the scientific method the scientific method what is the scientific method? recall that science means...

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The Scientific The Scientific Method Method

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The Scientific MethodThe Scientific Method

The Scientific MethodThe Scientific Method

What is the scientific method?What is the scientific method?

Recall that science means Recall that science means “knowledge”“knowledge”

--The scientific method is a unbiased, The scientific method is a unbiased, systematic way to answer questions.systematic way to answer questions.

6 steps of the Scientific Method6 steps of the Scientific Method

-There are 6 steps in the scientific -There are 6 steps in the scientific method:method:

1. State the Problem1. State the Problem

2. Gather Information2. Gather Information

3. Form a Hypothesis3. Form a Hypothesis

4. Design an Experiment4. Design an Experiment

5. Collect and Analyze Data5. Collect and Analyze Data

6. Draw Conclusions6. Draw Conclusions

1. 1. State the problemState the problem

State the problemState the problem

Are these “Sewer lice harmful to Are these “Sewer lice harmful to water”?water”?

2. Gather Information2. Gather Information

Gather InformationGather Information

State the Problem: Are these “Sewer State the Problem: Are these “Sewer lice harmful to water”?lice harmful to water”?

Gather Information: Gather Information:

Kinds of fish?Kinds of fish?

Environments of the sewer lice?Environments of the sewer lice?

Environment of the fish?Environment of the fish?

3. Form a hypothesis3. Form a hypothesis

--A hypothesis is an A hypothesis is an educated guess about educated guess about the question you askedthe question you asked. A hypothesis . A hypothesis must always be:must always be:

1. Testable1. Testable-This means that you -This means that you can do an experiment to can do an experiment to

test your test your hypothesis.hypothesis.2. Fact-based-2. Fact-based-A statement such A statement such

as as “God exists” is not fact-based, “God exists” is not fact-based, it’s it’s based on opinion, and based on opinion, and therefore can therefore can not be a hypothesis.not be a hypothesis.

Form a HypothesisForm a Hypothesis

State the Problem: Are these “Sewer lice State the Problem: Are these “Sewer lice harmful to water”?harmful to water”?

Gather Information: Gather Information:

Kinds of fish?Kinds of fish?

Environments of the sewer lice?Environments of the sewer lice?

Environment of the fish?Environment of the fish?

Hypothesis: If mixed with freshwater water Hypothesis: If mixed with freshwater water fish, the sewer lice would be harmful to the fish, the sewer lice would be harmful to the fish, because they thrive in different fish, because they thrive in different environmentsenvironments

4. Design an Experiment 4. Design an Experiment

--Do an Do an experimentexperiment to test your hypothesis. to test your hypothesis. In an experiment you need several things:In an experiment you need several things:

1. 1. Materials- what you usedMaterials- what you used in the in the experimentexperiment

2. 2. Procedure-the stepsProcedure-the steps (how you did (how you did the the experiment)experiment)

3. 3. Constant-what isn’t changed in Constant-what isn’t changed in the the experimentexperiment

4. 4. Variable-what is changed in an Variable-what is changed in an experimentexperiment

5. 5. Control-a group that is unchangedControl-a group that is unchanged

Test the Hypothesis:Test the Hypothesis:State the Problem: Are these “Sewer lice State the Problem: Are these “Sewer lice

harmful to fish”?harmful to fish”?

Gather Information: Kinds of fish? Gather Information: Kinds of fish? Environments of the sewer lice? Environments of the sewer lice? Environment of the fish?Environment of the fish?

Hypothesis: If mixed with freshwater water Hypothesis: If mixed with freshwater water fish, the sewer lice would be harmful to fish, the sewer lice would be harmful to the fish, because they thrive in different the fish, because they thrive in different environments environments

Experiment: Place a sample of sewer lice in Experiment: Place a sample of sewer lice in a with 10 fish and observe the time it a with 10 fish and observe the time it take for fish to die.take for fish to die.

5. Collect and Analyze Data5. Collect and Analyze Data

-After you experiment, you need to -After you experiment, you need to collect the data into charts and then collect the data into charts and then analyze that data by making graphs.analyze that data by making graphs.

Collecting and Analyzing DataCollecting and Analyzing Data

-Data is -Data is the information you get from an the information you get from an experimentexperiment..

-There are two kinds of data:-There are two kinds of data:Qualitative-word based (Ex:Tall, pretty)Qualitative-word based (Ex:Tall, pretty)Quantitative-number based (Ex: 6ft, 150lbs)Quantitative-number based (Ex: 6ft, 150lbs)

-After every jump shot record if shot was a success -After every jump shot record if shot was a success or faliure or faliure

Collecting and Analyzing DataCollecting and Analyzing Data

-Graphs are a good way to analyze -Graphs are a good way to analyze data because they show comparisons data because they show comparisons between variables.between variables.

Collecting and Analyzing DataCollecting and Analyzing DataNameName PicturePicture UsesUses

Line GraphLine Graph --To show relationships To show relationships between variables and between variables and trends.trends.

Bar GraphBar Graph -To compare -To compare information that does information that does not continuously not continuously change.change.

Pie GraphPie Graph -Shows parts of a whole -Shows parts of a whole and percentages.and percentages.

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Hours Studying vs. Grade on a Test

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6. Draw Conclusions6. Draw Conclusions

--In this step of the scientific method, In this step of the scientific method, you look at your data from your you look at your data from your experiment, and decide whether your experiment, and decide whether your hypothesis was correct or incorrect.hypothesis was correct or incorrect. A good conclusion has three parts:A good conclusion has three parts:

Sewer lice are harmful because all 10 Sewer lice are harmful because all 10 fish died after 20 minutes in the fish died after 20 minutes in the freshwaterfreshwater