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Educator Guide & Walking Map
The Field Museum Education Department develops on-line Educator Guides to provide detailed information on field trip planning, alignment with Illinois
State Goals and Learning Standards, as well as suggested hands-on classroom activities to do before, during and after your visit to the Museum.
The exhibition was organized by the Ministero per i Beni e le Attivitá Culturali, Soprintendenza archeologica di Pompei, Soprintendenza per i Beni archeologici
delle province di Napoli e Caserta, Regione Campania.
Presented by
Teacher Notes: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Pompeii: Stories from an Eruption October 22, 2005 – March 26, 2006
This Educator Guide is separated into four parts: • exhibition guide; • teacher and student resources; • fun facts; and • a walking map.
Pompeii: Stories from an Eruption consists of six sections. You will encounter over 450 artifacts and four auditory elements (please note that there are no recreated environments or interactives in this exhibition). An audio tour, produced in conjunction with Antenna Audio, will also be available for purchase. The tour currently includes 15 stops, and is designed to give a more in-depth look at some of the most important objects in the exhibition.
Before you visit the exhibition, spend some time viewing the information on the Museum’s Web site at www.fieldmuseum.org/pompeii/ to begin planning your visit. We also recommend using some of our quick fun facts and pre-activities to introduce your students to the cultural complexities of the exhibition and focus on one or two sections within the exhibition to study in depth. Each section of this guide has an introduction, guiding questions, pre-activities, field trip activities, and post-activities, answers to guiding questions to help guide your students’ experience.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The Field Museum • Educator Guide • Teacher Notes Page 2
© The Field Museum
Part Three: Fun Facts
Part Four: Walking Map
Section 1: Introduction to Pompeii: Stories from an Eruption
© The Field Museum
Section 2: Herculaneum
© Ministero per i Beni e le Attivitá Culturali - Soprintendenza archeologica di Pompei
Section 3: Rural Villas: Oplontis and Terzigno
© Ministero per i Beni e le Attivitá Culturali - Soprintendenza archeologica di Pompei
Section 4: Pompeii © Ministero per i Beni e le Attivitá Culturali - Soprintendenza archeologica di Pompei
Section 5: Volcanism © The Field Museum
Section 6: Pompeii and Vesuvius Today © The Field Museum
________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The Field Museum • Educator Guide • Content Page 3
Illinois State Standards ________________________________________________________________________________________________________
(with adaptations to specific activities and grade levels)
Use of the materials in this Educator Guide in combination with a field trip to Pompeii: Stories from an Eruption will help you link learning experiences to the following Illinois Learning Standards. Teachers will need to identify specific goals to map to individual lesson plans or larger units of study. This exhibition, while suitable for all students regardless of grade level or learning style maps closely to concepts studied in later elementary, middle school, and high school.
English Language Arts State Goal 1: Read with understanding and fluency
State Goal 2: Read and understand literature representative of various societies, eras and ideas
State Goal 3: Write to communicate for a variety of purposes
State Goal 5: Use the language arts to acquire, assess and communicate information
Mathematics State Goal 7: Estimate, make and use measurements of objects, quantities and relationships and determine acceptable levels of accuracy
Science State Goal 11: Understand the processes of scientific inquiry and technological design to investigate questions, conduct experiments and solve problems.
State Goal 12: Understand the fundamental concepts, principles and interconnections of the life, physical and earth/space sciences
Social Studies State Goal 17: Understand world geography and the effects of geography on society
State Goal 18: Understand social systems
Fine Arts State Goal 25: Know the language of the arts
State Goal 26: Through creating and performing, understand how works of art are produced
State Goal 27: Understand the role of the arts in civilizations, past and present
________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The Field Museum • Educator Guide • Illinois State Standards Page 4
Introduction to the Exhibition ________________________________________________________________________________________________________
“A fearful black cloud was rent by forked and quivering bursts of flame, and parted to reveal great tongues of fire…Darkness fell, not the dark of a moonless or cloudy night, but as if the lamp had been put out in a dark room.”
One of nature’s most violent cataclysms was vividly described by Pliny the Younger, who survived the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79. But untold numbers were buried in its volcanic debris, and a vibrant, cosmopolitan society vanished overnight, while other societies sprang up in its place. Now the exhibition Pompeii: Stories from an Eruption brings this lost world to life.
The exhibition, created by the Soperintendza Archeologica di Pompei, allows visitors to explore stories of Roman life captured on the eventful day in A.D. 79. Casts made from human remains show real people caught as they fled with their most prized possessions. Excavations past and present in the area around Pompeii have revealed hundreds of objects that have illuminated that inhabitants’ daily lives: gorgeous room-sized frescoes and mosaics, gold coins and precious jewelry, marble and bronze sculptures, and a variety of everyday household objects. Visitors will visit three sites devastated by the eruption, seeing for themselves how the inhabitants lived and died. Visitors will learn how volcanoes are born and how they wield their destructive power. Sealed in stone and frozen in time, Pompeii is rediscovered as visitors make new discoveries and uncover yet untold stories of eruption.
This 10,000-square-foot exhibition features over 450 artifacts, including brilliantly colored frescoes, mosaics, coins, precious jewelry, terracotta vessel, marble and bronze sculptures, and household objects, along with casts of the victims.
Works of art and everyday objects from tools and keys to silver tableware—all serve to tell the stories of people and society in the cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum, Oplontis. You will see huge frescoes that decorated the rooms of homes, villas, inns, and shops. Other treasures include beautifully worked gold jewelry, including a striking pair of snake-shaped bracelets, a magnificent bronze gladiator’s helmet and shin-guard, each of them decorated with scenes of gods, warriors, barbarians, and more. Another case holds a box of surgical instruments found next to a surgeon who had tried to save the tools of his trade and poignant casts of victims, including a family group—two adults, a small child, and an infant—who died together when their house collapsed on them. You will also see geological specimens recovered from past eruptions of Vesuvius.
In addition to the 450+ artifacts, video presentations, theatrical lighting and authentic music add to the immersive experience transporting your students to the ancient site of Pompeii, Herculaneum and ancient Roman life. There is video just outside the exhibition that will capture the atmosphere through a montage of images that dramatically sets the stage for the exhibition. Some images included in this video are casts, frescoes, and the volcano itself. There is a brief narration in Italian with English subtitles.
Register for a field trip today! Indicate your interest on your Field Trip Registration form. Requests are filled on a first-come, first-served basis, and pre-registration is required.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The Field Museum • Educator Guide • Introduction to the Exhibition Page 5
© Mimmo Jodice / Soprintendenza per i Beni archeologici di Napoli e Caserta/ Soprintendenza archeologica di Pompei
PART ONE: Educator Guide by Exhibition Section ________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Section 1: Pompeii: Stories from an Eruption
Pompeii may be the city most commonly linked to the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79, but the cataclysmic events of that year affected nearby towns just as violently: Herculaneum, Oplontis, and others. These towns were rich in architecture, advanced infrastructures, and exquisite works of art. The artifacts found there tell a vibrant story of an ancient Roman society, advanced in many ways, which simply disappeared. A generation after the eruption, Romans had gone back to their old way of life, and tales of Pompeii had become a part of local folklore. Underneath their feet lay the remains of homes and families, works of art, and animals that were so suddenly smothered by Vesuvius.
Pliny the Younger’s accounts of the eruption, sent to the historian Tacitus, tell a grim but detailed tale of destruction. Together with archaeological and volcanological data gathered from the area, Pliny’s text has allowed scientists to reconstruct the events of this catastrophe.
Around noon on August 24, Vesuvius began its assault, and the streets of Pompeii and the surrounding region began accumulating lapilli, or small pieces of solidified lava. Residents of the towns fled—some further inland, and many towards the sea, which was too turbulent to navigate. By dawn of the following morning, the eruption had poured an avalanche of ash onto Herculaneum, Oplontis, and Pompeii.
In this section of the exhibition, a 2-minute orientation slide show is located in the first gallery of the exhibition, which consists of 14-20 slides. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Guiding Questions 1. What is Vesuvius? Where is Vesuvius located? What nearby ancient communities settled near Vesuvius?
What happened in A.D. 79?
2. How was Pompeii affected by the eruption?
3. Why do we know so much about these people? When was this region “rediscovered?”
4. What types of artifacts have been uncovered in this region? What can we learn from these artifacts?
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Pre-Activities 1. Start a K-W-L chart (see Appendix A) for Pompeii: Stories from an Eruption. What can students put on the K-W-L
that they already know about Pompeii and/or Roman life? Ask students to brainstorm in small discussion groups what they want to learn about Pompeii and Roman life.
2. As a class, visit www.mcli.dist.maricopa.edu/tut/final/pliny.html and listen to Pliny the Younger’s eyewitness account of the A.D. 79 eruption. Ask students why they do or do not believe this is an accurate account of what happened. What questions were left unanswered by the author? And, if they could ask Pliny the Younger a question, what would they ask?
3. Have students compare the films Gladiator and Ben Hur. How do these sources influence their perception of Pompeii and ancient Roman life? Students should analyze the movie for perspective, purpose, and audience.
4. Working in groups of two to three, have students look at images from the Museum’s Web site, Pompeii: Stories from the Eruption. Students should click on each artifact to learn more about the object. What kind of information can we learn from artifacts? What kind of information can’t we learn from artifacts?
________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The Field Museum • Educator Guide: Part 1 • Section 1: Pompeii: Stories from an Eruption Page 6
Section 1: Pompeii: Stories from an Eruption (continued…) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Field Trip Activities 1. Ask students to come up with one or two questions they hope to discover in the exhibition, Pompeii: Stories
from an Eruption.
2. From their initial observations, ask students to describe the Statue of Hera. What questions arise from their observations?
3. Have students sketch two or three of their favorite artifacts. What do these artifacts reveal about ancient Roman life or the eruption in A.D. 79?
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Post-Activities 1. Review the K-W-L. Check the knowledge the students started with. Have students work in groups to make
lists about what they learned in the exhibition Pompeii: Stories from an Eruption and then add that to the K-W-L.
2. Explain to students that they will create a large drawing with assorted papers, markers, crayons, and magazine cutouts to illustrate a day in their own lives.
3. As a class, create an exhibition about daily life in their classroom. Choose artifacts illustrating a typical day and divide students into groups to create label text, videos, maps and other images to tell the story of the people and activities that occur.
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Answers to Guiding Questions 1. Vesuvius, situated on southern Italy’s Bay of Naples, is commonly associated with the city of Pompeii, but
Herculaneum, Oplontis, and Terzigno were also located on or near Vesuvius’ slopes. In A.D. 79 a cataclysmic volcanic eruption occurred destroying all who could not escape.
2. Pompeii was affected by the initial phase of the eruption. A rain of pumice pounded on rooftops, forcing residents from their homes and into the streets. Fleeing for safety, these fugitives were struck down by the volcano’s toxic gases.
3. In 1711, men digging for limestone accidentally uncovered the ancient city of Pompeii. Since that first discovery, numerous archaeological excavations have revealed hundreds of objects that illuminate the inhabitants’ daily lives. This region continues to be excavated and new discoveries are still being made.
4. As a result of 200 years of excavations, archaeologists are able to draw detailed conclusions about ancient Roman life through uncovered artifacts. Plaster casts of human remains show real people caught as they fled with their most prized possessions. The victims’ frescoes, mosaics, jewelry, sculpture and other personal objects found in the ruins attest to the affluence of these communities.
5. Since the discovery of Pompeii, archaeologists have created systematic excavations of this region by recording the location and context in which artifacts are found.
6. Pompeii: Stories from an Eruption offers a glimpse into the conclusions made about the peoples, places and things destroyed by the cataclysmic events of A.D. 79. The artifacts on view allow visitors to make their own conclusions about ancient Roman life and the anatomy of a disaster.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The Field Museum • Educator Guide: Part 1 • Section 1: Pompeii: Stories from an Eruption continued Page 7
Section 2: Herculaneum ________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Just over nine miles northwest of Pompeii lay the seaside resort of Herculaneum, home to nearly 5,000 residents. Some of Rome’s wealthiest citizens had second homes here, where they could relax in the public baths that looked out on the sparkling ocean. Indeed, one of the most luxurious homes yet known in the Roman world was discovered in Herculaneum—the Villa of the Papyri. Discovered by chance in 1750, the Villa rose high above the cliffs of the sea, with an ideal panoramic vista to the Bay of Naples and an expansive swimming pool. Among its many treasures, the Villa’s library contained as many as 1,758 papyrus scrolls, including texts of the epicurean philosopher Philodemus of Gadara and some Latin texts.
But even the grandeur of the Villa of Papyri was no match for Vesuvius’ rage. Herculaneum was mostly spared from the initial phase of the eruption on August 24—residents stared in shock at the column of gas and volcanic material that rose above Vesuvius, and were filled with anxiety when tremors shook the streets. But they remained in the city, uncertain
what to do. Experts speculate that residents only began to flee the city in the late afternoon when the cloud rose so high that it blocked out the sun.
By one o’clock the next morning, the column collapsed, producing the first lethal surge—a burning cloud of gas and ash that reached temperatures of more than 1,000 degrees F. Rolling along the flanks of Vesuvius, the volcanic material reached Herculaneum within minutes.
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Guiding Questions 1. Where is Herculaneum? What kind of town was it?
2. How did the eruption affect Herculaneum? Why was it impossible for residents to escape?
3. How did these events preserve bodies, organic materials, and buildings?
4. Why did so much gold and gold jewelry survive?
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Pre-Activities 1. Prompt students to write a modern-day myth explaining the occurrence of volcanoes.
2. Go to the National Weather Service’s Internet Weather Source at http://weather.noaa.gov/ to learn about the current weather conditions in modern day Napoli, near ancient Herculaneum. Ask student to create an ancient weather forecast for Herculaneum.
3. Check out Harris Loan’s Home Sweet Home Experience Box and discuss the different houses found in various climates. Continue the discussion by asking students to guess what the different types of houses in Herculaneum might have looked like. Follow up discussion by comparing this list with types of houses found in the United States.
4. Distribute photocopies or printouts of the image of The Marble Head of the Amazon from the Museum’s Web site. Ask students to impose a grid on top of the statue’s face and, using the concept of scale and ratio, have students transfer the image to a larger piece of paper.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The Field Museum • Educator Guide: Part 1 • Section 2: Herculaneum Page 8
Section 2: Herculaneum (continued…) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Field Trip Activities 1. Find examples of different Roman houses within the exhibition. In small groups imagine who might live in these
houses, what their occupations were, and what their favorite pastimes might have been.
2. Investigate Herculaneum’s arcades. What do students notice about the variety of artifacts found at these sites? What value did these artifacts possess for their owners? Ask students to record their impressions about the artifacts and draw conclusions about their use and the people who used them.
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Post-Activities 1. The luxurious Villa of Papyri had an extensive library of over 1,758 texts, including the owner’s favorite authors.
As a class, visit your local school or public library and have students choose a book. Write a book report in the form of an ancient scroll.
2. Bathhouses represented and unified the Roman civilization. Ask students to research and identify the Roman rituals of bathing at www.pbs.org/empires/romans/life. In the United States, what customs unite us as a culture? What rituals do we as a nation share in common?
3. As a class read or listen to the Roman myths about Hercules. Discuss this hero’s special powers and ask students to create and draw their own cartoon hero and comic strip.
4. Ask students to create 3D interpretations of the animals and myths reflected in the jewelry and sculpture found in Herculaneum. Students may express themselves using clay, wire, and glass beads. Have students title and label their pieces. Display their work around the classroom and ask students to share their process and why.
5. Have students create their own paper-mâché portraits, exhibiting craftsmanship and creativity in the face’s details.
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Answers to Guiding Questions 1. Just over nine miles northwest of Pompeii, Herculaneum was a seaside resort. As a second home to some of Rome’s
wealthiest citizens, Herculaneum was filled with luxurious homes and public baths.
2. When Vesuvius erupted, Herculaneans were spared from the rain of pumice that fell on Pompeii and many lingered before fleeing the city. However, at about one o’clock in the morning on August 25, the first of six pyroclastic surges swept over the city. These superheated clouds of ash and gas killed victims instantly before slower-moving pyroclastic flows sealed the victims beneath nearly 75 feet of rock. Residents who attempted to flee were immediately struck down by gas and ash. Once the first surge had abated, the city was buried under volcanic material extinguishing all life in the region.
3. The dynamic process in which the city was buried—in numerous sporadic phases—and the presence of groundwater in the area made it an ideal site for the preservation of organic material, like wood, fiber, and bone.
4. Because of its great value, gold was likely one of the first things Herculaneans grabbed as they fled their homes. Gold also has a chemically stable nature, making it easy to preserve and endure through the centuries in soil and ash.
5. Prior to the 1980s, most archaeologists believed that most of Herculaneum’s residents escaped the eruption, but after a chance discovery of human remains along the coast that assumption was proven wrong. The remains found in Herculaneum show fugitives fleeing their homes, desperately grabbing their most valued possessions, before they too were struck down and buried in volcanic material.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The Field Museum • Educator Guide: Part 1 • Section 2: Herculaneum…