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Orientation, Lab Safety, Measurement, and Processes Vocabulary

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Scientific Inquiry Vocabulary. A prediction forecasts the outcome of an experiment, but does not include an explanation. Predict. I predict that fertilizer will help plants grow taller. . Predict -Example. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Orientation, Lab Safety, Measurement, and Processes Vocabulary1

Determining:* patterns in the data (e.g. increases, decreases, fluctuations).* inconsistencies in the data (e.g. extreme highs and lows).

What does the data show?

1. Analyze(Data Analysis)2When analyzing data in my marble experiment, I determined that in trial 3, the marble rolled substantially faster than the other trials. I recalculated to see that I made an error. Im glad I did! Now my results are more accurate. 1. Analyze(Data Analysis) Example3After analyzing data, an investigator determines if his/her hypothesis was supported with the data. S/he then writes a statement and supports it with data. 2. Conclusion4My conclusion is that the steeper the slope, the faster the marble will roll. My hypothesis (if the slope of a hill is increased, the speed of my marble will increase because there is more potential energy to be converted to kinetic energy) was supported.(include actual data). 2. Conclusion Example5

An unchanged group that is used to detect hidden variables (unanticipated causes). An investigator uses this to compare results. 3. Control Group(Control)6When testing how the amount of salt affects the boiling time of water, the investigator will have one trial, or control group, that s/he will have a pot with NO salt to compare the results to. 3. Control Group (Control) Example7Any factor that stays the same in an experiment. 4. Controlled Variable(Constant)8When testing how the amount of salt affects the boiling time of water, the pot, the amount of water, the amount of heat, are all controlled variables or constants because they stay the same. 4. Controlled Variable(Constant) Example

9Facts or figures to be processed; evidence, records, statistics, etc. from which conclusions can be inferred.5. Data10When calculating the speed of a marble down a slope, you must record the following data: The time (start/finish) and the distance traveled. 5. Data example11A drawing/image showing the appearance, structure, or workings of something (or some process).

6. Diagram6. Diagram ExampleWhen trying to understand the phases of the moon, it was nice to have a diagram showing each phase, the amount of sunlight reflected, and the name of each phase so I could picture it in my mind.

7. Empirical EvidenceEvidence based on observation (senses-qualitative, measurement-quantitative), data and experimentation.7. Empirical Evidence ExampleScientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence. Measurements and data gathered in the field or in the lab become empirical evidence that is used to support a scientific explanation. 8. ExperimentA scientific process to make a discovery, test a hypothesis or demonstrate an event.

8. Experiment ExampleIn trying to determine why my tomato plants keep dying, I decided to experiment with the type of soil I planted them in. I hypothesized that sand was perhaps the least fertile soil, so my experiment will help in understanding.

A tentative explanation that can be tested and is based on observation and/or scientific knowledge gained from research. 9. Hypothesis18If the amount of fertilizer given to a plant is increased, then the growth of the plant will increase because fertilizer provides plants with the nutrients it needs.9. Hypothesis Example19INFERENCES use observations to draw conclusions about a given situation. They can change as more observations are gathered.10. Inference20I observe that when I place 2 drops of iodine on baking powder, it changes to a deep purple color. My inference is a chemical reaction occurred (it IS a chemical change). 10. Inference Example2111. InvestigationA study, examination, or research of a topic (might or might not include testing a hypothesis in an experiment).Currently, fox news is reporting that police are investigating a crime scene in the area to determine what happened.

11. Investigation ExampleA number (including a unit) defining a quantity of something.

12. MeasurementA student needed to know how much string to cut in order to perform her experiment, so she had to accurately measure 20 centimeters with a ruler.

12. Measurement Example

The factor in an experiment that is changed by the Test Variable. 13. Outcome Variable (Dependent Variable or Responding Variable)26When testing how the amount of salt affects the boiling time of water, the amount of salt affects the time it takes the water to boil. The time the water takes to boil is the outcome variable.13. Outcome Variable (Dependent Variable or Responding Variable) Example

27A prediction forecasts the outcome of an experiment, but does not include an explanation. Sometimes, not much is known, or little prior testing has been done.14 Prediction28I predict that fertilizer will help plants grow taller over time; I think they will do very well in the sunlight. 14 Prediction -Example29Repetition occurs when the ORIGINAL investigator repeats an investigation. The same results must be obtained for the original results to be reliable.15. Repetition (of an experiment) 30When calculating the speed of a marble down a slope, one investigator must repeat multiple trials and collect similar, if not same, results. 15. Repetition (of an experiment) Example31Replication occurs when other scientists use similar methods to conduct a similar investigation and obtain similar results.16. Replication (of an experiment)32When calculating the speed of a marble down a slope, the same results must be replicated by ALL investigators for the results to be reliable. 16. Replication (of an experiment) example3317. Scientific lawA statement describing a scientific process or phenomenon. It is based on continual testing and it is implied that the same conditions are always constant.

Laws tell us what happens (descriptions; can be math).

17. Scientific Law ExplanationNewtons third law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction; there is no explanation why, it is simply stated. 18. Scientific ModelA representation of an object or system. Can be visual (diagram showing the layers of the earth) or mathematical (graph showing sea level rise due to global warming).

18. Scientific Model ExampleA globe is a model of planet earth.

19. Scientific ProblemWhen an observation is made that goes against an accepted scientific idea, theory, or law.

19. Scientific Problem ExampleIt was once thought the world was flat. Once evidence started collecting showing otherwise, people began questioning and a scientific problem began! 20. Scientific TheoryAn explanation of a natural or physical phenomenon based on proven MULTIPLE hypotheses and verified MULTIPLE times by independent researchers. Often include laws in order to prove points.Theories examine what happens and tell us how and why it happens (explanations).

20. Scientific Theory ExampleThe Big Bang Theory explains how the universe arrived at its present state (expansion). It includes an abundance of data in order to explain how and why the universe is expanding.

What one has described using senses or measurement instruments.

Systematic Observations are those made to ensure validity of an experiment (Primarily Quantitative Observations). 21. Observation/Systematic Observation42When I dropped a small amount of iodine on to baking powder, I observed that it turned purple. 21. Observation/Systematic Observation example


The factor in an experiment that the investigator chooses to change or monitor intentionally. 22. Test Variable (Independent Variable or Manipulating Variable)44When testing how the amount of salt affects the boiling time of water, the investigator is intentionally changing the amount of salt in the water; Amount of salt is the test variable.22. Test Variable (Independent Variable or Manipulating Variable) Example45A testable experiment is one that can actually be investigated. *There is enough knowledge and technology in order to perform a test. 23. Testable (scientifically testable)(Testability)46Whenever you create a hypothesis, it must betestableand you must be able to analyze it with current technology.23. Testable (scientifically testable)(Testability) Example47During an experiment, each time you perform a test, it is called a trial. Scientific investigations should both have repeated trials and be replicable24. Trials48When calculating the speed of a marble down a slope, an investigator must perform more than one trial in order to have reliable results. 24. Trials Example49The quality of being correct or true25. Valid(Validity)50An experiment is only valid if it has been established that there is only ONE test variable. 25. Valid(Validity)Example51TESTABILITY, ACCURACY, VALIDITY, and RELIABILITY

Whats the Difference, and why are they important?

52Testable (Testability)

* Can the hypothesis be supported or falsified through experimentation?

*Does current science provide the necessary knowledge, skills, and technology to perform the experiment?

*Do you, as a seventh/eighth grade student, have the necessary knowledge, skills, and technology to perform the experiment?

*Can the hypothesis be supported or falsified through research of the existing body of science?

53Accurate (Accuracy) *Are measurements taken correctly?

*Are materials and equipment utilized correctly?

*Is equipment functioning properly? *Is correct procedure followed?

54Valid (Validity) * Are steps taken to keep all variables constant (constants) except the one being manipulated (the independent variable)?

*Is a control utilized to detect hidden variables (unanticipated causes)?

*Are hidden variables detected that could change the observed response (the dependent variable)?

55Reliable (Reliability)

*Can the experiment be repeated multiple times with the same results?

*Is the experiment replicable by other scientists with the same resulting outcome?