d cv - silpakorn university · 4l':lt. 0.0 ., a cv ~ q,iq

of 342 /342
d .Q<Q tl cv n 1'l ffn1111'tf '11Lfl 'l1:: l1 fl1111ff'U ff n q 91 1-5 . .. n 1fl1'tf1fl1111g)::1uflfln ,j w e¥jg) 1l1v1ci v 1Jl111'Vl v 1 ci VffCIU1 m ';'I & um'lfffl111 2545 ISBN 974-653-553- 1 " 'U fl'l,j'ru ci1911l1mciv 1Jl111l1 mci VffCI tl1m b I J..5 b J o/Ltt,. I 1';)<t9Li'Sox:

Author: others

Post on 04-Oct-2020

1 views

Category:

Documents


0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • d .Q

  • An Analytical Study of the Sanskrit Language in the SaddharmapuJ)(iarl ka Sutra Chapter 1-5

    by Sanit Sinak

    A Thesis ubmitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree MASTER OF ARTS

    Department of Oriental Languages Graduate School

    S ILPAKORN UN IVER ITY 2002

    ISB l 974-653-553- 1

  • ··-y·:.;,;r ... · .. ~·r .. ~?j U.RUHlM.tA ~uull. · r.~ fl!.Ll\L!.~QLJdNH) ,II'O,'OM /'

    uun

  • K-t1315005 : ff1'\Jl1111fiHJldWYni)C'l

    rl1!hfi'ty : fll'\-l Hl\HYflt)~ fllHli1lft'C'l{l'lnUlJ~YiV1J

    ,·m1C'lv iYtJ lil : m'iilm:Jwi1.:~itfl'il::MfllrJ1ffWYnt)C'lhtfi1Ji1{ a'mi'i'i1JtJ0111'1n'!m

    tl~1'i'lC1Vi 1-5 (A A ALYTICAL TUDY OF TilE A SKRIT LA GUAGE £N

    THE - - "'" AOIJHA RMAPU. OARIKA SUTRA CI !APT ~ R 1-5) tn\1l'iV~fl11JfJlJ c. Q ~ o r.:s A '1 "' ., .- j QJ r/Q 11 1 '1Vl'W'W'W'fi : r;m. ~~. ffltlw.:~ tcHJlJ ""· F-~fl'. ~·L \1'l'WWJ'W , 'l::'W'Uli 1'VIV1. 326 'Inn r BN 974-653-553-l

    lJ U ~ f1 ~ 1 ()f) 1'1:11 ffll ffflqVI F-lfflJ '\1 ~ tlf11lJlff'U fffl qV~ 1 U 'W 'l ::'l'Vl'li fl'1ff'W l'J 1UVI flY!' N \11 flfl1lll

    ff'u ffnqV~tl1ruumh" '1 1

    f111fYf1'1:11lHJ'l1f11'l 1-Mmlllff'WffflqVI 1 'WfilJfi{tY'V!Ti 'i 'llJ~WCVl~ fl'!VI 'l iJ.u't>Uflf1~1'1\11f1 f111:Jlff'W ffflqVIlJlVI 'l_! 1lHHl1Vth::L~'W U'i ::L~'W~ff1flqjft6 fll'l ff'W ~i,jlfl~ 'lfli'~Vl11Jf10, ')()1fl'lW

    tl'l:l !J1tiV1U'\JfJ'Itl1oh1 t'lfu fll'i hiffu ~1u~ 1u11ll '1~\1 ::~ fl'lff'W~ fll'i ffu~hi~n~fl.:J¥111Jf10

    i 1v1m w V'l:l !J 11i V1U'\Jfl'ltl1w u ri1umnv~u 1 u ri1u~tilu ~ flvm 6'1 ~ '16 1\11 ilutvn 1:: V'Vl ~·ml'\Jfl.:l -.. ., ., ., .,

    il'W'VlClfl'l:lW 'l.J'Ifl'U

    fll'l ff~ 1"fi 1UC1::11fl(Jff1J'I~'W .fi fll'i U \1 flfl 1'\.J 1lJUCI ::fi 1fl W 'W 1lJ i,jfffJVIfl~fJ'Itl'W 1 'Wl~ tl.:J • ii.:~ti' 1~u:: ue~::ifi n9i iinnl ~'WM1\1u::u'Vlu'VIi1\1'W:: nn 1i1fin9i1l,jLfl i 'lfl i'VI in n9i'U1.:~ifin9i • \) flCI'U i tl ~'ll11Lli' VlflUnfll'l ff'W U 'l:l !1'Wfl 11lJ'\1lJ1()'\JfJ'Ifl lUCI:: fflJ~\.nf V111J'\1'c) f1 l 1V1fl'ltU fll'l ff~ 1'11~ lfl~ V1iian'I:JUL:: Ltl'VIl'lf111:Jlth 1fl()Vl fttl 1 -HL~1f1~ V1~Mli'1V~1Vff'l:: 6 (6::) LiJ'W ri1'WlJ1f1

    ~u'VIa n'l:lru 1~ vri1u '1 11qjm)'1 l~ll'u'Vlan'l:lul 6~1 uth::tn'VI6'1ll on~ uvi' (fl'i~ Of!) f1u • •

    fl'41:lt)f1~'Wvl (fl'l~Of!) tl'l::Lf1'VlVI~ll!Jf1~'Wvl (~~~!Jf)) ftf) V'W'VI'iiL;fJ'lQ'Wvl (V'4YJ'l1'1f'i1) It 41 q ..

    ~LU'W'VI'liL;V'lQ'Wvl (t2LU'4YJ'l1'1f'l1) 1m:: f.lU'lf19iQ'uvf (~tl'lf19i) ue~::tl'l::Lfl'VI'lffl9iQ'u..f ('lffl9i) ftfl

    V'U'VI'l1'1fl'Q'Uvl (6u·miffl) 1'1ffffoll'uvi' (iffrt:o) 1m:: QU'lf19i\tuvi' (~tl'lf19i) 1um'lL7vuL7v'l

    filJfi{ u9lltlu umt u'VIa n'l:lw 'l.l1'1~HJ'W 1 ufilJfi{ ff'VIli 1 'llJ~WCVJ7 fl'f!VI 1 hi ff11Jn m::'l.J i~ -h,iJu

    ~u'VIanllw tl1::m'VI 1V~

    mfli'lf1nnnV~::1uv6n ~~i'VIt.llav lJ111i'VIr.navffCitl1m ilnnffn1:l1 2545 ~ .,; -- d ~ %~~t---

    C11(JlJf)'lff)'Wflfffl'I:J1 ................. ···········4········ ..... ··~ mviJ6~um\1nu~fl ')'UfllJil1mu'Wu~ 1. ..... A~ .............. 2 .. .. ?:?.~ ...... .. . .. .

  • K 41315005 : MAJOR : SANSKRIT

    KEY WORD : SANSKRIT LANGUAGE/COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS

    SANIT SINAK : AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF THE SANSKRIT

    LANGUAGE IN THE SADDHARMAPUNOARIKA SOTRA CHAPTER 1-5.

    THESIS ADVISORS : ASST. PROF. SAMNIANG LEURMSAI, Ph.D. AND ASST.

    PROF. CHIRAPAT PRAPANDVIDYA, Ph.D. 326 pp. ISBN 974-653-553-1

    The aim of this thesis is to study the so-called Mixed Sanskrit or Buddhist Sanskrit in the Saddharmapm:u;larika Sfitra chapter 1-5 from the Linguistics point of view. It has been found that there are linguistic differences i.n many aspects between Sanskrit in the Saddharmapul)c;larika Sfitra and Pal)inic Sanskrit.

    In Phonology, Sandhi or euphonic combination rules, unlike those in Classical Sanskrit, are not strictly observed, i.e. omission and improper in Sandhi are met with. These aspects were found in mostly the verses, partly, because of metric causa.

    In Morphology, forms, which are incorrect according to Pal)ini Grammar, are frequently found, particularly in verses. The nominal endings between noun and adjective are not grammatically in agreement. The Syntactical peculiarities include the loss of nominal endings, making the meaning rather obscure. A few cases of change of gender between masculine and neuter are also noted. In numbers, dual is sometimes replaced by plural. Verb formations tend to put more emphasis on thematic stems as in Prakrits.

    The metres used, in the main, are of three kinds. They are anu~rubh (anu$Jubh), tri$tubh (indravajra, upendravajra and upajati) and jagati (indravarhsa, varhsastha and upajati) in this work. There are verses, of which the metres cannot be determined.

    Department of Orienta l Languages Graduate School, Silpakorn University Academic Year 2002

    Student' s s ignature ··~··· · ·· ·· · ·· Thesis Advisors' signature l. k.;- · ·£.;.7·~ · · 2. ~~.~

    '\)

  • . ... 1~Wn::fJOHYlJ1~~~~::l1'\'l1i;'U'Nff 1~1Jf)fJn1:1'¥l~tJ1l11J 11\LlJ¥1¥11~\JolJn~ul\ lijflf\l'l

    ~1~ ve~i~lJf)fJm:i¥~! v1~ 11J ul\::u'l ,~ri 'lLff~1Jmlffm:J1Jn1:l1-d'u ffnq¥~uriuml vu -u nf1mn l u 1Jl111;~1Mmrul1'lfi'Vlv1nv 1~wl>ll\fl\>lLnn1m::l1l.i61Jthun~,::llJI>lmnlru1l11~tll>lii1~

    -w~ ::ll>l'lfl~~::flru v1~::tl~ u~ff1~ ttii ~fl'lflnnn u~ 1Jl111'Vltnnv1JmlJflfJ11'lf1Vlv1"v

    1VltJ11'\J¥11Jl111;$~ 1l\'ln'S"Ol 1 1'111'VltJ1"tJ tl~t1J¥1¥11'ff .:Jiff~1Jn11fYf1\l1LLnrflitJ V o ol .a "' ol • l "' ol"> ?I V • J q Vd ~'l11tJf!'1ff¥11Vil11tJ l>l1.~1'WIPlJ'W 1J:i::VI'W1i1'VltJ1 l1J'W "flt" ~~l>llJ1 ::nltJ Ll1fl'f1\l1nl\l1

    ~u f!'nql>lt;.:~m'l-11fl'1fl'~ 1ua::t!.:~ \1~1 ,rihuu::'W 1 ~-s- 1~fffl'U un'1 '\J l VltJ1ii'VItnHf ad1.:~a::tevl>lt.:~

    filJiH ~VlTi~~lJ~ruCVJ~n~m m~1:iVBt)J'lf'W1 imp1nty1ru ,r·nn!1mn1'111JnmC~::1uoon ,$1

    O\!Lfl~ 1::11 ~ 1lll11Aiin 1 u mn; 1iVJv1ihm ,j if ua::flru 1'11~ omfl1'lf1fl1'1-l 1~::-lu flOn'I'Jm; 1'\.J~ '1

    , , d llJC'IC'll 1ffl11lJt\"lfiO~nl~fl'il'I-J1

    ,.~~::flltl"~~lJt~vr~J'W1lJ1i1\luo ·vn::lJ111fl'lJun llnifl'~ m;n~v ~n }~·~ h~u VT'l'\J

    01'111 o1VI a Vl1'lJ'1 01~11 01~ L'Vlt~ t''Jv.:~ 110 ll~eJtHfl'S"1::,1i~11111U .:~.ffmnv1n~1ntl~::L'Vlfi'V'Wt?itJ .. . 'W 1:: fit .W f!'1Cl fl''i'W 1VI 11 1'11t! 1 ~hvi l>l m-s- fYn\11 'W 1 ::fl 1,'Walfl'fl'1 n nlJ ~~1'W 1vm~

    4l':lt. 0.0 ., A cv ~ Q,IQ. l H ru iiu

  • ~1on'l:l~~1~L;iCJu1unTtnff'u'tmq~u~CJn·:h tl'n'l:l~L'VI1U1fl~ (~q•W 1{)) ~.:~lim~ ' ..

    tJ11n~utlu6nlJ~ ,'VICJmlJViiJCJlJ ~.:~il

    ... l'\'10 1'Vl1lJ1fl~ hw ... lvlU .. lvltJ .. LvlU L'Vl1lJ1f'l:i 1'Vl1U1f'l:i 1'1'11\Jlf'l:i L'l'l1lJ1f'l:i

    "' "" ~- t "' 31- (l \311 - T (11 ~- T (l (l ~ - (l -.::. • \jl-

    "' Q 3ft- c. q ~- ~ ql ~- f] q:-

    "'\ 10

    "'\ ..... 11o '"'\ 1o ~ ~ ~- an - T \311 - T 181

    .. ll1(J Ll11lJ1fl~ lmJ 1'Vl1lJ1fl~ hltl ... 'lmJ l'Vl1lJ lfll lm1 nnu1m l'Vl1lJ1n:i

    q)-q n ~-~ 'IJ TT- r fl t:{-

    ~-~ ;) ~- Q ~-~ 'ti ~-~ OJ :51- ru

    o - tl o- v ?;- 'VI G"- ~~ Ill- u ill ({-(= ~ ~-~ \1 q- 'VI tl- t: ti ;=J - ;: 'U

    q -t tJ q)-l:f ~ ~-e 'W ~ -~ fl J:T -1= lJ

    .. l'\'l(J l'l'l1lJ1fl~ 'lvw "' lvw L'Vl1lJ1flS 'l'l'l(J .. l'l'l(J L'Vl1lJ1f'l:i L'Y11lJ1fl:i L'l'l1U1m

  • I .,~::"' I : I : I : I : I : I : I : I : I ; I : I " " VWqf11U::fHUI1JHgJ'J

    v.oty'lfu::~ hi ,:HYlJnmn~v~~~nul1 ~ vcU'vu tiu iJ1,tl~~ l tl~ 1m~h.J1!1~ ~ 1vth~t'lfu .. i'lv .. l'lV 1'111'Ulfl~ 'l..,v .. L'lV "' 'h1v L'Vl"l'Ul!'l5 L'Vl"l'Ulfl5 Lmmm m1u1m

    ijj f10 ~ 01~ i ~n ~ ~fl ~ Ol'lf

    !ij ~~ \Df 'J!'lf ~ 'VI 'VI ~ 'YJ1i R ~1'1

    ~ S}U ~ 11~ 8 '!CI :ni 11~ ~ ~WI

    ~ 't'JlJ ~ 'YJCI &l 'l'!l.J &1 '!10 ~ f1il

    ~ 'l!ru ~ 'V!~ ~ ~~ ?f l!'U ;r lJ'j

    ~ f!CI ~ ff'j 5}1 lltJ ~ rr~ ~ '11fl

    ff 11J 2 '!:!{} Qi ff'\.J ~ ~'U

  • 1151-ni'ILilmimn 'hurh

    1151 n ~11 ilu 5 mn i l1 cr:h

    4. 'WtJt:y'tfu:: ~ (;;) hJihn::Hff1Juet::oomiYv~rivuViVi1)9flJ::~111 ~~ t~tJuLilu ~ H ., . .

    uu-wuru

  • Vi.lll.

    lJ~fl~ .

    ... 1.~~~.

    /\pte.

    BHSGD. Vol. I : Gr.

    BH 'GO. Vol. 2: Die.

    Cf.

    Childers.

    rr.

    H. I. Lit. II

    JAOS.

    P. L. Vaidya.

    PTSD.

    P.

    =

    =

    =

    =

    =

    =

    Vi~ilmo lh~n1f>1 fl

    lJ~fl~~()Villil

    The Practical Sanskrit-English

    Dictionary By /\pte. Vsaman Shivram

    A~!adhyayl of Pat~ini

    Buddhist l lybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary Vol. I : Grammar By Franklin Edgerton

    Buddhist J Jybrid anskrit Grammar and Dictionary Vol. 2 : Dictionary By Franklin Edgct1on

    Compare (Ltht11JLVitJ'U01J)

    Dictionary of the Pal i Language by R. C. Chi lders

    following (L~'W~'ULU)

    History of Indian Literature Vol. 2 By Maurice Winternitz

    The Journal of the American Oriental Society

    Saddharmapul)

  • SP. trs.

    <

    >

    +

    ( 1.1)

    = The SaddharmapUJ:tQarlka or the Lotus of the True La\\ Translated By H. Kern

  • "' I , 'U'Vlfl~tJVfl1'1:11 'Vl tJ ............................................................................................................... .

    'U'Vlti~dofl1'1:11e~nq'l:l .......................................................................................................... .

    .. .... tl fll'll'lfl'j'jlJ 'j~f)lfl' ........................... .. .... .... .......................................................................... . " 0 ... tl.. .... ... ~ .... ~1

    fll'lfU~~f)l'j 'j')'j'j~t:Jfl'l:l'iLV11'W1fl'i11J'I.Hlf1'hl'i 'VW ............................................................ ..

    Q.l I Q,l Q,l tf.r=ii jj, ~ ~ t/ Vf1'1:J'itJtiUCl~ffty~fl'I:Jf:U'Vl 'lf 'W1'VW1'WVfW'fi ........................................................................ ..

    1J11Vi

    1J'Vl~ 1 .................................................. .......................................... ............................. .

    tJ 0 .... iJ fl11lJ1 'WlJ1UCl~fl11lJrl'1flty'\Jtl.:) ty'l11 .......................................................... . I .... tl .. , ~ ....

    fl11lJ~.:J'I1lJ1tJUCl~11'1\J 'i~ff.:Jfl 'Wf11'i1~tJ ..................................................... .

    'UO'UL'Uelfll'i 1io .......................... .... ................................................................. . " 'li''WC10'Wfll'j 1~tJ ............................................................................................... .

    .QQ 0 Q QQ,I

    1li~11'WlJfl1'j1i)tJ ............................................................................................. .

    tl

  • lJ'YIVi 'J}

    '\1'1J 1

    3 s-::LJ'ULffCJ~um~m:i 1 ~~nJli'lltHflTI:llfftJ ~nq~ lufilJn{ ff'Yili:i:i1J1Jm cn~n~m

    ,J;')'j'j~ili 1-5 ············································································································· 39 S"::lJ'ULirCJ~ ....................................................................................................... .

    ,n.J'JotiYo~ ........................................................................................... .

    • I~ • I ' ""' fl1:itu{lCJ\Htu".:J'II~N'\1lJ1CJ!~CJ.:J .......................................................... .

    a a C-' w cl ~'YITJ'W"'Ql.l'Yl(lfl'l:Jill ................................................................... .

    fll:i!!'}1'.iflff'.i:: ......................................................... ................... .

    ., ., 'l tlll 'WCJty"lfl.l:i:fl(llJ t 'U~'.i:: ······································ ·• ·················

    ., 'J} .,

    fl1S""LJ1'lCJty'Jf'U::'I11CJl'WHfl ...................................................... .

    ' ~ ' d fl1'.i "l.Jl1'U 1CJL~(J~~'.i::'Ul.:J'\1'U ')(JL~(J~ ············ ........................... .

    ' d & ~ 4 4t

  • 1.1 'VI Vi '11,! 1

    4

    ff'j::ff'Wlj ····················································································· 94

    1ff'l fl:: ff\Jlj ......... ........... ....... .......................................... ........... 96

    ,.. 0

    f11'lff'.i1~fl1 ......... ...... .............................. ................ ...... ........... ........................ .

    f11'.iU~flfl1\J1l.J ............................... .. .................. ............ ..................... . q jiQ d' ~ Ql ~ Ql

    nl '.i t'lH'l~fl 1'il'\.J::UCl:t1flfl\9lff1H'I'll ...................................................... .

    m'.iu'ilmhn~tJ1 tn'\Jti1Cl .......... ............................. ........... .. .................. . 0

  • ,.. lfl.Jl

    . , -1"" .. ~ .. "'

    1umm ff'l!:1ffCJ'ICJl111JlHffCJ"ff'W .............................................. .. 138

    ~ .. Jd I d " ., n 1'lcn.Jlf'lat u C'lti'Wlf\J1t11ffCJ'Il11CJVW1'1fl .................................. . 147

    .. J Q; Ql fl t ·uU'U'U'\JO'IU \Jl1C'l f1'1:JtlJ ................................................................................... . 150

    .,

  • 6

    " l1\J1 tJ & " ff1 ~Janl'j\1n'I:J1UC\::'\J01fflJOUlJ::............................................................................. 177

    ff1'l1f-laf11'iffn'l:n .............................................................................................. 177 , 'IJ6LfflJtlUlJ:: ..................................................................................................... 178

    'I.J'j'jl\11'4f1'jlJ ........................................................................................................................ 179

    fllflf-1\J"lfl n. ff'V]'Ii~lJ~O!CVJ~n~~>Pl.!· ···................................................ . ......... ............... ........ 187

    fllflf.I'U"ln '\J. ff'Vl'fi'j'jlJ'tJ~:titl1~fl~mutla.................................... ............. ............................. 252

    tl'j ::1~~1~tJ ········· ···· ···· ···· ··············· ··················· ··································································· 326

  • A'JUUthU.JlUtl::A'l U.Jihtrru'UD~ifW'Ml " "

    .,; unn 1

    tJnth

    fl1'1:J1ff'\.H'I'nq91 tlh..!llTJ:nlu91~::fJ"fl11:11eut~CJ-~ htl (I ndo-Europcan) ffl'\J1l1',j..:J

    ~~oni1 mmet.Jt~CJ-Dl'HJ:: (Indo-Aryan) iiv1qtrhun'IJ

  • 2

    i ufi11n f 11111nwHh 11Jow::~tu~~m~~:allu hJ i~~ti rh "Ut1f!q~.. ~l11J1tJo~m1l1 ,

    tl"I1n~tlluni'~um2

    nT\:11UlHYnqV11J1~'I! 1'W 1~unm1J1 lu1nwnn11 ~ih\n1Jw::ttJum1o:: tJ'Vlt~::m

    ihnu ti1Jnfi1o1mru ~U11.li''lf~1ft'1~'W1 1~mvn::u~iu~1'W1nwm"I1Jluqfl'Yt:~~n1miivn~

    t!nti'V1t~::A"Im~ ue~::vhuurn 1~1l n11Ju u~vn11litlo~nunuu~nqVl~i~no lho1mWV1l1J u'UtJthruu ~~l~tlJum1:nmn:~ iu"I::·w;hnnw::-w"I1l11JW~1oti\w:~~

    ~1" I . I ,; & ~unnl'l:nu"I1nqVl 'V1l1lJltJA111JCI~ .flTI:Jl

    tJ d .J I d '" CV ,j'j 10f:l~ L 'U A111Jl11J1tJf)11~'V1"!~CJ1~'j 11HV1.fll'tl1Vl H'l Vl t:l~ L '\.J 'I ::tJ::11Cl1'W~I 'U1fl1'j '\J fl~fl11l1 , ,

    Ol4t~o-ono::ffiromn:rG nl'~:ntl·nnq~mJ~uumilu 3 ~iro ~~il

    1. tll1nq~~irmri1 i~uri

    1.1 nTI:J11Jl~ tlJtJm1l1tJ'Wt~tJ-VllCJ:~irvmn~~~tll1n~o~iu-w"I::imiJo n'\Ju~

    ~ " ..,. J & I .... ~... . I ,; 'tfl~n:: tu'\.Jmllltnq1 l:1J1Wlf'W~ft'mlnmouA'i~mrm1'b' (ul::1J1onp11ift'mln.I'YI 5)

    C:.

  • 3

    , . . , .UuVi 3 ml:nflut~tHn·w::rr~vhn.i i~un ml.l1lin1l1u~mv~~u~~1Vfl~ff~ff~1'l'lll .

    ~ I 0 ('l'fY11it'Y~1nl.l~ II) tllu~ulJlm::'lt~rr~viJ\l~U\J 1~\J fl1ll111Hfl1~ mmuu~ fl1ll1fl'lr'l1~

    fl1ll11J'l1J tll\J~\J

    n1 'i \1 ~ uuii nfl1J fi {1 \J Vi'l::'lfYili t'Y1ff\J 110~ ~\J 1 \J ~1~ 1~V1n\J.W9a1 \J 1n 1'l ff~ Vn~ 1~'\J a~ mmflut~v-m'l v:: ml.l1~ 1 i'uuiinfl'1Jn{'Ua~,n::vp11ifl'1ffu1fJ1v 1~ ri1u 1 l1\1im11ll~unmll1

    e~ tdq,., ., .tt cv r1~ ~I ~ ,'JJ 0 .. .1 d ~cv m~ u~'Yll'lf'll\J'YlnfllJfl'iVi'l::'I~'Ylliff1ff\J1H1V1'11Ua '11fl1£l1mlJ'Yl Lal"f. ta~L~W'l~U (F. Edgerton)

    1lf~el)11illllliJUtTnt)Vl'YfunH'UB'I'W~::\1't11iffltr\d (Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit) '11~t'l Vi.

    L'uo{1 d i,1~t:d1.tn'i:niTutTnt)Vlf.ltrll (Mixed Sanskrit) I q Q.l .dd'Q.I cfi 0 ,.9 r.. J q I I

    mn1mvn::mm tUfllJfl'i'UU'Yimn"'m.J'\Jt'l~Vi'j::l'l'Yl1it'Y1ff\J1 tt~.!ltn~'\J'\.J ~ ·u9f1~'HW~e . . ~ 'l::w)1~ml.mY'urrnq~u~::m£l1th1nq~ i'lllfi{.Yhihumntl'urrnq~l!u Vi. ttJo{h11'11'm1:utliu •?I • QJ ~d. da... o'l" 1111J\Jfl1l.l 1f.lff1J 'i :::l111~fl1ll1ffU rrnq~uC~:::flTl:J lt'l'Ut~w-u l'i v::: ~fl n 'fl 1~91~1J~ fll.IW :::'\Ia~ nTJ'Yl1 t,., 1llutl'urrnq~ u~1~o~~nni1 \hirr1lJ1'lmh 1M'tlll.Jtl'urrnq~~~ml'v~m1Jnt] i1v1mwi~ itn'l:lru:::~

    iy.t .,,.., .. ..9..9' i-1 .., & ,, ... ..; "' .., ~\l.:l1J~nt~ru::emt1J\J1fWICJS.:lm~ 1J\11nfl1ll1fftJffnq~ ll.:lffl1J1'Hl l1'llV~::mv~unv1ntJC~n'l:lw:::

    ' ~

    '\JO.:lm1ntY'u 'fl'nq~'\iitl·nng 1 utilJnf'lle.!l'l'~'l:::~'Y11iff1'fl'lJ1l~ ~~\i4 ~

    1. mt~1tYu'fl'nq~f.l'fl'lJ umvlJ'l11'fl'HciJn::: (1J'111'fl'1~ciJn) 1'*nnnih1unmhft'au .. .

    mil ltYurrnq~ f.lft'1Juiiitn'l:.l ru:::'\Je~ttlmmtl·nnqV~li'l11l 11tlltJtY'u ft'nq~ VI. ttJv{h1 o~mvi1 ~

    it n1Jru:::t'liu titll un~ 'i 1:::'1! mh 1"lftYU1fl1ll1ff'U rrnq~1J 1tl ~tJ 1

  • 4

    1J~~~1tlllSll~L~fl1l:l1ff'Uffnq~~ffllU1J1J'W~::~'VlTif11ff'U1 ~ii~VLfftJ-3U('l::Ltl'U~U1JOV '\JV-3'lf11~ nTi?hm11i1o ~~uiluvn::~m'\JU1~ l11\1)'11~01Jln l'W'IJ"U~m ii 9 fl'llil{ flo

    1. tllJ!)ff1Mff~m 1li''lfqJ11h~iJ~1~~~ (V\!!)ff1'11~~m th'!!ruTth~iJm)

    2. tlW'V11Q'11~m (fi~CVI1~'11) "' ... 3. l1f11Jllf11~~~~ (l'lf11Jllf11~)

    4. ff1J1n'i1'lr~m (ffl.nn~l'lf)

    5. l1'~m1~1'H'I'~'i (('l.:~m'"lm'j) " . 6. ff'Vl'ti 'j'jl.J1]UJ'Vl~fiff~'j ( ffl'ITi 'jlJtJWCVI~n)

    q '\1 • • 4 •

    7. ~mfiYI~mwn~m (~mr~~~'J'!tln)

    8. "~~1ff~~ffm (('l~YI1ffm) u":: .. . 9. ff1~~ut'tl~::mffffm (ff1~w'tl~mff)~

    Ill fU .. • • . . "' . fillil{ 1J'I11tJ1U Vi r:htiruViff~u":: ovt ilu 1~ ~ w n ~ ~ll'\JV-3fl'1ff'U 1l~'V1Tii'u ~hfirun ff~ fiv

    u .. .. (,1 ..

    . , . if nlJ OJ ::'\Jo.:~nl1l1fflJ ffnq~nl i'.Uuli nfilJil{mci 1i1iim-3l1'm:Jru::i11t~ n~ 1.:1~1nmm

    "' ., 1 , Cl ~ , 0 ... "" .., ~ i1 ff'UffO(]Yill1m!1'UO~'UH 'U~l'UifftJ.:J fillff'UTi nnff~1-3fl1 LL('l::~::1J1J11fitJff1JmJTi IU'U~'UUfl::

    ii1 ~OQL 'UfllJSll'\JO.:Jvn::tp1Tif11ff'U11tlmhu 1m~ ~.:J l~~erh ml:llff'U ffnq~'\JO~'W~::vp'lTi fl'1ff'U1

    (Buddhist Sanskrit) fl1'l:J1~'Uffnqm~'W'Vll.:J'\Jti.:J'W~::l~'V11if1'1ff'U1 (Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit)

    m ~n:: ~~ 'Wfll'l:J 1~.U 'U Vi nfi 1Jfi{ '\J v.:~ -w ~ :: ~l'l Tif1'1ff'W 1 1l¢i~v 1 1fl1'l:J 1 ~'U ffnq~ ~fflJ (Mixed

    Sanskrit) L'W'j1::Ltlumm~iiml41~'U~fflJt:lQ U(;l::tnlJ1gtJmm (The Gatha Dialects) n~'j1::

    tl ~ 10!) ~ n'l:Jru::L~'U i'~ VQL Q vn::ri1tJ~Ltl'U ~ vvm v.:~

    . , iJ q)'111~.:Ji}hL ilu~ 1tJB'Vl n'W Cl'\J V.:Jt:J::, 'j ~ .:J l11 i 11' f) llllfftJ ffnqY~Vi i i'.Uu Vinfi1Jfll1'11ci1U

    1~ ne11 milu 6nm111'11\1-3~iifl111lu~n~1.:J11 1nn 1'l:J 1-clu ffnq~ 11~ t:Jfl1l:l1ff'U ffnq~tllwu ~~uilu

    mY~~"~~::~a-3 1~i'1Jm~l~\11'iW1nu~v 1'tl . ,

    lu'tl~:a'Vlfl'll1tJ mm'tlCluCl::ffn'l:J1fl1JfllL'11ci1i1 iiuHu(\'1 L'tiu Clli~1ffm~~~ u'tlfl

    1~v f11Ml'i1~nu ~.~.'Vl.Uff-3 lJ'U1'\2~= ~'V1 Tin1l~Wct1~n~m u'tle1~1n~'UUoU1Jtn'I:J1~'Uffnq~ hw

    ~S P Irs., ix.

  • 5

    d ., a.-., t d'da jJ " '1 " • tJ o' 1 "'tJ c. c. Ql t1 d ffm:nfl:um uu~~lJ'Vl1~Jl11:11ff1tY1tm:um~u~1 111un j:U'W~1:1 ,,.li 'I::ff'VlliUU'Vl. "n1'Iffn1:11

    Lci1~iLfl'I1::11'm1:11tTutYnq11 lufi:ufif~ii11iff111:: ~litJltJ~ I-4 ... i'Vlv1u-wulft11tyt.y1~n1:1'Iff1ffm-

    .. 41"'9 , d ~ cv Q.l Ql, ' Cl ~UlJ ~::lJ nl'I fffl'I:J 1~ fl'I:J ru::'IJ 8'1 fll'I:J 1 tYU tYq\01 J:.lff:ULLU'U'W'I ::Vi'Vlli ff1ffU 1 'VI~ 'WWI 'IJ 8 ~

    nn u tl~u~:: 1 uu4 'IJ v~m'I:J 1ff1 n11 f.J 1 ·m~ 1 u~iJ~ '111it ~~t ~uiJru111 1 ,r~1~maonnn~1tiJunn " ... 1 ~ CJ 1 uu4'1Jv~n11:1 1ff1ff\Olft~tnnuE n1:1w::m£J 1 lw fi:u1H~·Vlli'I 1 :u*uev1'1 n~101 s n~rlfi CJ

    Ql CJ.fl I ,fd,QI Q.l I

  • 6

    1vi o~m:ntr fill W!:flTI:l Tifu ffnq~~llJ~'lh l fl!) 1 'UfllJiH tlVl'li'S 'SlJ~WCVIl n~~'S 'I.Jl1'S 'S ~ Vi 1-5 lu~l'U'S!:tltllff0-1 (Phonology) nl'Sff'Ui (Combination) nl'Sff!l.:Jfll (Morphology)

    "'" 'IJO'Ul'IIVI'UB.:J fll 1 'lil£.1

    Ql Ql dl"1 Q.l et d' Ql

    I . "'fill fl!!:fll'l:l l ff'U ffnq~ ~fflJ'IJ 0-:)l'f:i!:Vj'Vl'IH'llff'W l:i ::o:: 11Cl1VllJ fill fl Hll'l:llfftHYnt]~ " . ,.g ,.gj Qlol!"\ PI Q,IO a~ y Cl.ldd'Q.I I,.;

    UC'I:: ft'n'I'J1(l.:l1 :i:: 1~fl11lJL1J'WlJ1 :i 1lJVl.:)'U n1V'VH1J'WL 'il1'1JO.:)fi1Jfi'HYV11i n1J, 1'\lCVI:i fi'!:YVI:i . ... 2. f11Jn1n'Vlti:i:ilJ,Jmev~lrn:Y~:i '1111:i:i~~ 1-5 . ...

    CI.O Q.l Q.l d d tl a.i 2. 1 ~tltlflllllff'Wffflt]~ Ofl'll'S1'\'l1'W1fl:i 9f.:)ft'1ffm1'il1:i0 lO'lL lfl'S'W (H. Kem)

    ue~:: ft'lt'I'VI'll'ill'SV ij. l!ui1o (8. Nanjio) d~lu~V~:i1'ilt'I'OtJi1:i:: (1992)

    2.2 \'loUlJflTI:Jlff'WffflqV~ Vnl:fHVl1'W1fll ~.:J ~. uoe~. h'10:: ( P.L. Vaidya) Lll'W~

    m1ut'l'otJ

  • 7

    " L~'Un17fff1'l:ll'il1nttlfHHm~::m~fYfl'l:J1L;'IfiWfll'W iJ1n~'htU'Uf11':i ~.:~iJ . . . C.CV d d Y tJ I

    I. 'J ':J'U:i 1l.JL0fl~1'HL~::'I1'U1'iltn~Lflti1'\J eJ'I'illn'l'!Cl'l~l;j~~l'l~

    2. 1J! 11 Huw::m.lm1l.ln f ffVlli ~:il.l'tlw ev1 ~ mrm 'tl5 ':J':i 'J~~ 1-5 • 'II

    I. 1~i''Uf111l.J~~i'~L'illJL~ti10'U~l.Jn{ a'mi nl.J• 1 tuet11n~~':i 1 'UU~ 'tl 'J::i~'IJO'I~l.Jn{ 'II ~ 'II

    u~::~mJW::'IJO'If11'lJ1ffuunq~ iu'tl51~~~~ I-5 2. tM~'Ufl11l.J~L~r.J1n'Uf11~L'tl~ti'UU'tl~'I'IJCJ'Il1U1t!LfftJ'I fll ':i uu1i fl1':i~~1'1fl1 ~::'U'U ..

    1 1nt~a'l.l.Wu.fi u~::~uVl~m.Jw'IJeJ.:~m'l:Jl-tY'u~nq~iu~l.lnf-tY'Vl1inl.J~rutl1'5n~~'j

    3. lM'i'mr:nlJf'~i'~L'il'UL~tl1n'U~fl'l:JW::'IleJ'Ifl1'hl1ff'U unq~~tl·nn~J l utl~ 1n~~ 1-s · ~ld-'GJ d !v v v l • d a ~J

    Ul1 'lfllJm ffVlli ':i'.ilJ~O!CV1'.ifl"'!~'.i Vl'l'.i fltJLLfl1U~::'.i fltlfl'.ifl'l lJU'I~lJVlt'l::LOr.J~lJ1 flti'I'IJlJ

  • . "" unn 2

    .nun Nuirnqv.Ni.T'-1 1uvn ::vjntiftl i.TUl

    1'1111 th ::l'~rr1 ffl'l f~hu~ o h.J'n w 'lllJ'lf'U 'lf11V'U1~o-m~ o::u1~ V'I.JV1 ogu il1tHl1fl~'U . ~ " 111'1 u 11 t1'U1tl1 ~on"' 1-:l 1 ~ 1 ri ~uu\Plu 110 uri 11uti 1.!1 iYu 'li 1 'Ufl1fll'l:: lUI'l m ~ o~nn'J fl''lHNth ::1 'Yiff .. . .

    nut~tJ~ 11 I.000-1.500 1Jritlur~1ff~ffm1'1f (700- 1 ,ooo 1Jriflu'Vj'Y11iffm1'lf) 11Cl!:ff1111HlVIPlfl:ifl.:l " . " l~uvhhu\Ju \ltl~'lfu.WudJfl.:l111u~L~11 lM m1'1~~ff~1~m~ o'li :i :i11\lfl.:JI'l'U~fllJ1YillHh~u • hwii

    11'fl fl! 1'U (}uvu 1~ ;J1flfl1:i iim111~th 1fl{) i ufl'11fi f qfln'Yitiu ft'n~iY'Vl ( ~l!uii n 'li'~ .:Jfl~fi1111L~fl m~ fl1ffU 1uel:: ff' ~fl1J Lm::v.:JLtltJfl1111~ l~i''U nwuu iin 1 i\lfl~'lf11V\JL~o-m~ o::~1ri1~ff~P1~1tJ •

    " '\J m.h 1'lfnJL~ vnmcnu 11 fl1l:l1ln ::11,1 "

    . " 'W ~ ::~l'iJ 'UL ~ 1 ~~ 1~iifl11lJ,'flllll11JTI 11::il o~nu 11ii lf flll:ll'\JO ~'lftn1ud]o.:JL~ nmJnlu OQi u

    "' mm'\Jfl~91u i~m~L'liuu ,11 'l~n1~om~ff~1.:Jn~ 'ho1nnuflnn ~~u l;J:ailu hl1~1, iu " .

    'l:: H11 ~u ll ~ii'l! mh 1'lftY'YI1~ fl1l:l1'11Cl1tJVil'U vivw1tJ1lJ \l:: 11~fl0LflW eni ,r O'Uflll:ll\1 U~YI'U U~fl.:j \1!: hiiilm th:: ff'Ufl11lHYl1~ 11Uel:: L~i' 'Ufl11lJU{J1JL'Vll nmhu'lu* ~1Nflt)Lfl(U cn'\111~ bo1mW

    1Rhys Davids, T.W. Buddhist India (New Delhi : Motilal Banarsidass

    Publishers Private Limited, 1971 ). 136-139. *tl ""... d ,.. & .-,;. , ,.. ..; , d., d

    1W\Jlfl.:Jfltl1~0~fl11lll Otl'UC) Uel::fll'l 'lffl1'£11fllfi{)\JC) \Jfl1Jfllfl1:J 011W1tJ'HClltJ " fli'~ L'liu ;J1f)~1~1Jw iu PaiJini. VI. l. 130. V1Ufl~ iu ParJini. VI. I. 92. fflfl'CJO iu

    PaQini. I. 1.16- 17- 18. ParJini. VII. l. 127-128. ParJini. VII I. 4. 51. PaQini. VITI. 3.

    19. ff1fl!)1tJ'U lu ParJini. Vlll. 4. 50. m~~o mryvtluel:: fl1Cl1L'U PaQini. VII I. 4. 67. " " 'U1~ni'.:Jnl~ih11fl1\l1~vli'~'l1mo t'liu lu PaiJini. VII. 3. 49. uel:: PaQini . VII I. 4. 52.

    tl 1\11~V'V11.:Jfl1flL'Hl'1fl t'liulu Par)ni. IV. 1. 130. m1ll'lv,n~mflm:1uoon 1'liulu PaiJini.

    IV. I. 17. H~flu~m::i.:Jm~i~mrnUtl.:JfllfiY~::iuflon t'liuh.J Pa JJ ini. Yilt. 3. 75. ttlu~u "' '

    '111t~o1 \lLlJu '1 tl 1~ 1n ::'H1 1~Uuel::'l1 ~~Ofi'\J t~nhu! ,1LL~ 1V.:Jii'l! n l1v1muf m'l:J 1U'U ~n'l1mtJ . ~hun ~1~n~ lbv1muru1>1n~,~nu 'hJ iti1fl~ .:Jfl 'i'IP19111Jthwi11&v-i~'I11J\Pl

    8

  • 9

    mm 1 ~~1tJfllJnfoll~11imo (6l!{)11!tl1V) * 1~vm'In1l1U~n~mwcti'vn .:~ i1v1mru~1t1tJ;m tfu~ '\11l 1l' flll:.ll'Vl 'I::nYiu~n~H~1nflll:IT~'unnq~lJ1m J1U6V1.:JoU~L~'W mi 11fl6 fl11:11~unnq~

    lJ1~'I! 1'W ~ nti1'11'W ~~ 1tJn~, 1tl1n'iW 'U6.:!1hwul U 'UW::~fllli1'Vl'I::11Yil1l 01 1iinfl11:11\)n'IJ~6tl l lfttlu hlmlJ1i'I'IlJ'lf1~~.:~m"~6lJ1 1~~\Pll'U1l1l61il'lJUl u~1ULfftJ.:J m'I ff~1.:~ti1 11nt1~1J~Utf

    hJtJo1.:JlJ1nlJ1tJ~UlJ10.:JQm.h1nq~u"::Qfl1m.i ~.:~nri111r~1

    4.1~J .o cv .d a ci rt c.,.o & ~ d ow ':i ::'W'Yilif'l1ff'W 1~'\.J~ 'U'W i u 1:: tJ::t~tJ1n'U 'Ylfl1ll1tl'WL~ tJ-~ 1 ':i v:: lJmaJu 1m 'IlJ 10-:J'Il'W'YI . .

    ' " n~.:~ '11 ~.:I~ 1nVi'lf116UL~tl-6l'I tJ:: l~ ff~ 1-:Jtll'I tlli 'J ':ilJ~1JUllU1ff'W ~Ltl'WL1Cl1U1'\.l'H"1m~u1Ju"'1

    1 ~ m ~ vn:: ~dHt-:J~1'I tlli 'I 'I 1J'Vl1-:J~ 1Ufllll1 t -:Jii m'I~\Pllu 111 i' 'ULU~ tJ'WUCl::11Yllu .... l1J ~01-:JlJ 1n1J1t1 tf

  • 10

    ~ "' ! ., i" .d , .:, i " LlJtl'W'i :: l~Vlli 1 \'11U'i::f11ffff1fflJ 1\J 'U 'W'i ::O~flVIH 'lffl1'\:J1Vl'lf111J1\JV11 Uff1lJ1'i fiL'IJ1

    i , " i" i" ~ , i .I * " ~ \'1 ~un::6\.!t!J1~ l1l'l'i::ff11n 'lffl11J1fiU~1.:J"l um'iu'i::mffl'f'i::fl1ff'U1 un::~nml1~Vll'i'i::

    l'fVlliL ~1Ltl~Vl 'i ~LiltJ'If11~::iutJtJnlJ1LL~L~lJ u uu 6U ·h l'i'i::tJ~fl\l::~o~ i~mll1'1Jtl~flu iumfl •

    "' .,.g ~ "" ')I •• .9 "' .. 11" ' ' ~::1'U 60f1'1J6~f)~ ~H'I1flqWli~LlJ'ULlJ6.:Jl1{11.:J'IJ6~Ufl1\JlJflli Cl$.:1 ff1lJ1'i flff'U lJ1:1!1lJ Wll 601.:1

    ,! oo~ff~ 'i::WlH'W 'VI limn u~ \l::V~ i~ihn1'n~ l'UVlJV'Ucir~L\l'U ·;h ln::'W'Vl'lit ~111n::l~'i::U11n .. . - .. tJ 'i ::mfY'W'i::fllfftJl~'JtJfll'tll~'\.J'IJO.:J'I111~:: iu 66n 4 'Uru::~ uiiu 1n11:: ~m1 n~mllJLM'\.J i1tii'W

    fi 11Jl~l4 i '\.JLLfl1'tJ1lfl1i5 U{l::U m.J 'i 1'1ftY1-Hnt.I'Vh'W l ,rfl11lJLMll'W~ OlJ~1ijtJl.:JilttJlW1ElllJ1fl~ "" L16 '11'i66'i'i1ilJlflli

    'lh:: n u ~ 61J1fl6il nu 1~ CJ1JL~ o.:~-w 'i ::rmli 1\'1\J:: i 1'ff1'11 i'lJ'vi 6~ ~1fl.:J\l:::ii~ui~u~ . ff~OVfVllif11{1 ~1VtlHL'liuLt 6.:!~U'i 10!) 1 'U a ~~~\1~'i 7 ttJ'U~\J fil\11~1 '*LtJ'ULflto.:~iJOL~ OlJL~ 0.:1

    .. . ow 'i ::vn11i 1\ltJ:::u uu 1 \l:ailuml:llilu 'IJ V.:Jfllfl~::iu von •

    . .. .. 'lflJ'IftJLlJOfl~ ~'\'i'Vlli mn ~~u8 . .

    • ~,1J~'Vl1i1\lu:: 1-w 1. ~""· 1 1180169-7o.i1 fl'-1'11luliJ fif!'lln umtJ iJ~~~o1

    ~l11i1\ll1 u~tJ,~ru~. * * ~ "' .I 1 ,XL !I "" ..,. 1 "'"' .I • "' u\'1~1J\J u'i::'11l'lf\J \JUfi1JlJ 'lffill:l1'W'111'iff\J'Yl'U1 'U'l11~u'i::\ll1\J ~ BHSGD.,

    Vol. I :Gr., 2 .

    .~Edgerton, BHSGD .. Vol. 1 :Gr., 2.

    ~alinaksha Dutt, Gil2.it Manuscripts. Vol. 2 Part I (Delhi : Sri Satguru

    Publications), ix 6 Edgerton, BHSGO. Vol. 1 :Gr., 2-4.

    'ii.'l.h 11 /221-475/222-342.

    \l!lJV~.:~l:l 1-w~ U'i:::ff'VI~irtn{ "fll'iffnlllL:U ~11m l:::Mmmff'u unq~ t u~lliifnii~

    lff~'i:: tJliCJlCJ~ 1-4." ()'Vlo1Ul'llnftJ~tytylonl:l'iff1ffmmnurucVI~ mfl1'11lmmV~::iuofln

    uw~~lV1tJl"'tJ ~Wln~mwmn1'VItJlci'tJ, 2536), 29. Bl.:JO.:Jh! Ling, A Dictionary of Buddhism : A Guide to Thought and Tradition. 228.

  • II

    , Vtd'tJV~nm1~~lJu~t11tl~m

    2. L\IV~flltl~::1tJeen '11~611\l'l.Jcil.Ju~J,tl~m~etJmn~ LtltJL\t~~ttJ'UV~'V45::vn1li . . 'l ,.. 1 ,.. .... .,

    i'l'lt'Y\J 1 L \J~tlU 'm 01W.11'U~tl5 6'Ufi'JlJUfi1'W ni'I'Cl Utl1\JlJflli ~'WUV'l\J 'UO~'V41nfl'lntJ::Lm::lJC1C1::

    mv'Hti~~'V45::'Vj'Vllil~ltt'Y~~~'U.UmnHuvnnuu~1 Vl5::ff11ntth11fi'f.1J"l lMiJfl11lJ

    'VW1tJ11J~~::1~ tJ'U1~ tNfi1fft:ltJ 'Ut:l~'W 5::'V4'Vllil ~11 ,rtiJ'W'I11J1~'11~ 1~tJV1fftJn15l~6~ ~1 ~~ml 'W t:l'W . ~ 11fi1'1-J 1~ ~1lJ n 1~ vi t:~~ ~ 11J 11 tlu11C1 1\J 1'Wl.J 1nn-l11'1'~15 5 '1-J m'J 'il::iJfl11lJ'V4 tJ1tJ11lt:~th~~ J:!~Lr~ t:~m5 fl~ l~~~~~::'Uui'h.~~ ttlftl'lri' tiltm::tl111J'\11J1mtllJ~un~1n~11J tl1 ~::ii'U1~ri1u~ttl~vuutl M

    tl'tJ 1tl ·uti mJ w.::tl ~:: n 15l1-d ~ 'U t:~~ fi1'1-J 1ue1:: ttllJtVI51::'Vi5:: t'Y11 n~ iJ g 'U! 1'WU~ n~ 1.:1 tilJ n 15 een • , Jl ' •

    LiftJ~1'W evie~~,~~t:ll~~::H~LWtJU ,~..;~, uri1lJYlttll.J56(JUn1Lm:: r t:J(JmO~ filtJ'Hti.:JtlJ6n15 u:w u~'~ 5 :: ,·~'Vlli lllt'Yl.J 1m::~ 1vo6n 1 tl~utlilJ ~ H"l ml.ll~l'l5::t'Y11nvio~~ 1ti'WlJ 1~1vn11:J 1 1V~fl1111

    .del • "" ...: ,.. . l . l tt~ 11 u ~nml.l tJDlJ il!:lJfl1lJ1\ll.JL'U11l11J::1J'W t~

    * tY',JiJ1:J!1td1 tl1~::Ltlw'liuJu towll::tl,t\h1iien11'uVJuCJ'Uti' ~12J~nci11o~tu fi 1J 1) { lJf.1J'J11l~lej C1 OC1tl:: (lJU!'l!fl'~ leJC1n'1tl) UC1::t! ntl5 ::1~ fflt'Y~ { 'b'11~1 um ::'411 tlltih1 ~ enlti'I ~

    ~iim1'U:: 1 l.Jmfl~::1tJ~n, ~6m~ ~::~~:: 1tJ~miiv~L,iJ e u~t'Uo5151nci1111tllrui'1~6nltuV~ . , .., • jl ... I a.ea. • d .., '1"1 .., a • ct ct.

    l~l ::1 'ill\J tJYI::U '11 ~ Ufl1\J lJflli UC'I:: 1JlW l.J nC111\l.:J~11fl~ 1 l.J 61:J ~lli tJ1tJ11 ~TI" lill~ 'l1~lJVI-

    fHl1lllcn~OilWC)'ltlJfJO:: utle1i1 PJtn DW lflru on l117rmriYi1 ~-n ffnnm nu~ 1m:: mrn~ "' . . . . . . . . ~ .. . .., " ~mnhiv 1ufi'J1lJHlJ1D'i1 "UflfJlj'1Ulfl~'flcN 'Yhu" 1lllilJ1\J:: (1~1ilJ1'U) O~'UltJffW\1 "lillVI'l . .

    • • , t

    'f1D ·nhuodi?miu1l.J1foi1ff1a1~~ !Pi.Jt.iu thriiiJrntJ~ruu.J1!a ·h Frmm~o 1 tl:i~V~ Nal inaksha ~ ~ • "'u • "'

    Outt, Buddhist Sects in India (Calcutta : Calcuua Oriental Press, 1977), 8 Cf. Thomas Burrow, The Sanskrit Language, 48. : Pal)ini. IV. 3. 94. ; George Cardona, Panini : I lis Work and Its Trad itions (Delhi : Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limi ted, 1988), 2-3.

  • 12

    W.i ::U11n~1~U'Vl1'11J ltl-:1 ~'I~ 11iJu~ a-:~'I.J i' 'U1'1.J~UUfl1ll1~U1 u\'i fl-:1 ~ 1nU1J1 1 ,r LiJUflllll~UUnq~

    ~ 11Jfl111JUU1J'IJ a-:~~ a-:~ ~u ul! ~::iifi111J~ mm11~ ~::'11 i''Ufl1ll1~1fl u'Via-:~ ~ 11111 iJu1 1'Cl1U11U 1u

    1llu fY~ 1~ ~ll 1 ,r1llun1111~u nnq~~,11~a-:~~uuu11u~1 ~ii'-:~m~ii'li'a~lnY~'U H'I.J ~::nn ~.Yh 1 M'hi

    U11J1~m111,rrl!u~unnq~Y~11Jl1U1mwu'U'U'I.J1wu'l~\f-:~l11JY~• fl1Um1~no1¥Hu 1llu11 tria Ulflllll'U 1~ mrn~u nn q ~ r.~n11 1 u ~ ~ ::VfYili ffl nu 11111 '111 uw Vi V'U~ 1Uft n1:l w::vnw lllll'nn~ {

    • 'II , •

    mil~LiJU ~::'U'UU~ 1 ii-cr nlltu::L~UiY~ViUffYI~ 1 li'LM'U 11 .nlllln~ne-:~u fl'l~::iiul1 ci'IVi111fllJL~U1

    n U n ci 11ft Oft~'Cl an11 1 ~1nfi11fi {1 'UW.i ::~'Yllifllff'Ul~lf·il n 119 l 'Jiu

    l'Uft1Jfl{:JJ'I111'j'jfl1J1~ ·h

    n~mu LlJ aifl~ Mil 'Yll'U 11mif~ . .

    tJ~1n~mii u~ru fll-!fii lJl']'Vlff flO!

    ~1m~m u 'Vln'\Ju~ ~ 11l'IJ'UL1i'U o11m

  • lutilJtHlJ1111'nfl1J1~ i1

    1hm l11ff 1Jfl11it'l' 'tlvm'l ~ • 41 •

    e'tl1~1~~ e11~~"" 'VJ11~

    t'I'WU~ 1ilJ,j 11Jn'IU1U'Vi'Vl'Ji"1 . . . . ... 'lutilJiH"~~1"'~~~~1 ·h

    111'V1 vun ff:Ut{11i~u~n~ .. . .

    0 C4 d 0

    el!q~ ~L\J ~'V!T~qw1p 'VJ11~

    ryqtp~Vi 1i~lJ 1~~ 11.Jmu 'l'11i1!"1 L~tJ~1mh~

    13

    ~~~ 1~'1 M'fi111JLMtJ 1 ~'li'1~~ui1 m~L'tl~vum\l1~'Vi~ :: t'1'11mflol1a.:~ ~1nu111 'l ,r1~u

    mil T~tJ ffnq~~.:~,nnotilJfi{ ~~ n'Vle~m~uil .:~il ~~-uu ih ::~ufl1\l1 11itvhnu on \l::Vi ~1~ w 1 'l~ . , .

    i1fl .:~ ~ ::ii m~ L'll~vuu'tlM11f;11tJfli' .:~ 11'Cl1tJt'l'lJtJl1~ f:lul!m::li.:~LlJu m~ m :;,.;1'1.1 0'11Jflfl ftl1{1 1tJfll.l ,

    1l'i~ 1::'Vi'I.J i1fl1ll1'\J 6 'IUtlltJ~ H'l '\Jf)'ll"'f~::~'Vl1i ff1ff\J 1U\J iJct 11\lru:: 'lnaLfltJ'I ntJ ~ 1f:lciH'I.J1'1

    ffll'I.I1'1.1'Vl 'lul1~1Vil1Jil'l:l~m ('l.h1~11Jf!'l:l~~1) 10 '\JtNi1mv~1'1'l L'litJ

    i1mmm11V1i1

    ffil!W1~1l1tJ 1.Ju fill"J'I.l1 fJ5 ll11tllJ11'\.l'\.l fl~VJ1'Vlff1JlJ1Wil1 ll1L5~VfW1

    i!mt~lJ111ff1.:~ciJn:: -h

    ~1ti tJ1~nltJ fif)~W1 fJ~ nn11.JlJ1LW\J fl~1lJil1~ llJ'V!L'Ylfflli fJ~Il1~11.JV~~tJ1

    i1mvff~11t'I'~11'Vli1

  • 14

    ummm11'Vl ·h lJlH'Ie~n 'tlu nn'Uu1 ~hni m'l1l1Luu ~~~1iin o~~L'VltY ..,

    • • " 0 • "

    umt.JlJ'\11~1-:l~n:: 11

    1J'\11Cl0 nnrH:U11'111i (f11':i1)'tlV1l11W'U ~~11iinm~ LlJ'VHVlfln .., 0 " 0 0 0

    umv~:i11~~b1V111

    ... (l'111i m'l1) .. (v) lJ1ru(::) ff~11iim1J1~ lll'VJL'Yliln(n)..,

    . , . rr1~Vl'l1~no1tHu II ff'ui111!1'Uo.:Jcrn£lru::Vi'tl'l1n!Ji111 hiu11tlu 'l'tl'l~vh.JflflmTiv.:J

    , . , flUL~tJ1~::~11l1'l o'W~aon1J11ilu ~o.:Jtnll1 i~lufli' .:JL~t.J1 miJau~ 1oo1.:JVivnmuu l~ ~.:Jtl1~:: .. 1tl tJ m 'l f>i ~H, onm ~1mmci .:J~1l1fl'UL~v1nu * 11~ enilu m:i'tl i' tu'tl~ t.JtJ ht'1 ilwnm~ N"l ~1n

    • t • ,

    V~11J,r o ff'u iJ'I:J! 1u1 ~ o.:J m'J 1 'tl~vum1:11Vi'W 'l:: ~11n'Vi o.:J ~ 1 'M n 'j ::'l11num'11 e~1vf!i' .:J ~ 11-H'u~ e~::fillfi{iicr nllru::'Uo.:JtnllluV~ n~ 1.:Jnu \nn'tl 'j ln{) m'lw ~u~e~::fi11fi {iimll1ff'u ~nqV~

    , . ue~::'tl:i 1nq~~~1Jnui1LO.:! L6~u~o{~u (Edgerton) ~~ i~uti.:J'l::fl1Jf'i1lfi{ViiV~11LtltJmlll

    ff'u ~nq~ ~~lJ 1 tJ 'W'l::Yj'Yl li ffl~u 1 1~vmffvnn-Yl 'l1'l w 1~1ncr nllw::~iirm:n'tl'l 1nqm.h1n!J lJl f1UCl::U'av flO f) l~LtltJ 3 'l::A1J fio 12

    ~ d d '1"' • c.t d

  • ~ ~ .(

    ~¥11l'1t1~~H~ v ~1~

  • 16

    (Indian Office Library) 11'u.:~UlJ~ 1u~ih.J LlJU.:JuunvJni'~ (Bodleian Library, Oxford)

    LVL;tl UlJ1fllJ (Societe Asiatiquc) nm5ir'VJ (Burnout) ua::thirnuunntlmlJuli.:~'lf1~'\lfl.:J

    ~i'.:~mu (Bibliotheque Nationale of France) unn~1n~n~~tf'u~l~AtJV.1J~tJUoU1JfllJfH ~ ~

    111~1uu~1 v.:~iiirm.J'.i 1'1fqJli.:~~::1unnmm::~::1u~nvnl1mtll'lltJ l~~tJl'l1J~uu.UufilJn5m~1 ~ .

    ill tJL~ tl'.i numu'Un.:~ ~uua:: l u1ut ;ivnm.:~ Vi 11 ,r l1'.i 11Jilfn'I:J 1'\JV .:J'lf11etJL~ vViir m.J 'j 1 '1mlvn.:~ ... 'W '.i::lr vltift1UtJ1il11n1L'.ia u'lmf (Sir Aurel Stein) ~l1~u1unan~ (Gi lgit) 1uufrJ'U11fl'lftiitJ515 ~ ., "

    , , cw

  • 17

    .. . fli'~lii 1 l::l111~\Jfll'CY~ffm1'tf 1900-1901 ('WY11iffm1'tf 2443-2444) luml'UAfllJ . .

    flf~~l1\1~if -cY1~u1~\~1J~l1tJ~1lJflflmnlu~fl Sand Buried Ruins o f Khotan lu\Jfl1-cY~ ff'ml'tf 1903 (VfVlliffn'il'tf 2446) U'f'l:: i~uvn~lJ~l 'Ulltl'f'l::Ltlt.1Atln'l!~ll1,1~ ~fl Ancient Khotan l11J 2 LrilJ luilfll'CY~ffml'tf 1907 (VjYiliffml'tf 2448)

    , ' ! d ,ld fli'~Vi 2 l::W:h~Ufllff~ffn'il'tf 1906-1908 ('WY11iffn'il'tf 2449-2451) flH'VI'CYtFl'Un •

    t'!fut~t.J1nu ffi.~uihlt.J~l'U lu'J!A Ruins of Desert Cathy l11J 2 tcilJ iuilfll'CY~ffml'tf 1912

    (l'n11iffn'i1'tf 2455) H'f'l:: i ,1' llt.m:ativ~u~lJL~lJtllJL~'Urlmnnmlffn'hllf!Vl~L~'i.l l::'I.J'IJ iu Ser-• II I , , India nlJ 5 trllJ 'lutlfl~'CY~ffn:n'lf 192 1 ('W'VI1iffml'lf 2464) n1l'U~fl'Ufli'~i1ffv~iJout-tlufli'~ . . . .. il1ruYi-cY~ t'Wll::~1~\~'Uifi'mrumilJiHmnn11 2o.ooo ll-U''IJ m'Wt~m.J 554 m'W l11Jl1'~~1Jnf'Uu'l

    u •

    ... d

    On1-JlV. l1l11J .. . .. fli''lli 3 l::w:h~ilfl1ff~ffm1'tf 1913-1916 (l'•Yinffml'lf 2456-2459) nll'U~fltJfli'~ . .

    , , , I

    ty9lli' lt.J'UO~ff i9lufli' ~-u L'Uliillt.J~lu tWnlJlfli' ~u mfi Geographical Journal u-U''I.Jt~uu

    iY~l11fl1J-n'Ut.J1ti'U fllff~ffml'tf 1916 ('WYiliffml'lf 2459) u'f'l::mvl1cT~~~l11J,~m~odlu~1tJ'IfA . .. . ~~o lnnem1ost Asia '\10~1'\JlltH . ..

    'U~nwVi~~u·i'uuu ~l~uriufli'u 1 'Um'W 'I.Jlnrumfl ilfi''Uo~t~olnffmu~::iutlOn'Uv~ ... ~ 'U thJ 'il'U Q'l"lflt.IU9l'U'th::t'VIft'~'U 1 'iJn1l'U9lfltJfl i' ~Yi'CYllJ fftl9lut1~'Ut.l1t.I'IJ ~ L1W n1'1~06n i Utln .

    1 .,; 1'1_ 1 L9 "' .;t 17 q -.. & "" "' 1 "' 'illn 'U~l'U (Khotan) LltltJ 1u'il'Utl~'I.Jll10HlJO~fJ"lfl (Kucha) 1'UfllCJl1M'il~1J'Un 'UlltuflA " . .

    l1 'f'l lCJvl TW'1Jtllt.lfl111J011l1U 1nn'll~fl'i.l 'Yil~ 1 'UllOlfl~'ill~'W'IJ~lJnfLl1ri1iJl'w1JL~1J i tJ ~YJ'W fl'Wtln 18 .

    trl o~ 'illl w 11,UU'I.J'I.Jml-U'uYinu~ 1 'il::t~ u i1~1Jfi f ri1u i l1tlj'il::~n.UuYin~1t.lt uu'IJ'IJ ' d , , , , , , .t , .. ~ ..... ~ ..,;J'

    fftl~Ot.IHflt:l lt:lt1Un1LL'f'l::lt:ltlnlfl'l 1J1n'I.J1'1'Wflt.I'I.JH9r~'il ::9lt:l~ 'W'il1lW1L'I.Jl.Jl1tlfllJfll nJ l'U'YI'U

    'il:: nci 110~fll'Wl11J 1 At1~1 hJ'Ilv'lmlnmlJ~ i.~i''I.Jmlri 1ti'Yit:l9lu'f'l::1.h ln!Jf!Ql ufilJfi f ff11J1l(l .. LWnL~'UUl::L~l.J~lllJ1J~'IJ6~U nul1'tfqll1'f'l1tlli ll.J ,~~~-u

    170 .P. S inghal , Buddhism in East Asia. 13. 18

    lbid., 14- 16.

  • 18

    1. tnll1tltHmq~~ff1J iul'l~::~l'lT:iR'1fftl1 Lilumm~1J'4ll(Jth::~ll!~u (Art ificial Language) 'hil'limll1~~'1J6~'tfu lu ~u 1~ ~u11i1~ 1~(mnn:: u91Lilumll1~1 ~uuYint'hff6tl

    'IJ6~ln::lfVlT:iff1ffu11~m~vn:: Lrlm11lnw 1~1tnll1 lufi1Jnf1Jl111ff~ * tYl'lT:i n1J~WCi11n~~':i . .. "~~1ff~~ff~':i fiwlfi1Vl1ff~':i ue~:: ff1J1~':i1'tfff~':i Vltrhih::~tJtnli1VihiLvhnu1~v~e~o~'li.:~iu " ~ " ~ . " t>hu.Yhilu! omul'1ue~::!6vm o~ mll1 iufi1Jnfmri114li c1'nllru::t1lumll1 ~ff1J601.:JU'ov 2 mm

    ~1/hl . " "

    tl " "' "' & d ~ "' ... "' :J! 1 19 :i 1ntJm ':i ru l'11~fi1'1J1l'ltMl 'IJ'U'U fi.:JttJ'Utl'l':i 1:: t u :i 'b'fflJ CJ'\Jfl~Vl :i ::1 '116 fln1Jl11~ 1'15

    ~'W ~ :: Vll'l T:i fll ff'U 11~vu~ 6 on '1 tlo ~ fl1fl~:: iu ~ n11 ~ o~:: -Ju~ miiv~t 11i't 6'\J 6.:! t.h::tl'lfYV'Ut~ m)u • . " . 11l ta 'IJ~>~Vifll'l:lltllJ ffnq~ i ,u~ o.:Jue~:: 1M1' tJ m~ vncio.:~ -J lttlufll1:niu ~ .:~Vi'l '*nu i 'Ul1~'\Jo~~lim:i ftn'IJ 1J u V'uLtl u ~" i ,r 11 c\ mhff6\J ~Vl ':i ::ffl1mr~v'Vi 6~ ~11J 1~ 1Vfllllll~mml1i1 ~ rlou11 U' 11f.u 1 ~ 1' tJ nn 1 tl~ vu l ,r1tl un TI:J1 ff'u ffnq~m1Jf1111J iJ VlJ'\J o ~..;' o~ ~un~ vu ff~ .:~ l ,r1i1 u u~f!111Jffnt

    ffl'l f'IJ O.:Jl1c1' nfl1ff6\J ll'f:i 1::t.:Jli ~~ff11Jn mtl~o\J i littlum'IJ 1tl\J ffnq~mlJ l 101m nrutJtJtl1ru il1~ t.:J 1~i'tJm':ivncio.:J:JJ1n tn:~~m m.:Jfi1Jnfnru~vu lM'd~Jummff'uffnq~>~ tJHi'ilJnf~u~.:~

    td , Ql ~ ' ~ 0 ~ a, l111Jn i'tfm'l:llff'Ufffl~1J1m~1\Jl'l.:Jl11J~ t'tf'U 1Jl11n1l'Wl~l'IT:i1l:i~:: (lfVJT:i "~~) tff1tJ,'l~tJ'Ul'l::

    (tff1\Jl'l':itJ'Ul'l) 'IJ6.:J'Vi1tJOri'11CJJ'IJ 1tluvl'u

    '1 " ' ... ' .1 ~ "" " .... .t.l "" " "' 'I "1 ff~tJ 1111 ClnllW::i1TI:J1111CI1tJtlJtlfllll1l'l1J'4'1JCJtJ~::~l'l:l~'IJ\J 1J~11tl'l::ff.:Jfltl'W t'tf 'U 1.:J n n f11fftJ 11J1 nni 1~ 1l::ttl um'IJ1~ 1 '*~111 u;111tl':i :: ~ 11'u11 ~ mtlufll'I:J 1~1n~ 1llnm':i ttl~ vu u tle~~ l'1Nfi1'1:J1fllff11f~1\J~1.:J'l ~ttlutl':i1n!Jm':iru'IJ 6.:Jfll'IJ1~~ l11v~ 1 '1 tl

    " . 1J~ ~~ n ri 1114 t tlu Vi vol.l ftJ mil .:J u Vli 11 mo'\J o .:~t! ntl ':i 19fW'Vl1.:J'W ':i ::'W'Vlli r11 ff'Ul'\1 e11 v

    u •

    i 1~ 1vn l'I:J ltY\J ffnq~ ~fflJ l u l~~::~'YI1iR'1fftJ 1fi mn1o.:J fftHR'I>l1':i ':i'I:J rlvu f1 ~ ff~ffm l'tf1Citllit~v1 lu Winternitz, H. I. Lit. , Vol. 2, 237-238. Cf. Edgerton, BH GO., Vol. I :Gr., 5.

    19 aria Khosla, History of Buddhism in Kashmir (Delhi : Sagar

    Publications, I 972), I 3 ff. Cf. Nalinaksha Dutt. Gilgit Manuscripts, Vol. I :Gr. , 3 ff. and Sukumar Dutt, Buddhism in East Asia, 13- 18.

    '(ltl " 1 ""tl 0 .0. ~ ~ & Q ~ ., C"U q ~ d. ., Q - !ll'W.:J'I-J Vlli ':i::'i:Y'Vlli'U'U'VI, "m':iflmJl1'lf.:J1tfl':il::'Hm'l:.llff'UI:Ynql'lttJfl:JJmiHl~>~-

    a Q.l d 11:1'm:: 61W1tJ'Vl 1-4.". 42.

  • 19

    (Maurice Winternitz) LVL~ti'U Cl1lJfl~~ (Etienne Lamotte) Lfl~L1{~ Hl. hu:JtY (Edward J.

    Thomas) L6'1L tf"Hu (H. Kern) uC~:: m.ii. tiVJ (A. B. Keith) LtltJ~tJ

    2. m1:l1fftJtYnq~f-ltYlJiuvn:: VjVJTiff1t'l'tJ1LtltJm1:l1fiu (A Dialect) ~i~t1~ntJ'll~

    lumflmiln'lln~,.h::tVJffijtJL~tl iw1h~rr~1111:l~ 2 rinufllt'l'~~m1'1f ('VjVITiff~11nl~ 3) . "

    un'tl'i1'1ftYi1tlttJ~1tln\JUtJ1fl~~~nri11U t'!itJ 1mft~'UL1Jn{n (Oldenberg) '111'tl'i::t'I'1VI ff1t'l'~~ ;

    Rhys Davids)

    1 f' f' - I ""2 1 'l ". t"' "' ,j • tri ~ 'l v 6Cl1\PilJ11JI:l'WUCl::l1 'i1J 'i:: t'l'1l1 ff1t'I'IPI';i IPI1J!)l't'I'Ti'Vl()'l-1~1 ';i 6~fl1'j t·u at.Jl Jfl1'l:l1tllJ l1 . "

    L~tJm'il 1fftJ nnql'l t'W'i 1::mE11Vi'tl11n!Ji:H.im1lJUIPin~ H 'l1nt11'l·J1fft.l nnq~P~mil~L~tJ lMi~P~ ~.:J

    u 1 ~:a~ tJfl11:l1~tri 1lJ 1nn 11 uC~::trlm~ 'l1'i w 1 '11m tlu 1J1J m1 u~ ~ ~1n ri 1\J ~ Ltl1LW:: 'l 'Hli'lle~ .. . " . flnnvhh1n!J iuft'1JiHmri1um\'1 o~t~u 'Mmh~i~P~Lv'U

    . " i1. ~muCia. ~tY L~i~P~n n~ui1 Vim1:l1iJ~n1:ltu::f-ltY1JUtJLtltJL'W11::-hiimnhw1 ..

    l111:l1~mtlua 1~~ ii'i'W'~~ n1'ilJ'VlH f11t'I''U1lJ1 1i'utJn1Jl111:l1~tJ~1i',·1 \PI 'll ~ i tJ;i~ul::~11tJ .. ~ 1lJrfu~'IJO~~tJ ~~trlou 1 ::'lf1'1ftJ luuG1JUM'ulJ1u1J001'i 'i::l'iVJTi i11t'!'tJ1ua1m1 1 i'm1:l1'1JO~ • , .• 1m'IJ 1ri ~r--~ "1 ,rtn\PI n1J 1 i'fl11:l1ff'u tYnq~HnlJouiilJ 1~ 1lJtl11lJi1alJ~~

    \PI1. 'U~tJ1n'I:J:: n~~ lJfl11lJL~lJUIPin~il~etln 'lu11 0~11~11 ium:Jtl~fl11:l1fftJffn()IPI " .

    Ht'I'1J 1 tJ 'W'i ::Vjl11if11fftJ 1\l::tn~P~~u 'lumml1UV'1W~ul::mrYVtJL~tl 11~~ 'l1nVim'l:l1tY'Unnq~P~u1J1J

    u1w 11'1~ n "1m ~tJfl1'iJ 1~'1 i'm 'W 1::1 u ~1u 11 'itu m nma1 m1~ v::nri11i1H1~ t11Jt~ v~ft'lJfiflli .. ff1lJ1'i Gu i'utl~au 1 ,rt~tJtYtJ"Yn'li'IU1J 'UU1WUL~~~H1JIPI,f.u ~ ~::t~'U fl1'j lli~n~e~tl'i11:: ~u~~ fi1Jfi{ cielJv::~v~tm'i'W l tJfl1EI1'\Jn~rr1fftJ1 o1v::iinwvh 't,rt~t.1m1nff'unnq~'l~ ~ ~u1v:: llli e. , . 00 •"J) 2J

    tnu fl111J n11J 11 t:l'IJ n~~'Vl v~ v1m'tHltJ lJ1U~l\Pl'U .. fl111Jtltu'IJn~'t19l~'tnatfia~n1Jfl11lJtih.J'Iln~ mf umt ii911:: (R. L. Mitra) t.~nn

    " . ~1nun9l~V~ l~ a1~~~fi111JL~'W'IJ6~L'U6{u-.~ (Burnout) Vi11m'l:l1ff'U nnqm~ff1J i'W'W 1::l~l1Ti . , . ff1 t'I''U 11tl tJi~'U 1fl11 Vl1~fl11:l1iliLn~~'U 1 ::l'fil~ 16 tJ~ fl'IJ fl~fl11:l11J1~LW::fl1'1:J 1ff'U ffnq~P~e}j~ ttl'U . . , tl1ll1'i 11Jffl:J' tJ~ 'j 11JLvi 1ili111 W fl~l'i 1 ::l'i'Vl Ti fl'1t'I''U 1L,j'1lJ1LntJ1,j'O~Ufl::i~'U 1~'\.J i 'Ufl1flnCI1~UCI:: .

    ~ 1 Winternitz, H. I. Lit., Vol. 2, 232-233.

    nT. W. Rhys Davids, Buddhist India, 136-139.

    ~'Nalinaksha Dutt, Gilgit Manuscripts. Vol. II , x.-x i.

  • 20

    . .. 1~vti1u htqj tilJfi{ Viiruiin~ 1tJtnl:l1tl\J ~mqmHwiJ 'tl':i ::nvu~ 1tJltlm.J'IJn11

    I I I ,

    1~tJ\Jmi~ti ·HY1\Jftfl ff1\JViLtl\J~fltJUn1U"::tY1\JVittllJ~fltJf)';ifl :J 1jjtll~ll1':iW1i:J~fl:Jff1\J 1~tJ .. 1 'l.J5 tl'Ul VitJ'U n\m~1\l::'W'U ·;j, ff1\J ~ttl\J ~ fltlm ti:JiJ ci f11:JW::fl11:l 1Lfilrrhtt11J ~ttl\J ~ flt!U01 ~ :J'\-11 'l" lfJ/ 1 ..;. ! d d d, dt d I t 1 '\1 fll~fl::rw 1~11 UJflm nuu'W':i:: ff11m':i tJUL':i tJ:J'W':i::'VjWii 1\l\J::tthJ':ifltJmfl:Jt'W mtlu f11'j :J1tJun

    mn1 fl:J ~ m"::ci1tJ'Vltl~ nt:~uu~ 1 ~:Jiinn L~lJ'\1~ ou~ .milJ 1 u ri1u~t13 u ~ omLn1L~~lJL.u' 1lJ1 t u tntJl1ci:J , 1nm'l~l'tluuurm:n 1 \JfllJfi{ij ~tl.:J ri1u ~ .:Jfl1':i ,-,::uvm~ \ll':i w 11tlu ~B.:J'tlna~\JmlJ .. t'l.JUU'U 'Ut:l.:Jfll':iU~\1 ~.:Jtl

    d.d-9 '.,;~," , ...... "' .,;'I,, .. 'l.J'l::l~lJ'Vl'\1\J.:J ~1lJ'V11UlJ':iflVUf11 CJf1!1'Ufl1Jfl':ilJ'l111~1fJ U.J'tlt'lff1Q 1V1f)'jfil'\Jti.:J

    'tl1rui!t~1 'l tlm1\lffflu\l::wui1iirn11l~ufftAm.:~ 'l1v1n ·wf8~mn ri1tAfi1JiHBw1 a1\J 1~m'I:J1

    f)l'jfflJ~ m'Jff~1.:~tlh u"::'j::uu lhmmru~11Juuu'tl1fliuttlw~hu lmy u~v.:Jiiu'tl"n88n 'ltli u

    l1 "1vm w ~.:JLrlm~,-,1':iW 1\)1f1'tl'l::t~uif m,-,nci 11'1~ i1tn\11L \JfllJn {,j 1,::Ltl\Jm'I:J1~1JlJl:lV • .. . .. 'tl 'l ::~\l!~ulJlnni1m\11ll~ L'W':i 1::tjjvmil.:~~fliin11:l1ff\J ~nq~u uu'tl1w u 11~ om\nnu ~nq~

    • .. 0 •

    lJ1m 5}1\JttlunT~nVii -*m'W1:: i um'l L~tJtl1'l 'l wA~hvi 1l!u ~ .:J hiti 1\l::ttlut~ v.:~~1vl! nVitl'l::'lf1

    'lf'U hwi1 'ltl\l::ti~ 1~Qn~v.:JmlJno 1 1mmwmh.:Jmuo1u

    'l.J 'J ::L~lJ~~fl\1 tY1\J~ttJ\J ~flt.Jf)'j 6.:1 f11H11fl11:l1ti~ i tA9f1~'!J'l::~1ilJ1J1L~ ().:I 5 OtJ L ,1 0 .. 0

    l tl \Jfl11:l1i111 'W 1':i 1:: ~":: ~" 1tJQ n~ 0.:1 ~ 11JQ \J 'VI ci nl:J W lJ .:Jfl'U'UO.:J 1tJu 'U'U~ ~ltlm tl.:Jl!\J'l ttlut~O.:J .. .

    ' , cv ,d d cl i ,, " , Cl.l Gl , Q; Q.f fl 0\J 'U1.:JVlm'lfl~lJfl1':i 1V.':i1::~::U\J ~'Vl,-,::L'J CJ'UL':i CJ.:Jfll\11 l1 ~Qf1~ti.:J~1lJ~tl'Vl"f11:lW'U.:Jfi'U

    ~.:J ~11tlu~v.:~iinn11:: 1 u m'J 1 -ti'm\11~~-:J u~fl11:l11ufl'lJfi{tl'u~nq~l'l~lJnciuiicinl:lw::~u~~.:~

    1 M'tliu i1 ~t5 v.:~~ vvv1, ,-,:: 1tiiii n11::~ \l::u1lJ1~':i \11\J Q' u cinllwir.:~fl'u~ 1lJ 1 1mm wuuu'tl1w iJ .. -.. lJ11cti'itAm':i~tlm5v.:~m'l:n 1,1~1tJ.:J11Jtlf1~fl'l i~i.:Jl11J~ L'liu

    "

    ~l']TJ~lJ L'VlLff~ ~':i'tnu UltJ 1n itu~ ~1>!1>!11\J fl\J'4~ 1nt]tJ:: 1

    ~1Jl'V1L'tl~ 'Wl11v.~~\>)1>)11tl~'4~tJ1~1>)~fi ~l'JTl')!UJ11lJ II ( 1.58)

  • 21

    . , , vth-3 hn~ u:iln!JnTau'VIHtnl:JlYiLfi~~uii ~'j .u~uln'l:J:: i~~ hin1u~·:wtiunl')

    , l~ntJ11olmwnuuulwi1L.u'llJ1~:i 1\l'ffVUfl11lJ\Jnfl~'lltHtnl:l1 1 uti1Jnfm~1ii L'W~l::dJu ~lui~

    lu mru ~ 'llNl~ tJUL~ tJ-3fllJflfi ~flll:J 1~'U Ll>l~lJ '\1cl-3~ihuu uun U'Vln mJ or~ 1·nl1 f) 1~m\nn::v~ ~ ' ~

    m:; i '* fl1'h!1u~ ~YfVlli 1\l'U:: tl'i 1~ n ri TJl.ll ~ ~ m \1 ff~ tl~ 1mmul:l:: :;:: o::nm~'l '*1 ~w , ff~L'Iltl ~~ijlS

    , . .., _, L 1 "" )I i" o a t1 'fflJtJ:i 1'111~ffLlJ1~ tJ:: lJ :i::'\111-3\J 'W:i !: l~'Vllil \11~!:'V1Hfl'4t'\J1YI 'Kff11m 11~ tJlJl~'Vlli1\l'U::~l1tJ ml:l1'1JO~Y~u * l~'Vlli1~u::~~m~'l1:i1f1!JV~iumm~u~HCOJ "Kmmn'l:l1 m::Jun~ l~'Vlli1~u::~ u~~ i ~ niol'lo~~l ff1~ M1ociltJl1V~ 1uff'~CJJlJO!Gt11:lrhil\l::tilum ·u1 ~l~u'W~111:lloluuttu~

    , 'W:i::v~fi'-u~::mrr-w~::fflffU1V~'l1:i::~1 L'liuufl~u 1nrm ufl~UlJflli "1M n~111~1u::o::iiLilu

    ~

    :i:: o::~mm'tJ:; 1nq~ii uv1u l'Vl1l1n i u n n i' nl:l l'Vj'Vlli1~\l::

    2. :i::o::'llv~ml:lltYuffnq~~fflJ v~lu:id1~ t87-t5 J tlnvufl~ff~~ml'lf ii~ . .

  • 22

    , . . 3. ~::v::'llv~mmff'unq~ ~::v::uvtilwl11~~'Wft~ff~ff~1~nJ~ 4 (l~Vl1iff~1n~li 9) .. .

    LlJ'U '11~n ~~LlJ'U 'li1~~'W~ :: ~Vl'li fl'lff'U llJ nltJlJ'I11tJ1'UL ~~qj~ ~Lltl~ LL~nl~ 1 ~S) Tl:llff'U ffnq~tll\lij ,

    nt>'U'I1U'1u'Uua1

    , flll:llff'U nnq~~fflJ i'1 ii~n1:l W!:'IJ H1h ::m~ L'l1iiti'U O'Ufl11:llt>tlni' ~ff:: ( etln1 fl) u~ n

    iici m:u;u::~ 1lJ hw,t 1, tltri lni1fl11:llt>tln r -3fl::t>V1~Lll1'U till UCI!:ff1l-l, '11qjnv~l unl1m~rnt1'U , .

    m1:ntl '.i 1nq~,.;~ l l.JLl t>-3ci'm:J w::n 1mue~::mqm'l:l 1 26

    fl1'1:l 1 ff'u nn q~ ~ fflJ ii tl '.i 1n ~ttl u ri1u l 11 qj '1 u f>i:wn { 'IJ 0-3 ~ 1:: 'Vjl'l'li rntYu 1 ~ 1v1 11 u'e:l

    tfl v1 tls uw'iii ti'U "1ne1 tl'll e.:J m~ ri .:J n:ww C~1~ eHJn 11 tlu:wuH~'.i ::ff1ffu 1'\J e.:J~'.i::L ~1e1 ffn:w111~ 19! . ~ ue~:: m'.i ~~u 11-:J m~'\J v~ml:J 16uL~tJ-t11~ v:::w1o~ nl! vmn:uni' 1 \l::n~u 'l~ 11 flll:J1ffl.J nnq~ ~n:w

    L U Vi '.i ::~ 'YI'Ii fl'1fflJ 1iimq L ncllfttJ~ OU U":: ci n~ W::'U 1 ~tJ '.i:: n 1'.i ~ LlJl.J tJ ~ 1n!J n1~ W l11~fl1~ 1 fl a 1tlfl ~ .:J num '.i 1::1n~ \11 n nn ~fflJ Ol.J ~::'1111fl11:l1ffl.J ffnq~ S1 UJ1tl~ 1nqe1u"::n 1l:J 1'U1~ Ll~tl

    _, d fJ 0 , & ~ fl : ~ 'Ul.J VI n'l1 Cl n'li '.i '.i lJfl1 ffOl.J '\J 0~,·~ '.i :: l~ Vl'li 1 ~ 19f~ L'IJ l-l ~fl tJ ~:: ff .:Jfl L \1 ,.~1::'\J O~f11'1:J 1l.J Ll~~ 1::~::'\.Jll . . n 1~ 1l uf'il.lnf'llo~l'i ~ ::lp11i fl'1ffl.J 1i-hvnn'1v~.:~tlJun 11:l1 ff'u nnq~~iici m-J O!:: i~til,.J oon 'l tl

    f>i 1Jn { ffVJ 'Ii '.i ~ l.l~w ev1 ~ n~~ '.i tlJu t>il.ln { '\J'e:l.:Jl~ '.i::VfV11iil1nu 1i1mvl.l'111tlll.J~tri1uri~ .... "' If & '1 & "' l , 'l , "' ' ~ . I "1 - 1 & "l~fi1Jm'l1u-3- 9f~ \l~ '116~ ump.JVi '.i::~~'.i 'UU1~tl11t'Wn1 1 n~cw~~'.i ( L11J'Jtl~~'.i) 9f~

    , tl'.i::nv'U~1tlf'il.ln{li.:~ M:w~ 9 f>i:wfi{~~ '1~nci111J1U"1 rhftvn111 ,1~tJtli~P mJe~i1 WJ!:t]!91JVU

    1W1Jflt ~.:JLUf>ilJfi{ff'VJ 1i '.i'.ilJ~WCVl~n~\9l'l1'e:l~ nfl'1~0.:Jffl'n111 tJ~~tl t:l~'I1Cl1tlftf.:J 1'lfU

    ~6Edgerton, BHSGD .. Vol. I :Gr., 13.

    ~7R . Kimura, A Historical Study of the terms Hinayana and Mahayana and

    the Origin of Mahayana Buddhism, l40. Cf. J.N. Farquhar, An Outline of the Religious Literature of India (Delhi : Motilal Banarsidass Publi shers Private Limited, 1984), 11 4- 11 5. and. Wintemitz, H. I. Lit. , Vol. 2, 283.

    \u~t\lt>f~umJ"11 (lt'ork of) great extent lu BII SGD., Vol. 2 : Die., 426.

    tfHuutl" '",h develo pment lw SP. trs., 6. ff. mtlt191utle~-:i1 spaciousness, largeness, plenty

    ue~:: abundance tu /\pte., 89 1.

  • ·oz-6t ··ptq[ _ • (u.

    -~··ds~,

    I n.t-::tn.t-~~&::tM.flt~::\:!11 ~ Q " ti-L~ M.~ftL flLutt::tM.at~ttrtt-~ ~Lrt~ttL K~t~::tftkU.ttt~~tt,ttGPL.Q-1 U11M._tttt,tt~~Lrttt !lLl-Lrt m

    . . " . " n.~::tfl.HIA.~tJ:!t-G:: t•.\ t-OtM._ttlA.,tl~O.t-~11ijlfl.~M.~ M. t M._ttt1.1Jtfl~t::mn. M. t t-tftt-~L ~ 1 !llA.~~:: t M. .. .. .. ::uu~1~~rt~t1.~1::un }~~~ .. ~1 ::tM.~.ntt-~.U11t-tiA~M.G~L~M.~1M.~ vufi.M.L Ll-LrtM.~M.G.UL~M.~1

    ::UIA.tt ~LWt G~ fllfl t tn.rtt t !l M. ~1M.i! tlh~:: t M.~ _f~~t fl.~:: !.ftll t~t lA. M.~ L ~ 1!llA.~\rt~ L rtrt~

    -WM.~ta::r.M. W~Lll~::tM.M.~t M._t\L~t~LIJ::tM.(J~::Ut U11M._ttfl£t~M.l, ::w~GM.G~~ .. ..

    6,1 M.WT~~ M.t1.1LrtA.M!}LM.W12i! • "' • • • • 0 • • • •

    t\.rJTLU M.t1.1LrtA.rt\!} IA.U, M.l M.[l.Lft~ ~Lft.U ftLM. [;tL~f.t~!.fl.UIA.Tt~WM.M.LflA.ULrtUt-rJ!.fl.

    • • • 0 0 • • • ~ b • • • 0

    tl1~Lftt!lll-Lrt t.M.1ti.£:.U~ WTLfl.!H~WIUfl. t.M.1M.~.UW Wt!.UfttUmi\U t.M.ttl£:~W Ltl~~LU

    • 0 • • • • • b • 0 n. • . • !'t!.~~fl.!llA.M.tt~ ~Lt.tlt~W~~M.l tJ~ftttU.Ut ~M.L!.W~ ~UH[lrt.t!l rtLM. ¥1A.1!.~Ll-Lft

    • • 0 • 0 • • • • ftt 0 0 0 • •

    !l.llA.M.~uart~nur.. ~1 ~LllW.Uft~t[lflt.LHLm&u~wu .u nam.u lh~r.nr~ un. ttljt

    I n.t-::r.n.t-.u~& ::tM.rlt~::unt I-ll n~rtlflLutt::r.•,wt~nrtt-lh !I.Lrt~ M.L Kr:u~::r.rr.l!Lt 1 r. n "'> "' " ' 1'0 I " , ...., 9 -I'"' Cit . ' .. ~ . -~M.M.O~LI\,1 U11M.M.M.M.M.~Lrttt!I.Ll-Lrt m n.u.::tf1.HIA~1 t-&tUtt t-t[lt-IA.L&1!llA.._\::tt.t::U1.tlltjfl.ft~ 1'01" "":Z' M "~~" Z" ~,.

    .. 11.~1::U11 }lh~!~q ::r. .. ~~1tt-~.U11HIA.~M.O.UL!;·m~1M.~ vun.M.t Ll-LftM.~M.O.UL~M.~t ::.UIA.l!.!}LVI.rt .. .. 0~ flUH!.O.rttt!I.M.~tM.£1 tlh.U::t•.1..U_flh~l .. uL~t Ul.n. ogn.,tt t-Gpua n.Gttn.M. ::tLUU~flltll

    Utl-Lt-GO.ttl.l,t.l LL\::tu rtGU~t11~lA.I\!.O.rt L&l~LU::tM.rtH::tM. U11M.M.I'lrt.UM.1 " '""' " ' 0 " p ,. 0 p " 1:7" , ,. b .. . ..

    _I t\.WT~& ~-..

    & M.W*U.~JbM!}. tj12i! tl.flTLU M.M.tlrtlbiu!}L\U, M.l h[l.Lft.U ~Lrt.U rtLM. [;tL1\R~r.ru~!IA.T~!} • • • 0 • • • • • • 0 "' •

    -lhM.M.LfllbUU'tUNH.fl M.T.ulftt!lll-Lrt t.M.1M.t:.Ulh LtW~LU kL!.~~[l[J.IA.M.t.t~ ~Lt.tlt~~.U~ .. 1.1

    ~b~ttUttt ~hLti6!! ~Lfl~[lrtk!l rtltl. ~IA.l~tlll-Lrt ~l~L&fl.. 1!11~~. l!ll~~ ::~~Lrt WtlluH~

    w1 bu~.u ::wbul!r.~ ::~bt~ft ::J:!iA.R.!.ft ::!:!bl!l!I&U~t~u nmrc.u ::njL t!n. nwt

    II }~~G~1 !h" l, t-LL\ tl.l-Ltl.I;PM.i! ~ht-:L!t-~1\rtlt~t-~111'l!~t-~L,Qo1t-LIA.t1.1-Lt-~.U1T tl.GI'lUii.M.l tl.G ,., " , .. .. . t~.U::t .. ~t-1-LlTUl.UM.ntM.G tW~U!.Lbfnrtrttt!llA..UULU::trru&L&1M.Lf\. . ~ ,., p ... ~ IV , " "

    llmR.ut ~fl.LUrt aLt~~.u ~~Lbm~rt~!liA..u

    I ftk!LU~~tL~tUlM.ll~Lrt!.ft ~Ut~l!IJb~tL

    £l

  • .II.U.Ul.rtUk!lOLl\1::.tM. t\.11.1 ~1 fnLrt::.trt::l\BM.L~t.1M.l,~B~t..ll.rtlAIJ~~fl. t-t:lt-Lfl ·z lfi ' ""' I u I 9PPf7 50" K

    ,.. .. lb It

    IJBftM.Jb::tM.t- tlAt-IJLl\1!llilM.::t~UltlB~t1.1\.~U1 r.~Q ::.tM.M.l,Nlt.UWlATO tLU ~l-U ·1 I ,.. ~ " ~ t' Q p I !"""'

    a~r.Lu::r.f1t-BQ~Gn~t:roR.u1!~ f1 1 t¥-L~rtr.r. !l r.~~::r.M.L~:uM.t uLrt~GL~rtr.r.!l r. ~~:r.M.

    L~UL~trtlt.ijU!.~~IJIJ~t l t1.~1L~G~~l~!.~~::.tM. t~11f1t t.¥-L~rtr. .t!l.t~~::.tM.fl.iJ.t~~IJIJ~t \,

    Hpl.::.tt-~ttr.LUQLO:IJ11R.k!t~::mf\U1!fl.IJ~tn.l) ~f11L~L ~ M.!;il (j noum 8J ~~-~ }0 fL1

    UM.tGM.n.tM.M.IJLIJl-1. rmi\M.t M.Q.t~~::r.M.t-lbtt I? .... ,. h ,. ""' h

    HlA.H lA.t'ijH ULrt!llA.brtH tiJ11~UH~l\rtH (}ul M.M.fRIJHt.~Q!l~l.l ::r.M.rtUl\ M.M.lA. " ~ " ,o p" " p IP bP" toP ,. , , 0 ._.. , ;: ~

    (C9) II uttm~Hrt ~hrJR.~u ~ut ~t1.2L~ mLt!l~hu~lirJ~~tt

    I itLM.LU~iA.!.Hrt nu~~~~hLlA.~ ::nilu1 r.~urt rtLt.~~Q!M.l ~16

    ~~1~rtUt-tLfl.1~1t pi~Qt::.t [1M.~.t~~t-~Qm~G!l1 M.~f~lt~ULl\t-~l-1. ,.. f\t ... f\t ,..

    LllLI!!rt11LlllijLO,t' .tlA.rtt M.GHM.QQLij(!,l,fl.B.Jbftl H IJ~rl.M.l M.IH~Q::.tM.LO,t' .tlANA.~1 H (6 0 1 ~ ':"" 0 . 1 \16 p ~ 1'1) 0 fi' b"

    (9vi·o II ~~rm~~r.t ~~~mtL.t.bl~ ::~Qh, Qt.tL!l o, n LllLij u LUBt I mhlA.~LlAU ~hQ&li)~Ll\ n ~m.tL!l l\ ~Lt~lir.~i'!~tt

    " ... 1\. ~ 1\1 tl~L~~mijf1.!lllM.~11!} ttjQt'~Q11r.tijO!l1 v1Jm.1.l M.il.t~jQ::.tmRU~.tLU .. ..

    rtl,tl.r,tt-11 . .. rtlrttU11l\~!llA.h r. n. ~Ln.rtt tH!ftHtll11 Qij M.M..JbltlntH.t~jfl.!llA~\.M.HtO!ltlll J;:ll' " _.-.;, ~ I • .._..p" ~ ~ :' I lp " p " (cvi·o 11 gtA.tt ~!:r.~~ ::ljr.~LR.ijt~~r.~~!liA.~tJJbiA.Uw ~m.UrL

    I ::Llj~~ Htr.~£[1 roLt~l!r.~i'!~tt LubiA.LQn~r.!_Ort L~J~dt~&a

    t1. t1. L IJ l-1. ttl. .II. U 11 .... I o

    "' rmrU.tt ttQ.t~j~::.ttvl.t'~Q1t:M.t1 QOft IJt-G::.tM.IJUli)L~Ut.~11Lftll\1!lvtM::.tM.Jb1 rUtAL tll-l.~jf1.[jn. ,P 1 "' I p ,P ~ " " " b , ~ " ..,, '"-"' I v

    ~1 ::mt .t~ft!l.vt~mm unlu&1 rt ~u~::Q ~L~tl !lvt~.tn.~nrm.lb rtlArtl,~tL~H1tl.JbU " Lt ~ bP ,'11::7 ~ " t,:) f' ,;' ~ I f:'

    (o~·c) II itLR.l6T ~LlAt ~lt~l\r.~b~tt R.Qul !liA.M.kM. L.tLU~Ll6biJ

    I ::u.i6~!liA.M ~.t~ ~ u~iJQt LlliAU~ LlAQ Ho,t rt1 ~htu

    .t~t!fl~J~t t L~M.iJUI) ~1f:.t~t!::r.M. ::UlA.l.t~~M.~Q L~Bg.~i £Qt::r.~M.iH ~~::r.Mt-~Q t1H lA. " .

    (}ulM.Qt1flLIJHt~QM.r..t.LW11rt!..t!l:::.tM.ULU::.tnBrt1 M.M.UIJlt-H11fhHt t1.111H ijt-Q:::tM.U ~ .- 1'0 I ,.. P' .fa I I .., JP " )" J) . ..

    (09"1) II itLnQul r.~HQ~uj1 ~Lur.j1 ~IJ&tr.j1 l!t;!fl~~tt nrttLn

    itt~~~ ftUlA.l~~~htLB lll LM.UIJl ~R.LU Qll\ ~!.!l

    Vl

  • 25

  • 26

    " ff\J ih.1! 1\J'llU~~ 1 \J ffiJtJ'I.I6'1~1J1'i;1::uCI::l'h\J Ti 'i'i lJl n'I:J:: 6'1.:10 'lfllJi){ tYYI Ti'i'ilJ~W Cfl~ n~~nil

    ,.. . . . 1 1'~1t.1 uamnnilu"'1 1116-w "1'iW1U'IU\J1fl111Jflflfitl'i 10fJ 1 \J~'i::~~ma.:~ ;H:h1mmni .:~liufffl'l i11J1"1nfi1JsH~u6n 1'1fu filJnfi'lf"Imilnfffl'i (1'1f'imlin) ul!m::i.:~filJnfQ1\J 1YifltJ6tlih1'Vl .. . . 1 fl'i 'Iff~ 1'1'1.16'1 ff'Vl Ti 'i'ilJ~W CVl~fH!~l'ilhlfllJ w::mli6\J n\J'IJ'VlCI::fl'i Q 10~1'1'1 LtJ~tJ\JU tJC~ '16Q

    1 ff1J 6UCI ::'i 1~1 ~ 1 '11 ntl 'i 1"lftYl1 ma'Vi l'i.l v1 '111L ~\JLl"-. 'i 1:: fl'Vl~ Vi" '1.1 tl'I'UVI e~::m '1.1 6'1 fl\JL~ a " fi ~ ft' 1\J i11 ~w;1m·J w:::'l.l 6'1.Wtuli 6'1l1 ~ 6'U6~ n5 nlJ1 nni11.1

    ~ ... 1 , .,,., QQ d ~ 'i:: Cl~ fll£1~ fl t.l~'i ::l'fVl Ti I" 1 L~YI'i 'IUfffl'I'Vi 'i::tlfl\Jl11'i UCI::'I~'i:: 61fl1'i Yl'l:::YI 'i 'lUff~ 'I~ 'i:: ~m ~~~tl'ilflfJ,rtlfl111J lutr'VlTi nlJ~WCV1'5 n~mi1

    L~\J 'I.I'J ~u:: fflJW\J mnif)'1!~r~qfi:: tl~'I:Jl')fl:: tl~1q~:: ~'i~f!q~:: ff~f!q 1~

    fJ~f!q 1~ 1Jlu~:: ~~1~ ·~i1~ 'tl111ti1fl 1Jl11U~L11il u11J Ti ~1Jtl~a1ti ~~'il~~ mn'h~'lti

    lvl~ff~~11111li ff~1Vf\')TitJ~~'ilf f11~~11 Vl~lJ~L\J1 1Jl11Ti~1J1ffL\J tJ~tJ~fllJlfl'l!Ul\J~~

    U~L'VlfY~'i~h~iTlU u11J ff1J1~ n-1J1tl~ 1u 'tJ'VlUU!'trulL\J\J mwu ~o1~ 'UU!'If~'i1~Lfl\J "

    ~~Lfl\J 1 ff1JU'4mff1J1tl'4u~u "'l ~'\..l~flfl1lfl 1J1'4'Vll'i11Jl111Jl'4'V11'i11wi 1JU!'l!'I:Jn-

    1Jl111JU!'l!'l:.lfl1wi Vi1t.11ui ~1/thwi 1Jl1~~'1:!1h~EJ1Jflt)'i11~1J~ flfl1~1ii fllf!11 'lfl~'i::

    tl ~£J1'Vl 'f!tJ11th'4 1 n-~111~" VjVJTiLfl£J~i 'I:JCV)imi ~'im-!t1~1JQ~" ~Iii rit)'i"~lii n~lii ri~':in~lii

    ~.~Haj ime Nakamura, Indian Buddhism : A Survey with Bibliographical

    Notes (Delhi : Moti lal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited, 1989), 183- 187. Cf. J.N. Farquhar, An Outline of the Religious Literature of India, 114-115. ; Winternitz. H. I. Lit. , Vol. 2, 284, 289-293.; SP. trs .• ix-x. Cf. xxv-xxviii .

    . " ... I Q d ~ ~ 0 d 3. ClVIf:luVIVIfl1 L'W 'i1::1JL':iCl~'\1'itlL'HI'Hfl~'IJ'\..!

    • ~ • q

    4. tJ"m1fffl1 L'W'il::ih.JflflCIVICIOllJ 1u1J~fiCI. I /2/2 4 • q cu •

  • 27

    f!~il~ rit!"If!'I:Jtl~1! 1 ~~u 'IHl ~u:: tYlJwu ~~oi 'IJ~"Un ilf!~ilf!~~CJ'I.JltY 1nLJ,umm1'W1fWf!ll-

    fltp>~11ty'.ifllCfln~u'IlJ 111'IfllJlft:!o1lJlfl:-!tn:: uu'IJ9lm 6!J1~ uu"U~ru1:: 'I1'ti1'Uf!1l lJ~Cfl~1u

    VH'11lf!'.i1~~'Uf1\'l~~fJ1'1Jn1lf!'I1~~uf!1l 1 ~~ tY~n tY'IJ~1n1 mn~~ 101lano~~ tYlJ

    61f!1l~ot!·nt!m O'VJ1J~t!"I1t!~1 Lml'].WCJot!"I1t!~1:: 1135

    m1otl'nm'I:: 'U'll'Utl'll omifl~ U'UOfl 'U'til LflWW ~l~~i'tYVi'I::tY~'IV'WLl'luli'.i'IlJ'll'I'Wlo ~6 .. .. :umih L'Vl rr 1tl ufiltYflu 6u:u'l-n 1 "W'llav V'uLl'lut11tYou ~.., Hu ""~ ·mn"W'.i:: 1 "Wn tl~ 1 u('l::rllu ..

    " " ' .. ~

  • 28

    ~l')Ti1f1ll1~·nl ~l')Til ilfl1~~~ 1Jsu~1f1~,~ 1~ ·tl ff~n Ul')flf!tJ~~~ ~lJ 1 w \) 1~~ ~l')Tilf!lJL~'.i~

    1Jsi1~1qmui ~l'JTilui flfl1~i Til~~~,J, '.i~UlJtJl~ ~~ ·11 ff~n til')qf!v~'~ ~lJ 11 36

    i :: ..... ..ki"-11 .I 1 I 1 'UL1(11'U'U '.if11J~1~M'U'I ~1uCl~u'.i~nltJfJ(lf)lJ1\11m~'.i~f.lW1 CllJ '.i~M11~l'l'.i~ 'IJlH 'Utl~l'l'.i ~~lJl'l'.i::fllflL ~1 l'l'.i ::i'f1ihfuu~fiCilJ 1 1Ji~Mi! ~Mrluu1J~wuvrVJTitn1:l191 '.i~~mlJ~Ju hi .. . . , 1J'.i 10tjffi1~ lff1 ~l,j~ 1tJUff ~i'f1ih1u \l'U \l'.i~(l11~lJM1'U'.iOUCI::\l'.i~~~'t! ~"!~'IJ(l'I'IJfJ'U~O'.i11Cl

    vi!~ iu~'VlTiLnll~'.itmhJu n-~1i~Mrnvi~1J1~~iJvQiufl~hr~"'n ~n1unu 1~vo1ui1 uCI~ iu , , , • , 0

    l~ VITi Ln'l:l m m~ l'U u l'l '.i ::l'lVITi 1 ~ 1l1''1 M mvl1.:~1J 1'1 ~ 1 ~n1u nul11 'W '.i ~Ti '.i '.i lH1'1MlJ~l1l'l '.i:: ~lJ'W '.i:: . . .. II ' II

    mflt~1li'.:~MCl1tJuff191.:~t~Q W1ruiunut~~Nl11~'~ luVjVI1Hnll191'.im~,u-u finl.l fin~& Q'Ulffn Q 1 d ~ 1 " .,. " "' 11 "1" dll" d "' " .;, 'l (l'Ulffnl tJflr--IF-10 tJi'l:: r-I'U'.i'.iClr-!Cl11fl'llUCl1 LLCl~ tJ'I lJ ~'U'.i'.iCl l10fl'Un 1911'11'Ufl'U01'UVI1 U

    ~ • • 41 .. .. , , 'l'jVITiLnll191'.iLl1~1'U'U l'l'.i:: hinff'V~i' lJM1ff~1l1~MlJ~ iJ1J'.i::'Wq~oUt~im1J~'IJ~'IJ6'1'Vi'.i~ 1-.·inff'~-) " 'l "' .,. ~ .,g .;, " 1 ,j !'1i d ~ "· I d 'l 1911tJi'l11lJ~Cl1191 '\.J~'UltJtl'UlJnl'.iyj'l nl'.itJ191lJl.luCI~nl'.i'UtllJ \IL"lftl t1J'\.Jl11~ n t191 u '.i10t)l'H'W '\.J

    ~ ~ ~ 0

    I "' ,.. " "' ... • I .. " I"' "" " d - I 'l 'j/ d 'l Vj VITi Lnflm m Clll.I'U 'W '.i::~lJ 'W '.i:: fllflt \11VI 'IM ClltJVI 'lu 1'1VIu'.il.l 'W'W 1l.IUCl10lJ lu '.i lOt) M mu u , ' , , .

    lp1Ti 1n1:Jm mri 1u u u~'W '.i:: ff~1Jl1tJ'.i '.i ~l'i'.i ::'U '.i lJ ffl~s OTi 1~l1.:~11rnm1'11J 1.:1 Vi.Yh~1vi' ~u~ci H'l ,~ " ~ , d Col Col Q Q " d " d • Gl

    'Utl'I'W'.i:: ~lJ'W '.i ::fllfU\llVI'IMClltJ ~~ff~\l~'U'IJ'U Titl'.i'Ul~l'fl'\.J'\.Jll.IUCI1 f)lJltl'.ilO{) 1 '111'11'\JL'lf'Uf)'U I

    1v ulJ:: ff~1~VJ1i 1'W~M]~nf)v:: 1 ulJ:: ff~1191mfl191~'.i~wnVjVJTi1~(Jf!'.i11Lnfl 1tJ ·~

    1911'Ulfl~~'.i~Q~1J'4L'UfltJf!\l 1'Wnff~~nf)v:: "

    i1~'ltJ't!~'.i1'lf 1J'.il11~ouv11m'.iu~mff1! 1

    ffl1Ti~lJ~\l!CVI~n ff~~11£J lJMltlO 1f1'1:!W 11 17

    1 t~ lJ 'IJ6fl11lJ'\.J t~'UUt~lJ \l.:~iiu~'W'.i::'l'jVITiL ~luCI:: l'l'.i :: 1 'W ~ff'V~i'~nb .:~ 1 'll t~fl11lJ'\.Jt~tJ ,

    U 61J \1 ~ ii ufi l'l '.i:: ~ 01fl191 L \)' 1 'W '.i:: i:J\11 \1 O'WVI Ti 1 \)' lLLCl~l'l '.i:: ~'1'110 ~,j '.i:: L'tlS illi'.:~,J 1'1 LLCI~'W '.i:: . ~ -, 1Yl ~ff'V~1li'l 1ut~~191 t~UlflflLLCI~i:l\l~'IJu 11

    oUl'WL ~ 1~n1J'.i::nlf1ffVI Ti '.i '.ilJ~WCVJ~ n't!~ '.i ~urtlu '.i1'l11ul1 'll'l'.i ::'t!m~tJ l l'l \JCIV eu Uff191'1'11'UVI1'11oU1~'1UVUM'Ifld1lJ\lS 'I~ '1"!191 tl'\.J1~'UM'Ul11'1L11\1j l~tl'tY~l ll

    16lbid. , 6-7.

    " Ibid. , 1.

  • 'XX-111/\X ''S.Il . IS ... ( {,\ ·z:Lv '(8661) v '811 ·sovr ,:e.J)nstnt!·mpundeuueqppes ;}l[lJO :->seo :->l[l :p;).!:->p!suoo;}~ SUO!lB(SUB.IJ, lS!l[ppns OS::lU!l(J A(JB;} ;}l{l pUB !lBl(pUBO,, 'J::ll[On08 (::l!lffiQ8t

    '9/9/[-r;;r;;[ ·~y~ft t\l,~ll~t::~

    au.~ ·ta~tL\am Ltt'!.YLt\llLY~.LWrt~~tT~IUtltrtUBJM tl.rt ~h rt1fttGt LtLY "' ... 'f7 ; 19 10 l :: p ' 1'0 f' :: 0 1 0 •

    -rt~~ !lL\lH.IJrtYLt~Y~& WrtYM.t ::rt~dtM. ::rtrti!LGM.n.t .. HlLG, LtllllA.~I!L\LYrtM.~LUUL(\ M.Li I'O~f;7rD I op,-PI'O b ,., lp I" f"O

    UI!IULB Q tG~tGI! 6 ~G tUilG ~::1!1TtU111lB ~ t1. n.tL\M.tQt-L\LrtLn.trt~1L\lA.fl.llLI!Hrt~llH llG::LM.t.\1 , ",P ,.., \ IS " ~ .,..,p I, (5 bP p tQr' t f(. I I

    ll~l ::~n t-_fYU~f1 L L,Qttt-G!.UilGk M.~t~rttpt-Gn.rtLtYilLfi.~Gt~nllG krt~t~ntprt~ttrt~tt-~mLu " I t I ~t-~t ~n rto~!h H 1, rttp tl.~tt-G !.UrlG krt~tt-rl ~Tfl.rl ~1~LUfl.£~t ::&t-YL~ t~:Uu ~ lA:> mrl.rt t t !lL\~} \Eft~

    rtt, LR.LIJt-Gfl.M.1Jrl0tt'l!ftl, rtLW~~L~tL~Uit}!t'V tL~L~~QL_l,J sr(£1 v JbL!.Uk!!llA.M) .lbltuk!~Q£Y

    rtB~fl Of I TOLrt::~r~::rl::tt~t, ll~1tl.~_l,JL\1::~[1t-Gn.Gttl-l1YLIJM.1, ~b~rt£!LR.LIJUL(\I!M.~L\2n._f,n

    WrtYrtt LR.LIJ~Bn.::mR.UI! ~I!HrlLIJtl.1 rtn.rt::~t-Y~bU~M.~LR.LIJrtn.tHt t-llW\rl~ttLU p ~ , b , , b f's;;r , ~" " J;7 p

    h£Ll\ l\ [: tl.l, (jUL ~[1~t-LrBf1t!!::l!ltrt~~l1bU~rtEL Ill 11ti.IJ 1M.!~~ ,f 1.1 . .. L ~ 1!llA.i.t::tt.U~LR.LIJLtrtLtYillrtH~1 rtt U t-ti.HHYUB~Bltrll tllrtl tl.t I! ttL(\ 1 !lLdt:: t._\UL &L rtl l\ f5 'fP I " ... \p ~ z P 1 0 " " 0

    ~ ~

    HL\~tUl.t ::tmlA.rtr\LO::!.mt~tlt-LOlA.LYrt::(\ !.1.1~:: !.M.M. t rtltYGn. rtn~Ortrt::~::L !.M.t ~1 tl.tlLR.LIJ t$ I? I 60" ,CP Op b "" p 1'0 b '=" . .. .

    rlt ~L rt.LH.U::!. M.k!LU::!. [1~ t L\L ~ 1 !llA.~t::r. M. L ~ ~~ !t 11~ rtl K u}! "!! ftL ~Q L!. 1UL (\ [email protected] ~t

    .. b

    ~l6llUWofOrttttt!lU.lltllttHNJttniJtttlU 1:7 ..... ,..., f::l' n ~ J;.7

    t-T1. HG ~U B~BLWLOL rtl M.::l!tt t ~Q ::~ .. tl~ t-f.L\H tl.fl1~ ~:: t 01L\ t1. M.l G f' •P 'o o t$ipf' . . . ::~tvlt-Oillrtl-l .. LI\1M.Uio, LtLY M.L\rtf.rl.f1.1 M.Uti.GfU-1.1 .. tt.t-LilBLrtfl.~~~t L~tlvllfl.., Lt~n.n .. rt~!..bl I? ~ " I 0 p .... b , I? P' I , "Lt" " I IV .. ..

    Lllrt [email protected],. u:.LlMlt~!.~.I.2::~M.tl.~rt!.1Utl!ll.t~~::!'[email protected] t-Gl!'.~QU!'.lk>ttl rtU!lL\~ 1\ "' n, ~

    0 1 0 " " ~p ((; 0 1 'f" JJ ,.,

    UL rtrttp nr;pn1Jtrl~1 ::m R.U}! ~~ ti.Lill 1-lrtll L U [lt-B n. !'.~Q:: !.M. t-Bm £ ~L ~ 1 !llA.M::~ M l:. ~L ~!. ~~ ~ ~ .. . .. ~ ::!'. MLt !'. 1-l 1, tLUtl.fl.t Grt.U1 !.~.U ::!'.M.rt~lt\GU .. ~~ [email protected], LtLYrt~~ M.M.::tl::L~M.l ~.UV.Ulrt~~ !.~~

    1 "" 'P • ~ 1 0 1 0 J7 p '; ~ "

    :: !'.._ll~ ~ ~ L\~tl.jJt::~ tl1V.tl.ti.LG:: !'. M. L~G~tlA.Lt ~tltllLU [llti..ULU!l v.k::~M. t~1tf1 1 t ~ll ~ 1

    tfi.UGmR.U~Illi!M.ntU!.U~~~~ ,., ,., ~ p

    ::tt.tL~~ !'.L~~B~t ~}!M.IlLIJrtl, rt~1rt~~m~~~n tLurtr;Pj!LrtUil~rtLtYG pt L~ M.L KR.!}rt~

    6l

  • 30

    'IJ WCVl ~ fl~\911 hi'f'llfl111~ tnJL~ tJ-H~ W1 l'll 11h 1fl\)\9lfl tlfl1i111J1flliLfftJntl'WUa 1~~tJi''Uttl~m.J i ,1'

    1 ~ 'Wfll'll 1ff'W ffflq\91-vi ~~,r tltl i 'Wfl1tll1 ~~ 40 • y

    ~t~ V'llt~v~n hitl11fl!]'ht~u im tll\H~tJ 1 tl ~l~Vifi11iH ff'Vllln1l~WCV1 ~ n~\9l1U lMi''ll

    n1111'U11lJU~~1~ti'U1~tJ~ l\9lm!ntl11'1fqll1~1tlltiltJ l\9ltJn'U11lJll1flUl1ci~~lJ1~1~'l nu l~tJ~tJ -h\'l1nfi1liH'\Jo~iJmv~,~., ~u~~~iJmvniifi1liH~1ri1uriL~tJ'\Jfl~~uto~ ium11~tJtJ1~vtJiM'mi .. ., . . i u t tl'\Jo~fi11iH ii ~1~ tJ\Jl~ tJ~'W tJ1tJ1lJVili~-Yi 11 M't~uf1'11iH .YhiuYimi1fffltJ VJ1~'W 1~l'j'Vl 1ifl'1 fftJ 1\1 ~

    hw hi L~Lfl~ ~fli'l9lt~fl~f1111l!JflU~::~\9l'\Jfl~ 1 1v1m Wfl1El1 ff' ~Lfl\9ll~ ll1fl.fl1'1:.11~LiltJ ~ ~wwi'1u~::

    ~er;mo~ 'bjMHltlfltJffU'Vl~41

    U,j 1 ~tJ~11~ 1~1l tl\JL~ tJ~n~~L~tJ1Jtul11~\1 flL~tJ~fltJtJt.ii 'W'Hli U fltl11 'lfOJ ~~ hiiicU 0 u ~ ~ u

    • y

    ffltlVi'lil9l1\'llJ lV'If. tJ1fl\J1~ (H. Nakamura) nri1Tl1ftlJn{ff'VJ1i'l'l1l~WCVJ~fl~~'iu'l~i'tJnn d d , Q,l t , d ! d d ., ~ 41 d 0 11tJ\J11ti~1J1U'Cl111'Cl1tJfflJtJ VU1~tJ6U\1~ 4 flH \'l~Lff1\'lfflJ\J1W~fl'Vl6~1J1\1~1J\'l~1JtJ ttl~nll1tJ~

    1~U::11m1~ U'UL~U~tltlflliJtJ ff1'W'l 19l11ll'l.hL'U'Ufl1Hh::l~'W ;U~~'I_H 1n\9l'\Jtl~fi'lJfi{ ~ ~cl' fltl .. . . fli'~\1 I ff1'WVlLiJ'Uf11(lll1~0~6tJfl16~

    " . fli' ~.yj 2 1~'\.l ff1'U~VtJUn1Lff~1Jfl111J'\Jtl~~tlUm tl~~n\1

    tl • • '

    fli' ~Vi 3 1iJuri1u1~lJ1~lJ~ovun1Viu~~LffllJ iumtJ,.,~~ ~ 0 ' ' ' ' • •

    fli'~-Yi 4 d~tJfl111~11tl~1n~i121 Vi 22 -Yi 23 i12s u~~-Yi 26 tcU1111Vnmcmil~ y

    ti11n1 ff'VJ1i 11lJ~wCVJ ~ n~\911 i1 "~~t:~~ 1~i' 1Jm11~ mJL~ tJ~lJ1ua1 rioufl1 ff¥i'~m1'11 "' "' i & v d "· I "" ""' VI 100 (511~VI1ifl'fl11'11 643) 'U1::tJ::U'lfl \'l~U~11ff5\'lff11\J:iWIJ:i~1J1tl!fl:iff~fl'fl'j1'J$ 150 (:i11

    ~VJ1i~m1'1f 693)42 flt:~uCJ1 (Conze) t1'1~-htl11nl9li!l9l'~1tJ'\Jo~ti1lfi1ff''Vl1i111l'IJruCV1~n~mn y • y

    1;vu;ium\~'UVJL11fl11mtJfl'~1'l'll:l43 Lg~HJV{~u (Edgerton) nri11'll tl~1n~i1 11 ~~u~1fl'~fl

    40 Edgerton, BIISGD., Vol. I : Gr. , n.I6, quoted in Edgc1ion. BIISGD.,

    Vol. I : Gr.. 6. 4•sp .. _.,XII. 4~Nakamura, Indian Buddhism, I86.

  • 31

    ~ 42 1'llu~u hi ihl'n'l:lw::ltuVJ~mau~u~n9i1~il1n~u'Vl~nllw1flmt1 1tllufilJnf 1tlwuv uuilll!1u1~-h~uVJ~nllwniiri1u-chfiqJium'in1'11'U~mqouv~filJnf~

    a ~ ~ .o d, t1 ., ., a.- d 't vntl'i::m'i'I1'U~ LlJ6l'f il1'iW1il1mHn'UVlfl'U'VilJ~'U~uuouv~fllJm il1ll1 'Vltl'i1flt)l'U

    , . . fllJnf U'Vlli'i 'ilJ~WCVI~ n~vt'i 'l~ft~'j{ltJOtn1~l1lJfl ~'U~ VUVltl'UVilJVl n'I:Jm11 'UU~ 11WL6l;tJf)ft1~

    101 n i1uft::fl1 'il1tl'U ~ vu~tl 'i tl'Vlfl'l'U tl1ftl'ifl mm ll tlvni1~~ l'V'I ':i 1:: ~::J 'U ~~ f.J1 f)~ iltfhi1'U fl':i:: v:: nm l~vch~\)n~6~

    il1n n1 'i 1 tl~ tJU 1 Vi tJU ~ vun nn U'U ffnqmLftt ~ vm1 ,j ftt ~ 'Uil nn\1tA.:Jf1 vu ,j' H

    fflJ\j 'i WLLftt n 1'11 'U fl 'i:: tJ::L 1ft 1 l~mi 'U {1\.J n-:i1 {11;) ilt 1 ,r,r{l ff~tluHtl'i ::m':i~ff1lJ1'im t'l.J {11~

    m'i 1~ tJut~ v~l'ilJnf U'Vlli'i'i~wev~~n~m 1~ ,

    l'ilJnf UVJYintlruev~~nffm 1~fummtlmtlunTI:n~uvrhn!otJ 6 flf~ ft'rumv 'ltl ~ "' "' u , , ,

    utr1~~u~ n~n~ilnn'lf 730 (WYiliffm1'b' 1273) o~ 3 mru ~vuutlft,;~ 6 ni'~no~'' . , . flf~ii 1 th::lJ1t:Ufl~ ff~ffm1'b' 225-3 16 (rmlifffl'i1'b' 768-859) utlft 1fltJlinlJfnll:: .

    ff,j'tJ'il'b''l~ff~'U (Tsin) , .

    ni'~Vi 2 tl'i::lJ1Wfl~ff~ffml'b' 270 ('i11l~l1liffm1'b' 8 13) 1~thlntJU1lJ~utlft , .

    fli'~Vi 3 tl'itlJ1Wfl~ff~ftm l 'lf 384-4 17 (l'n1lifffl':i1'lf 927-960) utlft lfltJnlJl'i~·h:: . . . , tl ft ltJ':i 1'b'1~rY;\l ~ VlJVlU tift 1fl tlfJlJ1':i ;1::i1 1~i'Ufl11lJU tJlJ ti!'U 8V1\llJ 1 f) 1 'U tb ::1 'Vlff~'U1W::

    tlnm1fl~~'ULLfttV\liJtY1'U1'U~lmi'1~tJ\ltl'IJQVlJil1'1:l1n1U~~\lUtlft lfltJ~L'i'U 'Vl ':i l'V'In U~U'Vl~ 24 , .

    ,Ju fJlJ1'i;1::utlftm'V'I 1t~tltJUfl1 ilum::l1.:Ji'Ufl~ff~ff'ml'b' 557-589 ('Vj'Vllifffl'il'lf 11 00- 11 32)

    tl .. .... .. 'l .... & '1 'j/ tl ' .,; ~ " 'b'Wl'U fl ~ fflJtJ'i 1'Jf1\l f1~ (Keu) 1 'Uillf1Ll1'U {I il \l flU ftff1'U VI11J'U 'i 6tlfl'i6~ , . .

    fli'~n 4 tl'i::lJ1Wfl~ff~ffm1'b'Vi 335

  • 32

    , • • t , •

    \'lU\JUU~fli'~ii 1 Yi 2 u~:: Yi 4 i~ffWl1ltJ1tlua'1 trl\'lU'UUU~Ltlumr.n~'Wfli'~Yi I .. " eQlu'lh~fllff~rY~1:inJ~ 3 ~utl-u'unnnnu-ernq~~e~iieQua1tieufllff~rY~1:inl~ 3

    u lfll:i'I!'W (N agarjuna) ~-utlm'l:i::iinl-l~iiuVJm 'Vl ~hti'ilJed,~t~ 1 um:iLff\J6l1trn tl i' 'lfWllJ lli tnfi n '\J 6 ~'W :i ::l'lVlli fl'lff\JlumalJl1ltJ l 'W 1 u 1 ::o::~Ltlu :i eo~ t:J'\J tJ.:j m:i u~ m1 mmtlu

    " . , . . i1uoluu~::lJl11tJl'WU'W ii'ii191t:~V\1\JO.:j fllff~rY911:iHJVi 2 ('V'I'Vl1ifl'm1nJVi 7) ~Mth:~l1trnnn .. . ti1flt1j~tl 'J1flt) LlJfilJfi { ffVlli 'j 'jlJ~iU CVl~ n~VI:i ttl um1 nm:i tls::mfl'l1 anm1.:jtJi' 'lft1j11J 11i tJ1lln 4 7

    , L'W 11::: \'l:::u u tn\1n ~ 111~ 11 ~'W \'1 D'llf1llllff'W ffm]91filJfif ff'Vl1i'J'JlJ~01 ev1~ n~V~'J ~O.:jlJD Qtiau

    fl~ff~fl'911'J'J'I:J~ 2 ('Wl~1irY91T.i'Jll~ 7) l1~eiiedlu'Ji1.:jL1"1t~tJ1nu . .. , f , •

    l1 trn~ 1uli~l11J ~Yimi 11lJ1U ff11J11 o u 111 tl1tl 'W ~ aff'J th ~ u ~ nn rh11u ~'J::: o:::ncn ~ .

    1~ tJ'UL~ tJ~filJfi { ffV11i 1 :i lJ~iUCVl ~ n~m 1~11 ttlu filJf\{'1. \J'I'i'J:::tjVlli fl'lff'W 1U nltJlJl1ltJl'W 1 'W Qfl~'W ~rhtr~iim'Jtli'uttl~tJ'WU'W1fl~u~:::1~m:illi'u~n~Hnu:i::l11H'W:i!:Vjl1lifl'lff'W1UfiltJ~'WtJl\J

    , , . u":::l'l :i ::m~1i fl'lff'W 1u filtJlJl1ltJl'W ll::uu ~~ffllJl'J o nllf'U91'J ::o:::11~ 1'1i1.:jii i~mil.:jufluVi-er~ . . fia n~i'f~fl'~1:iHJ~ 1-2 (l1'VllirY~1:i:ill~ 6-7) u":::ii.UonlJUlJ!l'W~Tumm~~iitrmHu::hi . , -erii 11 fflJ o 191 o~ ~ o"li~filJfifttlwua-er~tJ1~ ·:h filJfi f ff'Vlli n 1J~ruev1~ n~~ :i l~i'tJ n n 1~ tJtJL~ o~ t u11 (lltJff~tJ 1" m! ntJ 'J l'lfrum .:jl'l'J :::'W'Vlti rYl -eru 111"1mi1u " .

    tilJfi 1 ffVlli :i :i lJ~ru Cl1 ~ n ~V~'J ff1 lJUotl~1:i 'J91ttlumrnnu -ernqV~fl'mJ'J 11 r1tJ '1~11 ct dt 0 'JJ\')"W c1! G.f .,QJ~ Ci

    t'r'!1i1)J~Qferl 'J \1~1 11Jt:~uon-erutiu~::-erm-eru~1 '" rY'W 'Vl'Vl.:jl1lJ~ 4 fl'r'lVl ".:j\J -er~ -ti~lJ-~~CVJ:in-, Ml :i \1::: i~Vi\1 l:iiU 1fl11lJl1lJ ltJ'\JtJ.:jU~~::ff'W-n'ttJuih~'U~U 11 tJ ~.:jU .. .

    tr~ (sat) rlluil-w-n'~iifl11lJl1lJ1tJl1~1tJtlVl~ L'li'W "L\J'W" ··ii" "ii;1~" "\1l.:j" ··utiu··

    ··~H" ".:jllJ" "U:i:::Lff~ii" "Ll1lJl!:fflJ" "On~U~" 1\J'W~\J ... ...

    ~7Wintetnitz, H. I. Lit. , Vol. 2, 291-292. Cf. David .1 . Kalupahana. ed. and

    trans. Mlilamadhyamakakarika of Nagarjuna : The Philosophy of the Middle Way (Delhi : Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited, 199 1 ), 3-6.

  • 33

    "' 1i~)J (dharma) lJl~lntil~ 11!(] (dhr)

    "' .1 .. ,, .. ,, \Jf)lJ 'n'lfOJ l1fl11lJl1lJ1tJ'Ufl.:Jlil~ll 1l1'Cl1tJ

    u •

    , , , "'"'"" , , " .., .-c • ~ " ..,; iJ ., * "" .I o d ~ fltJH l'21\J11 "1J'211~6~" "l1H 1" "~mn" "ef1J~6" LlJ'U~'U llJflM ~~tJ lJ~ 1Jl1Jffll~~L1J\J

    .I ' o "' .I "' "'""' ~ " ** li~lJ:: U1J'Cl11 "fl1effl'U'UV.:Jfl'1ef\J1" "f1~)" "1i~~1J1\Jtl1J1J!)1J~" LlJ\J~\J ""~ ••• ..,..,. .. ... . l.l"'iJ ... ,,.. . ,,

    1Jl'ClL1JtJli19J Jti~ (dhar) fl1Jmflflli1'U1.!1Jl1 m~~ l1fl111Jl11J1tJ11 "l1H 1"

    ... ... .. 48 "el' flWifl\J tyVI1fl1'jl1H"

    i 41 d Q,l Gl gl d Ql

    ''li 'j'jlJ" tJ 'Vl1~'W ':i::'W'Vllifllel't! 1 t)~fltylJL~Hl'W ~:: fflJlJ1el'lJ'Wl11i1 '\l1l1':i ~l'HJn11'Cl f)nl':i . . ~'W'j :t: fl-!! th111J1th::mrmri'lf11L'Cln11 ''1i':i':ilJ1uo" 'VlHth ::mrt "1 uo·· iu!1'W::tthmt1mmu~

    .,;1, #1"9 0 t1, 5I l1 '21111J1tJO.:Jfl1el'.:! ei'O\J 'UO.:J'W ':i :: l~l11i ! '\ll

    ~il!crllf1 (pulJQarika) u u c\-l1 ~6f1U1'\J11 ffl!11~~l·n::~mLmtJUVi':i::ff111in lJ'UO~

    ' .. LH)jfluntJo~tl'er1lt~~'W':i ::nlJ1l1trlJ'Vj'Vl1iL~1'Vi'VlHtlu~~u iu 1'ClmL~l1Ha~tm1a t'Cln ~vnu1i11'

    ' "' 1'-lt'l~ am':i 1 ti~mu ~~.:J11J n'\l~1i nlJVierlJt~ '\l'W':i:: ff'mJ 1ff'm~'VlliL ~1'Vl'.i ~1h::mfl'uu 1111'-l'Clfivm':i •

    ·A pte ii1Lm1::,;'ff'W~·:h l!~tll~ h 1n ·mu 1i'.i9l1'Clti 111!(] + lJ~

    .. flnmoffvn1 ~lu Apte. 522-523.; Childers. 118-1 20.; PTSD. 335-339 .

    ... tJ1.:Jm~1'.ivm\1111t;ju JTJ '.i1tJ'Cl::Lvo~ lu ~- u1rt::tl'.i::litl, vn1iluutlliiJm . um: flD1i1tllhJlilln~i (n~.:JL'Vl'Vi"' : 1Jl111lflfJ':i1'211l1tllti'tJ. 2535), 532.

    • • • • "' "" 'i "" tltl 'i ... 0 li'.i 1i1'.i1W, "1iHY111 '.il! tlJ" ~ '.il!lJ . ~~ttl -~ (~~-

    ~s " ., "' "' .I "" tl .., ' 'W'.i :: L'\l11J':ilJ1~rH1iV n'.ilJ'Vi'.i::'\lU'Yl1J':illCJ'I-llO. 1JVI1\.!n'.i1J 1J1D 'Vltl V~nqEJ

    "' ' Q.l 4~GII.:i Q CLI erunnq~, l~lJ'WflH'Vl 4 (n~ ~L'Vl'W"' : lJ111lJflfJ'.il'lf1l1tl1'tH.I. 253 7), 381.

    ......... ~L:j$~vno Winternitz, H. I. Lit.. Vol. 2, 29 1. B'l.:JO.:JL'U M. Anesaki,

    Buddhist Art in its Relations to Buddhist Ideals. 15.

  • 34

    • , tl ., d .. 1 • «~P (sutra) vn :: L~1'U'ilJ1.:JffL1it:~ mllln::~uvn.ptH)tno V1Huua11 ··-.n::~m"

    "' "'l',.t _: "' .. " " "" , " .. .. , , ~ ,_I "'Jnl:.ll n9f.:J1'UVft111Jt:I'U~" "1ff'U~1tl" "ff1ti'Un'YI~" " tl" "~1tl" VIHlJVn::V1i'U1tl~611 11J'U 1J

    1 ut:~nofiv 1. tl11~u (Vi'Y11i1~u::) 2. E..,~ (ff~'j 1 1mmw~1~l'i1ff'Vlli'111'ff1L~~'jtl) 3. ~u~ . . " "' . " , , .a9 , ~ d 0 - 1 ., ., , 0 ~ 0 .,

    (1ffU~1tl) 'If l'Uft111J'Hll1ti'YI1.:JV.'i::'Vj'Y11iff1ffUntll1tiO.:J fl1u'J ::l-.u1i o vum l1'it:~mfft:~uffu

    V1.:J tJ11VN~1l tJ'UL~ tJ.:J1ci't:~ml1"n1i 'i "Jllf11fft:~u 1 11'L1ju'J::LVtJ'U1~ vuf ew Ll1;jm~~.:J'lfl.:Jt~U~1 ~~ " . ,

    ~111a 11~u lli'L1jtailm~1vh~ vuft:~vff1tJ.:J1ll~hmt1u~1tJ ff'uv1.:J tJ11V1.:J mllu~fl 11ll ~1Lth.J '\Jt:~.:J

    . , 1l1w l1Hl-.".:J ua::.:J~.:J1llViff~'\Jt:~.:Jv.'J::ff~'Jli.:Jl1ll~'\Jt:~.:Jiimvlll11tJ1U~ ... . ..

    ~'i1m '\JcpiJ Uf11:J~n1'1fff~'!iJmn'!!onv ffl'!1i~ll~~ev~~1n li~lltl~v1v:: ffn-

    ff~~11ui ff~1flWf1 1v 1lll\ln:: ff~TVJ::L'\Jf!V:: 1 ~ev~1t1 th ~qiJ~1U1llflm1 A'm~mui L\laih

    'Ufl'U1'\.Ji ff1~m1l1 ~1 1\ihnui m1~1 ~VJ'i1tui 1u1~1 tlnmiiui 'bl'!v ~11~'i1tui Viti ~h

    ~ lll "4limo;qqmui -s~>Juii1 li'\.J1~olJi ~f1'i1~~1 ff~11nq~l'J1'1f1'\.Ji fflfV!'i ~1 tY~~1~'JLfll

    , ' ~nt:~u'l! m1~n 191 ff~'!ll~lfl'llty:: linllun tJltJff'Vlli nll~ruev~~n~~'jil ttl'ULfl1t:~.:J , . , , ,

    tl ij.:j nu ff'j 'j Vi ff~ 1\l1nfimi.:Jtl1.:J Ltl'ULfl1 ij.:JLtl~ ij.:j ~1fl'VJfl.Uli.:Jtl 1.:J I ff'Yili 'j'jlJ~ ~u CV1 ~f)~~ 'j u 'ULtl'U Ll1ij V'\.J ,j oJ 1Uflfl '\.J m ::l11 tJ Ll1;j t:JU, l~Uflfi'\.J'VJfl~l1'\.J 11 l"t1ijtl'\.J1ft ~ O.:J~ .:J'Iill ff1l1 f 'Uft'UL tJ~ t:Jtl

    • 'U1~lLU'\.J '!~~ (sutta) fll'J t:I~'U1tJffVili'L~lJ1~lJ ltl'J~~ Apte .. 996.; PTSD., 718.

    ua:: Childers., 490.

    49 " " ... d J d , ... Vi 'J::l\l1'U'JlJ1.:Jfl'1li6 fl1lJl'n::~UVI1J'i'\.Jt:)U10. U'l1'\.!fl1ll tna_ )'ltJ 6 -:Jfl(j'l:l

    , . Q,l Q ., CI.I .O q Ql

    ffutmq~. VilJVifiH 'YI 4 (n~.:JL'YIVi"' : lJl11ll~!)'il'lf1l'ltJ1av, 2537), 843.

    ~0Edward Conze, Thirtv Years of Buddhist Studies (Oxford Bruno

    Cassirer Publishers Ltd 1967), 17 and 51.

    ~ 1 SP. , 417.

  • 35

    ~hl1 i' 'U ~ 1 ~m:J 1tl 1l1 iJ auu ff ~ ff'hHY1 l1 i' 1J ~ (lnl't mf ll~ 1tlfi111JlJ~lJtJ 1l1lJ au i' ~tJ~ ff1l1 i' 'U " " 411 ~

    , , "' ,, , • ~ 0 -~,j 111 t1 u 1l'li'l ·w miJau'Vi 1 ~1 ~1~ml~11~ff1l1i''U'i 1'tf1HtJ am1~tl1~ 1l1llatJlll11ffll.l11 ff1l111J ~ ~

    " ' 0 4!'!'1 Q 0 Q,l 0 Q,l 4'!t UlJtJ 11l1lJ{)lJfi'UL'ViCI~ff1l111Jnl1l~fi111JlJ~lJtJ I

    fillfi{ '\Jfl~ l'I 1~VfV11i fl'1 ff'U 1~ i~'l!uVin ~11~1tJfl1'1:ll~u tmqi91Hffll "hu i11t!Ju"'1~~ ~1. 1 lll "' .d ,; . I Q "' • ~1 da l lll

    ~t1Jl11tl u l'l1 fllJf11J l'I 1~'VfV1 1ift'1ff'U 1l11fffl1J1l1f1u'i:::1'Vlft'V'UL~tl fltJH 'i f1\91 '\''l 'i~l:f1'11ift'1ff'U 1 ~

    LH CJW-il1~ f11i 1 'j 1Jfll fffl'U 'l tlmil~ n 1'1.:1'\J 11.:!Ltlfl'U..r 1~.:1tl 'i ~1 'Ylft'Ut.lt~CJ ~.:~u~a:::lf'U ~~1~n 'M 1:11~ f1 l1~ f1 1i 'i 11JthffVtJ1tltJ Cl 1tl~f1'1:l Ol 5n'l:l 'i ~1Clfl1'1:11'\J fl.:!VltJ 0 lW 11 '\J~~fll'IJl~'U fff1\)Cli .:111 a~ n '1 ~ij m 'iU'W Vi nl1 "n 1i 'i 11J fl1ffau 11 ~ 1\J 1u 1J 1n ri au nn ri lJ ffC~ 1CJ'1Jfl~l'l 'i :::l~'Ylli A'1 ff'W 1 i uth ~1'Ylft' •

    . . .. fillfi{ u~noriiiim1'\J~A'u1m~l'l1J~tJ QoUml'1lfi{~'Yl1i 11 lJ• 1 ru

  • 36

    u·m h~~a Gilgit Manuscripts 'ilfllrl'~ffml'lf 1939 (Vft11iffm1'lf 2482) luri·:nJt~a.:~t11JtH .. tY'YilinlJ~Wcrt~flfJ~lU'U -.1~~ ,~~n\'lfftl1Ji1l::ml::uon~lJ~~1.:J111fl iufllrl'~ffml'lf 1953

    (Vf'Yiliffn'il'lf 2496) • 3. 1Jl 11fl11£lL;tJflCI1.:1 fit~~'UU~I'U i 'U11\l1JL~tll Ori'Ol'U~::1'Ut1£lfl'\J£l.:!1h::L'Yiff~'U ih!n

    11J 'i 1w fl~11 "ltnhu ~A'UVf1J~'W~ru1Jt11Jfi { ff'YililllJ~ w ev1 ~ n~~ m'fl::t11Jfi 16u "1 ~n 1 u \J~ 11w , ,

    LtlL;tJflClHLLCl::L~\Jl11Jl1lJ~\J~V\Jl1~69f'Uff1'WLl1ri1u\/l1 ttl'U~'U11 L9ff:l{ tlflllCl ff1lm.f (S ir

    Aurel Stein) L~'U. ttl~HlVhYn (N. Petrovskiy) ua::tA1l1'tfl. 1t~~m1 (Count K. Otani) t , t I

    tJ~ 11w Vif1 tJVftJ~u ri1u Vi1tl u~ u ~ V'Ut~ t~.:~t11Jn { tYVlli 'j 'jlJ~ tu CVJ~n~~'iVin'I-Jfl 11 ( Kashgar)

    '\J1Vlfin (Khadalik) ttlu~hu1'11\l) ~n11~n1 cn iat'fl ~U9f.:l (La Valce Pussin) linltJ,:jllmon

    lJ1i'U11lff1'i'\J£l.:JLVL;tJl1'lffflJ1fllJ (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society) ilJtlfl~ff~

    llml'lf 191 151 tm::iJ.:~ijvntJHff1'U~tllurl'lJV~'\JO,:jLtlmt~vlrrfi (Petrovskiy) i)f)L~£l1rr . ,

    (LGders) 1iH'ULCl£l (Hoemle) ua::atwU'utf (Leumannt ff1'U~'\J1'Yiam!uijnri110,:j1u

    m!.:~ifa'l!~ llocrnlc's Manuscripts Remains of Buddhist Literature found in Eastern

    Turkestan~~ mHirr~ l~t:l'flli nh~'ti tti1utat:J (August Rudolf Fredrich I loernle) ~~i1tn~

    \11 n~ u n ,j tJLL'fl:::flJ ri 1lJ~ rr 1~tf an 1 \'ll'ftJ ~ ,:jtrl t:J~'i 1\'lrl'£ltJcU15:: u~ 1tl'i 1 fl{J -),ij~u ~hl.! ~ Ltlu~u~,j'tJff'Yili'i'ilJ1JruCVJ~nrrm£l~ 3 ~hu ijH'~l1\'lrl'£ltJill:: fit~ ff1lJ~,1~-:jm1ilrl'tltJin::

    " "U " "'

    hw tovl . ~tJLij'fl~. hurr (F. W. Thomas) ff1'W~mi)o~nff£l.:l 1~oi)m~t~1rr (Li.idersf ttr~:: " d o' 1!:1.4' Ql ~ Ql • tf .0 .,.

    'Utlflillfl'U Ltl'f!Cl ri'11H tllJ~.:I~'U (Ellsworth Huntmgton) f1'1ffl'l 'in1'itl1J1Jff11:YI'I'iil1fl , "

    lJ'I111'VltJl"tJW'fl (Yale University) a1 'i 1\1VftJ9f'U ff1'U ~nh1u 4 ~'U 1 u tlfl~ rrl'i'ftm l 'lf 1905 Ql ~ d'e. d' tf GJ' d' 0 5I

    ('Yj'Vlliffn'il'lf 2448) LlJtlfflrl'l'l'i1\11'itJL£l'i'Uff CltltllJ\JlJ (Ernst Leumann) l'l'i1ilfftltJ'lf1'i::UCl1

    " 1 lJfl1tJ11 ".:~ ~.:! 'Yl 5 l'U 11tlluru £lfi111J'U1.:Jff1\J '\J£l.:!t1'1Jn { ff'Vlli 55 lJ~W CVl ~ n ~~"~ 556

    ''Edgerton, BHSGD., Vol. I :Gr., I I.

  • 37

    mo11ci-3 \11n~ 1~t1'u,~u~u 'iruutilJn{ -cT''nti~ ~lJ~wcn'l n~m i u ffmu ~~ 1-3'1 ~.:Jnri11 ,., tt!l .ct 0 Coo' Q ., ! ! ., ~ L!j '\7

    mn \1-31Jmn11J~11.J m1\1fftl1.J 'lfn:: u"::\1~m1J1~ ~11JlHl11J~ 4 flH ~-3'Ufltl tl •

    flS-3 Vi 1 1~tJi'l'lff~~1\1l~tJLfHu (Kern) u"::fflff~n\1l~ti't1ui1o (Nanjio) L11u~ tl

    ~n\:lffflLJin:: fl~ff~ffml'lf 1908-1 912 ('W'nTi ffml 'lf 245 1-2455) ~1J~flm:J~L'V11'U1fll 1V~tJ'l1-3 . fffl-3l'hu \1~~~1\:lffOLJil~:: \11n~ul!,j'1.J~~u'WLJ iutu'!.h" nl.lm{ LOL~tJnm'l Lm::~u~ui' nm H 1 'U,r 0 -3ffl.JVI'UOnh::L'nffi 'U'VlitlQ htldJu ri1'U imlj

    tl •

    fli''IVi 21~tJfl'lMI~l\11Jtl ~ · b~~1J' 1 (U. Wogihara) u"::fl'lM1 ~1\11J'tl ~. ,.~~9$~::

    (C. Tsuchida) L~'U~fl~1\1ffOLJ

  • 38

    1. The SaddharmapuQQarika or The Lotus of The True Law Tr. By J.H.

    Kern (Sacred Books of the East Vol. 2 1 OUP 1884) utJmnnml:l1fftHYnq~

    2. The Sutra of the Lotus Flower of the Wonderful Law Tr. By Sanchu

    Murano (Tokyo 1974) utJmnmrutJmlJ1~tJ'\Jfl~fllJ1~;h:: lnm'lvn~fl~H'l ~1lJmm~~tJ 3. The Threefold Lotus Sutra Tr. By Bunno Kato, Yoshiro Tammura, ,

    Koj iro Miyasala (Tokyo 1975) l'*mJ1J'\Jfl~fllJ1~;1::nm-n::~~~fftJ'l vm'l'fl'l~~~

    4. Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma Tr. L. Hurvitz

    (Columbia University Press 1970) li'llD1J'\Jfl~fllJ1~;1:::t'lJ~vmYivtJi11'&u.Ut:Ju~n~l~~lfl

    tA'!JtJml:llfftJ nnq~

    5. The Lotus Sutra Tr. By Watts (Columbia Universi ty Press 1993) u'IJ(l

    ;) lflll ,j'tJflTIJl~tJ '\Jfl~fllJ1~;1:; i ,r~'U ~ ili 1''Vl 'i ::'VI VITi fl'lfflJ l~llJ . .. . lutJ'i ::L'VIfl''l nvm~ utlCl~lJn { ff'Ylli 'I 'I 11tJru ct1'l mYmihHntJ~1lJ 1\.J u~ ~utl" hw . .. , ,

    ~ClflYI hi~Y~'YlfllJ H~o~~ni'hmutlCluu i1 2 ~1141\.J ~~i1

    1. ~1u1uutJ{l~,n~tm'l1mnlJlfftJnnqY~ 1Y~vo~ntJ~tJQ1j,mtJClL~ummiiu~'Ufl~ , ~lll l11l1u 'VIlff 1Y~tJ ~O'lfl'lffY~'il~l'iV "'i.~lClfl'l Cl'ln~"'i!nut1ClCl~im1~vnn,~'YlTiim ~~u~

    ll ,j'1JL~fl\.J fllJnl~lJ ,j 2530 U~V~ 'hj~1Jntilf1Lff{Jf)fltJ . 2. ~1tJ1uutlCl~lflllDmnmv~nqlJ'\J~Nfll'iYm1\11'IOL~{t.J 1Y~tJ Ol~l'io~m~lJlClV

    , niJClff~..f ~llvi~i''lumilNltJ fl'Vl Vl'I:::mntJtulJllJlnih Vl.fl. 2525

    • u

    , fllJn { ffVl1inlJ~W CVl ~ ~~~~ 'IU i~i'1Jfll'IU1J06uCl::\!'1111Y~mll'Vl1:: 'lu'IJ 'I:::lVlfl~tJuCl::

    ~~lJ mh~~ 'l~Yl L'Vl~l::U,j'U~fll'j Cl'1"n11'U1 ;n ~ ~l'Vl 'j ::~9l'j i~niifjWL~lJfll!tJ~ LV\.Jfll'jfl'j ::~1

  • . d

    \JYIYI 3

    ct ~ v Q .., l ::\J\JliilHUil:: flll &~ iiU li'\1 e .:.l.fll\11 iiU tinqv.

    ~UAl-lftlUYililll-ltJwcrl~tim m1llVI~ 1-5 q ..

    m~ l t~::\J'ULfftJ'I l '\.J.f11lll'cYU fffHl~lll~ ~ ll'\.J. (Classical Sanskri t) iii:ln'l:lw::fl·:J'Vl

    nci11fhl Lfli .:.JfllVI~l:wno 1 1mmw1J1u!tl ,rlo'l1thmifu.:.~i'lu~ 2 '11tJ1tJLfftJ'I~ul11Jo~;V~nu t~:: • y •

    ~o'liim·H'lJ~vu'l1thmiYv.:Juu1~w1~m'j'VJ1'Ifl1111fl'1ff~f ~1:wu9imw m·H'lJRuumJl:l'I'\Hl'l Jl Jl I I

    '11U1mffV'~~11J11im~'VlHmmrr1ff~fuwnV~~u 'l~ 2 ft'n11w:: ~om~LtJ~vuutJ"'~u'U'U h!ih~ou II) .I..; .I .a ~ tl eo

  • 1n~~~u (Dental) fiv11tl1mnv~ ~ o VI 1i u

    1n~~llJ'fhhn (Labial) fi~mtl1mnv~ tl ~ -w n lJ • ct. 4 . ~ . 4

    l1U1tl1fftJ~fl~ff~:: (Sem1vowel) fH>l1U1tl1fftJ~ tJ ~ Cl 1

    l1U1tJLfftJ~'WVty'lfU::LfftJ~L1Vlm(~lllJ'4) (Sibilant) fiel1U1tl1fftJ~ ff ll ff

    l1tl1mnv~-wirty'lfU::1iii~ (Aspirate) fitmtl1mnv.:~11

    I dO d.~ t d. 9)QJ

    '11U1tl1fftJ'19f'\111l.JCitl fll:l'\1tJ1tJLfftJ'I _:: '11\Jl'VWtlJ

  • 41

    ? ;:t "~ (;:) c - (,;) r

    (;:) ;:t ;:t ;:t ?

    'W~tlJ"lfW~ ~ r r ~ ~

    "1!~ (i: G: "17~ ri ... G: ~ ~ G: avo as ·v~ as ·v~ ·v~ G:

    G: G: as as as

    "7

    hiiialJ tl "' H n \') {) 91 ~ -ri ;:l ~ ;:;;

    "7 v--;:) (;:) ...

    G: 11E lJ('IlJ 'IJ Q il' \1 ~ .,. ~ "7

    hilialJ ;:) ~ '11 en 'V1 'W liE "7 (,;) H ;;>.c ;:l "" "7 ;;; lJ('IlJ ~ OJ ~ 1j fl ;:)

    -aE - ... ... 1ffti.:J'\.llfff1 .:j ru w 'W lJ • {l:i:ilia':i ~ {.1 :i a 1

    "' .... Li'Yv.:J hiofJ.:J Lffti.:J~EilJ'W rr El ff d ... ... ..,

    La'tJ.:I1i'W9l iffti.:Jf)tl.:J l1

    ... d

    Lffti.:J lbJOfl.:J 1ff:if1~

    "' Lt'W.:!Lffti~U'Vl:in •• "' ... ~iJ1jlJ1um: • •• 'lf1111lJCltl:: ..

    I o J/ o o

    fllEJ1VilJ'lf~J tJL ~~tlff1:i\J 'U ij n1 mJ~ ti'WUtl a .:1 {1~\Pl a tl~11Cl 1 L'W S 1::011 ~\PI~ tltrtl ff1:ili

    tYTW ih L li' fll'l:lllfl~n111 tl~ti'WLLtlM~ 11J~lJ'4EI tJL 'WLL~a:: ~tl.:J~'UL.ij 1 l tJij tYJ'\J tlfi ff1JoW'\J n 0'\J n 1:i _I.,; -1 ... .l d c$1 "' • ""d1 , • .1 1 ' d A I 11JClti'\JUlJCl.:J'IJfJ.:Jfll\l11f1~'1J'W'IJH'Vlf1 \Pltlnl:itllJfll '1.11-:J'Vln vWn1:ia':i1.:Jfll'IJ'W MlJ 'lf.:JlJS1f1{)

    , nnW'V11.:Jflll:l1ULtl'W 1tl6o1.:JfifJmtlufi~w 1 tl Vi1 i lit! nml:l1ff1ff9l{ ff1lJ1S om 1\'lfffJ'IJ-d6tl:i6tl

    ms Ltl~vuutla.:J 1~i 'WflltiM ~.:J 1'1iu 'IJ1.:Jmi1mffti.:J1tl~vu 1tl~hm11'W1\'l'U6.:Jfll'I:J15u gu1.u'11J1 ~fflJ 'IJ1.:J'I·I'l11t11ffti.:JLtl~ti'WUtla.:JL'W:i 1::floi '\.J~'\.J~~1.:JO'W Ltl'Wvi''U

    "'

  • 42

    • v

    mm~'\Jtl.:JmlL'I.l~tJuutlCl.:J'\Jtl.:JMli1mfftJ.:J i um1:m!u a'u'l1'1:1,!1'W i~MCl1tJ'lh::nn

    L'li'W ~'W,!1'W~flQfl1ftlJ 1Jl1th::L'Vlf1L1Cl::fl'W~L~fi1'1:11B'Wlfl'U~1-:J ~fl1'WlJlJfl1n1f1 61~ L'Wfl' UCl::itJ • v •

    '\Jfl.:J€li'm'l:l1 LiJ'U~'W nri11 hw~~,j n1lL'll~tJ'UU'I.lCl.:J'I1U1lJlfflJ.:JLflfl~'W 1f1tJii~11'11~flQVi'11"n

    nn 2 'lll::ml flfl

    1. Ol'lltl~tJUUtlt'l-3U'U 'Uijlitl'U,'\J LiJ'UnllL'I.l~lJ'UUtlCl.:J~LiJ'U 'l tlmlJli lUJ'lf1~'\Jt'l.:J v

    fl1'1:11 ~1m~i1 ,Ynm'l:l1il1~V~f~1lJ1Hlffml'u~o.:JHHJi~ 1'1fu mmmm~'WLfftJ.:J mm'VllnLfftJ.:J

    '11li1mffV.:J L'Wf11'W ~ .:J'I1l.i1tJLfftJ.:Jg'W i ,f ~ 1lJ ,!1U Ml.i1tJLfftJ.:J ~l::'l11tJ 'l '1.11~ fl.:J~l1nV'Vln'WCln1lL~U I ~ ~ V

    LfftJ.:J 1~wXu mlt'l.l~m.Ju't1Cl.:JL'I1chil tnf1~'WO'Ufl1'1:nvut~tJ-~ h'tl~.:J11vJ~f1UJnq"f1~ ~flllj'j::a1'Vl "

    uCl::lJ1DJ 1n~i'91L~'W i u n~llil lrJ nb 1nqV~~.:J'I1Cl1tJ

    2. m·.utl~ouutltHU'U'U,,jijtiou1'\J Lilumlt'l.l~tJuutlCl.:J~hi1~Li~Ju i'llm1llinlJ-

    'lf1~'\Jfl.:Jil1'1:11 u~Lnf1i11n~11'119Jgu~ 1'1fu ~L~tJ'UL~tJ.:Jn1lnf'U1flf1111li'9lfllJ iuml ii'mrn 'hiii f1111JU1iuthm.:J, 1lJ10l W H'ff'UlHl~vi~H~ 1fl1lnfili.W(h~OU1ttJ.:JmJ1mfflJ.:J '1156~ i1U 'lli .. ..

    i ufl'11nf ff'VllinlJ~WC}'l~n~m m1l'li'tJ-a'u'l11:1.!1U iu'U'V1~~1U1J1 ~1~ mJL~ tJ.:Jfl'llnfl~ . . "

    l 'W1tJ11J i u ml Vi ~::1tl~tJUil 11:11~-:JL~lJ'\J t:J.:Jfl1lnfi ,fijJ ::'U'UtfftJ.:Jtllun l'l:llff'U ~nqV~lJ1m! 1u u~ I o Jl Jl

    n1t:J.:Ji11niim.:JV~t:JuVimm~.:JL~lJLtlum'I:ITth1nqV~ ;.:J ili~1lJUflm::~1 1~~-:J'KlJfl ~ntlJ::nlJ

    J::'U'U1fftJ.:Jil11:11fftJ~nqV~ g.:Jii~.U~unCllilll:l1 iufl'1lnfmm~tJ.:J i J m'l:l1ni1::ii1l1Vll ,!1UlJ1n~u v ... ~

    l'YW.:JUU

    nlll tJ ~ lJU'I1t11tJLfflJ.:J'\J tl.:Jilll:l1i UfllJfl{ ff'Vlli lllJ~W C}'l ~ 0~9'1 J ;J.:J flli"liilJ 1~-:JU~fl f.:J " " L~lJ'UL~tJ.:Jfl'1lfif,Yu ~~tli~~.:Jij

    2Thomas Bunow, The Sanskrit Lan!!.uagc 2nd. cd. (London R.

    MacLehose and Company Limited, 1965), 72-79.

  • 43

    .a a ...... ., . d , d a.r:::. .X 1. VVI1iVHmtJVI~n'l:lw (Metn Causa) mm.J~ouutlMl1\J1tl1tltJ~VIln~'IJ\JL~l1~

    eVItll~~d'tJ'VI~n'UW 1~vri1u ht\)jm\'1~n~~Ltl~CJ\J ~1mffv~tfu i '11'LlJtJLfftJ~tJ11 L'tftJ • ~~lJ1i11l1tJ ( 1.4) UVI\J ~~lJiill1tJ

    'UQ~ fl~~ (1.5) "" UVI\J llQty fl~~

    ~1 (2.133, 3.92 11~~ 4.16) LL'Vl\J ~

    H JU11JtJ ( 1.17, 3.80, U~~ 3.95) U'VI\J lVJ\JlW

    1i~lJ1~'1J1 (2.1 0 I) UVI\J 1illJlJ'IJ1 . tl1~ (2.120) U'Vl\J tl1~

    !lmtlVi (3.4 7 u~::3.6J) U'Vltl !l~tJ.yj

    ~~VI\J1lJtJ1\J (4.57) UVI\J ~'4'Vl\JlJtJ1\J

    ;\J1\J ~q¥llJ1 (2.33) ...

    UVI\J 'lf\J1\J ~q~lJ

    W\J1 (2.99) LLVI\J W\J

    ~~tJ1 (3.129) U'YI\J ~~tJ

    lJlJ1 (3.135) UVI\J lJlJ

    q~ru (2.21 > d"'

    LLVI\J VJlW

    l1 (3. 135) ...

    11'1'1\J "'

    ~ (3.137) U'\11\J 9J

    n 1 'S LtJ~tJ\JU tJ('l ·H'Wll::e'Yl ~~~llil~'IJ.:J~'U'IJ~'Hl\JVInn'l:lOr 1~ \J i:Yln-1~ L ,j' fll'l:l1 • ff'u ffnq¥~~fflJ 1 u~lJn { ff'Vlli -s 'SlJ~w ev1 ~ n~~-siJnnld w::.Wtilld 't u ri1u~ttlu 5 ~vm 8-:J m-s nJ~uu utJ('l~l'fti1tJ1fftJ~L'Wl1::'1J.:J~'U'IJ~.:Jll\J'VlnnldWii tlJtJtll1n!)n1lOl~Ln~~\JlJ1n 1 \Jfl1'1:l1'Ul~ 1 fl1ll1

    " ' tll1nq~ 4 u('l::fl1'1:ll ff'u ffnq~ ~ff1JiHh~'UlJ1n 1~uli1 1 tJ~urll u n nlJru~m -w 1~~1'1Jfl.:Jfl1'1:l1 't u

    ~lJnfff''Y11inlJ~ruct"11n~m

    *1Lfi'S1::,11~CJ('l::LflCJ~ iu'U'Yl~ 5 ·)1~1CJL~fl.:Jfl1'1:l1Ua::ltlLL'U'U'IJO~Q\JVI~n'UW 1Wilhelm Geiger, Pali Literature and Language (Delhi : Munshiram

    Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd. 1996), 78-80. 4R. Pischel, A Grammar of the Prakrit Language (Delhi : Motilal

    Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited, 1999), 80, 86-90, ua:: I 02-103.

  • 44

    .. 1~ ~ l::Q::uu tmmciTl 1~-h"n\lru::nn '1 ~mlllVtJL~tJ-m~ v::~nrv~h~~ u'Cl::rm:n

    tY'u unq¥1 t uti'1Jn{ tYl1TinlJ~rucvi~ n~¥~~ ihhu tY'11~mfu":: ri ~ v'Vli-.·~"9\ f:lnuuC~::nu i~

    nm~ru '-~t\!"!~~ vii~ ~rrij:: ~'j~fll911 tJ'jtJlmm.J I

    ~':ifl1fftJ'4~ f1'j~n1'4\9l'jli'J ~~w1v 1ni1'1VJtJUJn':if!ij::: 11 (I. I)

    tJrrcmwl'i '-~tl!"!;;~ m1~~>J~~¥~Tu ~l'J!tJlu 1u~'lftJ~11 1

    fl'4¥~:::~'jl'4'VJ1'1J 191lm u~11tJ1lli>Jtl 11ru'!fiD il L~tJ~1tJ6'Vlnl~'Cl~tJ'Vl"n1:lw,j~ti''U'l,r1l~m'Um11 . ". . "

    thh ~~u ..f~~ff1111HU~'U ~~u ~·:IL~'Um'l:lltY'uunq¥~1llm!l'U i~ L'Yi~l:: 1~ii£h1irm'\lo~uuml'nllof,j~ft''U'l,rL~tJ ~~u u9lotiH'l191 u9liJmm'Vl~nu~:: L'liu'lumm·h

    r{Ltn~ 191-r(tJ fl111'li>J1lfl11:: tJ~m~ ~ e>f!1'j&m1 i~:: 1 d 0 Q Q Q

    l1-r(mmrr~ t>fl~l'!tJ 12'!1lnp~&u'M ~~~ ltJ'4~~fl~L1JtJl 11 < 17.15) . . .. Q',J'Vl"n'l:lwVi1~1u'U1vrvi 4 '\lt>.:ltnmil ~f.l eul'l~1&9ftJ-:i~uli' (VtJVl'j1'lf~1) m~uVl'jn

    ff'j:::L~tJ ~~&uii i~t1n~f.l-319111Jii't.JVl~n'l4w 11~(i',,~u ~~1ui15 ~::t1n~8~m1lii'ul'l-crn'l:lru " . " ..

    ltJ'U1-3flf -3LtltJ ~~U 1~~1::~ 1tJVVIn~'Cl~tJ "n\lOl ,j~fi'U 111'~1~ tJ'Ul~ tJ.:l~tl.:lUVl'j f1ff'j::: " ..

    ~ 'ltlOH&'lfu '1u,;'t>fl111J!l1cililfit>

    tJ1\Jr~q 1191 i1 u~'V]Ti:: tJ~.o~~~1u lJ\J:: < 11. 11 )

    tYi1'lftJ'41'11'4 ~~Ul'-ltnil 'Vll'1'4~ l'lltJliJ 91 icn1n~~ ( 1.17)

    "!~9!~ i9)'jl ~~1-uillfl.fl~l ~'V]Tilf!~ 'V]qf!tJ'4~ tltJ'4~~fl~'\:l:: ( 1.55)

    .. thh e~-u~o u'VImtY~::n'Cllmtlu~tJ e~u~u lu,;'t>fl1111Ll1cilil ~o

    • • 4U •

    ' Edgerton, BHSGD., Vol. I :Gr., 29.

  • 45

    lf11WiL~ 'ffii~ 1iu~(J1lJ tlff.:Jfl'lfW1'U1~ 9~U~fJWI~ (3.7) . . . . . ~ . ~~t~fltmcrud1m..Jn1J a~u~m 1u1J~uvlifno lJlf 1rY~'W1'Yifl~1~uV~mu• ~-utlwh • • • • • 41 • •

    ~milul'omuh n1u1~·huu'YI'fln1-Jw,j'~ fi1J 1'11' a~uV~tJ ~tl~u'YI~nff~~ .. . .

    ~~lJ1'V]n thn1~u 1'lf1U(J1 V!'VJ1i1'W lann1~mw ~1V'W11! 1

    'lfM~1 m~f]Eili'lfi1~1 ~rrti ni[!vm l'j'VJ1i 'l11'UOl1~1-J 1! II (2. 145)

    ~ \l1rl'11 1amil~tJ~ rr1timttlm·H~ m"11nmJ111W.~ • • '\1 q • •

    th:h -1n~1u > -1n{i1t~ lumm-J1

    ~9J'l.hu tlrrcniJ ffl1~':i 1nq 1v fl'W'!tlm vo~1 fl~t111ilm::: 1

    wn~ rf'Y11lJ~~~ tf)EI~P 1n{i1u w m~m 1~i1 ;u,~lJt'ln1 u < 1.44 > ,.. 1 1 1 ""i l _, ' .f ... .f ..., "' mOJ'\JO.:Jfl1m1nnft'':i::'\JtJ.:J - nq tJ > - il!) 1lJ 'U~10CJN'U lf1~'\JlH1'1':il:t: Olllinn

    ., ., ~#"'J Q G.l g., tl Q 0

    'IJO~~'U'YI"fl'l-JO! flO O\J'YI':i1.:JfYP'W'YI (Ol!'1':i1fl'1) , .

    fll'JU 'YI~ flff':i ::':i :::'1111.:Jr'hffl~ l1'-Q dJ'U crnEJW::li 1 thJ'Il 6~fl11-J 1a'Ut~CJ-01':i CJ:: fflJt.Jil 01.:!-,

    L 'U '\JW:::t~ tnn'U fll'l-J 1-a'u ffilt)~ ~ffll nii"'nfl ru::t'lf'Wt~t.J10'U -Q8

    3. ViVOJ'lf'U:::ncr1J lltlttlwn ::: (Vocalisation) fi11-J 1-a'urrnq~t~t.lfd1 ~n-!~'iiJl'iW fio

    crn'l-Jru :::thfiru'U O~fl 1'1:l1 a'U1~(1-01'JlJ :: fflJCJflm.:l~L~ff~~ 6 B tm::: m U'Vlll ViVUJ'lf'U:: fJ um: tJ1 u u

    ~ "' 9 "' tJ 9 .., "'"., . I "" tl :~~ ' u":::ff':i::: ~ g u":: ae U'Vl 'l.l VWOJ'lf'U~ 1 u":: 11 'Vl ':i1fl{)l'Wfl lJmff'V11i 'i':ilJ '-4 WCVJ':in~m ~un

    1a U'Vl'U a1 t'liu

    loti(;!~~ (3 .40)

    le l"numli (4.24)

    6SP., 7.

    U'Vlll o1tJ~~~

    U'YI 'U 01L"f1'U1flli

    7Wi lhelm Geiger, Pali Literature and Language, 76-78. Cf. R. PischeL A

    Grammar of the Prakrit Language, 124-1 31 and 155. 8Edgerton, BHSG