the mints of vespasian / [h. mattingly]

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    / ;-=09 )(8*

    =-0/ ]

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    CONTENTS.

    ANCIENT

    NUMISMATICS.

    PAGE

    Hill

    (George

    F.).

    Greek oins

    cquired

    y

    the

    British

    Museumn

    1920

    Plates

    V,

    Y)

    .

    .

    161

    Mattingly

    (Harold).-

    The

    Mints

    f

    Vespasian

    Plates

    VI-VII)

    187

    A

    Find f

    Roman

    enarii t

    Nuneaton

    .

    .

    145

    Milne

    J.Grafton).

    A

    silver rachma f

    Smyrna

    Plate

    III, fig. )

    148

    Robinson

    E.

    S.

    G.).

    Greek

    oins

    rom

    he

    Dardanelles

    (Plate

    )

    .

    1

    Aspeisas,

    atrap

    f

    Susiana

    Plate

    II,

    fig.

    )

    .

    37

    Rogers

    Rev.

    dgar).-

    Some

    New

    Seleucid

    opper ypes

    (Plate

    I)

    26

    Sandars

    (Horace).

    Notes

    n

    a Hoard f

    Roman

    enarii

    found

    n

    theSierra

    Morena

    n

    the outh

    f

    pain

    .

    179

    Webb

    (Percy

    H.).-

    Thud-Century

    oman

    Mints

    and

    Marks 226

    MEDIAEVAL

    AND

    MODERN

    NUMISMATICS.

    Barnard

    (F.

    P).-

    SomeUnrecorded

    okens

    .

    . .

    152

    Bern

    ys

    (Edouard).-

    A

    Rare

    Penny

    truck

    bout

    1346

    at

    Arlon

    Belgium)

    n

    he

    eign

    f

    John he

    Blind,

    ing

    of

    Bohemia

    nd Count

    f

    Luxemburg

    1309-46)

    y

    the

    Provost rnouldfArlon 126

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    XIII.

    THE MINTS OF VESPASIAN.

    [See

    Plates

    VI,

    VII.]

    This

    paper

    is

    the

    natural

    continuation

    of

    a

    study

    of

    the

    coinages

    of

    the

    Civil

    Wars

    of

    a.

    d.

    68-69,

    published

    in

    the

    Numismatic

    Chronicle for

    1914.

    Like

    many

    enterprises

    of

    far

    greater

    importance

    it

    has been

    delayed years

    long

    by

    the

    War.

    I

    can

    only

    hope

    that

    the

    delay

    will

    bring

    with

    it

    some

    compensating gain

    in the form f betterconsidered and tested udgements

    than

    I

    could

    have offered

    even

    years

    ago.

    The

    reign

    of

    Vespasian

    marks

    the

    end

    of the

    first

    period

    of the

    Empire

    and the

    beginning

    of

    a

    new

    age,

    and

    this fact we find

    reflected s

    soon

    as

    we

    enter

    on

    the closer

    study

    of

    the

    coinage.

    Vespasian

    does

    away

    with the

    confusions of the

    Civil

    Wars,

    brings

    the

    coinage

    into

    the channels

    in

    which it

    was to

    run

    for

    more than a

    century,

    and

    indicates clearly that he

    fully

    realizes the

    part

    assigned

    to

    him

    in

    history

    of

    second

    founder of

    the

    Roman

    Empire.

    Into all the

    problems

    of

    his

    extensive

    coinage

    I

    cannot for

    the

    moment

    enter.

    My

    main

    objects

    are

    to determine the

    places

    of

    mintage

    and,

    to some

    extent,

    he

    chronology

    of

    his

    coins.

    I

    have tried

    to

    quote

    only

    coins

    which

    1

    Some

    nteresting

    nformation

    ill

    be

    found

    n

    B. Pick's

    articles,ntitledZurTitulaturerFlavier",n ZeitschriftürNumismatik1885, 886.

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    188

    H.

    MATTINGLY.

    I

    have

    been able

    to

    examine

    personally

    (either

    in

    the

    British Museum

    or

    in

    other

    collections)

    or

    which

    have

    been

    published

    and

    illustrated

    with

    such

    scientific

    accuracy

    as

    to

    exclude

    any

    danger

    of serious

    error.

    What is lost

    in

    breadth

    by

    this

    method

    will,

    I

    trust,

    be

    compensated by

    increased

    accuracy.

    The

    misfor-

    tune is that our chief handbook, Cohen, sometimes

    falls

    short of

    the

    minimum

    standard

    that must be

    required.

    I

    will

    first

    deal with

    the mints in succession

    and

    then

    conclude with

    a discussion

    of the

    results

    obtained.

    I.

    Mint

    of

    Rome.

    U9

    iR

    (for

    M,

    see

    below).

    M,

    M.

    The

    earliest aurei and denarii

    of this

    mint

    may

    be

    readily recognized

    by

    a

    comparison

    with

    the

    Roman

    issues

    of

    Vitellius. The

    first

    portrait

    of

    Vespasian,

    in

    fact,

    s

    virtually

    that

    of

    his

    predecessor

    this

    gives

    way

    to one

    more

    characteristic

    of

    Ves-

    pasian

    himself,

    but it is

    not

    till

    about

    a.d.

    72 that

    we

    find

    what we

    may

    call

    the

    normal

    type

    of

    portrait.

    The

    legends

    of

    both obverse

    and reverse

    read

    from

    1. to r., inwardly, fromA.D. 69-73; from r. to 1.

    outwardly

    from

    a.D.

    73-75

    ;

    in

    a.d. 76

    the direction

    1.

    to r.

    is

    restored

    for the

    reverse,

    while the direction

    r.

    to

    1.

    is

    retained

    for

    the

    obverse.

    The

    portraits

    of

    Titus and

    Domitian,

    who share

    with their

    father

    he

    right

    of

    coinage,

    invariably

    face

    r. that

    of

    Vespasian

    is

    usually

    r.,

    though

    from a.d.

    75

    to the

    end

    of the

    reign

    a

    portrait

    facing

    1.

    alternates with

    it.

    Whilst

    the

    actual

    portrait

    of the

    Emperor

    varies,

    the

    general

    style of the mint,especially in the lettering,remains

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    THE

    MINTS OF VESPASIAN.

    189

    singularly

    uniform

    and enables us

    as a rule without

    much

    difficulty

    o

    detect its

    issues.

    [Pl.

    VI.

    1-9.]

    I

    append

    a

    conspectus

    of

    the issues of

    this

    mint,

    which,

    though

    far

    from

    complete,

    will

    give

    a

    general

    idea of

    its

    working

    Vespasian.

    I. Obv. Head laureate r. IMP CAESAR VESPA-

    SIAN VS

    AVO

    (1.

    to

    r.).

    Dec.

    a.d. 69-end

    of

    70

    (?).

    1.

    ¿ta;.-

    CAESAR AVC

    F COS

    CAESAR

    AVC

    F

    PR

    Heads

    of

    Titus

    and

    Domitian

    facing

    one

    another.

    N

    ,

    JR.

    2.

    COS

    ITER FORT

    RED

    Fortuna

    standing

    1.,

    holding

    ornucopiae

    nd

    rudder. JR.

    3.

    COS

    ITER

    TR POT

    Aequitas

    standing

    .,

    holding

    scales and

    rod.

    N,

    iR.

    4. COS ITER TR POT Marsadvancingr.,carrying

    spear

    nd

    trophy.

    N,

    iR.

    5.

    COS

    ITER

    TR POT

    Neptune tanding

    .,

    holding

    trident

    nd acrostolium. JR.

    6.

    COS

    ITER

    TR

    POT

    Pax

    standing

    .,

    holding-

    branch

    nd

    caduceus.

    Af,

    R.

    7.

    COS

    ITER

    TR

    POT

    Pax seated

    1.,

    &c.

    as above).

    AT,

    JR.

    8.

    IVDAEA

    Judaea

    seated

    r. on

    ground,

    mourning:

    behind

    her,

    trophy.

    N,

    Ai.

    9. TITVS ET DOMITIANVS CAESARES PRIN

    I VEN

    Titus and

    Domitian

    seated

    1.,

    holding

    branches.

    JR.

    Probably

    to this

    mint and

    to this

    period

    of

    the

    mint

    belong

    the

    denarii

    10. Obv.

    Emperor

    n

    Quadriga

    .

    IMP

    CAESAR

    Rev.

    Victory

    n

    prow.

    VESP

    AVG

    11. Obv

    Bust

    of

    Sol,

    radiate,

    raped, acing.

    Rev

    Vespasian

    standing

    .,

    holding

    pear

    n

    1.

    hand

    and raising . in act of address. VESPAS IA-

    NVS

    [Pi.

    vi. io.

    ]

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    190

    H.

    MATTINGLY.

    The

    former s an

    oDvious

    adaptation

    of the denarius

    of

    Augustus,

    with

    legend

    CAESAR

    DIVI F

    or

    IMP

    CAESAR

    (cf.

    Grueber,

    B

    M.

    Cat.

    of

    Rep

    Coins

    ii,

    pp.

    12

    ff.)

    the

    latter

    borrows its

    obverse

    from

    a

    denarius

    of L.

    Mussidius

    Longus,

    moneyer

    c.

    39

    b.c.

    (cf.

    Grueber,

    op

    cit.,

    .

    578),

    its

    reverse

    from

    denarius

    of Augustus (Grueber, op. cit, ii. p. 9). For the

    significance

    of these

    imitations see

    below.

    11.

    Obv

    Head

    laureate

    .

    IMP

    CAES

    VESP

    AVO

    PM

    (1.

    to

    r.).

    a.D.

    71.

    12. Rev.

    AVCVR PON

    MAX

    Sacrificial

    imple-

    ments.

    JR.

    13.

    AVCVR

    TRI

    POT

    Sacrificial

    mplements.

    JR.

    14.

    PON

    MAX

    Vesta

    seated

    .,

    holding

    impulum.

    JR.

    15. TRI POT Vestaseated1.,holding impulum. JR.

    16.

    TRI

    POT

    II

    COS III

    PP

    Pax

    seated

    1.,

    holding

    branch nd

    caduceus.

    N

    ,

    JR.

    17. VIC

    AVC

    Victory

    tanding

    . on

    globe,

    holding

    wreath.

    N.

    III.

    Obv.

    Head

    laureate

    . IMP

    CAES

    VESP

    AVC PM

    COS INI

    (1.

    to

    r.).

    a.D.

    72-

    73

    (June

    0).

    18.

    Rev. AVCVR TRI

    POT

    Sacrificial

    imple-

    ments.

    JR.

    19.

    CONCORDIA

    AVCVSTI

    Concordia

    seated

    1.,

    holdingpateraand cornucopiae.JR.

    20.

    IMP

    Quadriga

    o

    r.

    N.

    21.

    I

    VDAEA

    Judaea

    eated

    r.

    (as

    above).

    JR

    plated.

    22.

    Rev.

    NEP

    RED

    Neptune

    tanding

    .,

    holding

    rident

    and

    acrostolium.

    N.

    23.

    TRI

    POT

    Vesta

    seated

    1.,

    holding

    impulum.

    JR.

    24.

    VEST

    A

    Vesta

    standing

    .,

    holding

    impulum.

    JR.

    25.

    VIC

    AVC

    Victory

    tanding

    r.

    on

    globe,

    holding

    wreath.

    N.

    26. VICTORIA AVCVSTI Victory tanding .,crown-

    ing

    trophy.

    JR.

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    THE MINTS

    OF

    VESPASIAN.

    191

    27. No

    legend.

    Warrior

    standing

    .,

    palm-tree,

    udaea

    seated

    r., mourning.

    N.

    28.

    No

    legend.

    Quadriga

    o r.

    N.

    IV.

    Obv.

    Head laureate

    r.

    IMP

    CAES

    VESP

    A

    VC

    PM

    COS

    IMI CEN

    (l.tor.).

    a.

    d. 73

    (July

    0).

    29.

    Bev.

    FIDES

    PVBL

    Clasped

    hands,

    holding

    adu-

    ceus,corn-ears,ndpoppies. M.

    30.

    PAX

    AVC

    Pax

    standing

    1.,

    leaning

    on

    cippus,

    holding

    branch

    n

    1.

    hand and

    caduceus

    over

    tripod

    n r.

    U.

    31.

    SALVS

    AVC

    Salus

    seated

    1.,

    holding

    atera.

    M.

    32.

    VEST

    A Round

    temple.

    N.

    i

    V.

    Obv.

    Head

    laureate

    r.

    IMP CAES

    VESP

    AVC,

    CEN

    (1.

    to

    r.).

    J

    VI.

    Obv

    Head

    laureate

    r.

    IMP

    CAES

    VESP

    AVC

    CEN (r.to1.).

    VII.

    Obv.

    Head

    laureate

    r.

    IMP CAES VESP

    AVC

    '

    CENS

    (r. toi.),

    a.d.

    73-74.

    33. Rev.-

    PAX

    AVC

    Pax

    standing

    .

    as above).

    N.

    34.

    PONTIF

    MAXIM

    Emperor

    eated .

    holding

    ranch

    and

    sceptre.

    iH.

    35.

    SALVS

    AVC

    Salus

    seated

    1.,

    holding atera.

    JR.

    36.

    SPQR

    in oak-

    reath.

    M.

    37.

    VEST

    A Round

    temple.

    N.

    VIII.

    Obv

    Head

    laureate

    r.

    IMP CAES

    VESP

    AVG

    PM

    COS

    V

    CENS

    (r.

    to

    1.).

    a.d. 74.

    38. Bev

    VICTORIA

    AVCVSTI

    Victory

    flying

    .,

    holding

    wreath

    nd

    branch. JR.

    Q.

    39.

    VICTORIA

    AVCVSTI

    Victory

    eated

    1.,

    holding

    wreath

    nd

    branch.

    JR.

    Q.

    IX.

    Obv.

    Head

    laureate

    .

    IMP CAESAR VESP

    AVC

    (rarely

    A VC

    VST)

    (r.

    to

    1.).

    a.d.

    74.

    40. Bev.

    A VC

    VR

    TRI

    POT Sacrificial

    mplements.

    R.

    41. COS V Laurelbranches. JR.

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    192

    H.

    MATTINGLY.

    42.

    PONT

    MAX

    TR

    P

    COS

    V

    Emperor

    seated

    r.,

    holding

    ranch

    nd

    sceptre.

    JR.

    43. PONT

    MAX TR

    P

    COS

    V

    Winged

    caduceus.

    JR.

    44. PONTI F

    MAXIM

    Winged

    caduceus.

    M.

    45.

    Capricorns,

    lobe

    nd

    shield

    nscribed

    C

    JR.

    X. Obv

    -

    Head laureate r. (occasionally .). IMP CAE-SAR VESPASIANVS AVO

    (r.

    to

    1.).

    Before

    end

    of

    a. d. 75

    to end

    of

    reign.

    46. Rev.

    AETERNITAS

    Aeternitas

    tanding

    .,

    holding

    busts

    of

    un

    and moon.

    N.

    47.

    COS VI

    Mars

    standing, olding

    pear

    and

    flag.

    JR.

    48. COS VI

    Bull

    butting

    .

    N.

    49. COS VI

    Capricorn

    nd

    globe.

    JR.

    50.

    COS

    VII

    Cow

    walking or

    standing)

    .

    N,

    JR.

    51.

    COS

    VII

    Eagle

    on

    cippus.

    JR.

    52.

    COS

    VIII

    Mars

    standing

    as

    above).

    JR.

    53.

    COS

    VIII

    Victory

    rowning

    mperor.

    N,

    JR.

    54. COS VIII

    Yoke

    of

    oxen 1.

    JR.

    55.

    COS

    VIII

    Star

    above

    prow.

    JR.

    56.

    FORTVNA

    AVCVSTI

    Fortune

    standing

    1.

    on

    altar,

    holding

    ornucopiae

    nd

    rudder.

    N.

    57. IMP X

    1

    Bull

    butting

    .

    N,

    ^Et.

    58.

    IOVIS

    CVSTOS

    Jupiter

    tanding

    1.,

    holding

    sceptre

    nd

    patera

    at

    his

    feet,

    ltar.

    JR.

    59. PAX

    AVC

    VST

    Pax

    seated

    1.,

    holding

    ranch

    and

    sceptre.

    N.

    60.

    PONT

    MAX TR P

    COS

    V

    Winged

    caduceus.

    JR

    61.

    PONT MAX

    TR P

    COS

    V

    Emperor

    eated

    r.,

    holding

    branch

    nd

    sceptre.

    JR.

    62. PONT MAX TR

    P

    COS

    VI

    Pax

    seated

    1.,

    &c.

    A'.

    63.

    PONT

    MAX

    TR P

    COS VI

    Victory

    tanding

    n

    cista,

    between

    wo

    serpents. A/,

    M.

    64.

    PONT MAX

    TR

    P

    COS VI

    Securitas eated1.,r.handabovehead. JR.

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    THE

    MINTS

    OF

    VESPASIAN, 193

    65.

    PONT

    MAX TR

    P

    COS

    VI

    Victory

    tanding

    .

    on

    prow,holding

    wreath.

    JR.

    66. TR

    P

    X COS Villi

    Ceres

    seated

    1.,

    holding

    orn-

    ears and

    torch.

    N,

    67.

    TR P

    X

    COS Villi

    Victory

    tanding

    1.,

    erecting

    trophy.

    N,

    ^R.

    68.

    TR

    P

    X COS Villi

    Capricorn

    nd

    globe.

    JR.

    69. TR P X COS Villi Statue on rostralolumn.zH.

    70.

    VICTORIA

    AVCVSTI

    Victory

    eated

    L,

    holding

    wreath nd

    palm.

    N.

    Q.

    71. VICTORIA AVCVSTI

    Victory

    seated

    1.,

    &c.

    JR.

    Q.

    72.

    VICTORIA AVCVSTI

    Victory

    flying

    r.,

    &c.

    JR.

    Q.

    (Both

    he ast

    withVESPASIAN

    not VESPASIAN VS

    on

    obv.)2

    XI. Obv Head laureate . (and1.). CAESAR VESPA-

    SIANVS

    AVC

    3

    (r.

    to

    1.).

    a.D.

    78-79

    (?).

    73.

    Bev.-

    ANNONA AVC Annona seated

    1.,

    holding

    basket

    f fruit.

    AT,

    JR.

    74.

    CERES

    A VC VST Ceres

    tanding

    .,

    holding

    orn-

    ears and torch.

    N,

    M.

    75.

    IMP

    XIX

    Sow

    and little

    pigs,

    1.

    JR.

    76.

    IMP

    XIX

    Modicus nd

    corn-ears. J3.

    77.

    IMP XIX

    Goatherd

    milking he-goat.

    JR.

    Titus.

    I.

    Obv

    Head

    laureate

    .

    T

    CAES

    IMP

    VESP

    PON

    TR

    POT

    (1.

    to

    r.). July

    1,

    a.

    D.

    71-June

    30,

    A.D.

    73.

    2

    This bverse

    elongs

    o

    this

    eriod, erhaps

    o

    the

    beginning

    of

    t

    (cf.

    Titus)

    so

    far

    s

    I

    know,

    t

    occurs

    nly

    n

    quinarii.

    3

    The

    omission

    f

    praenomen

    MP

    is curious. The

    reason,

    I

    think,

    s

    that

    the obverse

    s

    properly

    esigned

    o

    go

    with

    he

    reverse

    MP XIX,

    when

    MP, occurring

    s a

    cognomen,

    as

    notneededsa praenomen.

    NUMISM.

    HRON.,

    OL.

    ,

    SERIES

    .

    Q

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    194

    H.

    MATTINGLY.

    1.

    Rev.

    NEP RED

    Neptune

    standing 1.,

    holding

    trident

    nd

    acrostolium.

    JR.

    2.

    VIC

    AVO

    Victory

    tanding

    r. on

    globe,

    holding

    wreath,

    tf.

    3.

    No

    legend.

    Warrior

    standing

    r.,

    palm-tree,

    udaea

    seated

    r.

    mourning.

    N,

    JEl.

    4.

    No

    legend. Quadriga,

    . tf.

    II.

    Obv.

    Head laureate .

    T

    CAES IMP VESP PON

    TR

    POT CENS

    (1.

    to

    r.).

    III.

    Head

    laureate .

    T

    CAES IMP

    VESP

    TR P CENS

    (1.

    to

    r.).

    IV. Head

    laureater.

    T

    CAES IMP

    VESP

    TR

    P

    CENS

    (r.

    to

    1.).

    V.

    Head

    laureate

    r. T

    CAES

    IMP

    VESP

    CENS

    (r.

    to

    1.).

    VI.

    Head

    laureate

    r.

    T

    CAES IMP

    VESP

    CEN

    (r. tol.).

    i

    July

    1st a. d.

    73-74.

    5.

    Rev PAX

    AVG Pax

    standing

    .,

    eaning

    n

    cippus,

    &c.

    tf.

    6.

    PONTI

    F TR POT

    Titus

    seated

    1.,

    holding

    ceptre

    and

    branch.

    N,

    A.

    7.

    VESTA Round

    temple,

    tf.

    8.

    VICTORIA AVGVSTI

    Victory

    lying

    .,

    &c.

    JR.

    Q.

    9.

    VICTORIA

    AVGVSTI

    Victory

    eated

    .,

    &c. JR.

    Q.

    10.

    No

    legend. Quadriga

    to

    r.

    tf.

    VII.

    Obv.

    Head

    laureate

    r.

    T

    CAESAR

    IMP

    VESP

    (r.

    to

    1.).

    a. d.

    74.

    11.

    Rev.

    PONTIF TR

    POT

    Fortuna

    tanding

    . on

    altar,

    &c.

    tf

    12.

    PONTIF

    TR P

    COS

    III

    Winged

    caduceus.

    M.

    VIII. Obv.

    Head

    laureate

    . T

    CAESAR IMP

    VESPA-

    SIAN

    A.D.

    74.

    13. Rev. AETERNITAS Aeternitastanding.,&c. tf.

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    THE

    MINTS

    OF

    VESPASIAN.

    195

    14.

    COS

    IMI

    Bull

    butting

    .

    AT,

    JR.

    15. COS

    V

    Cow

    standing

    .

    N,

    JR.

    16.

    COS V

    Cow

    standing

    .

    JJ.

    17.

    COS

    V

    Eagle

    on

    cippus.

    JR

    18.

    IMP VIII

    Bull

    butting

    .

    N.

    19. PAX AVGVST Pax seated1.,holdingbranch nd

    sceptre.

    N.

    20.

    PONTIF TR

    P

    COS

    1

    Titus

    seated

    r.

    holding

    sceptre

    nd

    branch.

    JR.

    21.

    PONTIF

    TR

    P

    COS

    IMI

    Pax seated

    1.,

    &c.

    JR.

    22.

    PONTIF

    TR

    P COS IMI

    Victory

    standing

    on

    cippus

    between

    wo

    serpents.

    N.

    23.

    PONTIF

    TR POT

    Fortuna

    standing

    on

    altar,

    &c.

    N.

    24. VICTORIA AVGVSTI Victory flyingr., &c.

    JR.

    Q.

    25.

    VICTORIA

    AVGVSTI

    Victory

    seated

    1.,

    &c.

    JR.

    Q.

    IX.

    Obv.

    Head laureate

    r.

    T CAESAR

    IMP VESPA-

    SIAN

    VS

    (r.

    to

    1.).

    Before

    nd of a.d. 74-79.

    26.

    Rev.

    COS

    V

    Cow

    standing

    .

    N.

    27.

    COS

    VI

    Mars

    standing, olding

    pear

    nd

    trophy.

    N,

    £1.

    28. COS VI Homeseated

    r.,

    with

    agles,

    tf,

    JR.

    29.

    COS

    VI

    Yoke

    of

    oxen

    1. JR.

    80. COS VI

    Star

    and

    prow.

    JR.

    31. IOVIS CVSTOS

    Jupiter

    tanding

    .,

    holding

    ceptre

    and

    patera.

    JR.

    32.

    TR POT

    VIII

    COS VII

    Venus

    standing

    .,

    ean-

    ing

    on

    cippus,

    &c.

    JR.

    33 TR

    POT

    VIII

    COS VII

    Quadriga

    oi.

    AL

    34. TR POT VIII COS VII Captive nd trophy.JR.

    o

    2

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    196

    H. MATTINGLY.

    X.

    Obv.

    Head laureater.

    T CAESAR

    VESPASIA-

    NVS

    (r.

    to

    1.).

    a.D. 78-79

    ?)>

    35. Be».-

    ANNONA

    AVG Annona

    seated

    1.,

    &c.

    tf,

    M.

    36.

    CERES AVCVST

    Ceres

    tanding

    .,

    &c.

    JR.

    37.

    IMP XIII

    Sow and little

    pigs

    1. JR.

    38. IMP XIII Goatherdmilking he-goat. JR.

    Domitian.

    I.

    Obv.

    Head bare

    r.

    CAES

    AVG

    F

    DOMITIAN

    COS

    II

    (1. tor.).

    -

    II. Head

    barer.

    CAES

    AVG

    F

    DOMIT

    COS II

    (1.

    or.).

    III.

    Head barer.

    CAES

    AVG

    F

    DOMIT COS

    II

    (r. toi.).

    A.D. 73.

    1.

    Rev.

    VEST

    A

    Round

    temple,

    tf

    2. No legend. Domitian iding . tf, JR-.

    IV.

    06v.

    Head

    bare r.

    CAES

    AVG

    F

    DOMIT

    COS

    III

    (r.

    to

    1.).

    a.D. 74.

    3.

    Rev.

    PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS

    Spes

    advancing

    1.,

    &c.

    tf,

    Ä

    4.

    VICTORIA

    AVGVSTI

    Victory lying

    .,

    &c.

    JR.

    Q.

    5.

    VICTORIA

    AVGVSTI

    Victory

    eated

    .,

    &c. JR.

    Q.

    V.

    Obv.

    Head

    bare

    r.

    CAESAR

    AVG F

    DOMIT IA-

    NVS (r.toi.) a.D. 74-79.

    6.

    ite*;.-

    CERES

    AVGVST

    Ceres

    tanding

    . &c.

    M.

    7. COS

    IUI

    Cornucopiae.

    N.

    8.

    COS

    V

    She-wolf

    nd

    twins.

    N,

    iR.

    9. COS

    V

    Captive

    neeling

    nd

    restoring

    tandards, f.

    10. COS

    V.

    Warrior

    n

    horseback .

    JR.

    11.

    VICTORIA

    AVGVST

    Victory

    lying

    .,

    &c. M.

    Q.

    12.

    VICTORIA

    AVGVST

    Victory

    eated. .,

    c.

    JR.

    Q.

    3aForomissionf IMP, cp.above, .1 3note .

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    THE MINTS OF

    VESPASIAN.

    197

    VI.

    Obv

    Head

    bare r.

    CAESAR

    A

    VC

    F

    DOM

    ITI

    A-

    NVS

    COS

    VI

    a.D. 79.

    K,

    JR.

    18.

    Rev

    PRINCEPS

    IVVENTVTIS

    Salus

    standing

    r., eaning

    on

    cippus,

    eeding

    nake.

    A7,

    JR.

    14.

    PRINCEPS

    IVVENTVTIS

    Vesta eated

    .,

    holding

    sceptre

    nd

    Palladium.

    N,

    iR.

    15. PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS Claspedhandsholding

    eagle,

    set on

    prow.

    N,

    JR.

    One

    feature

    of

    this series of reverse

    types

    which

    deserves

    special

    attention

    is

    the

    frequent

    occurrence

    of

    types,

    either

    directly

    copied

    or

    else

    adapted

    from

    types

    of

    Augustus

    and his

    period.4

    LafFranchi,

    n

    an

    interesting

    article

    5

    has

    already

    discussed

    this

    point

    and

    explained

    its

    significance.

    Vespasian

    deliberately

    directs

    public

    notice

    to the fact

    that

    he desires

    to

    be

    regarded

    as the successor of

    Augustus,

    the second

    founder

    of the

    Empire.

    The

    Centenary

    of the

    battle

    of Actium

    probably suggested

    the

    inauguration

    of

    the

    series

    but,

    once

    started,

    he idea was

    developed

    and

    extended

    far

    beyond

    this immediate

    aim.

    Mint

    oj

    Rome.

    JE.

    The

    "

    Aes"

    coinage

    of

    Vespasian

    was

    struck

    mainly

    at the mint of Rome, the only othermintto issue on

    a

    considerable

    scale

    being Lugdunum.

    The

    Lugdunum

    issues

    can

    be

    distinguished

    by

    their likeness

    (a)

    to

    the

    gold

    and silver

    of

    that

    mint,

    (

    b to

    the

    Lugdunum

    "

    Aes

    "

    of Nero.

    The

    Roman issues

    preserve

    the

    traditional

    style

    of

    the Senatorial

    mint. For the sake'

    4

    Cf. for

    xample,

    he

    butting

    ull,

    he

    capricorn

    nd

    globe,

    the

    yoke

    f

    oxen,

    he

    aptive

    ith

    tandard,

    c.

    cf. oo

    the

    ltar

    andthe agleonAsses f hereign.5 InRiv. tal.diNum., 911, p.427 f.

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    198 H. MATTINGLY.

    of

    brevity,

    I shall

    give only

    a

    rough

    list

    of the

    obverse titles

    employed

    and

    a series of

    portraits.

    The

    coinage

    of the

    years

    A.D.

    70-71, however,

    offers ome

    special

    difficulties,

    nd it will therefore eceive a

    fuller

    treatment ater

    (see below).

    Vespasian.

    Obverse

    egends.

    IMP

    CAES VESPASIAN

    AVO

    P

    M TR

    P PP

    COS

    II

    A.D.

    70.

    IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN

    AVC PM TR P

    PP

    COSMI A.D. 71.

    IMP CAES VESPAS

    AVC

    PM

    TR P

    PP

    COS III

    A.D.

    71.

    IMP CAES VESPAS

    AVC

    PM

    TR P

    PP

    COS llll

    A.D. 72.

    IMP CAES

    VESP AVC PM

    TR P

    PP

    COS

    llll

    CENS

    a.D. 73-74

    (July

    1).

    IMP CAES

    VESP

    AVC

    PM

    T P

    COS

    V

    CENS

    A.D.

    74.

    IMP CAESAR VESP

    AVC

    COS V

    CENS

    A.D. 74.

    IMP CAES VESP

    AVC PM

    T

    P

    COS VI

    A.D.

    75.

    IMP CAES

    VESPASIAN

    AVC

    P

    M

    TR

    P

    PP

    COS VII

    A.D. 76.

    IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVC PM TR P PP

    COS

    VIII

    A.D.

    77-78.

    Titus.

    Obverse

    egends.

    T

    CAES

    VESPASIAN

    IMP

    PON

    TR

    POT

    COS II

    a.d. 72

    (-June

    80).

    T

    CAESAR

    VESPASIAN

    IMP III

    PON TR

    POT II

    COS II

    A.D. 72

    (July

    )-73

    (June

    0).

    T

    CAESAR

    VESPASIAN

    IMP

    llll

    PON

    TR

    POT

    II COS II A.D.72 ( ? )-73 (June30).

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    THE MINTS OF

    VESPASIAN.

    199

    T

    CAESAR

    VESPASIAN IMP

    Nil

    PON TR

    POT

    III

    COS II

    a.D.

    73

    (July

    1-).

    T

    CAES VESP IMP

    PON

    TR

    POT COS II CENS

    a.D.

    73

    (July

    1

    -).

    T

    CAES IMP

    PON TR P COS

    II CENS A.D. 73

    (July

    -).

    T CAES IMP PON TR P COS III CENS A.D. 74.

    T

    CAESAR

    IMP COS

    III

    CENS

    A.D.

    74.

    T

    CAESAR IMP COS

    V

    A.D.

    76.

    T

    CAES IMP

    AVO

    F

    TR

    P COS VI

    CENSOR

    a.D.

    77-79.

    The shorter

    legends

    are,

    in some

    cases,

    found

    only

    on

    dupondii

    and

    asses,

    not on sestertii.

    Domitian.

    Obverse

    egends.

    .CAESAR

    AVC

    F

    DOMITIANVS

    COS DES

    II.

    a.d.

    72.

    CAESAR

    AVC F DOMITIANVS COS III

    A.D.

    74.

    CAESAR AVC

    F

    DOMITIANVS COS

    Mil

    a.d.

    75.

    CAESAR AVC

    F

    DOMITIANVS

    COS

    V

    A.D. 77.

    CAESAR

    AVC F DOMITIANVS

    COS

    VI

    A.D.

    77-

    79.

    (On dupondii

    and asses the shortform DOMITIAN

    is

    used.)

    The

    legends,

    obverse

    and

    reverse,

    normally

    read

    1. to

    r.,

    etters

    outwards

    the direction

    r.

    to

    1. is

    found,

    but

    only very

    rarely

    on

    the obverse

    of

    coins with

    the

    head of

    Vespasian

    to

    1. This

    portrait

    lternates

    with

    the

    portrait

    r.

    in the last

    few

    years

    of

    the

    reign.

    The

    portraits

    of Titus

    and Domitian

    invariably

    face

    r.

    (For sequence ofportraits ee Plates.)

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    200 H.

    MATTINGLY.

    II. Mint

    of Lugdunum

    tf,

    My

    JE.

    tf,

    iE.

    The mint

    of

    Lugduiium

    strack

    for

    Vespasian

    in

    the

    distinctive

    style, already

    observed

    for

    Galba

    and

    Vitellius,

    from

    a.D. 69-73.6

    Its issues

    were,

    especially

    in

    gold, considerably

    larger

    than those

    of

    any

    of

    the

    other

    provincial

    mints,

    and it

    clearly

    retained

    something

    of ts old

    dignity

    and

    importance.7

    But

    in

    a.D. 73

    it

    appears

    to have

    been

    closed,

    not

    to

    be

    reopened

    until the time of

    Albinus

    (see

    below)

    ;

    its

    distinctive

    style disappears

    from he

    coinage

    and

    there

    is

    no sufficient

    vidence

    to

    make

    us

    believe

    that it

    continued to work as a

    branch of

    the

    Roman

    mint.

    [Pl.

    VI.

    11-15.]

    I

    append

    a

    conspectus

    of the

    coinage,

    which,

    it

    appears,is all ofVespasian :

    8

    I.

    Obv

    Head

    laureate

    .

    IMP CAESAR VESPASIA-

    NI

    VS

    AVG

    TR P

    a.D.

    69-71.

    1.

    Rev.

    FORTVNA

    AVCVST

    Fortune

    tanding

    .,

    holding

    ornucopiae

    nd rudder. M.

    2. IVDAEA

    DEVICTA

    Judaea

    standing

    1.,

    beside a

    palm-tree.

    M.

    3.

    LIBERTAS

    RESTITVTA

    Libertas

    standing

    1.,

    holding ileus

    and

    sceptre

    Paris).

    Ai.

    4.

    MARS CONSERV

    Mars

    standing acing,

    ooking

    r.,holding pear ndtrophyParis). N.

    5.

    TITVS

    ET

    DOMITIAN

    CAESARES

    PRIN

    I

    VEN

    The

    princes

    iding

    .

    tf.

    [PI.

    VI.

    11.]

    6

    See

    article

    n

    Num.

    hron.,

    914,

    uoted bove, .

    187.

    7

    The

    war

    against

    he

    rebels n

    the

    Rhinewas

    undoubtedly

    the

    mmediateause of

    this.

    8

    A

    denarius

    f

    Titus n

    B. M.

    with

    Obv

    Head

    laureate .

    T

    CAES IMP

    VESP

    PON

    TR

    POT

    Rev

    Victory

    tanding

    .

    on

    globe,

    holding

    wreath

    VIC

    AVC

    may erhapselong ere.

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    THE

    MINTS

    OF

    VESPASIAN.

    201

    6.

    TITVS ET DOMITIAN CAESARES PRIN

    I

    VEN

    The

    princes

    eated1.

    N,

    iE.

    7. TRIVMP

    AVO

    Triumphal procession

    captive,

    chariot,

    &c.

    N.

    [Pl.

    VI.

    12.]

    8.

    VICTORIA

    AVCVSTI

    Victory

    tanding,

    olding

    shield

    bove

    head.

    N.

    9. VICTORIA AVCVSTI Victory lying .,holdingwreath nd

    palm

    Paris).

    N.

    10.

    Hand

    clasped

    over

    eagle

    and standards

    Paris).

    M.

    A.D.

    70.

    11.

    COS

    ITER FORT

    RED Fortune

    standing

    1.,

    holding

    cornucopiae

    nd

    rudder.

    N.

    12. COS

    ITER

    TR POT

    Aequitas

    standing

    .,

    holding

    rod and scales.

    N iR.

    13. COS ITER TR POT Neptune tanding .,holdingtridentnd

    dolphin

    M.

    A.

    D.

    71.

    14.

    COS

    III

    FORT RED

    Female

    figure

    tanding

    1.,

    holding

    aduceus

    nd

    ball.

    N.

    15.

    COS

    III

    FORT RED

    Fortune

    tanding

    .,holding

    cornucopiae

    nd

    rudder.

    N.

    16.

    COS

    III

    TR POT

    Aequitas

    standing

    ., holding

    rod and

    scales.

    N.

    17. TR POT COS III

    Aequitas

    standing

    1.,

    holding

    rod and scales.

    N.

    A.D.

    71.

    II.

    Obv.

    Head

    laureate

    .

    IMP

    CAESAR

    VESPASIAN

    AVO

    PM

    TR

    P PP

    COS

    III.

    18.

    Rev.

    PACI

    AVCVSTI

    Winged

    female

    figure

    d-

    vancing

    r.,

    holding

    aduceus

    and

    raising

    old

    of

    dress

    in

    front

    snake.

    N.

    SPQR PP OB CS in oak-wreath.A7.

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    202

    H. MATTINGLY.

    A.D.

    71.

    III.

    Obv.

    Head laureater. IMP CAES VESPAS

    AVO

    TR P

    COS

    III

    19. COS III

    FORT RED Female

    figure

    tanding

    1.,

    holding

    aduceus

    nd ball.

    M.

    A.D.

    71.

    IV. Obv. Head laureater. IMP CAES VESP AVO

    PM

    TR

    P lili

    PP COS

    III

    20.

    Rev VIC AVC

    Victory standing

    1. on

    globe,

    holding

    wreath.

    M.

    A.D.

    72.

    V.

    Obv

    Head

    laureate .

    IMP

    CAES VESPAS

    AVC

    PM

    TR Pilli PP COS

    INI

    21.

    Rev. DE

    IVDAEIS

    Trophy.

    M.

    [Pl.

    VI.

    13

    rev.]

    22.

    PACI

    AVGVSTI

    Winged

    female

    figure

    dvancing

    r. (as above). N.

    On

    all

    these

    coins the

    legends,

    both obverse

    and

    reverse,

    read

    1. to

    r.,

    nwardly.

    On the

    following

    coin

    the

    Obv.

    legend

    reads

    r.

    to

    1.,

    outwardly.

    A.D. 73

    ?).

    VI.

    Obv.

    Head laureate

    . IMP CAESAR

    VESPASIA-

    NI

    S

    AVC9

    23.

    Rev. VEST

    A

    Round

    temple.

    N.

    The

    style

    of

    lettering

    remains

    uniform

    throughout

    this

    series,

    the

    portrait

    undergoes

    considerable

    changes.

    A

    few

    aurei

    show a

    quite

    unusual

    portrait

    in

    high

    relief

    and

    of

    considerable

    beauty.

    The

    lettering

    and

    the

    form

    of

    obverse

    legend

    lead

    one

    to

    assign

    them

    to

    this

    mint,

    but

    they

    were

    probably

    struck

    as

    special

    9

    Whether

    he

    egend

    IMP

    CAESAR

    VESPASIANVS

    AVC, reading

    .

    to

    r.,

    s

    ever

    found

    t

    Lugdunums notquitecertain.

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    21/47

    THE

    MINTS OF

    VESPASIAN.

    203

    commemorative

    pieces,

    i.e.

    as medals

    rather than as

    ordinary

    coins,

    from

    dies

    prepared by

    skilful

    artists,

    and

    issued in

    limited

    quantities.10

    A

    denarius

    in

    the

    British

    Museum shows :

    Obv.

    Head laureate

    r.

    IMP

    CAES

    VESP

    AVO

    P

    M COS Nil

    Rev.

    TITVS

    ET DOMITIAN

    CAESARES PRIN

    I

    VEN

    The

    princes

    seated 1.

    an

    obverse

    of

    the

    Roman,

    with a reverse

    of

    the

    Lugdunum

    mint

    date a. d.

    72.

    (For

    a

    discussion

    of

    this

    see

    below.)

    M.

    There were

    issues from

    this mint at

    intervals

    from

    the

    beginning

    to

    the

    end

    of

    the

    reign.

    The

    portraits,on the whole, run parallel to those of the

    Lugdunum

    gold

    and

    silver,

    the

    types

    for

    the

    most

    part

    follow the

    Roman

    mint,

    but there

    are

    a

    few

    distinctive

    of

    Lugdunum.

    This mint for

    Aes

    had

    been

    opened by

    Nero

    to

    supply

    the

    special

    needs

    of

    Gaul, Britain,

    and

    Spain.

    Africa

    was,

    probably,

    sup-

    plied

    from

    Rome. Vitellius

    apparently

    used

    the

    mint

    but

    slightly

    for this

    metal,11

    Galba not

    at

    all.12

    The

    following

    s a

    list of

    obverse

    titles

    employed

    at

    themint

    Vespasian.

    IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS

    AVC

    P

    M

    TR

    P

    a.D. 69-70.

    IMP

    CAES

    VESPASIAN AVC

    PM

    TR

    P

    PP

    COS

    II

    A.D.

    70.

    10

    A

    series f

    aurei

    nd denariiwas struck

    y

    Vespasian

    or

    Galba at this

    mint.

    11

    And

    nly

    n

    the

    ast

    fewmonths

    f

    his

    reign.12HisLugdunumssues reall posthumous.

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    204

    H.

    MATTINGLY.

    IMP

    CAES

    VESPASIAN

    AVO

    PM TR

    P

    PP

    COS

    III

    A.D.

    71.

    IMP

    CAES

    VESPASIAN

    AVO

    PM

    TR P

    PP

    COS Uli

    a.D.

    72.

    IMP

    CAES

    VESPASIAN

    AVO COS

    IUI

    a.D. 72.

    IMP

    CAES

    VESPASIAN

    AVG

    PM

    TR

    P PP

    COS VIII

    a.D. 77-79.

    IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVC COS VIII PP

    A.D.

    77-79.

    IMP

    CAES

    VESPASIAN AVC

    COS

    Villi

    a.d. 79.

    Titus.

    T

    CAES

    IMP AVC

    F

    PON

    TR

    P

    COS

    VI CEN-

    SOR

    a.D. 77-79.

    T CAES

    IMP

    AVC

    F

    TR

    P

    COS VI

    CENSOR

    a.D. 77-79.

    Domitian.

    CAESAR

    AVC

    F DOMITIAN

    VS COS

    V

    a.D.

    77-79

    The

    shorter

    legends

    are,

    in some

    cases,

    found

    only

    on

    dupondii

    and

    asses,

    not on sestertii.

    Among

    the

    most characteristic

    Lugdunum

    reverses

    are

    «

    PROVIDENT

    S. C.

    Altar

    "

    &

    "

    S.

    C.

    Eagle

    on

    globe

    From a.d.

    72

    onwards the

    classification

    f

    the "Aes"

    ofVespasian is absolutely straightforward the earlier

    issues

    particularly

    those

    of

    a.d.

    71

    present

    some

    curious difficulties. We find

    a

    variety

    of

    portraits,

    unlike the

    regular

    portraits

    of Rome

    and

    Lugdunum,

    and an

    extremely arge

    series of

    reverse

    types,

    ome of

    great

    interest. The

    question

    at

    once

    arises

    whether

    the

    whole

    of

    this varied

    series can

    be

    distributed

    over

    the

    two mints

    of

    Rome

    and

    Lugdunum.

    In

    all

    proba-

    bility

    it

    can;

    but

    we must

    recognize

    here

    special

    issues commemoratingthe end of the Civil Wars

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    THE MINTS

    OF

    VESPASIAN.

    205

    and the

    suppression

    of

    the

    German-Gallic revolt-

    which,

    bearing

    so

    marked

    a

    medallic

    nature,

    were

    adorned with a

    profuse variety

    of

    fine and

    selected

    portraits.

    It is

    interesting

    to

    note

    that there

    is

    a series

    of "Aes" of

    Galba,

    quite

    detachable from the main

    body

    of his

    coinage,

    which

    curiously

    resembles

    the

    series ust discussed in the fine and unusual character

    of

    its

    portraits

    and,

    in

    several

    cases,

    in

    reverse

    type.

    Mr.

    F. A.

    Walters

    has

    already

    suggested

    that Galbas

    series

    was

    commemorative

    n

    nature and

    was issued

    at the

    close of his

    reign,

    in

    connexion

    with

    the

    adoption

    of

    Piso;

    while

    fully

    accepting

    the

    idea

    that

    it was

    commemorative,

    think

    it

    probable

    that

    it

    was issued

    by

    Vespasian,

    not

    by

    Galba

    himself,

    n

    a.D.

    71,

    side

    by

    side with

    the

    series

    discussed

    above.

    Galba

    had

    enjoyed

    extraordinary popularity

    in

    Spain

    and Southern

    Gaul

    and his

    partisans

    had sub-

    sequently

    espoused

    the

    cause

    of

    Vespasian,

    who

    might

    well

    be

    disposed

    therefore

    o favour

    them,

    the

    more

    so as

    the anti-Galban

    faction

    in Gaul

    had

    embraced

    the

    cause

    of Vitellius

    and afterwards

    hrown

    n

    its

    lot

    with

    Civilis

    and his

    rebels.

    The

    following

    is

    a

    conspectus

    of the

    sestertii

    struck

    by

    Vespasian

    in a.d. 71-

    giving

    first list of

    obverses,

    secondly

    a list

    of

    reverses,

    with

    notes of

    obverses with

    which

    they

    occur.

    Obverses

    (R

    =

    Rome,

    L=Lugdunum.)

    R. 1.

    Bust

    of

    Vespasian

    bare,

    head laureate

    r.

    IMP

    CAES

    VESPASIAN AVC PM

    TR

    P

    PP

    COS

    III

    R.

    2.

    Bust

    of

    Vespasian

    bare,

    head

    laureate

    r.

    IMP

    CAES VESPAS AVC PM TR P PP COS III

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    206 H.

    MATTINGLY.

    These are what

    may

    be

    regarded

    as

    the normal

    portraits

    f

    the Roman

    mint,

    (2)

    succeeding (1).

    L. 1.

    Bust

    of

    Vespasian bare,

    head

    laureate r. IMP

    CAES VESPASIAN

    AVO PM TR

    P

    PP

    COS

    III

    L. 2. Bust

    of

    Vespasian

    bare,

    head

    laureate

    r.

    IMP

    CAES VESPASIAN AVO PM TR P PP

    COS

    III

    L. 3. Bust

    of

    Vespasian

    bare,

    head

    laureate

    r.

    IMP

    CAES

    VESPASIAN AVO PM TR P PP

    COS III

    Three distinct successive

    portraits

    of the mint

    of

    Lugdunum.

    1.

    Bust of

    Vespasian

    bare,

    head aureate .

    Small die on

    large

    flan. IMP

    CAESAR

    VESPASIAN

    AVO

    PM TR P PP COS III

    2. Bust

    bare,

    head laureate

    r.

    (small portrait).

    IMP

    CAES VESPASIAN

    AVC PM TR P

    PP

    COS

    III

    3.

    Bust

    bare,

    head laureate r.

    (large portrait).

    IMP

    CAES

    VESPASIAN

    AVC PM

    TR P

    PP

    COS III

    4.

    Bust

    bare,

    head

    laureate

    1.

    IMP CAES

    VESPA-

    SIAN

    AVC PM TR P

    PP COS III

    5.

    Bust

    bare,

    head

    laureate . IMP

    CAESAR

    VESPA-

    SIANVS AVC PM TP PP COS III

    6. Bust with

    paludamentum,

    ead

    laureate,

    r. IMP

    CAESAR

    VESPASIANVS

    AVC PM TP

    PP

    COS

    III

    7. Bust with

    egis,

    head

    aureate

    .

    (often

    globe

    below

    bust).

    IMP

    CAESAR

    VESPASIANVS

    AVC

    PM TP PP

    COS III

    These

    seven

    portraits

    appear

    to me

    exceptional,

    either for Bome

    or

    Lugdunum,

    and

    were

    probably

    made forthe special issue describedabove.

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    THE

    MINTS OF VESPASIAN.

    207

    Eeverses.

    1. CAESAR AVO

    F DES

    IMP

    AVO

    F COS DES

    IT

    S.

    C. Titus

    and

    Domitian

    tanding

    ace to

    face.

    R.l,

    L.l,

    L.2,

    2,

    3,

    4.

    2. CONCOR

    AVC S.

    C. Concordia

    eated

    1.,

    holding

    palm

    and

    cornucopiae.

    R.2.

    3.

    FIDES

    EXERCITVVM S.C.

    Clasped

    hands

    holding

    eagleon prow. 4, 6.

    4.

    FORTVNAE

    REDVCI

    S.

    C.

    Fortune

    standing

    1.,

    holding

    udder

    nd

    cornucopiae.

    R.l,

    R.2, 4,

    6.

    5.

    HONOS

    ET VIRTVS S.

    C.

    Honos and

    Virtus

    standing

    face

    to

    face.

    R.2,

    6,

    7.

    6.

    I

    VDAEA

    CAPTA

    S.

    C.

    (1)

    Judaea

    eated

    n

    ground,

    r. behind

    her,

    alm

    and

    captive.

    R.l,

    R.2,

    2,

    3.

    7.

    I

    VDAEA

    CAPTA S. C.

    (2).

    Judaea eated n

    ground,

    1.: behind

    her,

    palm

    and

    captive.

    R.l,

    3

    (?).

    8. IVDAEA CAPT A S. C. (3). Judaea eated nground

    behind

    her,

    palm

    and

    warrior.

    R.l,

    L.3,

    3.

    9.

    LIBERTAS

    PVBLICA

    S.C. Libertas

    tanding

    .,

    holdingpileus

    and

    sceptre.

    R.l, 3,

    5.

    10.

    LIBERTAS

    RESTITVTA S.C.

    Emperor

    tanding

    1.,

    raising

    kneeling

    woman.

    5,

    6.

    11.

    MARS

    VICTOR

    S.C.

    (1).

    Mars

    standing

    facing,

    holding

    pear

    nd

    trophy.

    R.1,

    4.

    12.

    MARS

    VICTOR

    S. C.

    (2).

    Mars

    dvancing .,

    hold-

    ing

    Victory

    nd

    trophy.

    R.1,

    R.2,

    2.

    13. PAX AVGVSTI S. C. (1). Pax standing .,

    holding

    branch

    nd

    cornucopiae.

    R.l,

    R.2, 3, 5,

    6.

    14.

    PAX

    AVGVSTI

    S.

    C.

    (2).

    Pax

    standing

    .

    setting

    fire o

    a

    heap

    ofarms. R.2.

    15.

    PAX

    P.

    .

    . ROMANI S.

    C.

    Pax

    standing

    .,

    holding

    branch

    nd

    cornucopiae.

    R.l.13

    16.

    ROMA

    S. C.

    (1).

    Roma

    standing

    .,

    holding

    Victory

    and

    spear.

    R.l,

    R.2,

    L.3,

    3,

    4.

    13

    Possibly

    I

    MP

    "

    should e

    read

    the

    oin

    s

    worn

    tthis

    oint):cp.rev. fGalba, VICTORIA IMPERI ROMANI S.C."

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    208

    H.

    MATTINGLY.

    17.

    ROMA

    S. C.

    (2).

    Roma

    standing

    .,

    holding ictory

    and

    eagle, eaning

    n a

    trophy.

    7.

    18.

    ROMA

    S.

    C.

    (3).

    Roma

    seated

    .,

    holding

    Victory

    nd

    parazonium.

    L.l,

    L.2.

    19.

    ROMA

    S.C.

    (4).

    Roma seated

    1.,

    holdingVictory

    nd

    parazonium

    in

    background,

    he seven

    hills.

    2,

    6,

    7.

    20. ROMA RESVRCES S. C. Emperor tanding1.»

    raising

    a

    kneeling

    woman.

    R.l,

    3.

    21.

    S.

    C.

    Mars

    advancing

    .,

    holding

    pear

    nd

    trophy.

    R.2,

    2,

    3,

    4,

    5.

    22.

    S. C. Frontview

    of

    hexastyle

    emple.

    R.l.

    23.

    S. C.

    Victory

    advancing

    1.,

    holding palm

    and

    wreath. R.l.

    24.

    S.

    C.

    Shrine

    f

    sis,

    with

    emicircular

    ediment.

    .

    25.

    S.

    C.

    Quadriga

    . R.2.

    26.

    S.P.Q.R.ADSERTORI

    LIBERT

    ATIS

    PVBLICAE

    in oak-wreath.R.l, 5. 6.

    »

    27.

    S.

    P.Q.

    R.

    OB CI VES

    SERVATOS

    in

    oak-wreath.

    R.1,

    3.

    28.

    SALVS

    A VC

    VST A

    S. C. Salus

    seated

    1.,

    holding

    patera

    nd

    sceptre.

    R.

    2.

    29.

    SIGNIS RECEPTIS

    S.

    C.

    Victory

    standing

    1.,

    holding

    out

    standard o

    Emperor

    standing

    on

    platform.

    1,

    6.

    30. SPES

    AVGVSTA

    S.

    C.

    Spes

    standing

    .

    and

    greet-

    ing

    three

    soldiers,

    one

    of

    whom

    hands her

    a

    standard. 2.

    31.

    VICTORIA

    AVO

    S.C.

    Emperor

    tanding

    .,

    acri-

    ficing

    ver n

    altar,

    rowned

    y

    Victory.

    R.l.

    32.

    VICTORIA

    AVGVSTI S. C.

    Victory

    tanding

    .,

    inscribing

    trophy.

    R.l, R.2, 2,

    á,

    5,

    7.

    33.

    VICTORIA

    AVGVSTI

    S.

    C.

    Victory

    lying

    .,

    Emperor

    tanding

    1.

    5,

    7.

    The solution

    of

    the

    problems

    of A.D.

    71

    will

    probably

    involve

    the

    solution

    of

    earlier

    problems

    of the

    reign

    :

    I have not dealt in detail with the coinage of a. d. 69-

    70

    owing

    to lack

    of sufficient

    eliable

    material.

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    27/47

    THE

    MINTS OF

    VESPASIAN.

    209

    III.

    Mint

    of

    Tarraco. N

    ,

    M.

    This

    mint

    issued

    ail

    interesting

    series of

    aurei and

    denarii till

    about

    the

    end

    of a. d.

    70.

    The

    style

    of

    portraiture

    s

    anything

    but

    uniform,

    and one

    might

    be

    tempted

    to

    assign

    the

    coins

    to

    two or even three

    mints,

    did

    not

    links exist which

    closely

    connect

    coins,

    at first

    ight

    very

    unlike one another. A

    conspectus

    of

    this

    coinage

    follows

    I.

    Obv.

    Head

    laureate .

    IMP

    CAESAR VESPASIA-

    NVS

    (r.

    to

    1.

    outwardly).

    1.

    Rev

    IVDAEA Judaea seated

    r.,

    mourning:

    ehind

    her, rophy.

    ÄI.

    II.

    Obv.

    Head laureate .

    IMP

    CAESAR

    AVC

    VES-

    PASIAN

    VS

    (r.

    to 1.

    outwardly).

    2. Rev CONSENSVS EXERCITVVM Mars ad-

    vancing

    .,

    holding

    pear

    nd

    eagle.

    M.

    [Pl.

    VI.

    17.]

    III.

    Obv.

    Head

    laureater.

    IMP

    CAESAR

    AVC

    VES-

    PAS

    IAN VS

    (1.

    to r.

    inwardly).

    3. Rev

    -

    H

    I

    SPAN

    IA

    Hispania standing

    1.,

    holding

    corn-ears,

    pears,

    nd

    shield.

    N.

    (Paris.)

    [Pl.

    VI.

    16.]

    4.

    Rev.

    MARS

    VLTOR

    Mars

    advancing

    .,

    holding

    spear

    nd

    trophy.

    N.

    (B.

    M. and

    Paris.)

    5 Rev PAX Pax standing , holding aduceus, orn-ears, ndpoppy. N.

    IV. Obv.

    Head

    laureate

    . IMP CAESAR

    VESPASIA-

    NVS AVC

    (1.

    to r.

    inwardly).

    6. Rev-

    COS

    ITER

    FORT

    RED Fortune

    tanding

    .,

    holding

    ornucopiae

    nd

    rudder.

    N.

    [Pl.

    VI. 18-

    J

    7.

    Rev.

    COS

    ITER

    TR

    POT

    Pax seated

    1.,

    holding

    caduceus

    nd

    branch.

    N.

    [Pl.

    VI.

    19.]

    8.

    Rev.

    COS

    ITER

    TR

    POT

    Neptune tanding

    1.,

    holding

    dolphin

    nd

    trident. M.

    9. Rev.-

    IVDAEA

    Judaea

    eatedr.,mourning

    behind

    her, rophy. N, iR.

    NUMISM.

    HRON.,

    OL.

    ,

    SERIES

    .

    P

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  • 8/20/2019 The mints of Vespasian / [H. Mattingly]

    28/47

    210 H. MATTINGLY.

    And

    with

    one

    reverse,

    apparently

    later

    than

    the

    others

    10. Rev.

    COS

    DESIC

    III

    TR

    POT

    Aequitas

    tanding

    1.,

    holding

    cales

    and

    rod.

    N.

    (Baldwin, 1919.)

    V.

    Obv.

    Head laureate .

    IMP

    CAESAR

    VESPASIA-

    NI

    VS

    AVC

    PM

    TR

    P

    (1.

    to r.

    inwardly.)

    11. Rev. COS ITER TR POT Pax seated1.,holdingcaduceus ndbranch. N.

    A

    small

    series

    of

    denarii with

    Obv

    Head laureate

    .

    IMP CAESAR

    VESPASIA-

    NI

    VS AVC

    (1.

    to r.

    inwardly).

    12.

    Rev.

    LIBERTAS

    PVBLICA

    Liberty

    tanding

    1.,

    holding

    pileus

    and

    wand. M.

    18. Rev.-

    VICTORIA IMP

    VESPASIAN

    Victory

    standing

    .on

    globe

    holding

    wreath

    nd

    palm.

    M.

    [Pl.

    VI.

    20.]

    probablybelongsto the samemint.14 n portraiturend

    lettering

    t

    diverges

    somewhat

    from

    any

    other

    series,

    and no one

    seems to have known for

    certain

    whether

    to

    assign

    it to

    East or

    West.

    I

    think

    it

    is

    probably

    Spanish

    ;

    the reverse

    types

    in

    particular

    are all

    closely

    connected

    with the

    Spanish

    series of

    Galba.

    The

    reverse

    egends invariably

    read

    1.

    to

    r.

    inwardly,

    except

    in the

    few

    cases,

    specially

    noted

    above,

    where

    they read verticallydownwardson r. and 1.

    The Tarraco

    coins of

    Vitellius with

    head

    r.,

    read»

    r.

    to

    1.,

    outwardly,

    in

    obverse

    legend.

    The

    earliest

    coins

    of

    Vespasian

    follow

    them.

    The

    legend

    of

    Vitellius

    was

    "

    A.

    Vitellius

    Imp

    Grermanicus",

    mitting

    14

    LaiFranchi

    ssigns

    t to

    Antioch.On

    Pl.

    II

    of

    his

    article

    e

    illustratesnumberf

    oins,

    ome

    ssigned

    ere

    o

    Tarraco,

    hich

    he.

    ttributes

    o an

    "unknown

    mint".

    I

    have

    oply

    dealt

    with

    thosewhich

    have

    een ble to

    examine

    ersonally.My

    mpres-

    sion

    s that ll

    except

    he

    ureus

    with

    ev.

    MARS

    CONSERV

    belongothe Tarraco group.

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  • 8/20/2019 The mints of Vespasian / [H. Mattingly]

    29/47

    THE MINTS

    OF

    VESPASIAN.

    211

    "Augustus";

    and

    in

    this omission

    the

    earliest

    legend

    of

    Vespasian, ''Imp

    Caesar

    Vespasianus"

    follows

    t.

    "

    Augustus

    (Aug)

    "

    is

    then inserted

    between

    "Caesar" and

    "

    Yespasianus

    "

    and

    finally

    is

    placed

    in

    its

    normal

    position

    at the end

    of

    the

    legend.

    During

    the

    period

    n which

    the

    legend

    "

    Imp

    Caesar

    Aug

    Vespasianus" was in use, the directionof legend was

    changed

    to

    1.

    o

    r.,

    nwards.

    The

    coins

    of

    Vitellius

    with

    head

    1. read 1. to

    r.,

    letters

    inwardly

    on obverse

    the

    little series

    of

    Vespasian's

    with

    head

    1.

    follows

    them.

    A

    few

    of the

    links

    that connect

    the

    various

    parts

    of

    this

    series

    may

    here be

    noted. The

    Paris aureus

    with

    rev HISPANIA

    (strong

    evidence

    in

    favour of

    the

    Spanish

    origin

    of

    the

    coin)

    is

    closely

    related

    by

    obverse

    die to

    the

    British

    Museum

    aureus

    with

    rev MARS

    VLTOR. AnotherParis

    aureus,

    linked

    by

    its reverse

    MARS

    VLTok

    to the

    last-mentioned

    oin,

    is

    closely

    related

    by

    obverse

    to other

    British

    Museum

    aurei

    with

    rev PAX

    and

    IVDAEA.

    IV. Mint

    of

    Poetovio

    (?).

    It would

    appear

    probable

    a

    priori

    that

    the

    armies

    of

    Illyricum,

    on

    joining

    Vespasian, signalized

    their

    choice by

    a

    special coinage.

    We can trace

    that

    coinage

    in

    the

    following

    group

    of

    denarii

    :

    Obv,

    Head

    laureater.

    IMP CAESAR

    VESPASIA-

    NI S

    A

    VG

    (1.

    to r.

    inwardly).

    1. Bev.

    CONSEN

    EXERCIT

    (in

    vertical

    ines).

    Two

    soldiers

    tanding

    . nd

    r. and

    clasping

    hands.

    M.

    (Paris.)

    2. Rev.-

    CONSENSVS

    EXERCIT(VS)

    Two

    soldiers

    standing

    .

    and r.

    and

    clasping

    hands.

    M.

    [PI.

    VII.

    1.]

    3. Bev.- CENIVM

    P R

    Geniusstanding1.,holdingcornucopiaend patera. M.

    p

    2

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  • 8/20/2019 The mints of Vespasian / [H. Mattingly]

    30/47

    212

    H.

    MATTINI

    LY.

    4.

    Bev.

    PACI

    S

    EVENT(VM)

    Genius

    standing

    L,

    holding

    corn-ears

    nd

    patera.

    JR.

    5.

    Bev

    ROMA PERPETVA

    Roma

    seated

    1.,

    holding

    Victory

    nd

    parazonium.

    JR.

    [Pl.

    VII.

    2.]

    The

    portrait

    is

    curious

    and

    unusual.

    The

    reverse

    types

    have an

    original

    flavour. There

    are

    several

    special

    tricks,for instance, the accusative case (" genium

    "eventum")

    and

    the

    writing

    of

    this

    reverse

    legend

    in

    vertical

    lines.15 "We

    have to

    deal with a

    new mint

    rather

    Western

    than Eastern

    in

    its affinities.

    The

    attribution o

    Illyricum

    is

    strongly

    probable

    Poetovio

    was

    perhaps

    the

    place

    of

    mintage.

    (Cp.

    Tac.

    H.

    iii. 1.

    Council of

    "War

    held

    there.)

    The

    following

    mule

    is

    of

    great

    interest

    Obv.-Head laureate . IMP CAES VESP AVG PM

    COS IMI

    Bev.

    Two

    soldiers

    tanding, lasping

    ands. CON

    SEN

    EXERCIT

    (in

    vertical

    ines).

    JR.

    (Paris.)

    The

    obverse

    is

    certainly

    of

    the

    mint

    of

    Eome,

    the

    reverse no less

    certainly

    of the

    mint

    above

    assigned

    to

    Poetovio

    (?).

    We

    noted

    above a

    similar

    mule

    with

    obv.

    of

    Eome,

    rev.

    of

    Lugdunum.

    These

    coins

    appear

    to

    afford

    material

    support

    for

    the

    plausible

    suggestion,

    that on the closing of the non-Eoman mints there

    was a

    transfer

    f

    personnel

    and

    material

    to

    Eome.l(;

    15

    This

    ast

    rick

    eappears

    n

    coins

    f

    Tarraco,

    ut s

    it

    ppears

    there irst

    n coins

    f

    Vespasian

    t

    may

    have

    been

    earnt

    rom

    his

    mint.

    16

    Other

    mules re

    Cohen 4.

    Paris.

    JR.

    Obv.

    MP

    CAES

    VESP AVG

    PM

    TR

    P

    PP

    COS

    III

    Head

    aureate .

    Lugdunum.

    Rev.

    AVCVR

    PON

    MAX

    Sacrificial

    mplements.Rome.

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    THE MINTS OF

    VESPASIAN.

    213

    V. Mints

    of

    Asia

    Minor

    N

    ,

    M.

    (See

    Imhoof-Blumer,

    Revue Suisse de

    Num.

    1905,

    pp.

    161

    if.)

    Before

    discussing

    the

    question

    of

    mintage,

    I

    will

    give

    a

    summary

    of the issues

    concerned

    The

    following

    reverse

    types

    are

    found

    (1) AVC inwreath.

    (2)

    CONCORDIA

    AVC

    Female

    figure

    Ceres

    )

    seated

    1.,

    holding

    orn-ears.

    (3)

    LIBERI

    IMP AVC VESPAS

    Busts

    of Titus and

    Domitian

    acing

    ne

    another.

    (4)

    (a)

    PACI

    AVGVSTAE

    Victory advancing

    1.,

    holding

    wreath.

    (b)

    PACI

    AVGVSTAE

    Victory advancing

    r.,

    holding

    wreath.

    (5)

    PACI

    ORB TERR

    AVC

    Female

    bust,

    draped,

    turreted, .

    The

    following groups

    of

    coins,

    distinguished by

    obverse

    legend

    and

    (in

    some

    cases) by

    mint-mark,

    may

    be

    traced

    (1)

    Vespasian.

    Obv.

    Head

    laureate

    . IMP

    CAES

    VESPAS

    AVC

    No

    mint-mark.

    Hev

    1,

    3,

    4

    a,

    5.

    All JR.

    Cohen 8. Paris. JR.

    Obv.

    MP

    CAESAR

    VESPASIANVS

    AVC

    Head aureate

    .

    Rome.

    Rev.

    CONSEN

    EXERCIT

    Two

    oldiers.

    oetovio.

    After

    ohen

    85.

    Paris.

    JR.

    Obv

    IMP CAESAR

    VESPASIANVS

    AVC

    Head

    aureate

    .

    Rome.

    Rev.

    PACI AVCVSTI

    Winged

    female

    igure.

    Lugdunum.

    Cohen

    88.

    Paris.

    JR.

    Obv.

    MP

    CAES

    VESP

    AVC

    PM

    Head

    aureate

    r. Rome.

    Rev.PACI AVCVSTI, as above. Lugdunum.

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    214

    H.

    MAITINGLY.

    (2)

    Vespasian.

    Obv.

    Head

    laureate

    r. IMP

    CAES

    VESPAS

    AVC

    Mint-mark

    Rev.

    1,

    4,

    5.

    All -£t.

    (Add

    Cohen

    292.

    M.

    Paris.

    Variant

    f

    5.

    Female

    bust

    draped .)

    (3)

    Vespasian.

    Obv (a) Head laureate r. IMP CAESAR VESPA-

    SIAN

    VS

    AVC

    [Pl.

    VII.

    3.]

    (b)

    Head

    laureate

    r.

    IMP

    CAESAR

    VESPA-

    SIANVS

    AVC P

    Mint-mark

    Rev 3.

    M.

    (With

    obv.

    .,

    B.

    M.;

    with

    obv.

    ,

    Berlin.)

    (4)

    Vespasian.

    Obv.-

    Head

    laureate r.

    IMP

    CAESAR

    VESPAS

    AVC COS

    II

    TR P

    PP

    Mint-mark-

    Rev.

    1,

    2,

    3,

    4,

    5.

    All

    M.

    [Pl.

    VII.

    4.]

    (5)

    Vespasian.

    Obv. Head

    laureate

    r.

    IMP

    CAESAR

    VESPAS

    AVC COS

    II

    TR P

    PP

    Mint-mark

    fi-

    Rev.

    2

    (N,

    Berlin

    JB,

    Walters

    Coll.),

    3

    (

    M

    ,

    5

    (M).

    (6)

    Vespasian.

    Obv.-

    Head

    laureate

    r.

    IMP

    CAESAR

    VESPAS

    AVC

    COS

    III

    TP P

    PP

    Mint-mark

    fl-

    Rev.-

    5

    (^R).

    [Pl.

    VII.

    5.]

    (7)

    Vespasian.

    Obv.

    Head

    laureate

    r. IMP

    CAESAR

    VESPAS

    AVC

    COS

    III

    TR

    P

    PP

    Mint-mark

    Pt

    or

    EBE

    Rev.-

    1, 2,

    3,

    4

    b,

    5.

    All

    M.

    [Pl.

    VII.

    0.]

    Titus.

    Obv.-

    Head

    laureater.

    IMPERATOR T

    CAESAR

    AVCVSTI F

    Same

    mint-mark.

    Rev.- 1 (#), 2 (N, M), 4 b {M). [Pl. VII. 7.]

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    33/47

    THE

    MINTS OF

    VESPASIAN.

    215

    Domitian.

    Obv.

    Bust, draped, uirassed,

    head

    bare,

    r.

    DOMI-

    TIANVS

    CAESAR

    AVC

    F

    Same

    mint-

    mark.

    Rev.-

    1,

    2,

    4 b. All

    M.

    (8)

    Vespasian.

    Obv Head laureate r. IMP CAESAR VESPAS

    AVC

    COSV TR

    P

    PP

    Mint-mark,

    tar.

    Rev.

    5

    (M).

    Titus.

    Obv.

    Head laureate

    r.

    IMP T

    CAESAR COS

    III

    Same

    mint-

    ark.

    Rev.

    2,

    4

    b.

    Both

    M.

    The

    dating

    of

    these

    groups

    causes

    no

    difficulty.

    Groups

    1-3

    belong

    to the

    very beginning

    of

    the

    reign

    circa

    August

    a. d. 69 -

    early

    a. d.

    70,

    groups

    4,

    5

    to

    a.D.

    70,

    groups

    6

    and

    7

    to

    a.d.

    71

    (the

    undated coins

    of Titus

    and

    Domitian

    presumably

    going

    with their

    father's ated

    ones),

    group

    8

    to

    a.d.

    74.

    The

    question

    of mints

    is

    less

    simple.

    The mintmark

    of

    group

    7,

    E

    EE

    has

    long

    been

    recog-

    nized

    as

    "

    EPHE

    "

    -

    Ephesus

    ;

    the

    mint-mark f

    groups

    5

    and

    6,

    >-ß-,

    is

    certainly

    Byzantium,17

    hough

    it

    has

    not as yet been generally recognized and has been

    usually

    dismissed

    as

    inexplicable.

    The

    mint-marks

    f

    groups

    2 and

    4

    )

    and

    group

    3

    (

    tr)

    remain

    in doubt.18

    On

    the

    analogy

    of EPCand

    >"B~,

    we

    expect

    a Latin

    17

    Cp.

    Tac.

    H. ii.

    83.

    Mucianus

    ciassem

    Ponto

    Byzantium

    adigi

    iusserat

    ;

    Tacitus

    eems

    o

    imply

    hat

    Byzantium

    as

    a

    main aseof

    perations

    n

    the

    first

    tages

    f

    the

    war

    in

    ch.84

    he

    goes

    n to

    speak

    f

    Mucianus's

    ndeavours

    o raise

    money.

    18

    B. Pick

    has

    suggested

    hocaea.

    The

    suggestion

    s,

    priori

    extremelynlikely

    Phocaeawas

    a

    town

    f

    slightmportance

    t

    the ime. See,however,ote np.225.

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    216 H. MATTINGLY.

    monogram

    and

    it

    is

    just possible

    that

    we

    have

    here

    shorthandformsof

    the latter

    (>"B~).

    The

    style

    is

    quite

    consistentwith

    this

    suggestion

    and

    I

    would

    tentatively

    assign

    these

    groups

    (2-5)

    together

    with

    group

    1

    (no

    mint-mark)

    o

    Byzantium.

    Group

    (8), probably

    com-

    memorating

    the

    completion

    of

    Vespasian's

    first

    quin-

    quennium,maybelong toEphesus,butit is conceivable,

    at

    least,

    that

    it

    may

    belong

    to another

    mint.19

    Asia

    boasted

    many

    notable

    citiés and

    Vespasian

    may

    not

    have confined o

    Ephesus

    the

    honour

    of

    ssuing

    imperial

    currency.

    The

    motive

    for

    the

    choice of

    Byzantium

    as the

    first

    mint was

    certainly

    military

    it

    was

    found

    convenient

    to

    strike

    money

    at the

    base of

    operations.

    The

    transfer-

    ence

    of

    the

    mint

    to

    Ephesus,

    when

    warlike

    operationswere

    entirely

    over,

    s

    equally

    intelligible,

    for

    Ephesus

    was

    the

    centre of the

    provincial

    coinage

    (the

    so-called

    "Cistophoric

    Medallions

    "),

    and

    had

    therefore irst

    laim

    to

    issue

    these

    mperial

    coins,

    which for

    he time

    replaced

    the

    provincial.

    For

    asses

    of

    Vespasian,

    assigned

    by

    Imhoof-Blumer

    to

    Asia

    Minor,

    see below.

    VI. Mints

    of

    the

    Syrian

    District.

    Here again a survey of the coinage must precede

    questions

    of

    mintage.

    Group

    1.

    Vespasian

    and

    Titus.20

    1. Obv.

    Head

    of

    Vespasian

    aureate

    .

    IMP

    CAESAR

    VESPASIA AVC

    19

    Why

    hould

    not

    Ephesus

    ontinue

    o

    sign

    with

    ts

    own

    mark,

    PE?

    ;o

    Undated

    enarii

    f

    Vespasian

    with

    Obv.

    MP CAESAR

    VESPASIANVS

    AVC

    andhead aureater.

    Äe?-.

    1)

    VlRTVS

    AVCVST Virtustanding.,holdingpearand parazoniumand

    2)

    AVC in wreath ay elong ere. [Pl.VII. 9.]

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  • 8/20/2019 The mints of Vespasian / [H. Mattingly]

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    THE

    MINTS

    OF

    VESPASIAN.

    217

    Bev.

    Head

    of Titus laureate .

    T FLAVI

    VESPA-

    SIANVS

    CAESAR

    N.

    2.

    Obv.

    Head

    of

    Vespasian,

    aureate

    r.

    IMP CAESAR

    VESPASIANVS AVC

    Bev.

    Head

    of

    Titus laureate 1*.

    IMP

    T FLAVIVS

    CAESAR AVC

    F

    N

    [Pl.

    VII.

    8.]

    3.

    Obv

    Head

    of

    Vespasian,

    aureate

    r.

    IMP CAESAR

    VESPASIANVS AVC

    Bev. Head

    of

    Titus laureate r.

    IMP

    T

    FLAVIVS

    CAESAR

    AV F

    N.

    (Paris.)

    Group

    2.

    Vespasian,

    Vespasian

    and

    Titus,

    and

    Vespasian,

    Titus,

    and

    Domitian.

    Obv.

    Bust of

    Vespasian

    draped,

    head

    laureate

    .

    IMP

    VESPAS AVC

    PM TRI

    P

    P

    P COS

    Mil

    4. Bev

    Vespasian

    standing

    .,

    extending

    and

    to

    female

    figure, neeling

    .

    PAX

    A

    VC

    VST

    I

    N.

    [PI. VII. 10.]

    5. Bev.

    Head of

    Titus,bare,

    r.

    IMP

    CAES VES

    .

    . .

    AVC F TRI

    PII COS

    II

    N.

    (Jameson

    oll.)

    Found

    at

    Ephesus.

    6. Bev. Heads

    of

    Titus

    and Domitian

    acing

    ne

    another.

    CAE

    DVM ET Tl

    CAES IMP

    VESPAS

    N.

    (Montagu

    ale.)

    The

    following

    denarii are to

    be connected

    with this

    group

    of

    aurei.

    Group 2a. Vespasian.

    Obv.-

    Head

    of

    Vespasian

    laureate

    r.

    IMP CAES

    VESP AVC

    P M

    COS

    IMI

    7.

    Bev.

    CONCORDIA

    AVCVSTI

    Female

    figure

    seated

    1.,

    holding

    atera

    nd

    cornucopiae.

    M.

    8.

    NEP RED

    Neptune standing .,

    holding

    acrostolium

    and

    trident.

    9.

    VICTORIA

    AVCVSTI

    Victory

    advancing

    r.

    to

    crown

    standard.

    A'.

    [PI.

    VII.

    11.]

    10.

    Judaea seated

    r.

    behind

    her,

    palm-tree

    nd Roman

    warrior.

    JR.

    11. Emperorn quadriga . JR.

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    218

    H. MATTINGL.Y.

    Titus.

    Obv.

    Bust of

    Titus,draped,

    head

    laureate .

    T

    CAES

    .

    IMP

    VESP PON TR

    POT

    12. ^.-CONCORDIA

    AVGVSTI,

    as

    above. M.

    [PL

    VII.

    12.]

    13.

    NEP

    RED,

    as

    above.

    ^R.

    14.

    Judaea

    eated

    r.,

    as

    above.

    M.

    15. Prince n quadriga, . M.

    Aurei of

    Vespasian

    and

    Titus

    (and

    a few

    denarii),

    with the above

    obverse

    and

    reverse

    types,

    show

    all

    the

    characteristics

    of the

    Roman

    mint and

    must

    certainly

    be

    assigned

    to

    it.

    These

    denarii,

    on the

    other

    hand,

    in

    general

    style

    and

    particularly

    n letter-

    ing,

    clearly diverge

    from it.

    They

    are

    Eastern

    showing

    no affinities

    with

    any

    of

    the

    Western

    mints.21

    Group

    3.

    Vespasian,

    Vespasian

    and

    Titus,

    and

    Titus.

    Obv. Head

    of

    Vespasian,

    laureate r.

    IMP

    VESPA

    CAESAR

    AVCVS

    [Pl.

    VII.

    13

    obv.]

    16.

    Bev.

    ROMA

    Roma seated r. on

    shield,

    holding

    parazonium

    nd

    spear.

    N.

    IMP

    17. Bev.

    T

    In

    three ines

    on shield

    laid

    on

    two

    CAESAR

    crossed

    pears.

    N.

    (Hall

    Coll.)

    Obv

    -

    Head ofVespasian,aureater. IMP CAESARVESPASIANVS AVC

    18.

    Bev.

    PONT

    MAX TR

    POT

    Female

    figure

    eated

    r.,

    holding

    branch and

    sceptre.

    N.

    (Ponton

    d'Amécourt

    ale.)

    Obv.

    Head of

    Titus,

    aureate r.

    IMP

    T

    CAESAR

    VESPASIANVS

    21

    Cp.

    Paris

    aureuswith

    Obv.

    Head

    of

    Vespasian

    aureate

    .

    IMP CAES VESP

    AVO

    PM

    in

    style

    of

    these

    denarii.

    Rev.

    Head

    of

    Titus,bare,

    .

    IMP CAES

    VESP

    AVO P

    TRIP

    [II]

    COS II

    (cp.

    group

    of aurei

    above)

    a

    definite

    connectingink.

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    THE

    MINTS OF

    VESPASIAN.

    219

    19. Bev.

    CONCORDIA

    A

    VC

    Concordia seated

    1.,

    holding atera

    nd

    cornucopiae.

    Pl.

    VII.

    13

    rev

    20.

    Obv.

    As above.

    Bev.

    IVDAEA DEVICTA

    Victory

    tanding

    r.,

    in-

    IMP

    scribing

    T

    on

    shield fastened o

    palm-tree.

    CAES

    N. (Paris.)

    21.

    Obv

    As

    above.

    Bev.

    [VIRTVS]

    AVCVSTI

    (?)

    Virtus

    tanding

    .,

    holding spear

    and

    parazonium.

    End

    of

    rev

    legend

    doubtful.

    N.

    (Coll.

    Trivulzio.

    Boil

    di

    Num.

    e

    Sfr.

    ii.

    13.)

    Group

    4.

    Vespasian.

    Obv.

    Bust

    bare,

    head

    radiate

    .

    IMP

    CAES

    VESPA-

    SIANVS

    AVC

    22. Bev.

    Victory

    flying

    1.,

    holding

    wreathand

    palm.

    VICT

    AVC N.

    (Paris.)

    Group

    5.

    Denarii

    of

    Vespasian,

    Titus,

    and Domitian.

    Vespasian.

    Obv.

    Head

    of

    Vespasian,

    aureate

    r.

    IMP

    CAESAR

    VESPASIANVS

    AVC

    (r.

    to

    1.).

    23. Bev.-

    COS

    VII

    Pegasus

    r.

    (1.

    to

    r.).

    [PL

    VII.

    14.]

    24. PON MAX TR P COS VII Winged caduceus

    (r.

    to

    1.).

    25.

    FIDES

    PVBL

    Clasped

    hands

    holding

    caduceus