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  • MATERIALS

    FOR

    A DICTIONARY

    OF

    THE PRAJNAPARAMITA LITERATURE

    by

    Edward C o n z e

    SUZUKI RESEARCH FOUNDATION

    T o k y o

    1 9 7 3

  • PREFACE

    The typescript of this "Dictionary53 was first completed in 1954, andat that time contained approximately 8,600 Sanskrit terms. For a timeit was intended to publish this work as volume 27 of Prof, Raghu Vira'sSatapitaka, but the intention could not be carried out because Dr. LokeshChandra could not obtain the necessary type. No single individual can,I think, be expected to produce a perfect and final dictionary of thesevast and varied texts, and so I have decided to re-issue the old versionwith many corrections and additions, though only too well aware of thegaps, mistakes and oversights which the text still contains. Nevertheless,what I have done will provide a good foundation for others to build on.

    The dictionary is complete only where it reproduces four separateindices, two of them printed, and two unprinted. They are (1) my indexto AA (1954) (1,300 words), and (2) that to R (1960) (1,600 words), Thefirst has been left as it stands (although according to the late Prof, F.W. Thomas it could do with some revision), whereas the second hasbeen corrected as a result of Prof, F, Edgerton's often valid criticismsin IIJ v, 1961, pp. 1-18, The two unpublished indices cover (3) thehhurni chapter of the Large Sutra (P 214-225=S x 1454-1473), based onthe readings of the edition which Prof, E, Lamotte and myself preparedin 1950, and (4) chapters 55-70 of Ad, corresponding to the fifth abhisa-maya, which I published in Rome in 1962,

    Apart from that the dictionary covers only those words whichseemed to me particularly significant, and the choice must often lookrather arbitrary, My main purpose has been to make my translationsof these texts as accurate and uniform as possible. In consequence,

  • I have endeavoured to note everywhere the rendering which I have

    actually adopted. In the 1954 version the English equivalents were those

    of the typescripts then in existence. The printed translations which

    have appeared over the last ten years often differ from the original type-

    scripts, and I have made some efforts to bring the dictionary up to date

    in this respect, although I have been remiss in checking some of the

    passages where the issue seemed to be merely one of style. Another

    weakness lies in that it took me some time to realize the importance

    of giving whole compounds and phrases. They are thus rather poorly

    represented in the material taken from A, which formed the starting

    point of this collection.

    The headlines of the revised P, which are based on the AA, have,

    incidentally, not been included. Their systematic exclusion was probably

    a mistake.

    In the absence of a printed edition of abhisamayas II-IV and VI-VI1I

    of the Laige Sutra my notation of the entries concerning those parts

    leaves much to be desired, and is apt to be chaotic, owing to the variety

    of the materials which gradually became available over the last twenty

    years. Once I have succeeded in editing the Gilgit Ms of the Pro-jndpdramitd, but not before, can the present confusion be cleared up by

    reference to a printed standard text. Where folios appear with capitals

    behind their figures, e.g., 143A, this indicates that the folios in question

    are hypothetical in the sense that they are missing in the standard Ms

    employed, and that their contents have been filled in from other docu-

    ments.

    Three sources of possible confusion concerning the Pancavimsatisdhas-

    rika must still be mentioned: (1) The first part of the revised version

    (PPL 42) is quoted after N. Dutt, whose edition ends at page 269. But

    the Ms Cambridge Add. 1628 begins its second abhisamaya at folio 200b6.

    If an entry refers to Dutt, it therefore gives P 246, P 247, etc. But if it

    refers to the My., it appears as either P f. 246, P f. 246a, or as P 246a,

    etc. (2) The Gilgit Ms of the Large Prqjndpdra?nitd, now in New Delhi,contains a large part of the unrevised version of P (PPL 40), and thereferences to that are noted as P-ND-f. (3) An explanation is needed

    of the usage with regard to the very difficult and largely incomprehensible

  • esoteric terminology employed in describing the samddhis of a Bodhisattva

    (P 198-203). ,Here an entry like, " P 201 (61)=S(83)" means: " P page

    201, samddhi no. (61), according to the numbering of my 1961 translation

    (pp. 132-7); and this corresponds to samddhi no. (83) in S, though not

    in the Sanskrit, but in the Tibetan version, as edited by P. Ghosha (PPL

    37)".

    Very common words are followed by, to indicate that they occur

    passim.

    Buddhist Sanskrit words are generally followed by a colon. In the

    re-typing this rule, adopted before Edgerton's dictionary was published,

    has not been consistently carried out, and it might now be well to

    abolish it altogether.

    A star * indicates that at that passage the Tibetan translation used

    the Tibetan equivalent which follows the Sanskrit word. The Tibetan

    equivalent which follows after a passage applies equally to all the passages

    which precede it as long as they are separated by commas.

    Where the English equivalent is placed in brackets, it means that it

    would be an adequate rendering, but does not actually occur in the

    printed translations. In fact the brackets correspond to "not trsl."

    The order of the words is roughly that adopted by Monier Williams,

    and it would have been different if the Sanskrit had been printed in

    Devanagari. Generally speaking, words derived from the same root are

    grouped together, and dhydyi, for instance, precedes dhydml.

    When the proofs arrived I was, as it so happened, separated by

    thousands of miles from my books and manuscripts, and a certain number

    of typing errors must have remained undetected. There would have

    been many more minor errors in this vocabulary had it not been for

    the devoted, skilful and time-consuming help of my friend and colleague

    at the University of Washington, Professor Leon Hurvitz. In view of

    the uncertainties of Tibetan orthography I was also fortunate in being

    able to discuss hundreds of words with the third Dezhung Rinpoche,

    who has patiently eliminated a good many scribal errors. For the rest,

    over the last twenty years nearly everybody connected with Buddhist

    studies has, in some way or other, helped me with my work, and I

    therefore herewith discharge my collective gratitude without mentioning

  • any further names. The whole enterprise began in 1936 when I dis-

    covered the third volume of D. T. Suzuki's "Essays in Zen Buddhism",

    and it has kept me fairly busy ever since. It is therefore most fitting

    that this inventory of the main Prajnaparamita terms should now have

    been published by the Suzuki Research Foundation, whose staff I must

    thank for their meticulous attention to detail and for their unswerving

    concern for scholarly standards. How I would have wished for the old

    Master himself to have seen this minor by-product of his life-long

    labours on behalf of Mahayana Buddhism!

    Seattle, Washington

    August 1966

  • Here is a list of the Abbreviations used. The full bibliographical

    references can be found in my The Prajftaparamita Literature, 1960

    (=PPL).

    pages are those of R. Mitra, the

    text that of U. Wogihara. PPL 51

    AA =Abhisamayalankara, ed. U. Wogihara, PPL 44

    AAA =Abhisamayalarikaraloka, ed, U. Wogihara, PPL 55

    Ad =Astadaasahasrika, ed. E. Gonze, SOR xxvi, 1962 (5th

    abkisamaya)

    Ad =Ms Stein Ch. 0079, PPL 46. This should have been

    differentiated from the Gilgit Ms edited by Gonze, but

    that has not been done. Fortunately the references to

    the Stein Ms are very few.

    Ad-ND =New Delhi Ms of Ad, PPL 45

    Adhy. =Adhyardhasatika, ed. S. Toganoo, PPL 79

    AK =Abhidharmakosa, by Vasubandhu, trad. L. de la Valle*e

    Poussin, 6 vols, 1923 sq.

    Bcv =Bodhicaryavatara

    Bcv-p =Bodhicaryavatarapanjika, ed. Bibliotheca Indica, 1901-14

    bs-a =bodhisattva

    G = Calcutta Ms of R, PPL 57

    ch = occurs in chapter-heading

    en = connected

    cr = corresponds

    cy = commentary

    cy-J = commentary to Jataka N

    D(a) =Dasasahasrika, restored by Sten Konow, PPL 50

    Dbh =Dasabhumikasutra

    Divy =Divyavadana

    D.N. =Dlgha Nikaya

    E =F . Edgerton, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary, 1963

    ed = Printed edition

    EJTh =E. J. Thomas, The Perfection of Wisdom, 1952

    H =Haribhadra, AAA, PPL 55

  • Hr =H{daya, ed. E. Gonzc, PPL 71Inlerl. =InterlorutorJ =Wogihara's edition of AAAJ =H. A. Jaeschkc, A Tibetan-English DictionaryJAOS =Journal of the American Oriental SocietyK =-Kausika, ed. E. Gonze, PPL 82Ku =Kumarajiva

    l.% =line

    LC =Lokesh Chandra, Tibetan-Sanskrit DictionaryLV =LalitavistaroM =Mitra, ed. AMCB = Melanges Ghinois et BouddhiquesM.N. =Majjhima NikayaMhv =Mahavastu, ed. E. Scnart, 3 vols, 1882-97Mhvy =Mahavyutpatti, ed. Sakaki, 2 vols, 1926-8

    MM =Max MttllerMpp-s =Mahaprajflaparamitasastra, trad. E. Lamotte, PPL 41

    Nag = Mpp-s

    O = Obermiller's text of R

    P = revised Pancavimsatisahasrika, ed. N. Dutt (PPL 42),and then Cambridge Add. 1628

    Ms P of V =Paigiter's Ms, PPL 64-5

    p =unrevised P in Tibetan

    P-ND =unrcvised P, Gilgit Ms at New Delhi, PPL 40P-p = fragments of P-T printed in Kajiyoshi, PPL 91Pr = Prasannapada, Tib., in J. W. de Jong, Cinq chapitres

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