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Scientific Inquiry Scientific Inquiry

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  • Scientific Inquiry

  • TopicsHow Scientists ThinkThe process of inquiryHow Science DevelopsReferencesMetric System

  • How Scientists ThinkScientists use the skills of observing, inferring, and predicting.

  • How Scientists ThinkObserving Using one or more senses to gather informationInferring An interpretation based upon observation and prior knowledge

  • How Scientists ThinkPredicting The process of forecasting what will happen based upon evidence

  • ObservingThere are two types of observationsQualitativeObservations that deals with characteristics that are not expressed in numbers

  • ObservingQuantitativeObservations that deals with numbers, amounts, or measurements

  • InferringBased upon reasoning from what is already known (evidence/data)

  • PredictingPredictions are based upon past experience,data, or evidence.A guess has no evidence, data, or past experienceto support it.TOC

  • The process of InquiryScientific inquiry refers to the different ways scientists study the natural world.Scientific inquiry use a process called the scientific method to gain scientific knowledge.

  • Scientific MethodCollection of scientific facts through observation and measurementsDevelopment of one or more working hypotheses to explain the facts

  • Scientific MethodDevelopment of experiment to test the hypothesisAcceptance, modification, or rejection of hypothesis based on extensive testing.

  • Scientific ProcessThe scientific method is divided into a series of steps or a process

  • Scientific processIdentify the problem/pose a questionInvestigate the problemFormulate a hypothesisTest the hypothesis

  • Scientific ProcessCollect and organize dataAnalyze dataDraw a conclusionCommunicating

  • Identify the ProblemPose a QuestionScientific Inquiry can not answer Questions based upon opinion, judgment or values.Problems and questions that can be addressed through observation are the type that can be answered through scientific inquiry

  • Investigate the problemOnce a problem has been identified or a question asked, then the additional information is gatheredThis is done to find out what is already known at to determine a hypothesis

  • Formulate a hypothesisA hypothesis is a possible answer to a scientific question or problemThe hypothesis must be testable through observation or experimentation.

  • Test the hypothesisIn order to determine whether a hypothesis is true or not, scientists design experiments to test the hypothesis.

  • Test the HypothesisScientist must be able to identify and/or account for the various types of variables (factors) that can change in an experimentThe two main types of variables are:Independent (manipulated) VariableDependent (Responding) Variable

  • Collect and organize dataDuring the experiment data/information must be collected and organize into a format so that it can be usedData may be organized into:TablesGraphs

  • Analyze dataOnce the data is organized scientists must determine what the data is saying.

    The data is organizedinto a graph which saysthat as time increasesthe distance is not changing. This meansthat the object is not moving.

  • Drawing a ConclusionAfter scientists interpret their data, they draw a conclusion about their hypothesis.A conclusion states whether or not the data supports the hypothesis.

  • CommunicationCommunicating is the sharing of ideas and conclusions with others through writing (publications) and speaking.

  • CommunicatingWhen scientists share the design of an experiment other scientists can repeat that experiment to check results.

  • CommunicatingCommunicating information often leads to new questions, new hypotheses and new investigations

  • How Science DevelopsScientists use models and develop laws and theories to help explain the natural world.

  • How Science DevelopsScientific ModelsA representation of an object or a processScientific lawsA statement that describes what scientists expect to happen every time under a particular set of conditionsScientific TheoriesAn explanation for a wide range of observations or experimental results

  • Scientific ModelThere are three basic types of models scientists use to represent objects and/or processesPhysical modelComputer modelMathematical Model

  • Physical ModelModel of a car made out of meat

  • Computer Model3D computer model of bullet car

  • Mathematical ModelA mathematical schematic of a car during derailment

  • Scientific lawA scientific law describes an observed pattern in nature without attempting to explain it.Example: Law of gravity

  • Scientific TheoryA scientific theory is determined when many observations can be connected by one explanationExamples: Atomic TheoryFuture evidence may not support a theory in which case the theory may be modified or discarded all together.

  • Summary of Scientific Process

  • The Metric SystemThe standard system of measurement used by scientists around the world is known as the Systme International dUnits (SI). SI units are based on multiples of 10.Each unit is 10 times larger than the next smallest unit and one tenth the size of the next largest unit

  • Base Metric UnitsScientist have to measure LengthsMass/WeightVolumeTemperatureTimeThere is a base unit for each of these measures

  • Base Units

  • SI PrefixesKilo (k) = 1000Hecto (h) = 100Deka (da) = 1ODeci (d) = 0.1Centi (c) =0.01Milli (m) = 0.001meterlitergram

  • Metric NomenclatureFor example: A 6 inch ruler measures15.24cm = 0.1524m = 0.0001524kmThe describing of a measurement depends on how big or small the measure is in relation to the base unit.Each measure is the same length, but it is much more convenient to use centimeters to describe the length of this ruler.

  • Metric ConversionsThe relationship between two units iscalled the conversion factor.Conversion factors are used tocalculate the conversion of SI units. For example: 1km = 1000m This is the relationship between kilometersand meters

  • Metric ConversionsmetergramliterDecaHectoKiloDecicentimilli100010010Base1/101/1001/1000Metric units may be easily converted by moving the decimal point. For example to convert 80cm to meters move the decimal point 2 space to the Left. Therefore 80 cm becomes 0.8 meters

  • Metric ConversionsmetergramliterDecaHectoKiloDecicentimilli100010010Base1/101/1001/1000To convert 0.75km to meters move the decimalpoint 3 spaces to the right. Therefore 0.75km becomes 750meters

  • General Rule If going from high unit to low unit move decimal point to the RightIf going from low unit to high unit move decimal point to the Left

  • Using Conversion FactorsTo convert any measure from kilometers tometers or from meters to kilometers the measure is multiplied by the conversion factorwhich is written as a fraction:km or m m kmdepending on what unit of the original measure is.

  • Calculating the ConversionConverting 80 centimeters into meters.The conversion factor for centimeters to Meters is 1m = 100cm (1m/100cm)80 centimeters is multiplied by the conversion factor80 cm x 1m = 80cm = 0.8meters 100cm 100cm

  • ReferencesFrank, David et. al. Science Explorer: Physical Science Boston MA, Pearson Prentice Hall. 2007FCAT Power Words June 26, 2007 Sarasota Middle school The Future June 26, 2007 CSL Cartoon Szilagyi, Mike 3D Bullet Car Philadelphia Trolley Tank Car Structural Integrity Volpe Center: Structures and Dynamics June 27, 2007H, Mark Entry #78 Biome Blogs http//

  • ReferencesTarbuck, Edward and Fredrick Lutgens. Earth Science 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Boston MA.Its Your planet