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    Martin JetpackFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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    Martin Jetpack

    The Martin Jetpack flying at AirVenture 2008.

    Role Ultralight aircraft

    National origin New Zealand

    Manufacturer Martin Aircraft Co.

    Designer Glenn Martin

    Introduction 2008

    Status Prototype

    Unit cost USD $100,000[1]

    The Martin Jetpackis an experimental aircraft. Though the tradename uses the phrase "jetpack", it uses ducted fans for lift. It was developed by the Martin Aircraft CompanyofNewZealand, and was unveiled on July 29, 2008 at the Experimental Aircraft Association's 2008AirVenture in Oshkosh, Wisconsin, USA. It is classified by the Federal Aviation Administrationas an experimental ultralight airplane.,_Wisconsin,_Liftoff!_(2714934801).jpg,_Wisconsin
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    Unlike earlier devices called "jetpacks", the Martin Jetpack is the first to be considered apractical device.[citation needed] It has been under development for over 27 years and uses a gasoline(premium) engine with two ducted fans to provide lift. Theoretically it can reach a speed of 60miles per hour, an altitude of 8,000 feet, and fly for about 30 minutes on a full fuel tank. Theconsumer price is expected to be US$100,000[1]. Martin Aircraft planned to deliver the firstjetpacks to ten customers in early 2010.[2][3]

    On 29 May 2011, it was reported [4][5]that the Martin Jetpack had successfully completed aremotely-controlled unmanned test flight to 1,500 m (5,000 ft) above sea level, and carried out asuccessful test of itsballistic parachute.


    1 Description

    1.1 Safetyfeatures

    2 Specifications

    3 See also

    4 References

    5 External links

    [edit] DescriptionThe Jetpack is a small VTOL device, with twoducted fans that provide lift. It is powered by a2.0 litreV4 piston 200-horsepowergasoline (premium) engine.[6] The pilot straps onto it anddoes not sit. The device is too large to be worn while walking, so it cannot be classed as abackpack device. It does not have a jet turbine or rocket motor; the "Jet" in "Jetpack" refers tothe production of two jets of air from its ducted fans. The Martin Jetpack meets theFederalAviation Administration's classification of an ultralight aircraft. It uses the same gasoline used incars, is relatively easy to fly, and is cheaper to maintain and operate than other ultralight aircraft.Most helicopters require a tail rotor to counteract the rotor torque; this and the articulated headcomplicate flying, construction and maintenance enormously. The Jetpack is designed to betorque neutral there is no tail rotor, no collective, no articulating or foot pedals and thissimplifies flying dramatically. Pitch and roll are controlled by one hand, yaw and the throttle bythe other.[2]

    [edit] Safety features

    In order to enhance safety, the finished product will feature aballistic parachute and a fly-by-

    wire system whereby the pilot sends instructions to a computer which then interprets them andflies the craft smoothly. It can also be programmed to only fly a few meters above the groundand/or fly within certain limits.

    [edit] SpecificationsData from Company brouchure[citation needed][7]

    General characteristics
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    Crew: 1 pilot

    Length: 5 ft ()

    Wingspan: 5 ft 6 in ()

    Height: 5 ft ()

    Empty weight: 250 lb (114 kg) Loaded weight: 535 lb (243 kg)

    Useful load: more than 280 lb (127 kg)

    Powerplant: 1 Martin Aircraft Company 2-litre (120 cu in) two-strokeV-4 engine, 200 hp(150 kw)

    Propellers: Carbon / Kevlar composite propeller, 2 per engine

    Propeller diameter: 1.7 ft ()

    Fuel capacity: 5 US gallons


    Maximum speed: 63 mph

    Range: 31.5 miles (50.7 km) at max speed of 63 mph

    Service ceiling: 8,000 ft (2.44 km) estimatedhover out of ground effect

    Jet packFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Jump to: navigation, search

    This article is about jet or rocket-powered flying devices. For other uses, seeJetpack


    Rocket Belt pilot Dan Schlund at the 2005 Melbourne Show's_Weight_Empty's_Weight_Empty
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    Rocket Belt pilot Dan Schlund at the 2007 Rose Parade

    Jet pack, rocket belt, rocket packand similar names are used for various types of devices,usually worn on the back, that arepropelled by jetsof escaping gases (or in some cases liquidwater) so as to allow a single user tofly.

    The concept emerged fromscience fictionin the 1920s and became popular in the 1960s as the

    technology became a reality. Currently, the only practical use of the jet pack has been inextra-vehicular activities forastronauts. Despite decades of advancement in the technology, thechallenges ofEarth's atmosphere, Earth's gravity, and thehuman body(which is not designed tofly naturally) remain an obstacle to its potential use in the military or as a means of personaltransport.


    1 History

    1.1 German Himmelstrmer of World War II

    1.2 Various development approaches

    1.2.1Jump Belt

    1.2.2 Aeropack

    1.2.3 U.S. Army interest

    1.2.4 Hydrogen peroxide-powered rocket packs

    1.2.5 Bell Textron Rocket Belt's_atmosphere's_gravity's_atmosphere's_gravity
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    1.2.6 RB-2000 Rocket Belt

    1.2.7 Bell Pogo

    1.2.8 Powerhouse Productions Rocketbelt

    1.2.9 Tecnologia Aeroespacial Mexicana

    1.2.10Jetpack International

    1.2.11 Externally-Powered High Density Propellant

    1.2.12 Turbojet pack Bell Jet Flying Belt Special features of the turbojetpack

    2 Space

    2.1 NASA's Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU)

    (compressed gas powered)

    2.2 NASA's SAFER

    3 Winged jet and rocket packs

    3.1 Visa Parviainen's jet-assisted wingsuit

    3.2 Yves Rossy's jet wingpack

    4 Current technology

    5 Home-made versions

    6 References in popular culture

    7 See also

    8 References

    9 External links

    [edit] History

    [edit] German Himmelstrmerof World War II

    During World War II, Germany conducted late-war experiments by strapping two wearableshortened Schmidtpulse jet tubes of low thrust to the body of a pilot. The working principle wasthe same as the Argus As 014 pulse jet that powered the Fieseler Fi 103 flying bomb (morepopularly known as the V-1 or buzz bomb), though the size was much smaller.[citation needed]

    The device was called aHimmelstrmer("sky stormer") and operated as follows: when the flier

    ignited both engines simultaneously the tubes began to pulse modulate. The angled rear tubestrapped to the flier's back provided both lift and forward thrust while the chest-mounteddeflector tube of lower thrust maintained a constant upward thrust. This lifted the flier up andforward. By opening the throttle to the rear tube, calculated "jumps" could be made of up to60 meters (180 ft) at low altitudes (under 50 ft, 15 m). The tubes consumed very little fuel, butnot much payload could be carried along either.

    The device was intended to aid German engineer units to cross minefields, barbed wire obstacles,and bridgeless waters. The device was never intended for troop use, despite its imaginative
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    depiction in that role in the comic book and film The Rocketeer(which bore no resemblance tothe real device).

    At the end of the war this device was handed over to Bell Aerosystems which tested it on a tetherout of fear of injury, as no test flier was willing to risk his life with the German machine.[citationneeded] What became of the device is not known.[citation needed]

    The fictional device used by The Rocketeerwas a rocket pack that was technically unique (atleast in the film adaptation) because it was designed to remain cool. TheHimmelstrmer, bycomparison, never operated long enough to get extremely hot, and both tubes were angled awayfrom the body of the flier. In operation the thrust difference between pulse tubes acted as apush/pull/lift system. Flight time for jumps was measured in seconds, with no lengthy descenttime as altitude was minimal. As soon as the throttle was disengaged the device was shut off, avery simple operation, and there was no report of any casualties.[1]

    [edit] Various development approaches

    [edit] Jump Belt

    This section has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss

    these issues on the talk page.

    It may be in need of reorganization to comply with Wikipedia'slayout guidelines.Tagged since October 2008.

    It may be confusing or unclear to readers.Tagged since October2008.

    In 1958, Garry Burdett and Alexander Bohr, ThiokolCorporation engineers, created a Jump Beltwhich they named Project Grasshopper. Thrust was created by high-pressure compressednitrogen. Two small nozzles were affixed to the belt and directed vertically downward. Thewearer of the belt could open a valve, letting out nitrogen from the gas cylinderthrough thenozzles, which tossed him upward to a height of 7 meters. After leaning forward, it was possiblewith the aid of the jump belt's thrust to run at 45 to 50 km/h. Later, Burdett and Bohr tested ahydrogen peroxide-powered version. The jump belt was demonstrated by a serviceman in action,but as no financing was forthcoming, there was no further testing.

    [edit] Aeropack

    In 1959 Aerojet General Corporation won a U.S. Army contract to devise a jet pack or rocketpack. At the start of 1960 Richard Peoples made his first tethered flight with his Aeropack.

    In 1960, the Bell Rocketbelt was presented to the public. The jet of gas was provided by ahydrogen peroxide-powered rocket, but the jet could also be provided by a turbojetengine, aducted fan, or other kinds of rockets powered by solid fuel, liquid fuel or compressed gas

    (usually nitrogen).[edit] U.S. Army interest

    American servicemen did not lose interest in this type of flight vehicle. Transport studies of theU.S. Army Transportation Research Command (TRECOM) determined that personal jet devicescould have diverse uses: forreconnaissance, crossing rivers, amphibious landing, accessing steepmountain slopes, overcoming minefields, tactical manoeuvring, etc. The concept was named"Small Rocket Lift Device", SRLD.
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    Within the framework of this concept the administration concluded a big contract with theAerojet General company in 1959 to research the possibility of designing an SRLD suitable forarmy purposes. Aerojet came to the conclusion that the version with the engine running onhydrogen peroxide was most suitable. However, it soon became known to the military thatengineer Wendell Moore of theBell Aerosystems company had for several years been carryingout experiments to make a personal jet device. After becoming acquainted with his work,servicemen during August 1960 decided to commission Bell Aerosystems with developing anSLRD. Wendell Moore was appointed chief project engineer.

    [edit] Hydrogen peroxide-powered rocket packs

    A hydrogen peroxide-powered motor is based on the decomposition reaction of hydrogenperoxide. Nearly pure (90% in the Bell Rocket Belt) hydrogen peroxide is used. Pure hydrogenperoxide is relatively stable, but in contact with a catalyst (for example,silver) it decomposesinto a mixture ofsuperheated steam and oxygenin less than 1/10millisecond, increasing involume 5000 times: 2 H2O2 2 H2O + O2. The reaction is exothermic, i.e., accompanied by theliberation of much heat (about 2500 kJ/kg), forming in this case a steam-gas mixture at 740 C.This hot gas is used exclusively as the reaction mass and is fed directly to one or more jet


    The great disadvantage is the limited operating time. The jet of steam and oxygen can providesignificant thrust from fairly lightweight rockets, but the jet has a relatively low exhaust velocityand hence a poorspecific impulse. Currently, such rocket belts can only fly for about 30 seconds(because of the limited amount of fuel the user can carry unassisted).

    A more conventional bipropellant could more than double the specific impulse. However,although the exhaust gases from the peroxide-based motor are very hot, they are stillsignificantly cooler than those generated by alternative propellants. Using a peroxide-basedpropellant greatly reduces the risk of a fire/explosion which would cause severe injury to theoperator.

    In contrast to, for example, turbojetengines which mainly expel atmospheric air to producethrust, rocket packs are far simpler to build than devices using turbojets. The classical rocketpack construction of Wendell Moore can be made under workshop conditions, given goodengineering training and a high level of tool-making craftsmanship.

    The main disadvantages of this type of rocket pack are:

    Short duration of flight (a maximum of around 30 seconds).

    The high expense of the peroxide propellant.

    The inherent dangers of flying below minimum parachute altitude, and hencewithout any safety equipment to protect the operator if there is an accident ormalfunction.

    Safely learning how to fly it, given that there are no dual-control trainingversions.

    The sheer difficulty of manually flying such a device.

    These circumstances limit the sphere of the application of rocket packs to very spectacular publicdemonstration flights, i.e., stunts, but due to their strong visual impact, rocket pack flights areguaranteed to seize the attention of spectators.[citation needed] As a result, rocket pack flights enjoygreat success at major sporting events. For example, a flight was arranged in the course of theopening ceremony of the summerOlympic Games 1984 in Los Angeles, USA.
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    [edit] Bell Textron Rocket Belt

    Main article: Bell Rocket Belt

    AstrogeologistGene Shoemaker wearing a Bell Rocket Belt while training astronauts

    This is the oldest known type of jet pack or rocket pack. One Bell Rocket Beltis on display atthe Smithsonian Institution'sNational Air and Space Museumannex, theSteven F. Udvar -HazyCenter, located nearDulles Airport.

    [edit] RB-2000 Rocket Belt

    This was a successor to the Bell Rocket Belt.[2] See Bell Rocket Belt#RB2000 Rocket Belt.

    [edit] Bell Pogo

    Main article: Bell Pogo

    The Bell Pogo was a small rocket-powered platform that two people could ride on. Its designused features from the Bell Rocket Belt.

    [edit] Powerhouse Productions Rocketbelt

    More commonly known as "The Rocketman", Powerhouse Productions, owned and operated byKinnie Gibson, is the first company to manufacture the 30 second flying Rocketbelt [citation needed]

    and to exclusively organize Rocketbelt performances since 1983, such as at the 1984 SummerOlympics, the Carnival in Rio de Janerio, Super Bowls, theRose Parade,Daytona 500, and theDangerous World Tourwith Michael Jackson, as well as in many television shows includingWalker Texas Ranger and NCIS. Powerhouse Rocketbelt pilots include the stuntman KinnieGibson and Dan Schlund.[3]
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    [edit] Tecnologia Aeroespacial Mexicana

    The Tecaeromex Rocket Belt is made by the OathKeeper Inc. Company, run by its vicepresident, Clayton Bruce Reed Tecnologia Aeroespacial Mexicana. This is said to be the onlycompany in the world offering a flying and tested rocket belt package. It was featured in theMarch 2006 issue ofPopular Science magazine and many TV programs around the world like

    the Discovery Channel, theBBC,ProSieben, TV Azteca,The Science Channel, andThe HistoryChannel. Its maker claims that four of his rocketpacks are flying now; his first tethered flightswere on 22 September 2005.

    On August 11, 2006, the inventor's daughter, Isabel Lozano, was the first woman in the world tofly tethered in a rocket belt in front of millions of TV spectators; she flew with a special rocketbelt built by Tecnologia Aeroespacial Mexicana (TAM).[4][5] It runs on hydrogen peroxide andsells for USA $125,000 including a training course.

    TAM has also developed a concept for abackpack helicoptercalled Libellula, with a two-bladedrotor driven by a small rocket motor at the end of each rotor blade.[6]

    [edit] Jetpack International

    Jetpack Internationalmade three types of wingless jet packs:


























    seconds152 m

    112 km/

    h37 m 81 kg H2O2 rocket 22 litre

    Not for






    seconds457 m

    124 km/

    h76 m 81 kg H2O2 rocket 30 litre

    Not for



    pack T-




    c. 18


    ~134 k

    m/h~76 m 81 kg






    19 litre




    A Jet Pack H202 was flown for 34 seconds in Central Parkon the 9 April 2007 episode of theToday Show and sold for $150,000. As of January 2009 their H202 jet packs are fordemonstration only, not for sale.[7]

    [edit] Externally-Powered High Density Propellant

    The thrust for jet packs depend on the density of the propellant and the flow rate. Many self-contained jetpacks have weight restriction which prevent the use of higher density propellants.JetLev markets a jetpack which uses water as a propellant and obtains a high pressure waterstream from a floating "follower".
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    [edit] Turbojet pack

    Packs with a turbojet engine are fueled with traditional kerosene. They have higherefficiency,greater height and a duration of flight of many minutes, but they are complex in construction andvery expensive. Only one working model of this pack was made; it underwent flight tests in the1960s and at present it no longer flies.

    [edit] Bell Jet Flying Belt

    In 1965 Bell Aerosystems concluded a new contract with the Defense Advanced ResearchProjects Agency (DARPA) to develop a jet pack with a turbojet engine. This project was calledthe "Jet Flying Belt", or simply the "Jet Belt". Wendell Moore and John K. Hulbert, a specialistin gas turbines, worked to design a new turbojet pack. Williams Research Corporation (nowWilliams International) in Walled Lake, Michigan, designed and built a new turbojet engine toBell's specifications in 1969. It was called the WR19, had a rated thrust of 195 kgf(1,910newtons) and weighed 31 kg.

    The first free flight of the Jet Belt took place on 7 April 1969 at theNiagara Falls MunicipalAirport. Pilot Robert Courter flew about 100 meters in a circle at an altitude of 7 meters,reaching a speed of 45 km/h. The following flights were longer, up to 5 minutes. Theoretically,this new pack could fly for 25 minutes at velocieties up to 135 km/h.

    In spite of successful tests, the U.S. Army lost interest. The pack was complex to maintain andtoo heavy. Landing with its weight on his back was hazardous to the pilot, and catastrophic lossof a turbine blade could have been lethal.

    Thus, the Bell Jet Flying Belt remained an experimental model. On 29 May 1969, WendellMoore died of complications from aheart attackhe had suffered six months earlier, and work onthe turbojet pack was ended. Bell sold the sole version of the "Bell pack", together with thepatents and technical documentation, to Williams Research Corporation. This pack is now in theWilliams International company museum. A version of this engine went on to power the laterU.S. Tomahawk cruise missiles.

    [edit] Special features of the turbojet pack

    The "Jet Belt" used a small turbofan engine which was mounted vertically, with its air intakedownward. Intake air was divided into two flows. One flow went into the combustion chamber,the other flow bypassed the engine, then mixed with the hot turbine gases, cooling them andprotecting the pilot from the high temperatures generated. In the upper part of the engine theexhaust was divided and entered two pipes which led to jet nozzles. The construction of thenozzles made it possible to move the jet to any side.Kerosene fuel was stored in tanks beside theengine. Control of the turbojet pack was similar to the rocket pack, but the pilot could not tilt theentire engine. Maneuvering was by deflecting the nozzles. By inclining levers, the pilot couldmove the jets of both nozzles forward, back, or sideways. The pilot rotated left/right by turningthe left handle. The right handle governed the engine thrust. The jet engine was started with the

    aid of a powder cartridge. While testing this starter, a mobile starter on a special cart was used.There were instruments to control the power of the engine, and a portable radio to connect andtransmit telemetry data to ground-based engineers. On top of the pack was a standard auxiliarylanding parachute; it was effective only when opened at altitudes above 20 meters. This enginewent on to become the basis for the early cruise missile propulsion unit.

    [edit] Space,_Michigan,_Michigan,_Michigan
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    Bruce McCandless II operating the Manned Maneuvering Unit

    Rocket packs can be useful forextra-vehicular activity(EVA) in outer space. While near Earth ajet pack has to produce a g-force of at least 1g (otherwise it just provides some steering capacityfor the wearer while falling down to Earth). For excursions outside a free fallingspaceship, evena small g-force is already sufficient for a small deviation from free fall, hence much less delta-vis consumed per unit time, and not during the whole EVA. With only small amounts ofthrustneeded, safety and temperature are much more manageable than in the atmosphere in Earth'sgravity field.

    Rocket packs were tested during mission STS-64. Mission specialists Carl Meade and Mark Leetested the SAFER Rocket Pack while Hammond remained inside the Orbiter.

    [edit] NASA's Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) (compressed gas powered)

    In the 1980s,NASA demonstrated theManned Maneuvering Unit (MMU), a rocket pack thatallowed an astronautto function as his/her own spacecraft, but the system was retired before thedecade was over. The MMU is the only jet pack of practical importance. Its operational area isoutside a space station orspacecraft, where an astronaut can limitedly move independently. TheMMU's propulsion was produced by high-pressure nitrogen gas discharged through nozzles (ofwhich the MMU has 24). The MMU was used after 1984 in threeSpace Shuttlemissions (STS-41-B, STS-41-C and STS-51-A).

    [edit] NASA's SAFER

    Recently, NASA has introduced the SAFER, a smaller, simpler version of the MMU meant to beused in case of accidental separation from spacecraft or space station.

    [edit] Winged jet and rocket packsThis article may be confusing or unclear to readers. Please help clarify

    the article; suggestions may be found on the talk page. (January 2008)
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    Artist's depiction of a jetpack with folding wings

    Jet packs and rocket packs would likely have much better flight time on a tankful of fuel if theyhad wings. There have been occasional real cases[citation needed] of a man gliding horizontally longdistances with his body horizontal and no flying aid except a pair of rigid airplane-type wingsstrapped directly to his body; see alsowingsuits.

    [edit] Visa Parviainen's jet-assisted wingsuit

    On 25 October 2005 in Lahti in Finland, Visa Parviainen jumped from a hot air balloon in awingsuit with two small turbojetjet engines attached to his feet. Each turbojet providedapproximately 16 kgf(160N, 35 lbf) of thrust and ran on kerosene (Jet A-1) fuel. Parviainenapparently achieved approximately 30 seconds of horizontal flight with no noticeable loss of



    [edit] Yves Rossy's jet wingpack

    Rossy's wing showing the four purple and silver jet-engines mounted close to the


    Swiss ex-military and commercial pilot Yves Rossy developed and built a winged pack withrigid aeroplane-type carbon-fiberwings spanning about 8 feet (2.4 m) and four smallkerosene-
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    burningjet engines underneath; these engines are large versions of a type designed formodelaeroplanes.[9] He wears a heat-resistant suit similar to that of a firefighterorracing drivertoprotect him from the hotjet exhaust.[10][11] Similarly, to further protect the wearer, the engines aremodified with the addition of a carbon fibre heat shield extending the jet nozzle around theexhaust tail.

    Rossy claims to be "the first person to gain altitude and maintain a stable horizontal flight thanksto aerodynamic carbon foldable wings", which are folded by hinges at their midpoint. Afterbeing lifted to altitude by a plane, he ignites the engines just before he exits the plane with thewings folded. The wings unfold while in free-fall, and he is then able to fly horizontally forseveral minutes, landing with the help of aparachute.[12]He achieves true controlled flight usinghis body and a hand throttle to maneuver.

    The system is said by Rossy to be highly responsive and reactive in flight, to the point where heneeds to closely control his head, arm and leg movements in order not to enter an uncontrolledspin. The engines on the wing require precise common alignment during set-up, also in order toprevent instability. An electronic starter system ensures that all four engines ignitesimultaneously. In the event of a spin, the wing unit can be detached from the pilot, and both

    pilot and wing unit descend to Earth on separated parachutes.Rossy's jet pack was exhibited on 18 April 2008 on the opening day of the 35th Exhibition ofInventions at Geneva.[13] Rossy and his sponsors spent over $190,000 to build the device.[14] Hisfirst successful trial flight was on 24 June 2004 nearGeneva, Switzerland. Rossy has made morethan 30 powered flights since. In November 2006 he flew with a later version of his jet pack.[citation needed] On May 14, 2008 he made a successful 6-minute flight from the town ofBex nearLake Geneva. He exited a Pilatus Porterat 7,500 feet with his jet pack. It was the first publicdemonstration before the world's press. He made effortless loops from one side of the Rhonevalleyto the other and rose 2,600 feet.

    It has been claimed that the military was impressed and asked for prototypes for the poweredwings, but that Rossy kindly refused the request stating that the device was only intended for for

    aviation enthusiasts.[15][16][17]

    On 26 September 2008, Yves successfully flew across the English Channel from Calais,Franceto Dover,England in 9 minutes, 7 seconds.[18][19] His speed reached 186 mph during the crossing,[20] and was 125 mph when he deployed the parachute.[21]Since then he hasin several flightsmanaged to fly in a formation with three military jets and cross the Grand Canyon, but he failedto fly across the Strait of Gibraltarhe made an emergency landing in the water.

    [edit] Current technologyAccording to the U.S. Government, real jetpacks have little practical value due to the limitationsof current technology[citation needed]. The United States Armed Forces, which conducted most jetpack research, has declared that helicopters are far more practical. Many others have worked on

    devising a functional jet pack, but with limited success.

    In recent years, the rocket pack has become popular among enthusiasts, and some have builtthem for themselves. The pack's basic construction is rather simple, but its flying capabilitydepends on two key parts: the gas generator, and the thrust control valve. The rocket packs beingbuilt today are largely based on the research and inventions ofWendell Moore at Bell Helicopter.

    One of the largest stumbling blocks that would-be rocket pack builders have faced is thedifficulty of obtaining concentrated hydrogen peroxide, which is no longer produced by many
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    chemical companies. The few companies that produce high-concentration hydrogen peroxideonly sell to large corporations or governments, forcing some amateurs and professionals to set uptheir own hydrogen peroxide distillation installations. High-concentration hydrogen peroxide forrocket belts has been available from Peroxide Propulsion, Gothenburg, Sweden since 2005,[22]

    but after a serious accident Peroxide Propulsion is no longer in business.[23]

    Two high-profile jet pack projects are currently being operated: Jetpack International

    Tecnologia AeroespacialMexicana

    [edit] Home-made versionsEpisode 32 ofMythBustersinvestigates theurban legend of an affordable jet pack or rocket packthat can be built from plans purchased on the Internet. Extensive modifications were made by theMythBusters team due to vagueness in the plans and because of the infeasibility of the specifiedengine mounting system. The jet pack produced by the MythBusters had two ducted fanspowered by ultralight-type piston engines. (Fans[who?] complained that the use of piston enginesdestroyed the whole idea of the pack's being truly based on jets, by which, presumably, they

    meant self-contained gas turbines.) They found it was not powerful enough to lift a person offthe ground, and was expensive to build. The plans specified a Rotax 503 ultralight engine, butthey intended to use the more powerful and lighter Rotax 583 engine before a similar lighterunnamed engine was substituted.[24]

    America's only "private rocketeer," Gerard Martowlis, built a fully operational rocket pack. Likeall flying packs, his is extraordinarily difficult and extremely dangerous to fly, taking manyhours to learn and practice. He performed his test flights using a safety tether system in case helost control. A consequence of the short flight time of any peroxide-based pack is that the entireflight is below the minimumparachutealtitude (with the exception of the much more expensiveballistic-type parachute systems frequently used on ultra-light aircraft and some small passengeraircraft). Accordingly, any loss of control or failure of the pack is most likely fatal. The training

    also incurs expensive fuel costs.

    [edit] References in popular culture
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    A jet pack wearing hero on the cover of Amazing Stories, August 1928. The cover

    illustratesThe Skylark of Space.

    The concept of jet packs appeared in popular culture, particularly science fiction long before thetechnology became practical. Perhaps the first appearance was inpulp magazines. The 1928cover ofAmazing Stories featured a man flying with a jet pack.

    When Republic Pictures planned to do a superhero serial using its renown "flying man" scenes asused inThe Adventures of Captain Marvel, the character of Captain Marvel was tied up inlitigation with the owners of the characterofSuperman. For its postwar superhero serial,Republic used a jet pack inKing of the Rocket Men. The same stock special effects were used inother serials.

    While several science fiction novels from the 1950s featured jet packs, it was not until the "BellRocket Belt" in the 1960s that the jet pack caught the imagination of the mainstream. Bell'sdemonstration flights in the U.S. and other countries created significant public enthusiasm.

    Two episodes of the 1964 animated seriesJonny Questfeatured characters using jet packs(referred to as "rocket belts").

    In 1965 the jet pack appeared in theJames Bond movie Thunderballwhen 007 played by SeanConnery used a jet pack in the pre-title sequence to escape the bad guys and rendezvous with hisFrench contact. The pack was piloted by Gordon Yaegerand Bill Suitor. The jet pack had a briefcameo in Die Another Day. In the same year of 1965 it appeared in the pilot episode ofLost inSpace with jet pack stock footage appearing in the television series several times. The Keds shoecompany used the Bell device for their "Colonel Keds" commercials.[25]

    A Bell Rocket Belt was featured extensively in the 1976 CBS Saturday morning children's liveaction TV show Ark II.

    A rocket pack flight famously occurred on the opening of the summerOlympic Games in LosAngelesin 1984, piloted by Bill Suitor. Bill took off from platforms, flew above manyspectators, who from the unexpected contingency covered their heads with their hands, andlanded opposite the presidential platform, where Ronald Reagan sat. This flight was seen by100,000 spectators on the platforms and an estimated 2.5 billion television viewers.

    The 1988 video game Rocket Rangermade a jet pack, transported from the future into analternative history World War II setting, the centerpiece of the action.

    Devices similar in concept to jet packs are utilized in the game Command & Conquer: TiberianSun by Global Defense Initiative Jump Jet Infantrymen. These devices allow the in-gamesoldiers to maintain flight indefinitely while engaging ground and airborne targets.

    A jet pack is used to great effect by George Michael Bluth, played by Michael Cera in the third-season episode Mr. Fon the television series Arrested Development.

    A jet pack also appears in the final scenes of the 2010 movie Kick-Ass. In the movie, dualGatling guns were mounted to the jet pack to enable the lead character to gain access to agangster's lair located at the top of a New York City skyscraper.

    A jet pack and its military development idea was used in the video game "Grand Theft Auto: SanAndreas". It is the only method of transportation available in the game that is not a vehicle.
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    Player can use it after completing "The Black Project" mission, which is basically about stealingthe device from Area 69 military base.

    Jet-packs appear in the popular video game Halo: Reach. Likewise, on September 13, 2010,during a Halo: Reach launch party at London, England's Trafalgar Square, stuntman DanSchlund of Texas's "Rocketman" firm (which provides jet packs for use by marketing and

    sporting companies) donned a Halo-esque "Spartan armor" suit and a jet pack and maintainedflight for 30 seconds before landing safely. [26]

    A wooden jet pack was used in the Far East Movement video Rocketeeralong with a song abouta guy whose girlfriend is moving to Tokyo and who finds parts for a jet pack and uses it to get toTokyo.

    In several episodes ofPokmonBest Wishes, Jessie, James and Meowth escape from criticalsituations using jet packs.

    In the popular 90s video game Crash Bandicoot 2: Cortex Strikes Backtwo of the last five stagesare based on the title character's using a jet pack.