17.0 energy transmission

Click here to load reader

Post on 02-Jan-2016

22 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

17.0 Energy Transmission. http://www.tesla-coil.info/. Frank R. Leslie, B. S. E. E., M. S. Space Technology, LS IEEE 3/26/2010, Rev. 2.0 fleslie @fit.edu; (321) 674-7377 www.fit.edu/~fleslie. In Other News. Sempra Units To Spend $10.6 Billion Over 5 Yrs On Transmission, Renewables - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

TRANSCRIPT

  • 17.0 Energy TransmissionFrank R. Leslie, B. S. E. E., M. S. Space Technology, LS IEEE3/26/2010, Rev. 2.0fleslie @fit.edu; (321) 674-7377www.fit.edu/~flesliehttp://www.tesla-coil.info/

  • In Other News . . . Sempra Units To Spend $10.6 Billion Over 5 Yrs On Transmission, RenewablesSAN FRANCISCO -(Dow Jones)- SempraEnergy's (SRE) two utilities plan to spend about $10.6 billion--about two-thirds of the company's total capital expense budget--on capital projects over the next five years on transmission, renewableenergy, advanced meters and other projects, company executives said Thursday.SanDiegoGas&Electric plans to spend about $7 billion of the total, including $2 billion on a 120-mile high-voltage transmission line, called Sunrise Powerlink; $400 million to buy two wind farms and a 14-megawatt solar farm; $500 million to install digital utility meters; $400 million to build two new substations; $165 million for a rooftop solar program; and $75 million installing electric-vehicle charging infrastructure throughout its service territory, said Debra Reed, president and chief executive of Sempra Utilities.100326http://www.nasdaq.com/aspx/stock-market-news-story.aspx?storyid=201003251638dowjonesdjonline000787&title=sempra-units-to-spend-106-billion-over-5-yrs-on-transmissionrenewables

  • 17 Overview: Energy TransmissionEnergy sources are usually in different locations than a city or load center (with the exception of hydropower)Transmission of electrical energy requires transformation to a high voltage and low current so that the resistance losses of the cable do not dissipate excessive energy (usually about 3 to 5% by design)Chemical or fuel energy is conducted through pipelines, and like wire, the larger the diameter, the lower the lossSimilar to electricity, pipeline contents are pressurized to overcome losses, and at the load end, the pressure is reduced to a useful levelFor gases, the line acts as a storage tank, too090331

  • 17.0 About This Presentation17.1 History17.2 Carriers of Energy17.3 Electric Transmission Lines17.4 Pipelines17.5 Hydrogen --- An Energy Carrier17.6 Transmission by Radiation17.7 NIMBYs17.8 Energy Distribution17.0 Conclusion090331

  • 17 Energy TransmissionElectricity and hydrogen are energy carriers, not natural fuelsElectric transmission lines lose energy in heat (~3 to 5% as engineering design parameter)Line directional energy-flow analysis can show where new energy plants are required, usually close to a load center (NIMBYs may not want them there)Hydrogen is made by cracking of natural gas, electrolysis of water, coal pyrolysis, or from bacterial action (prototype level now)Pipelines can transport hydrogen without appreciable energy loss, but H2 leaks through standard pipe readily080331

  • 17.1 The Early Days: ElectricityEdisons Pearl Street Plant generated electricity for nearby financial office buildings some six blocks awayBy 1930, nearly all cities and towns had electricity in homes, but only 10% of farms had electricitySmall gasoline or kerosene-powered 32V generators were common on farms (DELCO, for example); Dayton Electric Light Co., now DelphiThe 1935 Rural Electrification Act brought extensions of powerlines to more distant areas to bring the US out of the Great Depression under President RooseveltRural cooperative associations funded the program and sold power to the customersBy 1955, nearly all farms and ranches had utility electricity to main buildings near the road090331

  • 17.1.2 The Early Days: PipelinesIn 1821, the village of Fredonia NY laid lead pipes to provide natural gas to 100 street lightsIn 1870, a company bored holes in logs and banded them together to make a gas pipeline to Rochester, New YorkIn 1886, a wrought iron pipeline was installed to carry gas to Buffalo NYIn 1903, Sheehan laid oil pipelines in Indian TerritoryThe Alyeska pipeline opened in the late 1970s, bring North Slope oil to the CONUS (contiguous United States) by ship from Valdez, Alaska to lower US ports and overseasThis 48-inch insulated pipeline is substantially above ground to keep the permafrost from meltingThe line was charged with oil in June 20, 1977Harris Corp. of Palm Bay did the telemetry and control system!080331

  • 17.2 Carriers of EnergyElectricity is a carrier of energy that is transformed from a different source of energyAtmospheric energy, like lightning or hurricane, is not practical to capture and distribute for useA very different chemical energy is also a carrier hydrogenHydrogen is burned as a fuel (but isnt a fuel), yet it is strongly bonded to other atoms in natureHydrogen must be made from other substances, requiring even more energy to break the bondA gas, hydrogen is very energy-diffuse unless highly compressed, which takes still more energy090331

  • 17.3 Electrical Transmission LinesThe Grid is the interconnected network of long-haul, high-voltage electrical transmission linesThe grid is the largest human-built machineThere are three main organizational control sectionsThe Eastern grid from the Rockies to the East Coast and into CanadaThe Texas grid (in the 1930s, Texas didnt want to lose control to the Federal government)The Western grid from the Rockies to the Pacific and from Mexico to CanadaThe entire grid is interconnected now; originally, it was difficult to connect through the Rocky Mountain passes080331

  • 17.3 The US Grid (Interconnect) TerritoriesThree primary regions comprise the GridThey are interlocked to precisely 60 hertz (cycles per second) frequency to control the current flow direction070329

  • 17.3.1 Transmission Line OperationA very simplified example: A 1000 MW power plant has its output voltage transformed upwards at negligible loss and power sent out over a 100 kV transmission lineThe line current is P/V = 1000 MW/100 kV = 10 kASuppose the lines are two large copper or aluminum cables sized to lose only 2% of the energyThe loss in the line was 20 MW, dissipated in heatAt the load end, the received energy is 980 MWThe current remains 10 kA, but the voltage falls along the cable lengthThe voltage drop is then 20 MW/10 kA = 2 kVThe received voltage is now 100 kV 2 kV = 98 kV080331

  • 17.3.1 TransformersThe higher the voltage, the longer the insulators030323http://philip.greenspun.com/ Philip Greenspun http://www.epri.com/journal/images/486_transformer_2r.jpghttp://www.emcoindia.com/Images/132kvpowertrans.jpg

  • 17.3 Transformer OperationA very simplified example: A power plant might have an output voltage of 10 kV transformed to a higher voltage of 100 kV for transmissionA coil of heavy wire or copper tubing known as the primary (input) winding is wound around a magnetic core of laminated steel stripsTen times as many turns of somewhat smaller wire (the secondary) are also wound around the coreThe magnetic flux produced by the primary winding is coupled to the secondary winding by the steel core fieldSince there are ten times as many turns in the secondary, the output voltage is ten times the input voltageExcept for losses (~2% in a large unit), the output power is ~ the input power, so the output current is 1/10 the input currentThe transformer is filled with oil around the windings in order to carry off the dissipated heat, and fans air-cool the oil pipes090331

  • 17.4 PipelinesPipelines require massive earth-moving projects to lay pipeIn some areas, access is through a legal easement on private property, whose owners sometimes claim they didnt know about it when they bought the propertyIceland will produce electrolyzed hydrogen from electricity from sustainable hydro and geothermal plantsThe hydrogen can then be distributed by pipelineThe pipeline requires better sealing than for oilThere is an excess of available energy in Iceland, so electrolysis inefficiency doesnt matter so muchThey run three H2 propelled buses 090331

  • 17.4 The Alaska PipelineThe North Slope oil fields near Deadhorse, Alaska could be exploited when the Alyeska Pipeline was builtOn a local note, the original telemetry and control system was designed and built by Harris Corporation080331http://www.tapsrow.com/http://www.solcomhouse.com/

  • 17.4.1 The Alaska PipelineThe 800-mile pipe is paralleled by the gravel haul road from Fairbanks to Prudhoe Bay at the Arctic Ocean731,654 barrels per day average transport090331http://www.alyeska-pipe.com/Default.asp

  • 17.5 The Hydrogen Economy: Will it ever arrive?The Hydrogen Economy was formulated by Amory Lovins of the Rocky Mountain Institute at Snowmass COIn this concept, clean hydrogen replaces fossil fuels, not fouling the air and water where usedWhere will we get that much hydrogen? Solar and wind systems are advocated, but what if economics drives the use of coal, oil shale, or tar sands to make the hydrogen?While hydrogen-fueled cars have been given to two California cities for testing, the important aspect is that the manufacturers are providing the hydrogen for freeIf you cant get it for free, how much would you be willing to pay for it? 40 times gasoline cost?090331

  • 17.5.1 Proton-Exchange Membrane (PEM)http://www2.shell.com/home/hydrogen-en/downloads/Shell%20Hydrogen%20brochure.pdf030329Fuel Cell

  • 17.5.2 HERA Hydrogen storage Tank070329http://www2.shell.com/Five kg of hydrogen could power an automobile for 800km (500 miles) and be loaded in two minutes in a metal-hydride storage tank

  • 17.5.2 Shell Oil continues its vision070329http://www2.shell.com/The passing age will now be petroleum; the coming age is likely of hydrogen

  • 17.5.3 Shell Oils CO2 ResearchShell Oil is researching the sequestering of CO2 to prevent its escape into the atmosphere This means capturing it chemically or injecting it into the earthA pipeline system to collect industrial CO2 and conduct it to a sequestration facility may be in the futureA coal plant in North Dakota sends CO2 to Alberta Canada to pressurize oil fields070329

  • 17.6 Transmission by RadiationLight energy sent by fiberoptics can currently transmit enough power to operate very low power communication devicesFuture power levels might supply higher powers, but conduction of enough light power to drive home appliances seems difficult to doNikola Tesla, who invented the alternating current polyphase power system, experimented with radio frequency transmission of power near Colorado Springs CO070329

  • 17.6.1 Nikola Teslas ExperimentsPrints are available from the reference030331http://www.teslascience.org/archive/archive.htm

  • 17.6.1.1 Musical Tesla CoilWow!080331Singing Tesla Coilhttp://www.hackedgadgets.com/2006/06/30/tesla-coil-music/http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BiUlqecQKUoThis is a twin Tesla coil playing a compilation of MIDI tunes. You can see how it was built at http://cappers-lab.dyndns.org/midisch... http://static1.videosift.com/thumbs/t/es/Tesla_Coil_Music.jpg

  • 17.6.2 Microwave-Beamed EnergyMicrowave energy could be beamed from satellites that collect solar energy to earth antennas A low-power radio beacon at the earth antenna would be tracked to turn on the earthbound power; loss of signal would shut the power offThere are potential technical problems, and the cost would be extremely highOn earth, the rectified antenna energy would have to be converted to supply existing power linesTheres also a plan to put solar arrays on the moon to beam energy to earth --- $1000 a watt???090331

  • 17.7 Protests and Rights of Way: NIMBYs Attack!Rights of way for pipelines and electrical transmission lines stir shrill opposition to the changeThose along the route will shriek that their view (or viewscape) will be ruined, and they wouldnt have built their house there if they had been told that the woods they dont own might be cut somedayOthers are convinced that radiation of EMFs will cause cancer, stunt their children's growth, cause their cows to stop giving milk, etc.Still others will try to invoke the Endangered Species Act because some plant or critter will harmed In some cases, people have transplanted endangered plant species to discover later090331

  • 17.8 Energy DistributionUnder energy system reorganizations, there will be three major components (California has this in operation)Generation the source of energyLarge plants become merchant plants through transfer of ownership to a new companyTransmission the transfer of energyA regional Independent System Operator (ISO) like CAISO operates all transmission lines in a state or larger areaDistribution the retail provision of energyThe local distribution and metering for sale brings energy to each user (looks the same as today)070329

  • 17.8 Energy DistributionThis Palm Bay FL substation on Lipscomb St. reduces voltage for distribution to residences and industry080331

  • 17.8.1 Energy DistributionThis Clearmont St. substation in Palm Bay provides switching and transformation090331

  • 17.8.2 Energy Distribution to HousesThis transformer reduces the 7,200 volt distribution high line voltage to center-tapped 240 V for home use090331Black WireRed Wiretwwphotos.com

  • 17.8.3 Buried Transmission CablesSome call for buried lines to protect them from stormsCosts vary, but are high80% of Captiva Island, Florida residents want buried lines (and have the money to pay for it)Overhead lines average $120,000 per mile, and buried lines are three to ten times as much [Florida Today, 3/28/2005, Residents ready to buy lines, Wendy Fullerton]When an underground failure (fault) occurs, it is expensive to find and repair it Outages last longer

    080331

  • 17 Conclusion: Energy TransmissionInstallation of new power lines and pipelines may be met with opposition by NIMBYs and CAVEsDoubling of conductors on an existing line doubles the possible current flow and is not met with vocal oppositionThe Hydrogen Economy will require hydrogen-grade low-leakage pipelines or tanks to bring the tenuous gas from wherever it is made to the sales pointsThe only alternative is to carry the hydrogen in tank trucks in groups of pipes or tanksDirect radiation of electrical power is unlikely and would cause massive radio interference090331Ref.: Air Products

  • Olin Engineering Complex 4.7 kW Solar PV Roof Array080116

  • References: BooksBoyle, Godfrey. Renewable Energy, Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004, ISBN 0-19-26178-4. (my preferred text)Brower, Michael. Cool Energy. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press, 1992. 0-262-02349-0, TJ807.9.U6B76, 333.7940973.Duffie, John and William A. Beckman. Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 920 pp., 1991Gipe, Paul. Wind Energy for Home & Business. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Pub. Co., 1993. 0-930031-64-4, TJ820.G57, 621.45Patel, Mukund R. Wind and Solar Power Systems. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1999, 351 pp. ISBN 0-8493-1605-7, TK1541.P38 1999, 621.312136Srensen, Bent. Renewable Energy, Second Edition. San Diego: Academic Press, 2000, 911 pp. ISBN 0-12-656152-4.Texter, [MIT]

    030319

  • References: Websites, etc.http://www.shell.ca/main.htmlhttp://www2.shell.com/home/Framework?siteId=hydrogen-enhttp://www.msnbc.com/news/520385.asphttp://www.teslascience.org/pages/webring.htmhttp://www.alyeska-pipe.com/Default.asp

    __________________________________________________________________________

    [email protected] Wind Energy [email protected] Wind energy home powersite elistrredc.nrel.gov/wind/pubs/atlas/maps/chap2/2-01m.html PNNL wind energy map of CONUS [email protected] Elist for wind energy experimenterswww.dieoff.org. Site devoted to the decline of energy and effects upon populationwww.ferc.gov/ Federal Energy Regulatory Commissionwww.hawaii.gov/dbedt/ert/otec_hi.html#anchor349152 on OTEC systemstelosnet.com/wind/20th.htmlwww.google.com/search?q=%22renewable+energy+course%22solstice.crest.org/dataweb.usbr.gov/html/powerplant_selection.html080331

  • Notes030318

  • In Other News . . . Public meetings to discuss about 70 miles of huge new power transmission lines through Shasta County will be held tonight in Burney, Monday in Chico and April 13 in Redding. The plan is part of a $1.5 billion, 600-mile transmission line project stretching from Lassen County near the Nevada border and south through the Central Valley. It would split west to the San Francisco Bay area and east to the Sierra foothills, ending in Santa Clara and Stanislaus counties. A new substation is proposed near Round Mountain in Shasta County, shown on a map of the project on the Western Area Power Administration's Web site. --- Redding [CA] .com 3/31/09090331