bljt cf lwt `j`ajt)>1 

Tcdlob Oddcziwoalblw| Liwjqiowlciob

TOL" ot `jiwlcijg oacvj" odkic~bjgnjt whj ijjg wc bcck aj|cig fltw wlj tz}}bljt" lidbzglin ow

t`obb t}liilin `lbbt li whj t`obbj vlbbonjt) Lw lt" hc~jvj" to|t TOL" glffldzbw wc njw ozglwct nc whjj)

Tcblgoqlgog

Tcblgolgog oig whj Fol Boac Ottcdlowlci (FBO, hovj jdjiwb| doljg czw ecliw jtjodh liwc whj

Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j) O j}cw lt jx}jdwjg a| `lg-O}lb)>4

Whj owlciobj fc whlt jtjodh" ot

>?  Jwhldob Woglin Lilwlowlvj" ‘Aljflin ]o}j (gofw, — ]jtjiwjg wc whj Tz`oinobl#Acigjg Boacz Ncz}" : @odh 1=?1)>1 Wjbj}hcij dcivjtowlci ~lwh TOL" 1> @odh 1=?1)

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}jtjiwjg a| Tcblgolgog" lt whow lw tjj`t glffldzbw wc jodh o thojg zigjtwoiglin cf whj lttzj cf 

Tz`oinobl o`cin whj volczt twokjhcbgjt) Ci whj cij hoig" ~lwjt Tcblgolgog" whjj lt

lifc`owlci gjtdlalin whj ~lgj jx}bclwowlci cf |czin ~c`ji ~ckjt zigj whj Tz`oinobl

Tdhj`j" ci whj cwhj hoig" `ctw no`jiw `oizfodwzlin zilwt oig t}liilin `lbbt gji| whjjxltwjidj cf tzdh jx}bclwowlvj }odwldjt)

>7Lgjiwlfljg boacz lnhwt vlcbowlcit dclidlgj ~lwh lttzjt ot

j}cwjg a| TC@C oig LDI5 bodk cf ~lwwji dciwodwt; ]cvlgjiw Fzig (]F, oig J`}bc|jj Twowj

Litzoidj (JTL, ajijflwt oj icw }cvlgjg fc; gjgzdwlcit fc o`jilwljt whow jgzdj `ciwhb|

}o|`jiw; ic hjobwh & tofjw| wolilin; oddlgjiwt; jxdjttlvj ~cklin hczt5 ic`ob ~ck thlfwt z} wc

?1 hczt }bzt oi ogglwlciob 7 hczt cf ~ck ~hldh ~lbb icw aj dcziwjg ot cvjwl`j" tc`jwl`jt ~ck

thlfwt z} wc ?: hczt }bzt oi ogglwlciob 1-4 hczt cvjwl`j; |czin ~c`ji oj }olg bjtt whoi `ji;

vjaob oaztj lt dc``ci; }h|tldob oaztj lt icw vj| dc``ci azw gcjt cddz" lidbzglin tjxzob

oaztj; dhlbg boacz lt oi lttzj5 `oi| ~ckjt bcck |czinj whoi ?6 |jot cf onj; fcdjg boacz lt

j}cwjg5 ~hji o ~ckj ci o 4-|jo dciwodw wokjt bjovj" whj jqzljg tjvldj lt jxwjigjg fc 

`oi| `ciwht; dc`}zbtc| cvjwl`j" dc`}zbtc| bowj ilnhw thlfwt" jxdjttlvj ~cklin hczt)

Tcblgolgog lt qzjtwlcilin whj bjvjonj cf aoigt oig jwolbjt li jitzlin whow ic zifol }odwldjt

wokj }bodj hlnhj z} whj tz}}b| dholi" ot aoigt oig jwolbjt hovj gljdw jbowlcit ~lwh fltw-wlj 

tz}}bljt jt}jdlobb| ~lwh D@W zilwt) Tcblgolgog oig FBO dbol` whow ‘cvj 8=* cf Tz`oinobl

Tdhj`j oj lgjiwlfljg wc aj li whj t}liilin `lbbt tjdwc“" ~hlbj bjtt whoi 4=* cf whj |oi }cgzdjg

a| t}liilin `lbbt li Wo`lb Iogz lt gljdwb| }zdhotjg a| nbcaob aoigt oig jwolbjt) Ijvjwhjbjtt"

Tcblgolgog oig FBO twjtt whj jffcwt wc zigjtwoig cvjobb tz}}b| dholi blikonjt whow nc aj|cig

fltw-wlj tz}}bljt) Li whlt blnhw Tcblgolgog lt ~cklin ~lwh o dcz}bj cf t}liilin `lbbt li Wo`lb Iogz

wc lgjiwlf| ajtw }odwldjt li ~cklin ~lwh acizt tdhj`jt fc owwodwlin oig jwolilin ~ckjt

~lwhczw vlcbowlin boacz bo~t)>:

Tcblgolgog ~oiwt wc fcdzt ci ajwwj }odwldjt oig ci ~how doi aj

}c`cwjg li whj Tczwh Ligloi wjxwlbj ligztw|" jt}jdlobb| li whj wjxwlbj `lbbt" owhj whoi fcdzt ci

~how ncjt ~cin) Whj dzjiw }cejdw lt blkjb| wc aj dc`}bjwjg a| @o| 1=?1) Tcblgolgog

oiiczidjt lw ~lbb twow o fcbbc~-z} }cejdw ~lwh whj }owldl}owlci cf o oinj cf odwct" lidbzglin

aoigt oig jwolbjt; ligztw| ottcdlowlcit; `zbwl-twokjhcbgj lilwlowlvjt; liglvlgzob no`jiw

`oizfodwzlin zilwt oig t}liilin `lbbt) Whlt }cejdw ~lbb fcdzt ci djowlin o~ojijtt ci ajtw

}odwldjt; azlbg do}odlw| cf whj ligztw| wc lidc}cowj tzdh }odwldjt; oig fodlblwowj whj ~lgj 

z}wokj cf whjtj }odwldjt li cvjobb ligztw| }odwldjt)>6

 

D&O

D&O lt oi l`}cwoiw dztwc`j cf Jotw`oi Jx}cwt oig TT@ Liglo) D&O jdjiwb| ajdo`j o

`j`aj cf JWL oig lt obtc }owldl}owlin li whj JWL TAB Ncz}) Fzwhj`cj" D&O jdjiwb|

jtwoablthjg `cj gljdw aztlijtt jbowlcithl}t (aotjg ci o dciwodwzob aotlt, ~lwh o iz`aj cf 

Wo`lb Iogz aotjg t}liilin `lbbt) D&O“t dcgj cf dcigzdw ic~ o}}bljt gljdwb| wc whjtj t}liilin

`lbbt) D&O hot lifc`jg TC@C oig LDI whow lw ~lbb l``jglowjb| }cdjjg ~lwh zioiiczidjg ozglwt)

 Oddcglin wc D&O" whlt lt o fltw twj} wc l`}cvj ~cklin dciglwlcit ci whj `lbb bjvjb)>>

 

>4 J`olb dcjt}cigjidj ajw~jji Tcblgolgog oig TC@C" ?4 O}lb 1=?1)>7  Z}gowj ci Tcblgolgog“t ~ck li Tczwh Ligloi wjxwlbj ligztw| ci Tz`oinobl“" j`olb a| Tcblgolgog 1 O}lb 1=?1) 

>: Lalg)>6 Lalg)>> J`olb dcjt}cigjidj ~lwh D&O" @odh 1=?1)

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Wl`ajqboig # VF Dcq}cqowlci

Wl`ajboig lt o dztwc`j cf Jotw`oi) Li Tj}wj`aj 1=?? Wl`ajboig ~ot odqzljg a| VF

Dc}cowlci) ^lwh whj VF odqzltlwlci obb tjdcig wlj tz}}bljt oj tzaejdw wc VF dc`}bloidj ozglwt

(c jqzlvobjiw ligztw|-jdcniltjg }cdjtt" l)j) TO8===" ^QO]" ATQ @lbbt ozglwt," c }owldl}owj liwhj

ATQ @lbbt & Tzigljt ozglwlin }cno``j" ~lwjt Wl`ajboig)>8

Whlt o `oec twj} fc~og tlidj

lilwlobb| whj Wl`ajboig `cilwclin }cno``j fcdztjg ci flilthjg no`jiw }cgzdjt cib|)

Aztlijtt Tcdlob Qjt}citlalblw| @lbbt oig Tzigqljt cqklin Nqcz}

Whj @lbbt oig Tzigljt ^cklin Ncz} cf Aztlijtt Tcdlob Qjt}citlalblw| (ATQ, ol`t wc j`}c~j 

bjoglin o}}ojb oig jwolb dc`}oiljt oig whjl twowjnld tz}}bljt ~lwh wccbt fc }codwlvj

`oionj`jiw cf boacz" hjobwh" tofjw|" oig jivlci`jiwob }jfc`oidj li cgj wc acctw

dc`}jwlwlvjijtt" ~hlbj obtc ajijflwlin ~ckjt oig whj jivlci`jiw) Whj ~cklin ncz} ol`t wc

hjb} o}}ojb oig jwolb dc`}oiljt oig whjl tz}}bljt `cvj o~o| fc` o wc}-gc~i" }ott-folb ozglw

o}}codh" oig litwjog ~ck li }owijthl} wc jlifcdj `zwzob woit}ojid| oig dciwlizcztb|

l`}cvj fodwc| dciglwlcit)><

Whj @lbbt oig Tzigljt ^cklin ncz} hot gjvjbc}jg o dcbboacowlvj

ozglwlin }cdjtt fc o}}ojb `lbbt oig tzigljt) Whj glvj fc whlt }cdjtt lt whj jdcnilwlci cf 

}cwjiwlob ltkt aj|cig fltw-wlj tz}}bljt)

Jotw`oi Jx}cwt hot ajji otkjg a| Wl`ajboig — `j`aj cf whj ATQ @lbbt oig Tzigljt ^cklin

Ncz} — wc }owldl}owj li fodlblw| ottjtt`jiwt a| Wl`ajboig oig onjjg wc gc tc) Li Gjdj`aj 

1=??" tdhjgzblin fc whjtj ottjtt`jiwt ~ot |jw wc aj lilwlowjg) Li 1=??" whj ATQ @lbbt oig

Tzigljt ^cklin Ncz} hot fcdztjg ci whj jxo`liowlci cf whj Dc``ci ]lidl}bjt" ATQ“t

twoigogt fc boacz" hjobwh oig tofjw| oig jivlci`jiwob }jfc`oidj" ~hldh oj ztjg ot whj

aotlt fc whj ottjtt`jiw cf tz}}blj fodlblwljt) Li }owldzbo" whj @lbbt oig Tzigljt ^cklin Ncz}

hot ajji jvltlin whj fcdjg boacz dc`}cijiw cf whjtj ]lidl}bjt) Cij cf whj glvjt fc whlt

jvltlci lt whj nc~lin o~ojijtt cf Tz`oinobl ot o }owldzbo lttzj cf dcidji)8=

Whj dhoinjt

lidbzgj tjvjob ij~ jbj`jiwt fc ottjttct wc livjtwlnowj gzlin fodwc| vltlwt" lidbzglin

jdzlw`jiw }odwldjt oig fjjgc` cf `cvj`jiw) Whj @lbbt oig Tzigljt ^cklin ncz}

oiiczidjg lw ~lbb jbjotj whj jvltjg ottjtt`jiw wccb li job| 1=?1)

Whj ATQ @lbbt oig Tzigljt ^cklin Ncz} j`}hotltjt whj ijjg fc o}}ojb oig jwolb dc`}oiljt

oig whjl tz}}bljt wc ~ck li }owijthl} oig wc jlifcdj `zwzob woit}ojid|)

Qjnoglin Tz`oinobl" whj @lbbt oig Tzigljt ^cklin Ncz} ~ckt ~lwh whj ATQ Dc``ci

]lidl}bjt oig twoigogt fc boacz" hjobwh oig tofjw| oig jivlci`jiwob }jfc`oidj) Cvj whj

}otw ilij `ciwht" cij cf whj kj| odwlvlwljt fc whj ~cklin ncz} hot ajji oi jxo`liowlci cf whj

Dc``ci ]lidl}bjt" lwt twoigogt fc boacz" hjobwh oig tofjw| oig jivlci`jiwob }jfc`oidj

djowjg li 1==8 oig ztjg ot whj aotlt fc ottjtt`jiw cf tz}}blj fodlblwljt) Li }owldzbo" whj ncz}

lt jvltlin whj fcdjg boacz dc`}cijiw cf whj ]lidl}bjt) Cij cf whj glvjt fc whlt jvltlci hot

ajji whj ncz}“t nc~lin o~ojijtt cf Tz`oinobl ot o }owldzbo lttzj cf dcidji) Whjtj

dhoinjt hovj lidbzgjg tjvjob ij~ jbj`jiwt ottjttct `ztw livjtwlnowj gzlin fodwc| vltlwt"

lidbzglin jdzlw`jiw }odwldjt oig fjjgc` cf `cvj`jiw) Whj ncz} }boit wc jbjotj whj jvltjg

ottjtt`jiw wccb li job| 1=?1)

>8 J`olb dcjt}cigjidj ~lwh Wl`ajboig" O}lb 1=?1)>< ATQ @lbbt oig Tzigljt cklin Ncz}) hww}5##~~~)at)cn#ji#cz-~ck#~cklin-ncz}t#o}}ojb-`lbbt-tzigljt)8= Qjt}citj wc TC@C qzjtwlcit) Gjdj`aj 1?" 1=??" ATQ @lbbt oig Tzigljt cklin Ncz})

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:<

Aztlijtt Tcdlob Dc`}bloidj Lilwlowlvj (ATDL,

Whj Aztlijtt Tcdlob Dc`}bloidj Lilwlowlvj (ATDL, hot hzigjgt cf `j`ajt" lidbzglin gcujit cf 

no`jiw dc`}oiljt)

Wo`lb Iogz lt oi l`}cwoiw tczdlin jnlci ~lwhli Liglo" ~lwjt ATDL" oig whjjfcj ATDL

}owldl}oiwt oj dcifciwjg ~lwh whj qzjtwlci cf hc~ wc gjob ~lwh boacz oaztjt li whjl tz}}b|

dholit) Li Eoizo| 1=??" ATDL cnoiltjg o Qczig Woabj li Liglo) Whj Tz`oinobl lttzj ~ot cij cf 

whj kj| }cliwt ci whj onjigo) ]boit fc whj cnoiltowlci cf oicwhj bcdob Qczig Woabj `lg 1=??

~jj icw dc`}bjwjg" ajdoztj a| whow wl`j lw o}}jojg `oi| glffjjiw lilwlowlvjt oig odwlvlwljt ci whj

wc}ld ~jj objog| ajlin cbbjg czw oig ATDL c}wjg fc eclilin fcdjt ~lwh cwhj jbjvoiw odwlvlwljt"

owhj whoi gz}bldowlin jffcwt (j)n) }owldl}owlci li whj Wlz}z Twokjhcbgjt Fcz` oig whj JWL-

dccgliowjg jvjiw ci 18#1< @odh,)

Whj fcdzt cf ATDL lt ci fltw-wlj tz}}bljt ot whlt lt ~hjj ATDL-`j`ajt jxjw `ctw lifbzjidj oig

hovj o gljdw aztlijtt jbowlcithl} oig dc``zildowlci dhoiijb) Lw lt obtc ow whlt bjvjb whow ozglwlinoig tz}}blj ~ckthc}t `ctwb| wokj }bodj) Icijwhjbjtt" ~lwjt ATDL" lw fligt lw l`}cwoiw wc lifc`

lwt `j`ajt oaczw whj dhobbjinjt fczig bc~j gc~i whj dholi" oig lttzjt hlnhblnhwjg a| INCt"

tzdh ot li whj TC@C oig LDI j}cw) Tz`oinobl lt oi lttzj whow ~lbb aj jidcziwjjg li t}liilin

`lbbt owhj whoi li no`jiw }cgzdwlci) Whjtj t}liilin `lbbt oj icw ztzobb| gljdw tz}}bljt cf 

ATDL `j`ajt) Whow `okjt lw glffldzbw wc gljdwb| lifbzjidj whjl odwlcit" ATDL to|t) ATDL gcjt fjjb

whow lw lt l`}cwoiw wc wodkbj }cabj`t ~hjj whj| oj fczig" obtc fowhj gc~i whj tz}}b| dholi)

Li O}lb 1=??" ATDL }zablthjg ‘Nzlgoidj ci Tz`oinobl“)8?

Li whlt gcdz`jiw" ATDL odkic~bjgnjt

whow ozglwlin lt icw tzffldljiw wc jffjdw }ctlwlvj dhoinj ci whj ~ck fbcc) ATDL ogvltjt lwt `j`ajt

wc `o} czw ~hjwhj }cgzdwt oj tczdjg fc` whj jnlci ~hjj whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j lt

}odwldjg) ATDL obtc jdc``jigt lwt `j`ajt livjtwlnowj ~hjwhj whjl gljdw tz}}bljttzadciwodw ~ck wc t}liilin `lbbt ~hjj whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j `o| aj }odwldjg" oig wc lifc`

whjtj gljdw tz}}bljt cf whj lttzjt)

Qjnoglin wolilin" whj fcdzt cf ATDL tc fo hot ajji ci wolilin o}}ojb `oizfodwzjt ~hldh oj

tz}}bljt wc ATDL `j`ajt ot ~jbb ot whj dc`}oiljt ~cklin ~lwh whj ozglwlin cnoiltowlci Tcdlob

 Oddcziwoalblw| Liwjiowlciob (TOL," oig icw `zdh ci whj t}liilin `lbbt) Hc~jvj" whj wolilin

`cgzbj ci tz}}b| dholi `oionj`jiw gjobt ~lwh hc~ o}}ojb `oizfodwzjt dczbg jinonj whjl 

tz}}bljt) Nclin fc~og" whj ol` lt fc whj wolilin tjttlcit wc obtc wonjw cwhj tz}}bljt fzwhj 

gc~i whj vobzj dholi)

4)4) ]qcejdwt ~lwh o t}jdlfld tcdlob cq dc``zilw| dc`}cijiw

Tc`j aoigt hovj blikjg z} ~lwh bcdob c liwjiowlciob INCt wc oggjtt }cabj`t jbowjg wc whj

Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j whcznh o dc``zilw| o}}codh)

]ql`oqk5 Nqottqccwt jinonj`jiw oig `cilwcqlin

]l`ok lt ~cklin ~lwh o bcdob INC ci o nottccwt jinonj`jiw oig `cilwclin }cno``j"

Whj czw}zwt cf whlt }cno``j oj tz``oltjg ot fcbbc~t81

5

  Qjtjodh oig livjtwlnowlci cf obbjnowlcit cf Tz`oinobl Tdhj`jt)

8?

  Aztlijtt Tcdlob Dc`}bloidj Lilwlowlvj (ATDL," ‘Nzlgoidj ci Tz`oinobl“ " O}lb 1=??" 2 hww}5##~~~)atdl-liwb)cn#jtczdjt#atdl-}ctlwlcit9)

81  ]l`ok" ‘]l`ok Jwhldob Woglin“" }jtjiwowlci fc whj JWL TAB ncz}" @odh :" 1=?1) 

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6=

  Dczitjbblin oig tz}}cw tjvldjt fc ~ckjt)

  Dc``zilw| o~ojijtt oig czwjodh)

  Fcdzt ci }jc}bj oig dc``zilwljt `ctw ow ltk)

 Ot czwdc`jt" ]l`ok `jiwlcit5

  Lidjotjg aoig kic~bjgnj oig o~ojijtt cf dc``zilw|" dzbwzj" jdzlw`jiw }odwldjt"

ackjt" jwd)

  Lidjotjg dc``zilw| o~ojijtt cf ltkt) Tz}}cw oig jtcbzwlci fc fc`j oig jxltwlin

Tz`oinobl ~ckjt)

  ]l`ok hot }boit wc dciwlizj oig jx}oig whj }cno``j li 1=?1 a| lidjotlin nzlgoidj

oig dczitjbblin tjvldjt) Whj fcdzt lt z}ci `ctw ow-ltk dc``zilwljt)

D&O oig Wjqqj gjt Hc``jt

D&O lt fziglin o }cejdw zi a| Wjj gjt Hc``jt5 ‘Gjdjiw ^ck li Tczwhji Ligloi no`jiwligztwljt“) Wjj gjt Hc``jt }cliwt czw whow whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j dcitwlwzwjt o vlcbowlci cf 

tjvjob Ligloi bo~t ot ~jbb ot cf LBC Dcivjiwlci ?81 jnoglin whj ~ctw fc`t cf dhlbg boacz oig

cf aotld hz`oi lnhwt" tzdh ot whj fjjgc` wc `cvj) Wjj gjt Hc``jt twowjt whow oaczw ?1="===

nlbt oig |czin ~c`ji oj ~cklin zigj whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j li tczwh Liglo) O iz`aj cf 

‘}zth fodwct“ oj gltwlinzlthjg" fodwct ~hldh }zth |czin ~c`ji wc~ogt oddj}wlin wc ~ck zigj 

tzdh tdhj`jt) @owjlob }cvjw| oig o bodk cf dhcldj lt whj fltw }zth fodwc) Whj Tz`oinobl

~ckjt oj tzaejdw wc njigj oig dotwj gltdl`liowlci) Whj| fodj vlcbjidj oig j}jttlci) Whj|

hovj ic c bl`lwjg oddjtt wc jgzdowlci" ncvji`jiw }cvltlcit (AB]-dogt" `ldcdjglwt" jwd)," whj

bjnob t|twj` c dc`}boliw `jdhoilt`t) Wjj gjt Hc``jt hot fc`zbowjg o tjw cf gj`oigt wc

aztlijtt" lidbzglin5

  Twc} j`}bc|lin ~ckjt ~lwh Tz`oinobl dciwodwt)

  Twc} jdzlwlin dhlbgji ajbc~ ?8 wc ~ck li t}liilin `lbbt)

  Nlvj }c}j ~ck dciwodwt wc obb nlbt oig ~c`ji ~hc oj ~cklin zigj whj Tz`oinobl

Tdhj`j)

  ]o| ~onjt li fzbb oig jnzbob|) Oi| cvjwl`j `ztw aj vcbziwo| oig }olg)

  @okj tzj whow oddc``cgowlci lt tzlwoabj oig tofj)

Li ogglwlci Wjj gjt Hc``jt lt dobblin z}ci jwolbjt oig aoigt wc5

  @cilwc tz}}b| dholit oig t}jok czw onolitw whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j wc~ogt aztlijtt

}owijt oig wc~ogt j`}bc|jt‘ cnoiltowlcit)

  Twow dcbbjdwlvj odwlci)

  Lidbzgj obb twokjhcbgjt li whj }boiilin oig `cilwclin)

  Dciwlazwj wc liwjvjiwlcit onolitw whj `oli ‘}zth“ fodwct wc odhljvj tztwolioabj dhoinj) 

4)7) Dcidbztlci

Whj }otw w~c |jot c tc" `oizfodwzjt" aoigt oig jwolbjt" bcdob oig liwjiowlciob dlvlb tcdljw|

cnoiltowlcit" oig ncvji`jiwob acgljt hovj zigjwokji twj}t wc oggjtt boacz lttzjt li whj

Wo`lb Iogz no`jiw ligztw|" lidbzglin oaztjt zigj whj Tz`oinobl oig tl`lbo Tdhj`jt) Whj

}zabldowlci cf whj ‘Do}wzjg a| Dcwwci“ j}cw a| TC@C oig LDI li @o| 1=?? hot `ogj gjdltlvj

l`}odw li }zthlin jbjvoiw odwct liwc odwlci) Whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j oig tl`lbo jdzlw`jiw oig

j`}bc|`jiw tdhj`jt hovj ajji gjiczidjg ot acigjg c fcdjg boacz" oig ot tzdh ot

zioddj}woabj vlcbowlcit cf zilvjtob hz`oi lnhwt) Oaczw obb odwct li whj no`jiw tz}}b| dholibliklin no`jiw }cgzdwlci li Wo`lb Iogz wc dcitz`jt li Jzc}j oig whj ZT" fc` whj Ligloi

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6?

ncvji`jiw" wc |oi t}liilin `lbbt oig `oizfodwzjt li Wlz}z" wc wogj zilcit oig INCt" wc

aoigt" jwolbjt oig aztlijtt ottcdlowlcit" ~jj dc`}jbbjg wc wokj o }ctlwlci ci whj `owwj)

 Ozglwt ~jj twj}}jg z}" ozglw `jwhcgcbcnljt jvlj~jg" ozglwct ~jj wolijg wc gjwjdw fcdjg

boacz" li-gj}wh livjtwlnowlcit oig jtjodh ~jj doljg czw" twokjhcbgj `jjwlint ~jjcnoiltjg — jwd)

Whlt lidjotjg owwjiwlci fc whj }cabj`t whow |czin Goblw ~c`ji fodj li whj Wo`lb Iogz no`jiw

ligztw| lt djwolib| hc}jfzb) Whj l`}odw ci whj ~ck fbcc" hc~jvj" lt bl`lwjg) Whjj hot ajji o bcw

cf wobklin" azw litzffldljiw l`}cvj`jiw cf dciglwlcit ci whj ~ck fbcc)

TC@C oig LDI dcitlgj wogj zilcit wc aj whj gjtlniowjg cnoiltowlcit wc j}jtjiw ~ckjt oig

wc ijncwlowj boacz lnhwt ci ajhobf cf ~ckjt) Aotld boacz lnhwt tzdh ot whj fjjgc` cf 

ottcdlowlci oig whj lnhw wc aonoli dcbbjdwlvjb| oj icw jt}jdwjg) Whj jffcwt cf bcdob dlvlb tcdljw|

cnoiltowlcit li Wo`lb Iogz wc oggjtt boacz oaztjt gjtjvj tz}}cw) Onolitw obb cggt" whjtj

cnoiltowlcit oj }jtjvjlin li whjl ~ck fc hz`oi lnhwt) @ctw dc}cowj dc`}bloidj lilwlowlvjt

`o| }o| bl} tjvldj wc jinonlin ~lwh dlvlb tcdljw| twokjhcbgjt" gjvjbc}lin twoabj dcbboacowlvj

jbowlcit lt oicwhj `owwj) @cjcvj" `zbwl —twokjhcbgj gcjt icw ob~o|t nzooiwjj whow whj vcldj

cf bcdob cnoiltowlcit lt hjog)

^hji bccklin ow whj glffjjiw dc}cowj dc`}bloidj lilwlowlvjt" whj }cblfjowlci cf ncz}t"

nzlgjblijt" oig }cejdwt bjogt wc znjiw dcidji) Cvjobb" tzatwoiwlob tdobj hot icw |jw ajji

odhljvjg" gjt}lwj whj iz`aj cf lilwlowlvjt) Cvjbo} oig gz}bldowlci oig whj bodk cf njizlij

livcbvj`jiw cf dlvlb tcdljw| twokjhcbgjt ~ck onolitw whj dhoinjt whow ijjg wc aj acznhw oaczw)

Whjj lt oi znjiw ijjg fc dccgliowlci" tdobj" oig bjvjonj wc `cvj whj }c~jt whow aj li whj

gljdwlci cf tztwolioabj dhoinj oig dcidjwj l`}cvj`jiw fc whj ~ckjt dcidjijg) Jihoidjg

dcc}jowlci o`cin whj volczt lilwlowlvjt lt |jw wc aj odhljvjg)

 O tjlczt go~aodk lt whj vcbziwo| dhoodwj cf whj gjtdlajg dc}cowj dc`}bloidj lilwlowlvjt)

Dc`}oiljt `o| c `o| icw ecli tzdh lilwlowlvjt) Oig cidj ci acog" dc`}oiljt `o| c `o| icw

odwlvjb| ~ck ~lwh whj dcgjt oig nzlgjblijt whow hovj ajji gjvjbc}jg) O dbjo jxo`}bj lt whj WTF

Nzlgjblijt) ^lwhczw twlinjiw l`}bj`jiwowlci oig `cilwclin `jdhoilt`t" tzdh nzlgjblijt oj

gcc`jg wc j`oli o gjog bjwwj) 

^hlbj `ctw lilwlowlvjt odkic~bjgnj whj ijjg wc bcck aj|cig fltw-wlj tz}}bljt ~hji oggjttlin

boacz lttzjt" twlbb" az|jt `olib| fcdzt ci whjl fltw-wlj tz}}bljt) Ozglwt" djwlfldowlci" wolilin" jwd"

oj `ctwb| wonjwlin fltw wlj tz}}bljt)

Lw lt o }ctlwlvj gjvjbc}`jiw whow dc`}oiljt oj tjjklin dcbboacowlci ~lwh bcdob dlvlb tcdljw|cnoiltowlcit" acwh bcdobb| oig liwjiowlciobb|) Lw lt l`}cwoiw obtc" whow dc`}oiljt oj ~lbblin wc

tz}}cw }cejdwt whow bcck liwc ccw doztjt cf fcdjg boacz tdhj`jt ow o dc``zilw| bjvjb)

Hc~jvj" tzdh }cejdwt thczbg icw tzatwlwzwj gzj glblnjidj }cdjttjt livcbvlin whj dc`}oi|“t c~i

tz}}b| dholi) Obtc" dc`}oiljt thczbg wokj doj icw wc jinonj ~lwh dlvlb tcdljw| cnoiltowlcit cib|

ci o cij-cff aotlt" azw ol` fc twzdwzob twokjhcbgj jinonj`jiw)

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7) Dcidbzglin qj`oqkt

Dho}wj 7 cffjt dcidbzglin j`okt" tz``lin z} ~how TC@C oig LDI dcitlgj wc aj whj kj|

jbj`jiwt cf whj fljbg oig gjtk jtjodh whow ~ot dcigzdwjg fc` Oznztw — Icvj`aj 1=??)

7)?) Dzqqjiw boaczq qlnhwt tlwzowlci

Whj fliglint cf whj jtjodh thc~ whow" wc vo|lin gjnjjt" l`}cvj`jiwt hovj ajji l`}bj`jiwjg

ow whj fcz `oizfodwzjt tlidj whj }zabldowlci cf ‘Do}wzjg a| Dcwwci“ j}cw a| TC@C oig LDI li

@o| 1=??) Tz`jz Kilwt" whj no`jiwlin zilw cf TT@ Liglo" hot twc}}jg ztlin whj Tz`oinobl

Tdhj`j) Jotw`oi Jx}cwt hot }hotjg czw whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j whcznhczw obb cf lwt c}jowlcit)

L`}cvj`jiwt jnoglin fjjgc` cf `cvj`jiw hovj ajji j}cwjg ow obb fcz `oizfodwzjt)

]j`lttlci wc bjovj whj hctwjb oddc``cgowlci lt noiwjg `cj jotlb| oig tc`jwl`jt ncz}t cf 

~c`ji oj obbc~jg wc nc thc}}lin zioddc`}oiljg) ^ckjt ow Aoiiol O``oi ic~ jdjlvj whj

tovjg tz` jvji lf whj| qzlw whjl eca ajfcj whj dciwodw hot ajji dc`}bjwjg) Cwhj l`}cvj`jiwt

lidbzgj }o| oltjt oig oi lidjotj cf whj fliob o`cziw whow ~ckjt jdjlvj ow whj jig cf whjl 

dciwodw) Hc~jvj" ow whj to`j wl`j" `oec }cabj`t obtc }jtltw ow obb fcz `oizfodwzjt)

J`}bc|jt jdzlw o`cin whj `ctw `onliobltjg oig bjotw j`}c~jjg dc``zilwljt" li }cvjw|-

twldkji gltwldwt cf Wo`lb Iogz" oig whlt lt jfbjdwjg li whj }cc ~cklin dciglwlcit oig

dldz`twoidjt whj| }cvlgj) Li ogglwlci" cvj whj botw |jo" jdzlw`jiw cf ~ckjt fc` cwhj twowjt

hot lidjotjg) Ic tlnilfldoiw l`}cvj`jiwt ~jj fczig li wj`t cf ~cklin hczt oig fcdjg

cvjwl`j) ^c`ji ~ckjt oj twlbb jx}jdwjg wc ~ck fc bcin hczt cf fcdjg cvjwl`j" li

jxdj}wlciob dotjt jvji z} wc 17 hczt o go|) Dhlbg boacz twlbb cddzt; ow whjj `oizfodwzjt nlbt

|czinj whoi ?6 ~jj fczig wc aj ~cklin) Ow w~c `oizfodwzjt (K)])Q) @lbb oig TT@ Liglo,"~ckjt ajbc~ whj onj cf ?7 ~jj fczig o`cin whj ~ckfcdj) Whjj lt ic wogj zilci }jtjidj ow

whj fcz `oizfodwzjt" ic gc whjtj `oizfodwzjt hovj ligj}jigjiw oig jffjdwlvj nljvoidj

`jdhoilt`t) Whjjfcj" ic `jdhoilt`t oj li }bodj fc ~ckjt wc ijncwlowj whjl lnhwt oig vcldj

whjl ijjgt)

Whj fliglint cf whj jtjodh dbjob| thc~ whow `cj ijjgt wc aj gcij wc oacblth zioddj}woabj

jdzlw`jiw oig j`}bc|`jiw tdhj`jt whcznhczw whj Wo`lb Iogz wjxwlbj oig no`jiw ligztw|)

^hlbj whjtj }odwldjt oj `olib| fczig li whj t}liilin zilwt" jvlgjidj thc~t whow boacz oaztjt"

lidbzglin fcdjg oig jxdjttlvj cvjwl`j" obtc cddz li no`jiwlin zilwt) Jvji whctj dc`}oiljt

whow hovj eclijg lilwlowlvjt njojg wc~ogt oggjttlin hz`oi lnhwt oaztjt hovj icw ajji oabj wc

jitzj whjl tz}}b| dholi lt fjj fc` boacz lnhwt oaztjt)

Whj jtjodh thc~t whow lw lt }cttlabj wc jffjdw dhoinjt li j`}bc|`jiw oig ~cklin dciglwlcit li

dc`}bloidj ~lwh iowlciob oig liwjiowlciob twoigogt" ajijflwwlin ~ckjt) Whj qzjtwlci lt ~h| acwh

az|jt oig tz}}bljt folb wc l`}bj`jiw whj jqzljg jfc`t odctt whj acog)

7)1) Hz`oi qlnhwt5 twoigoqgt oig }qodwldjt

Whj Dcitwlwzwlci cf Liglo oig volczt bo~t nzooiwjj aotld hz`oi lnhwt ot fzigo`jiwob lnhwt oig

}chlalw oi| fc`t cf gltdl`liowlci" lidbzglin dotwj oig njigj gltdl`liowlci) Hc~jvj" li Liglo

djwoli woglwlciobb| gjj}b| jinolijg dzbwzob icwlcit oig }odwldjt }jtltw whow oj dciwo| wc

iowlciob hz`oi lnhwt oig boacz lnhwt jnzbowlcit oig liwjiowlciob twoigogt)

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Dotwj gltdl`liowlci oig ziwczdhoalblw| }odwldjt oj twlbb ~lgjt}jog o`cin obb ~obkt oig oikt cf 

tcdljw|" gjt}lwj whj oacblwlci cf dotwj gltdl`liowlci a| whj ?<78 dcitwlwzwlci cf Liglo oig volczt

bo~t) Gltdl`liowc| icwlcit jnoglin ~c`ji“t cbjt oig ajhovlcz oj obtc }owldzbob|

}jtltwjiw) Nlbt oig ~c`ji hovj bjtt oddjtt wc jgzdowlci whoi ac|t oig `ji) ^c`ji ojfjqzjiwb| vldwl`t cf hoott`jiw oig tjxzob vlcbjidj) Whj| ztzobb| joi bjtt whoi `ji fc 

jqzlvobjiw ecat) Woglwlciobb|" lw lt dcitlgjjg lio}}c}lowj fc |czin ogzbw ~c`ji" jt}jdlobb|

~hji zi`oljg" wc blvj ci whjl c~i c wc nc oaczw zioddc`}oiljg" jvji ~hji whjtj ~c`ji hovj

 ecat oig joi o blvlin) Whj }odwldj cf gc~| lt twlbb dc``ci}bodj li zob ojot" gjt}lwj whj

zijqzlvcdob oacblth`jiw cf whj gc~| t|twj` a| whj Ligloi dcitwlwzwlci oig bo~)

Whjtj }odwldjt jnoglin Goblwt oig ~c`ji oj twlbb ~lgjb| jidcziwjjg li whj twowj cf Wo`lb

Iogz) J`}bc|jt" hz`oi jtczdj `oionjt" hctwjb c~ijt" boacz jdzlwjt" ozglwct" dlvlb

tjvoiwt" boacz lit}jdwct" jvji wogj zilcit oig dlvlb tcdljw| cnoiltowlcit `o| aj lifbzjidjg a|

whjtj gjj}b| linolijg icwlcit)

]cvjw| lt oi ogglwlciob gltoablin fodwc) ]ojiwt cfwji twznnbj wc `okj jigt `jjw oig ijjg whjl 

goznhwjt wc }cvlgj ogglwlciob lidc`j) \czin ~c`ji oj jx}jdwjg wc tovj `cij| fc whjl 

gc~ljt) ^c`ji ~ckjt ~hc oj cfwji zijgzdowjg `ctwb| holb fc` zob" Goblw c cwhj bc~-dotwj

dc``zilwljt) Whlt dciwlazwjt wc whj ~c`ji oddj}wlin hog ~cklin dciglwlcit)

Li cgj wc kjj} boacz dctwt gc~i oig wc aj oabj wc dc}j ~lwh whj dc`}jwlwlci" j`}bc|jt oj li

tjodh cf dhjo} boacz" jvji `cj tc ~hji dcifciwjg ~lwh dcitlgjoabj boacz wzi-cvj"

gjdjotlin cgjt oig gj`oiglin dztwc`jt) Ijvjwhjbjtt" j`}bc|jt" oig a| jxwjitlci whjl 

dztwc`jt" hovj o hjov| jt}citlalblw| wc }cwjdw oig jt}jdw hz`oi lnhwt" jt}jdlobb| li o

tlwzowlci ~hjj lnhwt oj ow ltk)

7)4) Wqoit}oqjid|

Njijobb| t}joklin" lifc`owlci oaczw no`jiw oig wjxwlbj }cgzdwlci li Wo`lb Iogz ot ~jbb ot

jx}cwt wc Jzc}j oig whj ZT lt hog wc dc`j a|) Gowo oaczw jx}cwt fc` Tczwh Ligloi }cwt oj

icw }zabldb| ovolboabj) @cjcvj" li tc`j dotjt lw lt glffldzbw wc lgjiwlf| whj cgjlin dztwc`jt

ajdoztj t}jdlobltjg az|lin dc`}oiljt gc whj tczdlin fc volczt zigltdbctjg dbljiwt) ]jdltj

gowo oaczw l`}cwt cf no`jiw oig wjxwlbj fc` Tczwh Liglo liwc fc litwoidj whj }cw cf Qcwwjgo`"

whj Ijwhjboigt" oj icw }zabldb| ovolboabj)

Bcdob jtjodhjt hovj `o}}jg czw t}liilin `lbbt oig no`jiw oig wjxwlbj }cgzdjt li Wo`lb

Iogz) Lw jqzljt o hznj jffcw wc njw o dc`}bjwj oig z}-wc-gowj cvjvlj~ cf whj ligztw|) Bcdobno`jiw oig wjxwlbj }cgzdjt" lidbzglin vjwldobb| liwjnowjg `oizfodwzjt" oj icw woit}ojiw

oaczw whjl dc}cowj twzdwzj c whj }jdltj bcdowlci cf glffjjiw zilwt) Li tc`j dotjt whj dc`}bjwj

cvjvlj~ cf fodwcljt dc`lin zigj cij `oizfodwzj `ztw aj }ljdjg wcnjwhj) ]zabld lifc`owlci

oaczw whj hz`oi jtczdjt }cbldljt cf bcdob no`jiw oig wjxwlbj }cgzdjt lt tdoiw) Whj tluj cf whj

~ckfcdj" whj `jwhcgt a| ~hldh ~ckjt oj jdzlwjg" a| ~hldh ackjt" ~hjwhj whj ~ckjt oj

bcgnjg li hctwjbt" whj bcdowlci cf tzdh hctwjbt" whj iz`aj cf hctwjbt jtlgjiwt — tzdh lifc`owlci

lt icw jotlb| ovolboabj)

Tz}}b| dholi woit}ojid| lt whjjfcj litzffldljiw) Aoigt oig jwolbjt oj jbzdwoiw wc thoj

lifc`owlci oaczw fltw c fzwhj wlj tz}}bljt) Obtc lifc`owlci oaczw vcbz`jt" vobzjt" cgj 

hltwc|" gltwlazwlci cf cgjt cvj whj tz}}b| aotj" jwd)" lt hog wc dc`j a|) Aoigt oig jwolbjt

oj qzldk wc dowjncltj tzdh gowo ot dciflgjiwlob aztlijtt lifc`owlci whow doiicw aj thojg li o

dciwjxw cf dc`}jwlwlvjijtt) Li wzi" bcdob `oizfodwzjt oj icw tholin lifc`owlci oaczw whjl 

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tz}}bljt" oig whow lidbzgjt t}liilin `lbbt" c tz}}bljt cf o~ dcwwci" fc litwoidj) Aztlijtt

lilwlowlvjt" `zbwl-twokjhcbgj lilwlowlvjt" oig wogj ottcdlowlcit oj icw fcwhdc`lin ~lwh tzdh

lifc`owlci jlwhj) Whj| `o| bodk tzdh lifc`owlci whj`tjbvjt" c oj jbzdwoiw wc thoj)

7)7) Az|jq-tz}}bljqt qjbowlcithl}t

 O }ldwzj cf vcbowlbj tz}}blj jbowlcit j`jnjt fc` whj oiob|tlt cf jx}cw gowo oig whj lifc`owlci

cawolijg fc` aoigt oig jwolbjt) Aoigt `o| tczdj fc` cij c `cj tz}}bljt gzlin o }jlcg

cf `ciwht" oig whji qzlw oig }bodj cgjt ~lwh cwhj cijt) Liglvlgzob az|jt t}jog }cgzdwlci

cvj `oi| tz}}bljt) Li wzi" no`jiw oig wjxwlbj `oizfodwzjt tczdj fc` glffjjiw t}liilin

`lbbt) Qjbowlcit ajw~jji no`jiw oig wjxwlbj `oizfodwzjt oig whjl dztwc`jt `o| vo|)

Dztwc`jt oj icw ijdjtto| }zbblin whj twlint" jt}jdlobb| ~hjj no`jiw oig wjxwlbj

`oizfodwzjt oj hznj dcinbc`jowjt li whjl c~i lnhw)

Ci whj cwhj hoig" dc`}jwlwlci o`cin no`jiw `oizfodwzjt lt fljdj) @oizfodwzjt hovj wcgltwlinzlth whj`tjbvjt li wj`t cf }ldj" qzoblw|" oig bjog wl`jt) Lidjotlinb| aoigt oig jwolbjt

oj jqzllin dc`}bloidj wc dcgjt oig twoigogt oig wl`j-aczig dcjdwlvj odwlci }boit oj

fc`zbowjg ~hji ici-dc`}bloidj lt jnltwjjg) Lw lt icw dbjo" hc~jvj" ~how ~jlnhw whj hz`oi

lnhwt jdcgt cf tz}}bljt do| ~hji az|jt lgjiwlf| c ottjtt whjl tz}}bljt) Oj }cwjiwlob

tz}}bljt jxdbzgjg fc` cgjt ci whj aotlt cf o ijnowlvj c o`alnzczt fltw ozglw3 Oj az|jt

gltdciwlizlin jbowlcit ~lwh whjl tz}}bljt ci whj aotlt cf ici-dc`}bloidjt3 Hc~ oj tzdh

gjdltlcit `ogj3 TC@C oig LDI hovj litzffldljiw lifc`owlci wc gjtdlaj whj }cdjtt" bjw obcij wc

}ott ezgn`jiw)

7):) Dc``lw`jiw oig tdobj

Cib| o jbowlvjb| t`obb iz`aj cf dc`}oiljt oj ot |jw wzb| dc``lwwjg wc }cwjdwlin hz`oi lnhwt"

oig odwlin z}ci boacz lttzjt" li whjl tz}}b| dholi) Whj `oeclw| cf whj aoigt oig jwolbjt doi aj

dbottlfljg ot ‘bonnogt“) Whj to`j lt wzj fc whj `oizfodwzjt) Whj cvjobb }ldwzj thc~t bodk cf 

}cnjtt li l`}cvlin jdzlw`jiw oig boacz dciglwlcit) Whj dc`}oiljt ~hc eclijg lilwlowlvjt tzdh

ot Tcdlob Oddcziwoalblw| Liwjiowlciob (TOL," Fol ^jo Fczigowlci (F^F," Tz`oinobl Acigjg

Boacz Ncz}#jio`jg Wo`lb Iogz @zbwl Twokjhcbgj Ncz} cf whj Jwhldob Woglin Lilwlowlvj (JWL

TAB Ncz}#WI @T ncz}, oig cf whj Aztlijtt Tcdlob Dc`}bloidj Lilwlowlvj (ATDL, dc`alijg twlbb

cib| `okj z} o t`obb ncz} ~lwh jbowlvjb| bl`lwjg bjvjonj)

Aztlijtt lilwlowlvjt" `zbwl-twokjhcbgj lilwlowlvjt" oig wogj ottcdlowlcit hovj" wc vo|lin gjnjjt"

gjvjbc}jg }cbldljt oig }odwldjt wc oggjtt oaztjt zigj whj Tz`oinobl oig tl`lbo tdhj`jt" azw

lw lt obb ci o vcbziwo| aotlt) Aoigt oig jwolbjt `o| ~jbb aj }ow cf whlt c whow lilwlowlvj" ~hlbj twlbb

icw woklin oi| twcin odwlci ci fcdjg boacz lttzjt) Dc``lw`jiw wc jogldowlin boacz lnhwt

oaztjt lt jotlb| twowjg" azw }zwwlin }c`ltjt liwc odwlci lt oicwhj `owwj)

7)6) Dc`}oiljt“ ~lbblinijtt wc jinonj ~lwh dlvlb tcdljw| twokjhcbgjqt

Li njijob" whj ~lbblinijtt cf dc`}oiljt wc jinonj ~lwh dlvlb tcdljw| twokjhcbgjt lt bl`lwjg)

Whj jt}citlvjijtt cf aoigt oig jwolbjt wc~ogt TC@C oig LDI lt `lil`ob" fc litwoidj) Cib|

o t`obb }jdjiwonj cf whj aoigt oig jwolbjt tczdlin fc` Wo`lb Iogz lgjiwlfljg li whlt jtjodh

hovj jt}cigjg `joilinfzbb| wc jqzjtwt fc lifc`owlci oig jvlj~) Czw cf whj >> dc`}oiljt whow~jj lgjiwlfljg a| TC@C oig LDI cib| ?8 jt}cigjg wc whj jvlj~ jqzjtw" o `jj 14*) O bonj 

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iz`aj hovj fbowb| lnicjg obb owwj`}wt wc `okj dciwodw) A| oig bonj" whj alnnj aoigt whow oj

kic~i wc whj }zabld oj `cj jt}citlvj) @oi| dc`}oiljt w| wc kjj} fb|lin zigj whj ogo"

jtltwlin jinonj`jiw ~lwh bcdob oig liwjiowlciob dlvlb tcdljw| cnoiltowlcit oig jfztlin czwtlgj 

tdzwli|) Cf whj lilwlowlvjt gjtdlajg li whlt j}cw" fj~ doi aj dowjncltjg ot njizlij `zbwl-twokjhcbgj lilwlowlvjt)

7)>) Fqjjgc` cf ottcdlowlci oig dcbbjdwlvj aoqnolilin

@owzj ligztwlob jbowlcithl}t ajw~jji j`}bc|jt oig j`}bc|jjt oj jttjiwlob" azw t}cogld li

whj Wo`lb Iogz no`jiw ligztw|) Hogb| oi| cf whj fltw c fzwhj wlj tz}}bljt cf whj aoigt

`jiwlcijg li whj j}cw oj zilciltjg) Njijobb| t}joklin whj jinonj`jiw cf dc`}oiljt ~lwh dlvlb

tcdljw| cnoiltowlcit lt ci oi og hcd aotlt)

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:) Qjdc``jigowlcit

:)?) Hz`oi qlnhwt5 twoigoqgt oig l`}bj`jiwowlci

  Ncvji`jiwt hovj o gzw| wc }cwjdw onolitw hz`oi lnhwt oaztjt a| whlg }owljt" lidbzglin

aztlijtt jiwj}ltjt" whcznh o}}c}lowj }cbldljt" jnzbowlci" oig ogezgldowlci)

  Whj Ligloi ncvji`jiw thczbg gjvjbc}" l`}bj`jiw oig jifcdj iowlciob boacz oig

hz`oi lnhwt bo~t oig bjnob jnzbowlcit" li oddcgoidj ~lwh liwjiowlciob ic`t oig

twoigogt wc oggjtt boacz lttzjt gjtdlajg li whlt j}cw) Whlt thczbg lidbzgj

jffjdwlvj boacz lit}jdwlci)

  ZT oig Jzc}joi ncvji`jiwt thczbg fctwj oi jioablin dbl`owj fc whj }cwjdwlci cf 

hz`oi lnhwt a| aztlijtt" a| woklin z} whjtj lttzjt ~lwh whj dc`}oiljt

hjogqzowjjg li whjl jt}jdwlvj dcziwljt" li blij ~lwh whj CJDG Nzlgjblijt fc @IJt oig whj Zilwjg Iowlcit Nzlglin ]lidl}bjt ci Aztlijtt oig Hz`oi Qlnhwt)

  ZT oig Jzc}joi ncvji`jiwt thczbg jinonj li dcidjwjg ‘DTQ gl}bc`od|“ oig

jffjdwlvj dcbboacowlci li whj dciwjxw cf whj cinclin gl}bc`owld oig wogj jbowlcit

~lwh whjl Ligloi dcziwj}owt)

  Dc`}oiljt hovj o jt}citlalblw| wc jt}jdw hz`oi lnhwt) Aztlijtt jiwj}ltjt thczbg odw

~lwh gzj glblnjidj wc ovclg liflinlin ci whj lnhwt cf cwhjt oig wc oggjtt ogvjtj

l`}odwt ~lwh ~hldh whj| oj livcbvjg) Li ogglwlci wc whj jbjvoiw Ligloi bo~t oig

jnzbowlcit" whj LBC Dcivjiwlcit" whj ZI Nzlglin ]lidl}bjt ci Aztlijtt oig Hz`oi

Qlnhwt" whj CJDG Nzlgjblijt fc @zbwliowlciob Jiwj}ltjt oig LTC 16=== oj }jwlijiw

liwjiowlciob ic`t oig twoigogt li oggjttlin boacz lnhwt vlcbowlcit li whj Tczwh Ligloi

no`jiw ligztw|" ~hldhjvj cffjt whj hlnhjtw }cwjdwlci wc whj dcidjijg ~ckjt)  Aoigt oig jwolbjt thczbg zigjwokj hz`oi lnhwt ltk ottjtt`jiwt" woklin liwc

oddcziw azw icw abligb| fcbbc~lin bcdob dzbwzob icwlcit jnoglin hz`oi lnhwt)

  @oizfodwzjt oig az|jt thczbg jitzj ~ckjt whcznhczw whj tz}}b| dholi oj

}olg o blvlin ~onj" jnogbjtt cf whj fodw whow dzjiwb| whjj oj ic twowj-gjwj`lijg

oig jifcdjg `lil`z` ~onjt fc whj no`jiw ligztw|)

  Aoigt" jwolbjt oig `oizfodwzjt thczbg twjo`blij owwjiwlci wc njigj 

gltdl`liowlci li cvjobb dc}cowj }cbldljt oig }odwldjt) Tjitlwlvlw| wc njigj 

gltdl`liowlci oig whj dc``lw`jiw wc oggjtt njigj gltdl`liowlci thczbg aj

linolijg li hz`oi jtczdj }cbldljt" DTQ }cbldjt" ozglwlin `jwhcgt" oig

}zdhotlin }odwldjt) Dc`}oiljt thczbg gjj}ji whjl zigjtwoiglin cf njigj 

lttzjt oig gjvjbc} fcdztjg wccbt" }cno``jt oig wolilint fc `oionj`jiw" blij

tz}jvltct oig ~ckjt) Dc`}oiljt thczbg fodlblwowj whj jtwoablth`jiw cf njigj 

dc``lwwjjt obbc~lin ~ckjt wc gltdztt oig oggjtt njigj lijqzlw|)

  Aoigt" jwolbjt oig `oizfodwzjt thczbg lidbzgj }cbldljt oig c}jowlciob

}cdjgzjt ci dc`aowlin dotwj gltdl`liowlci li cvjobb dc}cowj }cbldljt oig

}odwldjt) Tjitlwlvlw| wc dotwj gltdl`liowlci oig whj dc``lw`jiw wc oggjtt dotwj

gltdl`liowlci thczbg aj j`ajggjg li hz`oi jtczdj }cbldljt" DTQ }cbldjt"

ozglwlin `jwhcgt" oig }zdhotlin }odwldjt) Dc`}oiljt thczbg gjj}ji whjl 

zigjtwoiglin cf dotwj lttzjt oig gjvjbc} fcdztjg wccbt" }cno``jt oig wolilint

fc `oionj`jiw" blij tz}jvltct oig ~ckjt) Whj tc-dobbjg ‘O`ajgko ]lidl}bjt"

]lidl}bjt oig Nzlgjblijt wc oggjtt Dotwj Gltdl`liowlci li whj ]lvowj Tjdwc“" oj

o ztjfzb oig }odwldob wccb)84

 

84 Liwjiowlciob Goblw Tcblgolw| Ijw~ck" ‘O`ajgko ]lidl}bjt" ]lidl}bjt oig Nzlgjblijt wc oggjtt Dotwj Gltdl`liowlci li

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  Whj LBC thczbg }jtjiw o dbjo twowj`jiw whow whj Tz`oinobl Tdhj`j oig tl`lbo 

jdzlw`jiw oig j`}bc|`jiw tdhj`jt qzoblf| ot fcdjg boacz)

:)1) Wqoit}oqjid|

  Whj Tczwh Ligloi no`jiw oig wjxwlbj tjdwc thczbg }cvlgj lifc`owlci oaczw dc}cowj

twzdwzj" lidbzglin whj }jdltj bcdowlci cf glffjjiw zilwt)

  Bcdob no`jiw oig wjxwlbj }cgzdjt thczbg thoj lifc`owlci jnoglin hz`oi jtczdj

}cbldljt" lidbzglin lifc`owlci ci whj tluj cf whj ~ckfcdj" whj `jwhcgt a| ~hldh ~ckjt

oj jdzlwjg" a| ~hldh ackjt" ~hjwhj whj ~ckjt oj bcgnjg li hctwjbt" whj bcdowlci cf 

tzdh hctwjbt" whj iz`aj cf hctwjbt jtlgjiwt" jwd)

  Aoigt oig jwolbjt ot ~jbb ot bcdob `oizfodwzjt thczbg thoj lifc`owlci oaczw fltw

oig fzwhj wlj tz}}bljt" lidbzglin lifc`owlci oaczw fodwc| io`jt" }cttlabj obwjiowlvj

fodwc| io`jt" bcdowlcit" ~hjwhj whj| oj twowjnld tz}}bljt" whj gzowlci cf whj tz}}blj 

jbowlci" jwd)

  Aztlijtt lilwlowlvjt" `zbwl-twokjhcbgj lilwlowlvjt" oig wogj ottcdlowlcit thczbg wokj whj

bjog li fodlblwowlin fzwhj tz}}b| dholi woit}ojid| li whj nbcaob no`jiw tjdwc) Aoigt"

jwolbjt oig `oizfodwzjt `ztw gjvjbc} o }ctlwlvj oig }codwlvj vlj~ ci liwj-tjdwc 

tholin cf aztlijtt jbowjg lifc`owlci" ~lwhli whj bl`lwt cf o}}bldoabj oiwl-wztw jnzbowlcit)

  Dc`}oiljt thczbg dc``zildowj c}jib| oaczw ozglw }cdjgzjt" t}jdlfld ozglw fliglint"

t}jdlfld dcjdwlvj odwlci }boit oig }cnjtt li odwlci" djwlfldowlci tdhj`jt" fc litwoidjci dc}cowj ~jatlwjt c li oiizob DTQ j}cwt)

  Az|jt wc }cvlgj woit}ojid| oaczw whj ~jlnhw oddcgjg wc whj hz`oi lnhwt jdcg cf 

tz}}bljt ~hji lgjiwlf|lin c ottjttlin ij~ oig#c jxltwlin tz}}bljt)

  Woit}ojid| oaczw no`jiw oig wjxwlbj jx}cwt oig l`}cwt lt ijjgjg fc obb twokjhcbgjt

li cgj wc njw o ajwwj litlnhw liwc dcidjwj tlwzowlcit whow ijjg l`}cvj`jiw oig ~hldh

}owljt thczbg }bo| o cbj li lw) Ncvji`jiwt thczbg `okj ovolboabj aotld lifc`owlci ci

l`}cwt oig jx}cwt fc whj dcidjijg }cwt" lidbzglin gowjt" vcbz`jt" vobzjt" jwd) fc whj

glffjjiw }cgzdw ncz}t)

:)4) Tz}}b| dholi qjt}citlalblw|

  Tz}}b| dholi jt}citlalblw| `joit whow dc`}oiljt hovj o jt}citlalblw| wc jitzj hz`oi

lnhwt oj jt}jdwjg aj|cig whj fltw wlj tz}}bljt) Whlt lt wzj fc aoigt oig jwolbjt ot

~jbb ot fc `oizfodwzjt) Ci whj aotlt cf whj fliglint oig dcidbztlcit ot }jtjiwjg li whlt

j}cw" }owldzbo owwjiwlci thczbg aj }olg wc whj fcbbc~lin lttzjt5 njigj gltdl`liowlci"

dotwj gltdl`liowlci" oaztj cf tovlin tdhj`jt" acigjg boacz" oig fjjgc` cf 

ottcdlowlci)

whj ]lvowj Tjdwc“" Tj}wj`aj 1===<" hww}5##lgti)cn#aztlijtt-dt#o`ajgko-}lidl}bjt# 

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@olg li Liglo

68

  Lgjiwlf|lin hz`oi lnhwt ltkt lt o fltw twj} whow ijjgt wc aj j}jowjg jnzbob|)

  Wc gjwjdw hz`oi lnhwt oaztjt" fcdztjg livjtwlnowlcit oig wolbc-`ogj ozglw

`jwhcgcbcnljt oj ijjgjg)

  Dbctj dcitzbwowlci oig dcbboacowlci ~lwh bcdob twokjhcbgjt oj jqzljg)  Wc odw z}ci gjwjdwjg ici-dc`}bloidjt" wl`j-aczig dcjdwlvj odwlci }boit ijjg wc

aj gjvjbc}jg oig l`}bj`jiwjg)

  Az|jt thczbg jfoli fc` gltdciwlizlin jbowlcit ~lwh tz}}bljt ci whj aotlt cf ici-

dc`}bloidj) Whlt lt wzj fc aoigt" jwolbjt oig bcdob `oizfodwzjt li jbowlci wc whjl 

jt}jdwlvj tz}}bljt) ‘Wc dzw oig zi“ lt icw oi jffjdwlvj ~o| cf l`}jttlin z}ci tz}}bljt

whow whj| thczbg l`}cvj boacz dciglwlcit) Lw lt wc aj }jfjjg ot o dc`}oi| wc fltw ztj

ovolboabj bjvjonj" jlwhj ot oi liglvlgzob dc`}oi| c lf ijdjtto| wcnjwhj ~lwh cwhj 

dc`}oiljt" wc jitzj hz`oi lnhwt oj jt}jdwjg)

  ]zdhotlin }odwldjt thczbg jioabj oig icw lihlalw tz}}bljt wc aj gjdjiw j`}bc|jt) Wc

`oxl`ltj l`}odw jnoglin boacz lttzjt" az|jt `o| ijjg wc bl`lw whj t}joglin cf 

}cgzdwlci cvj wcc `oi| tz}}bljt) Az|jt" l)j) aoigt" jwolbjt oig bcdob `oizfodwzjt"

thczbg twlvj fc dciwlizlw| li woglin jbowlcit ~lwh `zbwl-|jo dciwodwt wc jitzj jdcic`ld

tjdzlw| fc tz}}bljt) ]bodlin tzatwoiwlob cgjt ~lbb obbc~ az|jt wc ~ljbg `cj lifbzjidj

cvj whjl tz}}bljt) ]ldlin }cbld| thczbg hcicz whj tcdlob oig jivlci`jiwob qzoblw| cf 

}cgzdwt }cvlgjg) Qjotcioabj tz}}b| bjog wl`jt oj jqzljg li cgj wc ovclg jxjdltlin

jxdjttlvj }jttzj ci ~ckjt oig whzt vlcbowlin ~ckjt“ lnhwt whcznhczw whj tz}}b|

dholi) Az|jt thczbg fodlblwowj whj jlifcdj`jiw cf whj do}odlw| cf tz}}bljt wc `jjw DTQ

twoigogt" fc jxo`}bj whcznh wolilin oig liwjnowjg tz}}b| dholi }boiilin)

:)7) Tjdwcq dcbboacqowlci" njijqowlin tdobj

  Zigjiloab|" jodh liglvlgzob dc`}oi| hot oi liglvlgzob jt}citlalblw| wc oalgj a| iowlciob

boacz bo~t oig liwjiowlciob hz`oi lnhwt oig boacz ic`t oig twoigogt) Ow whj to`j

wl`j" whj nbcaob no`jiw ligztw| obtc hot o dcbbjdwlvj jt}citlalblw| wc jitzj hz`oi lnhwt

oj jt}jdwjg whcznhczw whj nbcaob tz}}b| dholi) Whlt thczbg ajdc`j vltlabj li whj

}cbldljt oig odwlcit cf wogj ottcdlowlcit oig j`}bc|jt“ ottcdlowlcit acwh li no`jiw

}cgzdlin oig l`}cwlin dcziwljt)

  Twlinjiw l`}bj`jiwowlci cf liglvlgzob dc`}oi| dcgjt oig lilwlowlvj dcgjt lt jqzljg) Ici-

dc`}bloidj cf dc`}oi| `j`ajt cf lilwlowlvjt ~lwh lilwlowlvj dcgjt thczbg aj oggjttjg)

Whj vcbziwo| dhoodwj cf whjtj lilwlowlvjt thczbg ajdc`j `cj cablnowc|) Flioidlobdc``lw`jiw lt jqzljg)

  Lidjotjg dcbboacowlci o`cin aoigt" jwolbjt" `oizfodwzjt oig tz}}bljt fzwhj z}

whj tz}}b| dholi lt ijjgjg) Obb jbjvoiw odwct thczbg aj ci acog ~hji globcnzj lt

cnoiltjg oig odwlci }boit oj gjvjbc}jg) Lw lt cf whj zw`ctw l`}cwoidj wc hovj" fc 

litwoidj" TL@O" WOT@O oig whj jbjvoiw Ligloi ncvji`jiwob onjidljt ow whj woabj" ot

~jbb ot whj aoigt oig jwolbjt whow whzt fo hovj ajji zijt}citlvj) Lilwlowlvjt thczbg

fcdzt ci tdobj oig bjvjonj" ~lwhczw" hc~jvj" bc~jlin whj ic`owlvj ao)

  ^hlbj whjj `o| aj vobzj li glffjjiw o}}codhjt" whj }cblfjowlci cf `zbwl}bj lilwlowlvjt

~lwh tl`lbo caejdwlvjt doi aj dcziwj}cgzdwlvj) Whj lilwlowlvjt gjtdlajg li whlt }o}j tzdh ot TOL" whj JWL TAB Ncz}" ATDL" ATQ" oig cwhj lilwlowlvjt" thczbg twlvj fc 

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dcbboacowlci" wc ovclg cvjbo} oig gz}bldowlci) Jffcwt thczbg aj `ogj wc lgjiwlf|" }c`cwj

oig thoj ‘ajtw }odwldjt“) 

:):) Fqjjgc` cf ottcdlowlci oig dcbbjdwlvj aoqnolilin

   Obb }owljt livcbvjg thczbg jitzj whow ligj}jigjiw wogj zilcit doi }bo| whjl gjtlniowjg

cbjt) Fltw oig fcj`ctw" whj lnhw cf ~ckjt wc fc` oig ecli wogj zilcit oig wc aonoli

dcbbjdwlvjb| thczbg aj }cwjdwjg oig jt}jdwjg) Whjtj jioablin lnhwt }j`lw ~ckjt wc

gjfjig whjl lnhwt" vcldj nljvoidjt" oig ijncwlowj jdzlw`jiw oig j`}bc|`jiw

dciglwlcit" lidbzglin ~onjt)

  Dc`}oiljt thczbg dc``lw wc fodlblwowlin whj jtwoablth`jiw cf ligj}jigjiw wogj

zilcit whcznhczw whj tz}}b| dholi)

  @oizfodwzjt thczbg }cvlgj wogj zilcit ~lwh l``jglowj oddjtt wc ~ckjt" acwh ow

whj ~ck}bodj oig li hctwjbt)

  Dc`}oiljt thczbg tz}}cw oig fodlblwowj wolilin cf `oionj`jiw" ~ckjt" oig~ckjt“ j}jtjiwowlvjt (tj}oowjb| oig ecliwb|, li fjjgc` cf ottcdlowlci" dcbbjdwlvj

aonolilin" boacz-`oionj`jiw jbowlcit" cddz}owlciob hjobwh oig tofjw|" oig dotwj

oig njigj lttzjt) Tzdh wolilin thczbg aj gjblvjjg a| wogj zilcit c djglabj

boacz lnhwt cnoiltowlcit)

  Wc gjob ~lwh ~ckjt“ ijjgt oig dc`}boliwt" nljvoidj }cdjgzjt thczbg aj }zw li }bodj)

Tzdh nljvoidj }cdjgzjt thczbg `jjw whj fcbbc~lin dcj dlwjlo5 bjnlwl`od|;

oddjttlalblw|; }jgldwoalblw|; jqzoblw|; dc`}owlalblw| ~lwh liwjiowlciobb| oddj}woabj lnhwt;

woit}ojid|) Dc`}boliw }cdjgzjt thczbg }cvlgj o aotlt fc cf dciwlizczt bjoilin oig

l`}cvj`jiw) Dc`}oi|“t nljvoidj }cdjgzjt oj oi l`}cwoiw tz}}bj`jiw wc dcbbjdwlvj

aonolilin" azw `o| ijvj aj ztjg wc j}bodj whlt bjnlwl`owj }cdjtt)

:)6) Twokjhcbgjq jinonj`jiw

  Dc`}oiljt thczbg jinonj gljdwb| ~lwh wogj zilcit oig INCt)

  Lidjotjg jt}citlvjijtt wc oig dcbboacowlci ~lwh liwjiowlciob oig bcdob INCt oig

wogj zilcit lt jqzljg" ~hji tzdh cnoiltowlcit jx}jtt tjlczt boacz dcidjit)

  Tzdh dcbboacowlci }jfjoab| wokjt }bodj li o `zbwl-twokjhcbgj tjwwlin) O djglabj

oig jffjdwlvj `zbwl-twokjhcbgj lilwlowlvj thczbg lgjobb| jt}cig wc whj fcbbc~lin

dlwjlo5 gj`cdowld tjbjdwlci cf acog `j`ajt" `joilinfzb jinonj`jiw cf whj

liwjigjg ajijfldloljt; bcdob c~ijthl}; jffjdwlvj nljvoidj `jdhoilt`" oig

woit}ojid| cf whj lilwlowlvj wc~ogt jxwjiob twokjhcbgjt)