coffee highlight

Click here to load reader

Post on 08-Jul-2015

71 views

Category:

Education

1 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

agrotechnology

TRANSCRIPT

  • Coffea arabica

    Coffee

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

  • Introduction

    Coffea (coffee) is a large genus (containing more than 90 species)

    of flowering plants in the family

    Rubiaceae

    They are shrubs or small trees, native to subtropical Africa and

    southern Asia. Seed of several

    species are the source of the

    beverage coffee

  • Introduction

    The coffee plant is a woody perennial evergreen dicotyledon and because it grows to a relatively large height, it is more accurately described as a coffee tree.

    It has a main vertical trunk (orthotropic) and primary, secondary, and tertiary horizontal branches (plagiotropic).

    (What are plant parts, e.g. roots that grow into the soil called?)

  • Introduction

    The seeds are called beans in the trade. Coffee beans are widely

    cultivated in tropical countries in

    plantations for both local

    consumption and export to

    temperate countries. Coffee ranks

    as one of the worlds major commodity crops and is the major

    export product of some countries.

  • Introduction

    When grown in the tropics coffee is a vigorous bush or small tree easily grown to a height of 3-3.5m. It is capable of withstanding severe pruning. It cannot be grown where there is a winter frost. Bushes grow best at the high elevations.

    To produce a maximum yield of coffee berries (800-1400 kg/ha), the plants need substantial amounts of water and fertilizer.

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

  • Introduction

    Calcium carbonate and other lime minerals are sometimes used to reduce acidity in the soil, which can occur due tot run-off minerals from the soil in mountainous areas.

    The caffeine content in the coffee beans is a natural defense, the toxic substance repelling many creatures that would otherwise eat the seeds, as with nicotine in the tobacco leaves.

  • Introduction

    The coffee tree requires a mean temperature of 19-25. Thus, the coffee tree is a tropical plant.

    (it is not a coincidence that coffee and humans thrive in the same temperature. Our original home is the same Africa . It is quite possible that Eve (Hawa) and her contemporaries (about 2.8 million years ago) munched coffee beans for pleasure)

  • Introduction

    The coffee plant cannot stand frost but does not die from an occasional

    cold night. It needs lots of water

    requiring annual rainfall of

    1500mm. Coffee plantations are

    normally situated in the altitude

    range of 300-2000m around the

    Equator.

  • Introduction

    There are several species of coffee that may be grown for the beans,

    but the Coffea arabica is the

    considered to have the best quality.

    The other species (especially Coffea canephora (var. robusta))

    are grown on the land unsuitable

    for the Coffea arabica

  • Introduction

    The tree produces red or purple fruits (drupes), which contain two seeds (the coffee beans, although not true beans).

    In about 5-20% of any crop of coffee cherries, the cherry will contain only a single bean (seed), rather than the two usually found. This called a peaberry, which is smaller and rounder than a normal coffee bean.

    (Check on this during practical class!)

  • Introduction

    Some claim that peaberries have a different flavor profile in the cup,

    while others dispute this.

    Either way, the peaberry is often removed from the yield and either

    sold separately (such as in New

    Guinea peaberry), or discarded.

  • Introduction

    The coffee tree will grow fruits after 3-5 years, for about 50-60 years (although up to 100 years is possible). The blossom of the coffee is similar to jasmine in color and smell. The fruit takes about nine months to ripen.

    Worldwide, an estimate of 15 billion coffee trees are growing 100,000km2 of land.

  • Shade grown coffee

    In its natural environment, coffee grows under the shade. Most coffee is produced on full-sun plantations, some of which were prepared through deforestation.

    Shade grown coffee naturally mulches its environment, lives twice as long as sun grown varieties, and depletes less of the soils resources.

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

  • Shade grown coffee

    Shade grown coffee is also believed by some to be of higher quality than sun grown varieties, as the cherries produced by the coffee plants under the shade are not as large as commercial varieties.

    Some believe that this smaller cherry concentrates the flavors of the cherry into the seed (bean) itself

    (Contrast between cherry and bean?)

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

  • Shade grown coffee

    Shade grown coffee is associated with environmentally friendly

    ecosystems that provide a wider

    variety and number of migratory

    birds than those of sun grown

    coffee farms

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

  • Botanical description

    The first coffee plant of economic importance was Coffea arabica. It grows to the height of 7-8 m but the cultivated plants are cut to the height of 2-4 m to get more width. The leaves of the coffee are 10-15 cm long ellipsoids, lustrous dark green with lighter underside. The flowers emerge from the branches together with he leaves.

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

  • Botanical description

    The white coffee flower has five petals and a scent resembling that of jasmine. The flowers last only 2-3 days. The coffee berries are cherry-sized and green at first, turning dark red later on. The ripening takes 8 months.

    The coffee tree starts flowering at 2-4 years old and it can simultaneously have flowers and berries in all stages of development.

  • Botanical description

    A coffee tree can be harvested from the 5th year and harvesting

    can occur many times throughout

    the year. At 25th years the tree

    becomes old but may live to be a

    wiry centenarian (100 years old)

  • Difference Between Arabica

    & Robusta Coffee Beans

    While there are several different coffee species, 2 main species are cultivated today.

    Coffea arabica, known as the Arabica coffee, accounts for 75-80% of the worlds production

    Coffea canephora, known as Robusta coffee, accounts about 20% and differs from the Arabica coffees in terms of taste.

  • Difference Between Arabica

    & Robusta Coffee Beans

    While Robusta coffee are ore robust than the Arabica plants, but its beans produces an inferior tasting beverage with a higher caffeine content.

    Both the Robusta & Arabica coffee plant can grow to heights of 10 m if not pruned, but the coffee plant is normally maintain at a height reasonable for easy harvesting

  • Coffee Plant Growth and

    Development

    3-4 years after the coffee is planted, sweetly smelling flowers

    grown in clusters in the axils of the

    coffee leaves. Fruit is produced

    only in the new tissue.

    The Coffea arabica plant is self-pollinating, whereas the Robusta

    coffee plant depends on cross

    pollination.

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

  • Coffee Plant Growth and

    Development

    About 6-8 weeks after each coffee flower is fertilized, cell division occurs and the coffee fruit remains as a pin head for a period that is dependent upon the climate. The ovaries will then develop into drupes in a rapid growth period hat takes about 15 weeks after flowering.

    During this time the integument takes on the shape of the final coffee bean. After the rapid growth period the integument and parchment are fully grown and will not increase in size.

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

  • Coffee Plant Growth and

    Development

    The endosperm remains small until about 12 weeks after flowering. At this time it will suppress, consume, and replace the integument. The remnants of the integument are what make up the silver skin. The endosperm will have completely filled the cavity made by the integument 19 weeks after flowering. The endosperm is now white and moist, but will gain dry matter during the next several months.

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

    UserHighlight

  • Coffee Plant Root System

    The roots of the coffee tree can extend 20-25km in total length and the absorbing surface of a tree ranges from 400-500m2. There are main vertical roots, tap roots, and lateral roots which grow parallel to the ground. The tap roots extend no further than 30-45cm below the soil surface.

    4-8 axial roots may be encountered which often originate horizontally but point downward. The lateral roots can extend 2 m from the trunk.

  • Coffee Leaves

    The elliptical leaves of the coffee tree are shiny, dark green and waxy. The coffee bean leaf area index is between 7-8 for a high-yielding coffee. The coffee plant has become a major source of oxygen in much of the world. Each hectare of coffee produces 86 lbs of oxygen per day, which is about half the production of the same area in a rain forest

    UserHigh