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©2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 1 Key facts, figures and tables Overview of Australian Indigenous health status 2013

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  • Slide 1
  • 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 1 Key facts, figures and tables Overview of Australian Indigenous health status 2013
  • Slide 2
  • 2 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Indigenous population At 30 June 2013, the estimated Australian Indigenous population was 698,583 In 2013, NSW had the highest number of Indigenous people (216,612 people, 31% of the total Indigenous population). In 2013, the NT had the highest proportion of Indigenous people in its population (30% of the NT population were Indigenous). In 2011, around 33% of Indigenous people lived in a capital city. There was a 21% increase in the number of Indigenous people counted in the 2011 Census compared with the 2006 Census. The Indigenous population is much younger than the non- Indigenous population.
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  • 3 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Estimated Indigenous population, by jurisdiction, Australia, 30 June 2013 Notes: 1.Preliminary estimates are subject to revision; population projections are expected to be finalised by 2014 2.Australian population includes Jervis Bay Territory, the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Christmas Island 3.Proportions of jurisdiction population have used total population figures estimated from demographic information for June 2013 Source: ABS, 2014 JurisdictionIndigenous populationProportion of Australian Indigenous population (%)Proportion of jurisdiction population (%) NSW 216,61231.02.9 Vic 49,7157.10.9 Qld 198,20628.44.3 WA 91,89813.23.6 SA 38,9815.62.3 Tas 25,2693.64.9 ACT 6,5170.91.7 NT 71,11110.229.5 Australia 698,583100.03.0
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  • 4 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Population pyramid of Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations, 30 June 2011 Source: ABS, 2012
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  • 5 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Births and pregnancy outcome In 2012, there were 18,295 births registered in Australia with one or both parents identified as Indigenous (6% of all births registered). In 2012, Indigenous mothers were younger than non-Indigenous mothers; the median age was 24.8 years for Indigenous mothers and 30.7 years for all mothers. In 2012, total fertility rates were 2,710 births per 1,000 for Indigenous women and 1,933 per 1,000 for all women.
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  • 6 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet In 2011, the average birthweight of babies born to Indigenous mothers was 3,187 grams compared with 3,375 grams for babies born to non-Indigenous mothers. In 2011, the proportion of low birthweight babies born to Indigenous women was twice that of non-Indigenous women (12.6% compared with 6.0%).
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  • 7 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Age-specific fertility rates, by Indigenous status of mother, selected jurisdictions, Australia, 2012 Source: ABS, 2013 Notes: 1.Rates per 1,000 women in each age-group 2.Figures are not provided for Tas and the ACT because of the small numbers involved and doubts about the level of identification of Indigenous births, but numbers for those jurisdictions are included in figures for Australia Status of mother / age-group (years) Jurisdiction NSWVicQldWASANTAustralia Indigenous mothers 15-19676884106689079 20-24149133165170138137151 25-29143 159161133113144 30-341061051121148977103 35-39496556 493752 40-44141214 6.31013 All mothers 15-1914112219165116 20-2452426657529953 25-2910296112102108106103 30-34127133123124 112127 35-3974806367655872 40-4417 13141315
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  • 8 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Total fertility rates, by Indigenous status of mother, selected jurisdictions, Australia, 2012 Source: ABS, 2013 Notes: 1.Total fertility rate is the number of children born to 1,000 women at the current level and age pattern of fertility 2.Figures are not provided for Tas and the ACT because of the small numbers involved and doubts about the level of identification of Indigenous births. Numbers for those jurisdictions are included in figures for Australia Status of mother Jurisdiction NSWVicQldWASANTAustralia Indigenous 2,6522,6352,9533,1032,4112,3222,710 All mothers 1,9321,8911,9971,9131,8982,2061,933
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  • 9 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Mean birthweights and percentage of low birthweight for babies born to Indigenous and all mothers, by jurisdictions, Australia, 2011 Notes: 1.Low birthweight is defined as less than 2,500 grams Source: Li, Zeki, Hilder, and Sullivan, 2013 NSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAustralia Indigenous mothers Mean birthweight 3,2293,2463,2153,1443,1163,2062,9293,0893,187 % low birthweight 11.612.611.213.015.213.227.215.612.6 Non-Indigenous mothers Mean birthweight 3,3723,3713,3773,3553,3403,3813,3433,2753,367 % low birthweight 5.86.36.46.06.97.68.19.66.3
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  • 10 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Indigenous mortality In 2006-2010, the age-standardised death rate for Indigenous people was 1.9 times the rate for non-Indigenous people. Between 1991 and 2010, there was a 33% reduction in the death rates for Indigenous people in WA, SA and the NT. For Indigenous people born 2010-2012, life expectancy was estimated to be 69.1 years for males and 73.7 years for females, around 10-11 years less than the estimates for non-Indigenous males and females. In 2008-2012, age-specific death rates were higher for Indigenous people than for non-Indigenous people across all age-groups, and were much higher in the young and middle adult years.
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  • 11 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet For 2010-2012, the infant mortality rate was higher for Indigenous infants than for non-Indigenous infants; the rate for Indigenous infants was highest in the NT. From 1991 to 2010, there were significant declines in infant mortality rates for Indigenous and non-Indigenous infants in WA, SA and the NT. For 2012, the leading causes of death among Indigenous people were cardiovascular disease, neoplasms (almost entirely cancers), and injury. In 2003-2005, maternal mortality ratios were 2.7 times higher for Indigenous women than for non-Indigenous women.
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  • 12 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Jurisdiction Indigenous rate Non-Indigenous rate Rate ratio NSW9625981.6 Qld1,0895971.8 WA1,4315742.5 SA1,0606151.7 NT1,5416452.4 NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT1,1515971.9 Age-standardised death rates, by Indigenous status, and Indigenous:non- Indigenous rate ratios, NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT, 2006-2010 Notes: 1.Rates per 100,000 are directly age-standardised using the 2001 Australia standard population 2.Rate ratio is the Indigenous rate divided by the non-Indigenous rate 3.Due to the incomplete identification of Indigenous status, these figures probably under-estimate the true difference between Indigenous and non-Indigenous rates Source: AIHW, 2013
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  • 13 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet PopulationMalesFemales Indigenous Australia (unadjusted)67.472.3 Australia (headline)69.173.7 NSW70.574.6 Qld68.774.4 WA65.070.2 NT63.468.7 Total population Australia (unadjusted)79.883.2 Australia (headline)79.783.1 Expectation of life at birth in years for Indigenous people and the total population, by sex, selected jurisdictions, Australia, 2010-2012 Note: 1. This table includes two estimates for Australia. The headline estimate includes adjustments based on Australia-wide census-related information. The headline estimates should be used in all situations except those requiring comparisons with the estimates for the states and territories, for which Australia-wide information could not be applied. The unadjusted Australian estimate should be used in situations requiring such a comparison. 2..The Australian Indigenous estimates are based on deaths in all states and territories Source: ABS, 2013
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  • 14 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Age-group (years) IndigenousNon-IndigenousRate ratio MalesFemalesMalesFemalesMalesFemales NSW 0 44430.91.1 1-4 353016 2.21.9 514 12111071.21.5 15-24 833947201.82.0 25-34 1879273312.63.0 35-44 398237122673.33.6 45-54 7804282761652.82.6 55-64 1,4269946453862.22.6 65+ 4,7304,3714,1193,6761.11.2 Qld 0 87541.7 1-4 396322181.83.5 514 17161291.41.8 15-24 1246354262.32.4 25-34 24412586352.83.6 35-44 509278129683.94.1 45-54 9515272641603.63.3 55-64 1,7531,3706273632.83.8 65+ 5,9574,8443,8713,4491.51.4 Age-specific death rates, by Indigenous status and sex, and Indigenous:non- Indigenous rate ratios, NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT, 2008-2012
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  • 15 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Age-group (years) IndigenousNon-IndigenousRate ratio MalesFemalesMalesFemalesMalesFemales WA 0 95333.11.7 1-4 905319154.73.6 514 36 9104.33.7 15-24 23812559264.04.8 25-34 37720193354.15.7 35-44 771499124666.27.6 45-54 1,3299802541535.26.4 55-64 2,3141,6065753344.04.8 65+ 6,2575,2953,6983,3511.71.6 SA 0 66331.72.0 1-4 0.07325150.04.9 514 1718882.12.2 15-24 1749953213.34.8 25-34 30016684353.64.8 35-44 725500144825.06.1 45-54 1,2989032991874.34.8 55-64 2,0701,2976653963.13.3 65+ 4,3523,9274,2623,8951.0 Age-specific death rates, by Indigenous status and sex, and Indigenous:non- Indigenous rate ratios, NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT, 2008-2012
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  • 16 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Age-group (years) IndigenousNon-IndigenousRate ratio MalesFemalesMalesFemalesMalesFemales NT 014114 4 3.53.0 1-4 8279 35 9 2.4 8.6 514 3952 23 91.76.0 15-24 311 114101343.13.4 25-34454216 93284.9 7.7 35-44 902 647134 46 6.713.9 45-541,6121,2533331444.8 8.7 55-642,997 1,933735 3084.16.3 65+6,8445,2353,2212,4312.12.2 Age-specific death rates, by Indigenous status and sex, and Indigenous:non- Indigenous rate ratios, NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT, 2008-2012 Notes: 1.Rates are per 1,000 2.Rate ratio is the Indigenous rate divided by the non-Indigenous rate 3.Due to the small number of deaths registered in Vic, Tas and the ACT, information for these jurisdictions have been excluded Source: ABS, 2013
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  • 17 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Jurisdiction Indigenous Non- Indigenous Rate ratio MalesFemalesMalesFemalesMalesFemales NSW3.8 4.03.01.01.3 Qld7.56.24.84.11.61.5 WA8.54.42.82.53.01.8 SA7.15.93.22.82.22.1 NT15.611.73.54.04.52.9 Infant mortality rates, by Indigenous status and sex, and Indigenous:non- Indigenous rate ratios, NSW, Qld, SA, WA and the NT, 2010-2012 Notes: 1.Infant mortality rate is the number of infant deaths per 1,000 live births 2.Rate ratio is the Indigenous rate divided by the non-Indigenous rate 3.The Indigenous rates are likely to be under-estimated, due to the incomplete identification of Indigenous status on births and deaths records 4.Due to the small number of deaths registered in Vic, Tas and the ACT, these jurisdictions have been excluded Source: Derived from ABS, 2013
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  • 18 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Cause of death Rate Rate ratio IndigenousNon-Indigenous Circulatory diseases3512011.7 Neoplasms2451781.4 Endocrine, metabolic and nutritional disorders (including diabetes)118225.4 Respiratory diseases112492.3 External causes84372.3 Digestive diseases58202.8 Kidney diseases40113.5 Nervous system diseases27241.1 Infectious and parasitic diseases258.72.9 Conditions originating in the perinatal period6.02.82.2 Other causes85432.0 All causes1,1515971.9 Age-standardised death rates, by Indigenous status and cause, and Indigenous:non-Indigenous rate ratios, NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT, 2006-2010 Notes: 1.Due to under-identification of Indigenous deaths, these rates are likely to under-estimate the true differences between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations 2.Rates per 100,000 population have been standardised using the 2001 Australian population as the standard 3.Rate ratio is the Indigenous rate divided by the non-Indigenous rate Source: AIHW, 2013
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  • 19 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Indigenous statusConfinementsMaternal deathsMaternal mortality ratio Indigenous27,901 Direct and indirect maternal deaths 621.5 Direct maternal deaths 27.2 Non-Indigenous745,347 Direct and indirect maternal deaths 597.9 Direct maternal deaths 273.6 Numbers of confinements and maternal deaths, and maternal mortality ratios, by Indigenous status, Australia, 2003-2005 Notes: 1.Maternal mortality ratio is the number of maternal deaths divided by the number of confinements (in 100,000s). 2.Due to some uncertainty about the numbers of Indigenous deaths and confinements, some caution must be exercised in the interpretation of the ratios 3.The non-Indigenous numbers and ratios include deaths for which Indigenous status was not known. This probably results in a slight, unknown over-estimate of non-Indigenous numbers and ratios, and a resultant under-estimate of the differences between Indigenous and non- Indigenous women Source: Derived from Sullivan, Hall, King, 2008
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  • 20 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Indigenous hospitalisation In 2011-12, 4.0% of all hospitalisations were of Indigenous people. In 2011-12, the age-standardised separation rate for Indigenous people was 2.5 times higher than that for other Australians. In 2011-12, the main cause of hospitalisation for Indigenous people was for care involving dialysis, responsible for 45% of Indigenous separations.
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  • 21 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Jurisdiction IndigenousNon-Indigenous Rate ratio NumberRateNumberRate NSW72,4896142,658,2533501.8 Vic20,4598072,441,1244191.9 Qld88,6678391,813,7364042.1 WA75,3061,563949,1564083.8 SA23,3661,162673,9293753.1 NT78,4161,77933,7073145.7 All jurisdictions366,1189738,890,0513852.5 Numbers of hospital separations and age-standardised separation rates, by Indigenous status and jurisdiction, and Indigenous:non-Indigenous rate ratios, NSW, Vic, Qld, WA, SA and the NT, 2011-12 Notes: 1.Rates per 1,000 population 2.Non-Indigenous rates and numbers include separations for which Indigenous status was not stated 3.Rate ratio is the Indigenous rate divided by the non-Indigenous rate 4.Numbers and rates for the NT are for public hospitals only; separate numbers and rates not included for Tas or the ACT, but included in totals where applicable 5.The incomplete identification of Indigenous status means that these figures probably under-estimate the true difference between Indigenous and non- Indigenous rates Source: AIHW, 2012
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  • 22 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Age- group (years) MalesFemales Indigenous rateNon-Indigenous rateRate ratioIndigenous rateNon-Indigenous rateRate ratio 0-43652691.43072081.5 5-91431091.3115861.3 10-14112891.3104761.4 15-191451371.13191931.7 20-242101421.55362722.0 25-292811422.05983401.8 30-344141672.56334131.5 35-396482023.28673822.3 40-441,0082464.19703292.9 45-491,2783014.21,3113373.9 50-541,4723793.91,5263933.9 55-591,8635133.62,1854654.7 60-642,0036912.92,5215794.4 65+2,0331,2911.62,3171,0062.3 Age-specific hospital separation rates, by sex and Indigenous status, and Indigenous:non-Indigenous rate ratios, Australia, 2011-12 Notes: 1.Rates per 1,000 population 2.Non-Indigenous includes separations for which Indigenous status was not stated 3.Rate ratio is the Indigenous rate divided by the non-Indigenous rate 4.Rates have not been adjusted for likely under-identification of Indigenous separations, so it is likely that the Indigenous rates, and hence the rate ratios, could be 25-30% higher Source: Derived from AIHW, 2013, ABS, 2009, ABS, 2012, ABS, 2013
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  • 23 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Principal diagnosisNumber of separationsProportion of separations (excl dialysis) (%)Ratio Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes 24,426132.0 Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium21,98910.81.5 Diseases of the respiratory system21,26510.52.7 Diseases of the digestive system18,2979.01.0 Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified 17,4388.61.5 Mental and behavioural disorders15,0097.42.1 Diseases of the circulatory system10,9925.41.7 Diseases of the genitourinary system9,3874.61.2 Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue7,9943.92.5 Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue6,8803.40.9 Certain infectious and parasitic diseases5,9902.91.9 Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases5,2692.6 Neoplasms5,2402.60.7 203,1251001.3 Numbers and proportions (%) for leading causes of Indigenous hospital separations (excluding dialysis), and Indigenous:non-Indigenous rate ratios, Australia, 2010-11 All causes, excluding dialysis Notes: 1.Excludes hospitalisation for dialysis 2.Information for the NT is for public hospitals only 3.Rate ratio is the Indigenous rate divided by the non-Indigenous rate 4.Due to the incomplete identification of Indigenous status, these figures probably under-estimate the true difference between Indigenous and non-Indigenous rates Source: AIHW, 2013
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  • 24 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Cardiovascular disease In 2012-2013, 12% of Indigenous people reported having a long- term heart or related condition; after age-adjustment, these conditions were around 1.2 times more common for Indigenous people than non-Indigenous people In 2010-11, Indigenous males were hospitalised for coronary heart disease at 1.9 times the rate of non-Indigenous males and Indigenous females were hospitalised at 3.1 times the rate of non- Indigenous females In 2012, cardiovascular disease was the leading cause of death for Indigenous people, accounting for 25% of Indigenous deaths. In 2006-2010, the age-adjusted death rate for Indigenous people was 1.7 times the rate for non-Indigenous people.
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  • 25 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Cancer In 2004-2008, age-adjusted cancer incidence rates were slightly higher for Indigenous people than for non-Indigenous people. In 2004-2008, the most common cancers diagnosed among Indigenous people were lung and breast cancer. In 2010-11, age-standardised hospitalisation rates for cancer were lower for Indigenous people than for non-Indigenous people. In 2012, the age-standardised death rate for cancer for Indigenous people was 1.5 times higher than that for non-Indigenous people.
  • Slide 26
  • 26 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Site of primary cancerIndigenous peopleNon-Indigenous peopleRate ratio Lung80431.9 Breast (females)821040.8 Prostate (males)1051480.7 Bowel48590.8 Cervix (females)1872.8 Pancreas15101.5 Non-Hodgkin lymphoma14160.9 Skin (melanoma)9320.3 Unknown primary site24121.9 Age-standardised incidence rates for selected cancers, by Indigenous status, and Indigenous:non-Indigenous rate ratios, NSW, Qld, WA and the NT, 2004-2008 Notes: 1.Rates per 100,000 population, age-standardised to the Australian population at 30 June 2001 2.Ratio is the Indigenous rate divided by the non-Indigenous rate 3.Due to the incomplete identification of Indigenous status, these figures probably under-estimate the true difference between Indigenous and non-Indigenous rates Source: AIHW and Australasian Association of Cancer Registries, 2013
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  • 27 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Site of primary cancerIndigenous peopleNon-Indigenous peopleRate ratio Lung64331.9 Liver1753.3 Breast (female)28211.3 Unknown primary site16101.6 Bowel13160.8 Pancreas1391.4 Oesophagus1152.3 Prostate (males)31301.0 Stomach741.7 Cervix (females)723.9 All cancers2521721.5 Age-standardised death rates for selected cancers, by Indigenous status, and Indigenous:non-Indigenous rate ratios, NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT, 2007-2011 Note 1.Rates per 100,000 population, age-standardised to the Australian population at 30 June 2001 2.Ratio is the Indigenous rate divided by the non-Indigenous rate 3.Rates are age-standardised to the Australian population at 20 June 2001 4.Due to the incomplete identification of Indigenous status, these figures probably under-estimate the true difference between Indigenous and non-Indigenous rates 5.Rates for 2007-2009 are final, 2010 are revised and 2011 are preliminary Source: AIHW and National Mortality Database, 2013
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  • 28 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Diabetes In 2012, 8% of Indigenous people reported having diabetes and/or high sugar levels; after age-adjustment, Indigenous people were 3.3 times more likely to report having diabetes and/or high sugar levels than were non-Indigenous people. In 2008-2010, age-adjusted hospitalisation rates for diabetes for Indigenous males and females were 3.9 and 5.7 times the rates of other males and females. In 2012, Indigenous people in NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT died from diabetes at almost 7 times the rate of non-Indigenous people.
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  • 29 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Social and emotional wellbeing In 2012-2013, 30% of Indigenous adults reported high levels of psychological distress in the previous 4 weeks; after age- adjustment, 2.7 times the proportion for non-Indigenous people. In 2012-2013, 69% of Indigenous people aged 15 years and over experienced one or more specific stressors in the previous 12 months; after age-adjustment, almost 1.4 times the proportion for non-Indigenous people. In 2008, 90% of Indigenous people reported feeling happy either some, most, or all of the time.
  • Slide 30
  • 30 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet In 2011-12, after age-adjustment, Indigenous people were hospitalised for ICD Mental and behavioural disorders at 2.1 times the rate for non-Indigenous people. In 2012, the death rate for ICD Intentional self-harm (suicide) for Indigenous people in NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT was 2.4 times the rate reported for non-Indigenous people.
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  • 31 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Type of stressorProportion of Indigenous people (%)Ratio Death of a family member or close friend371.9 Serious illness231.4 Not able to get a job232.5 Alcohol or drug related problems183.6 Mental illness161.7 Trouble with the police135.0 Involuntary loss of job92.4 Divorce or separation81.0 Gambling problems85.8 Witness to violence83.9 Abuse or violent crime73.4 Serious accident71.8 Serious disability62.3 Total reporting specific stressor(s)691.4 Proportions (%) of stressors reported by Indigenous people in the previous 12 months and Indigenous:non-Indigenous ratios, by stressor type, Australia, 2012-13 Notes: 1.Proportions are expressed as percentages 2. Ratios are based on age-adjusted prevalences from the 2012-2013 AATSIHS and the 2011-13 Australian Health Survey Source: ABS, 2013
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  • 32 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet JurisdictionIndigenousRate ratios PersonsMalesFemalesPersonsMalesFemales NSW1424n.p.1.61.8n.p. Qld2230141.81.62.6 WA3955223.33.14.1 SA2535n.p.2.22.0n.p. NT2947n.p.2.42.3n.p. Age-standardised death rates for intentional self-harm, Indigenous people by sex and jurisdiction and Indigenous:non-Indigenous rate ratios, NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT, 2008-2012 Notes: 1.Rate per 100,000 population, standardised to the Australian 2011 ERP 2.Rate ratio is the Indigenous rate divided by the non-Indigenous rate 3.n.p. not published 4.Due to the incomplete identification of Indigenous status, these figures probably under-estimate the true differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people Source: ABS, 2014
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  • 33 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Age-group (years) IndigenousRate ratios PersonsMalesFemalesPersonsMalesFemales 1-14212.210.36.316.2 15-244362235.2 25-344566233.53.34.4 35-443249172.0.1.92.4 45+n.p. All ages2233n.p.2.12.0n.p. Age-standardised death rates for intentional self-harm, Indigenous people by sex and age-group and Indigenous:non-Indigenous rate ratios, NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT, 2008-2012 Notes: 1.Rate per 100,000 population, standardised to the Australian 2011 ERP 2.Rate ratio is the Indigenous rate divided by the non-Indigenous rate 3.n.p. not published 4.Due to the incomplete identification of Indigenous status, these figures under-estimate the true differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people Source: ABS, 2014
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  • 34 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Kidney health In 2008-2012, after age-adjustment, the notification rate of end stage renal disease was 7.3 times higher for Indigenous people than for non-Indigenous people. In 2011-12, care involving dialysis was the most common reason for hospitalisation among Indigenous people; Indigenous people were hospitalised at almost 12 times the rate for other Australians. In 2006-2010, the age-standardised death rate from kidney disease was four times higher for Indigenous people than for non- Indigenous people.
  • Slide 35
  • 35 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Jurisdiction IndigenousNon-Indigenous Rate ratio NumberRateNumberRate NSW1593493,709963.7 Vic484632,854964.8 Qld2846062,109964.8 WA2391,0461,0549311.3 SA809468779410.1 NT3381,537709615.9 Australia1,16369311,179957.3 Numbers of notifications and age-standardised notification rates for end- stage renal disease, by Indigenous status, and Indigenous:non-Indigenous rate ratios, selected jurisdictions, Australia, 2008-2012 Notes: 1.Rates per 1,000,000 population have been standardised using the ERP from 30 June 2001 2.Rate ratio is the Indigenous rate divided by the non-Indigenous rate 3.Notification rates for Tas and the ACT have not been shown separately because of the small numbers of notifications, but are included in the figures for Australia Source: Derived from ANZDATA, 2013, ABS, 2010, ABS, 2001, ABS, 2009
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  • 36 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Age-group (years) IndigenousNon-Indigenous Rate ratio NumberRateNumberRate 0-145515980.6 15-242136259172.1 25-3467170515335.2 35-442416988965812.1 45-543731,4361,56810513.7 55-643272,1472,40119211.2 65-741071,6212,7943484.7 75+207852,5873742.1 All ages1,16369311,179957.3 Numbers of notifications and notification rates of end-stage renal disease, by Indigenous status and age-group, and Indigenous:non-Indigenous rate ratios, Australia, 2008-2012 Notes: 1.Rates per 1,000,000 population 2.Rate ratio is the Indigenous rate divided by the non-Indigenous rate 3.Rates for All ages are age-standardised Source: Derived from ANZDATA, 2013, ABS, 2010, ABS, 2001, ABS, 2009
  • Slide 37
  • 37 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Injury In 2010-11, after age-adjustment, Indigenous people were hospitalised for injury at 2.0 times the rate for other Australians. In 2011-12, the hospitalisation rate for assault was 34 times higher for Indigenous women than for other women. In 2012, injury was the third most common cause of death among Indigenous people, accounting for 15% of Indigenous deaths.
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  • 38 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Respiratory disease In 2004-2005, 27% of Indigenous people reported having a respiratory condition, with 15% having asthma; after age- adjustment, the levels of respiratory disease were similar for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people. In 2010-11, the age-standardised hospitalisation rate for respiratory disease was 2.7 times higher for Indigenous people than for other Australians. In 2012, after age-adjustment, the death rate for Indigenous people was 2.2 times that for non-Indigenous people.
  • Slide 39
  • 39 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet MalesFemalesPersons RateRate ratioRateRate ratioRateRate ratio Chronic lower respiratory diseases882.9653.2753.0 Pneumonia and influenza242.4161.8192.1 Other respiratory disease241.2141.2181.2 All respiratory disease1352.3952.41122.3 Age-standardised death rates for respiratory disease, Indigenous people, by sex and condition, and Indigenous:non-Indigenous rate ratios, NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT, 2006-2010 Notes: 1.Chronic lower respiratory diseases include asthma, bronchitis, emphysema and other COPD 2.Rates, in deaths per 100,000, are directly age-standardised using the Australian 2001 estimated resident population, by 5-year age-group to 75+ Source: AIHW, 2013
  • Slide 40
  • 40 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Eye health In 2012-2013 eye and sight problems were reported by 33% of Indigenous people. In 2008, the rate of low vision for Indigenous adults aged 40 years and older was 2.8 times higher than for their non-Indigenous counterparts. In 2008, the rate of blindness for Indigenous adults aged 40 years and older was 6.2 times higher than for their non-Indigenous counterparts.
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  • 41 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Bilateral vision loss and blindness among Indigenous adults, by type of eye problem, 2008, Australia Source: NIEHS 2009
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  • 42 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Ear health In 2012-2013, ear and mastoid and/or hearing problems were reported by 12% of Indigenous people. In 2011-12, the hospitalisation rate for Indigenous people for all ear disease was 1.3 times higher than the non-Indigenous rate.
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  • 43 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Oral health In 2000-2003, Indigenous children had more caries in their deciduous and permanent teeth than did non-Indigenous children; they also had higher levels of gingivitis. In 2004-2006, caries and periodontal diseases were more prevalent among Indigenous adults than among non-Indigenous adults.
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  • 44 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Disability In 2011, after age-adjustment, Indigenous people were 1.9 times as likely as non-Indigenous people to have a profound/core activity restriction.
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  • 45 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet MalesFemalesPersons Age- group (years) Indigenous Non- Indigenous RatioIndigenous Non- Indigenous RatioIndigenous Non- Indigenous Ratio 0-41.71.21.41.10.71.51.41.01.4 5-144.83.31.52.61.6 3.72.51.5 15-193.82.31.72.61.41.83.21.91.7 20-243.41.52.22.11.11.92.81.32.1 25-343.41.42.42.71.22.33.01.32.3 35-445.21.92.74.81.92.65.01.92.6 45-548.83.02.98.83.22.88.83.12.8 55-64155.52.7145.12.8155.32.7 65+25151.729201.427181.5 All ages5.74.32.05.15.01.95.44.61.9 Prevalence (%) of people needing assistance with core activities, by sex, Indigenous status, age-group and Indigenous:non:Indigenous ratios, Australia, 2011 Notes: 1.Prevalences are expressed as percentages 2.Ratio is Indigenous proportion divided by the non-Indigenous proportion 3.Ratios for All ages have been standardised using the 2001 Australian estimated resident population 4.ABS notes that needing assistance with core activities is conceptually related to the presence of a profound/core activity restriction 5.The information in this table is based on counts from the 2011 Census Source: Derived from ABS, 2013 ABS, 2001
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  • 46 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Age-group (years)Indigenous peopleNon-Indigenous peopleRatio 15-245.32.52.1 25-346.22.42.6 35-446.23.02.1 45-54104.12.5 55+188.52.1 All ages9.94.52.2 Prevalence (%) of people aged 15 years or older living in non-remote areas with profound/severe core activity limitation, by Indigenous status and age-group, and Indigenous:non-Indigenous ratios, Australia, 2008 Notes: 1.Ratio is the Indigenous percentage divided by the non-Indigenous percentage 2.Proportions for All ages is age standardised 3.Needing assistance with core activities is conceptually related to the presence of a profound/core activity restriction Source: AIHW, 2013
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  • 47 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet YearsNSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust 2008-092479234364103533 2009-10317924496116562236 2010-11366426536620655541 Proportions (%) of Indigenous potential population aged 0-64 years accessing NDA state/territory-delivered disability support services, by jurisdiction and year, Australia, 2008-2011 Source: Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision, 2013
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  • 48 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Communicable diseases In 2005-2009, after age-adjustment, the notification rate for tuberculosis was 11.1 times higher for Indigenous people than for Australian-born non- Indigenous people. In 2010-2012, the crude notification rate for hepatitis B for Indigenous people was 3.1 times the rate for non-Indigenous people. The crude notification rate for hepatitis C for Indigenous people was 3.8 times the notification rate for non-Indigenous people. In 2007-2010, notification rates for Haemophilus influenza type b were 12.9 times higher for Indigenous people than for other Australians. In 2007-2010, the age-standardised rate of invasive pneumococcal disease was 3.6 times higher for Indigenous people than for other Australians.
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  • 49 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet JurisdictionNumberRate NSW212.7 Vic42.3 Qld486.5 WA61.7 SA64.2 Tas22.1 ACT00.0 NT6520.0 Australia1525.8 Numbers of new cases and crude notification rates of tuberculosis among Indigenous people, by jurisdiction, Australia, 2005-2009 Notes: 1.Population figures are for 30 June 2007 (the mid-point of the five-year period, 2005-2009) 2.Rates are crude incidence rates per 100,000 population Source: Roche, 2007, Roche, 2008, Barry, 2009, Barry, 2012, ABS, 2007 and ABS, 2009
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  • 50 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Age-group (years) IndigenousNon-Indigenous Rate ratio NumberRateNumberRate 0-451.5550.91.8 5-14121.8470.45.1 15-24173.3700.56.6 25-34256.8710.514 35-44309.0470.329 45-543113.3620.431 55-641914.8600.529 65+1315.82361.79.2 All ages1525.86480.611.1 Notes: 1.Rates are per 100,000 population 2.Any discrepancy between the figures shown for All ages and the sum of the number for the specific age-groups is due to age not being stated in the notification 3.Rate ratio is the Indigenous rate divided by the non-Indigenous rate 4.The rate ratio for 'All ages' is the standardised incidence ratio, which is the number of Indigenous cases reported divided by the number expected if the Indigenous population had the same age-specific rates as the non-Indigenous population Source: Derived from: Roche, 2007, Roche, 2008, Barry, 2009, Barry, 2012, ABS, 2007 and ABS, 2009 Numbers of new cases and notification rates of tuberculosis, by Indigenous status and age-group, and Indigenous:non-Indigenous rate ratios, Australia, 2005-2009
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  • 51 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet In 2007-2010, the age-standardised notification rate of meningococcal disease was 2.7 times higher for Indigenous people than for other Australians; the rate for Indigenous children aged 0-4 years was 3.8 times higher than that for their non-Indigenous counterparts. In 2010-2012, Indigenous people had higher crude notification rates for gonorrhoea, syphilis and chlamydia than did non-Indigenous people; particularly for gonorrhoea with notification rates for Indigenous people 41 times higher for non-Indigenous people. In 2012, age-standardised rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis were similar for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people. In 2002-2007 in some remote communities, about 70% of young children had scabies and pyoderma.
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  • 52 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Nutrition In 2012-2013, less than one-half of Indigenous people reported eating fruit (43%) and only one-in-twenty reported eating enough vegetables (5%) on a daily basis. In 2012-2013, Indigenous females were more likely than Indigenous males to have eaten an adequate amount of fruit (44% and 41% respectively and vegetables (7% and 3% respectively ).
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  • 53 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Physical activity In 2012-2013, 46% of Indigenous adults living in non-remote areas met the target of 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on most days. In 2012-2013, 62% of Indigenous people in non-remote areas reported that they were physically inactive in the week prior to the survey, after age adjustment, this level was 1.1 times that of non- Indigenous people.
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  • 54 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Bodyweight In 2012-2013, 66% of Indigenous people aged 15 years or older were classified as overweight or obese; after age-adjustment, the level of obesity/overweight was 1.1 times higher for Indigenous people than for their non-Indigenous counterparts.
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  • 55 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Immunisation In 2011, 87% of Indigenous children aged 5 years were fully immunised against the recommended vaccine-preventable disease compared with 90% of other children.
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  • 56 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Breastfeeding In 2010, breastfeeding initiation levels were similar among Indigenous and non-Indigenous mothers (87% and 90% respectively).
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  • 57 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Tobacco use In 2013-2013, 43% of Indigenous adults were current smokers; after age-adjustment, this proportion was 2.4 times higher than the proportion among non-Indigenous adults Between 2002 and 2013, there has been a decline in the number of cigarettes smoked daily among Indigenous people. In 2011, 50% of Indigenous mothers reported smoking during pregnancy.
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  • 58 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Alcohol use In 2012-2013, 23% of Indigenous adults abstained from alcohol; this level was 1.6 times higher than that among the non-Indigenous population In 2012-2013, after age-adjustment, lifetime drinking risk was similar for both the Indigenous and non-Indigenous population. In 2008-10, after age-adjustment, Indigenous males were hospitalised at five times and Indigenous females at four times the rates of their non-Indigenous counterparts for a principal diagnosis related to alcohol use. In 2006-2010, the age-standardised death rates alcohol-related deaths for Indigenous males and females were five and eight times higher, respectively, than those for their non-counterparts.
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  • 59 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Illicit drug use In 2012-2013, 22% of Indigenous adults reported that they had used an illicit substance in the previous 12 months. In 2005-2009, the rate of drug-induced deaths was 1.5 times higher for Indigenous people than for non-Indigenous people.
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  • 60 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2014 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet JurisdictionIndigenous rateNon-Indigenous rateRate ratio NSW11.55.52.1 Qld4.04.30.9 WA9.35.41.7 SA17.86.32.8 NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT7.85.31.5 Rates of drug induced deaths, by Indigenous status, and Indigenous:non- Indigenous rate ratios, NSW, Qld, WA, SA, and the NT, 2005-2009 Notes: 1.Rates are per 100,000 (indirect standardisation) 2.Non-Indigenous does not include deaths where Indigenous status is not stated 3.Separate rates for the NT were not provided due to low numbers of deaths Source: Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision, 2011