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Types of territoriality State Ethnic Religious Racial Fears of Balkanization” plitting state) But common defiance of outsiders

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Post on 30-Dec-2015




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Types of territoriality. State Ethnic Religious Racial Fears of “Balkanization” (splitting state) But common defiance of outsiders. Pan-isms (Uniting same group from different states) Ethnic:Pan-Arab, Pan-Kurdish Religious:Pan-Islamic Racial:Pan-African - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Page 1: Types of territoriality

Types of territorialityState




Fears of“Balkanization”(splitting state)

But commondefiance ofoutsiders

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Pan-isms(Uniting same group from different states)

Ethnic: Pan-Arab, Pan-Kurdish

Religious: Pan-Islamic

Racial: Pan-African

States: Pan-American

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Ethnic group in Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Syria.

Many Kurdsfor state ofKurdistan.

States pit Kurdsagainst each other

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Ethnic:Arabs vs.Kurds

Religion:Sunnis vs.Shi’as

Rulers areSunni Arab

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IRAN (Shi’a Persian) vs.IRAQ (Sunni Arab)

Yet Iraqi Shi’as fought for Iraq,Iranian Arabs fought for Iran

(State territoriality won)

Iran-Iraq War, 1980-88



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ARMENIA (Christian) vs.AZERBAIJAN (Shi’a Mulsim)

Yet Shi’a Iran stayed neutral,fearing ethnic Azeris in NW Iran (Ethnic territoriality won)

Armenia-AzerbaijanWar, 1988-94

Armenian (above) and Azeri views

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Kashmir conflict(CHINA)




INDIA (Hindu) vs.PAKISTAN (Muslim)

British India partitionedinto two states, 1948.

Kashmir had Muslimmajority but Hindu ruler.

Wars split Kashmirbetween India,Pakistan, and China(all now have nukes)

Indian andPakistanipropagandamaps

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Nile River

Mediterranean Sea

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British Palestine1918-48

Arab ethnic majority

Jewish religious minority grew in 1940s

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UN Partition Plan, 1948

• Jewish State (Israel)

• Arab State (Palestine)

• International Zone (Jerusalem)

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Israeli Jews vs. Palestinians. other Arabs

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Israeli Settlementsand Palestinian

towns in theWest Bank, 2000

Israeli settlers see ashistoric Jewish homeland

Palestinians compareillegal settlements to


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Zionism:Jewish (religious) territoriality

Israelis are multiethnicEuropean, Middle Eastern,Newer Russian, Ethiopian immigrants

Arab Israeli minority

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Palestinians (in West Bank and Gaza Strip)

Arab (ethnic) territoriality

Palestinians are multireligiousMuslims and Christians

Ethnic nationalist movement, but some newer Muslim groups

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Water & Israel’sborder

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Palestinianautonomy, 2000

Gradual turnover of Israeli-Occupied areas to Palestinians

for “Two-State Solution”

Plan collapsing askillings increase

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Wall, Barrier orNew Border?

Israelis: “Security Barrier” tokeep bombers out of Israel.

Palestinians: “ Wall” isolatesvillages, cuts water access

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Jerusalem: Holy City to Jews, Muslims, and Christians

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West (Israeli);East (Arab)with Israeli settlements

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Palestinian and Israeli propaganda maps

Palestinian mapwithout Israel

Israeli map lumping together Arab states;depicting tiny defenseless Israel

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Cold War propaganda map: “Red menace”

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View of Communist “Red Bloc” during Cold War

Lumping failed to recognizedifferences among Communists,

or local causes of conflict

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Samuel Huntington theory of Western, Islamic, Slavic, etc. “blocs” in conflict with each other.

“Clash of Civilizations” theory

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Fails to recognize differences within each “bloc.”

Most sources of conflict are local (often ethnic), not religious.

Often blames the victimfor the conflict.

The West shares responsibilityfor conflicts

(military aid arms both sides)

“Clash of Civilizations” theory

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Lumping Arabs or Muslims after Sept. 11

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How Many Americans View the World

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Bush’s Viewof the World

Problem:some formerallies laterseen as “evil”

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State’s power to control State’s power to control territory, shape international policyterritory, shape international policy

and other states’ foreign policy and other states’ foreign policy

State’s power to control State’s power to control territory, shape international policyterritory, shape international policy

and other states’ foreign policy and other states’ foreign policy

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Growth of Russian Empire

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Decolonization, 1940s-1990s

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Ethnic nations split betweenand within colonial empires

(British, French, Russian)

But “clean” ethnicboundaries also not possible

BerlinConferencedivides mapof Africa, 1884

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Mackinder’s Heartland Theory(Whoever controls Pivot Area can control the world)

The “Great Game” between Britain and Russia, 1800s-1900s

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Enlargement ofSoviet bloc after

World War II



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NATO and Warsaw Pact, 1945-89

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Changes in Europe, 1990-93

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North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 2002


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Began as EuropeanEconomic

Community(EEC), 1957.

Stronger in 1994

10 new membersto join, 2004


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United Nations member states

Switzerland 2002

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Other international alliances