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A description of Perak during the early British colonial days

TRANSCRIPT

ASIA

Cornell University Library

The

original of this

book

is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions intext.

the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924023141306

ABOUT PERAK

FRANK ATHELSTANE SWETTENHAM,iMI'ANlON

DF THE MOST DjslI No\' SHE JJI

ORUBR OF

St.

Michael

anjj

St. Gi;oke

lengthall

of

no moment

whatever, because the goods

carried

are

imported into or

THE OPENING OF COMMUNICATIONS.exported from the State.it

25

Ouce iu thecase,

train,

they will not leave

until

they

i-eaeli,

in tmeiu

the point nearest the dwellingthe port ofwill

of

the consignee,

and,

the other,

shipment.existingline

Theof

only elfeutive opjjosition, therefore,transport

be

thesea

between Peuang and Matang by

and the 56 milesKinta

of road that joinDistrict.

Mataug with Ipoh and

so with the rest of the

If the sea carriage

from Penang

or

Singapore to Telukit

Anson andcertainly

the 60 miles of rail

cannot hold their own,

will

be curious.

Speaking generally,village

it

may

be saidof

that there

is

no importantis

or mining centre in tbe State

Perak that

not

now

in

communication with every other similar place by means of aclass road.

first

Port

Weldin

is

in railway

communication with Taipeng,

the

principalport,

town

the

State,

and Teluk Anson,

the

other

principal

will shortly be iu railway

communication with Ipoh,of the roadsis

the

town of

next

consideration.

The conceptiongood.

systematic,

comprehensive,

and

The Larut;

railway

is

convenient and

may

yet

grow

into a line of importance

the Kintabenefitfillip

Valley railway has been wanted for years, will enormouslythe Kinta and

Batang Padang

Districts,

will

give

a

to

Teluk Anson, and will prove a financial success.

26

v. PORTSFrom whence

AND WATERWAYS.

" Lo, as ilie bark that hath discharged her fraught Eeturn3'with'precioii8*lading to the bay at first she weigli'd her anchorage."

Havingrail,

described the

internal

communications by road and

a few words ou the

Ports and Waterways of Perak will not be

out of place.

Beginning from the northern boundary of the State, there areeleven navigable rivers used by coasting steamers

and nativeits

craft

trading with Perak. First, theredividing Perak from

is

the Krian river, iu

upper courselast

the Malay State of

Kedah

;

but, for the

few miles beforeconsiderable

it

reaches the sea, wholly in British Territoi-y.is

This

stream

only navigable for native boats in the upper

reaches, practically as far as

Selama, while nothing largerwater.

than

a steam launch can cross the bar except at high

There are

only seven feet ou the bar at the top of spring tides.thereis

Nevertheless,

a daily steam launch

service

from Peuang

to

Nibong Tebal

in Provincestructed,

Wellesley

;

and, before the pontoon

bridge wus contheof

these launches ascended to Parit

Bimtar,

principal

station of the

Krian

District

of

Perak and a place

some im-

portance as the centre of a large rice and sugar producing country.

There

is

a

very considerable trade carried by native craft between

Parit Buntar

and Penang.

A

little

furtherestate

south,of that

is

the;

Gulaand,

river giving access

to the large sugaris

name

further south, yet,

the

Kurau

river,

navigable for steam launches

PORTS AND WATERWAYS.and nativethe barof theis

27

craft.

But, here again,

the shallowness of the water on

a

diffioultv.

There

is

a large fishing village at the moiith

Knrau river and, higher

up, are Sungei Siilkap

and Bagan

Serai,

both thriving places, while the banks of the river are covered withsplendid

sugar canes as far asthe nipah

the

eye can reach.'

This riveris

is

fringed by

palm

of whichfloated

atap'

(thatch)

made

;

and,

from the head waters, are

down

quantities

of valuable

timber that find their way to Penang.going southward, there are theof

Still

Silensiug and Lanit

river.s,

by

either

which vessels can reach Port Weld and Matang

the

former the terminus of the Larut Railway, the latter the terminus ofthe Taipeng-Matang road.

Between Port Weld and Penang, there

is

dailyis

communication

by coasting vessels of small draught, while Matang

much patronisedprincipal

by native

sailing craft.

Prom Port

"Weld to Taipeng, thethereis

town

of

Larut and also of the

State,

no cart road,to

only

a

railway and bridle road. loading

But, by taking their goods

Matang and

them

in biillock carts,

Native traders find that they can getless

them more cheaply and, sometimes withdoorsin Taipeng,

breakage, to their

ownin

Kuala Kangsar. or Kinta, than by shipping

steamers, discharging into the railway at Portto resort to the bullock cart to get

Weld and then having

them

to their destination.

Port

Weld

is

interesting'

from the

fact that,keel'

in

spite

of

its

position as the spot where

wheel meets

;

in

spite of its

comde-

parative proximity

to

Penang (40

miles); its daily arrival

and

28

POBTB AND WATERWAYS.its

parture of steamers andit

fresh water

supply from the Larut

hills,

remains an absolute failure as a

Settlement.

The

inhabitants

of Port

Weld

are

Government employes and half a dozen petty shop-

keepers to supply their wants and those of a neighbouring fishingvillage.

The

lesson taught

is

one that should not be thrown away,

for the

Q-overnment has spent very considerable sums in buildingsea,

good wharves, bunding out thepure water.

making

roads,

and laying onis

The

fact

is,

however, that Portto

Weld

simply a place

of transit, a station at

which

walk from ship to

train or vice versa,

and everything that has

to

be done there can be done perfectly

without the presence of the peopleprofitable to live in

who

find

it

pleasanter and

more

Taipeng or elsewhere.

The very

facilities afforded

by the Grovemment, a few yards of planking dividing train fromsteamer, conduce to this result.

And

if

a business

man

thinks

it

necessary to go to Port

Weld

to superintend the discharge of ship-

ping of goods,

if

he will not trust the railway or steamer people, or

has no one to send,

why

should he stay at a disagreeable place when?ISTo,

twenty minutes, training will take him home againis

Port

Weld

a type of such places

;

and none of them

will

develop into the

Singapores and Hongkongs of the futureare totally different.

because the circumstances

Between

the

Larut and Perak;

Rivers there are the

Trong.

Jarum Mas, Bruas, and Binding

but,

though each

is

frequented bv

a few native craft, they are, none of them, worth

more than passing

mention.

PORTS AND WATEBWAY8.Tliethis river

29

Perak Eiver, has, for years, been of importance

;

because,

by

and

its tribiitary,

the Kinta,

was, until recently, the only

access to the Districts of Kinta,

Batang Padang, and Lower Perak.Districtin

Kinta

is

the

greatest

tin-producing

Perak.is

Batanga coun-

Padang promises to

follow in

its footsteps,

and Lower Perak

try capable of great agricultural development which, untilago, did a large trade in

two yearssince

atap

nipa with Sumatra

;

and,

the

prospects of tobacco are reviving-,

may do

so again.

But, now, on the Perak River, forty miles from

its

mouth, has

grown out

of

the jungle

an important and prosperous town calledis

Teluk Anson.

This town

the terminus of the Kinta Valley Rail-

way, the value of which undertaking has already been explained.

The entrance to the Perak Riverdifficulties to coasting steamers,

is

well lighted,

the bar

oifers

nois

theis

river as far as Teliik

Anson

wide and deepthereis

;

and, while there

a daily steamer service to Penang,

communication every other day with the coast ports to theis

southward ending with Singapore. Teluk Anson

the market of thedifferent position

Lower Perak

District and, as such, occupies a veryits

from a port without trade offear;

own

;

moreover,

it

has no rival to

for,

if,

as seems unlikely, a railway should be constructed

from

Kintaport oftry

to

the Dinding River,

Tehik Anson would

still

remain theof coun-

Lower Perak, Batang Padang, and the wide

stretch

between these places and the boundary with Selangor.

The Bernam River, from sourceboundary of Perak.

to

mouth, forms the southern

Once the bar

is

crossed,

and that can be done

30

PORTS AND WATEJtWAYS,is

at half -tide, the rivermiles,

navigable for steamers for afeout seventyis

but at present the population

very small, and their needs are

supplied by native vpsscIs.trade of Perak with the outside

Practically, then, the

world

is

carried on through

two ports

Teliikis

Anson and Port Weld;

and,

whenof

it is

considered that the trade

worth roughly twenty millionsall

dollars annually,

and that almostit,

passengers are

dependent

on

the steamers

which carry

something more than a mild suris

prise

may

be expressed at the character of the accommodation whichto

offered.

From Port Weldto

PenangBut,

is

forty

miles,

and from Teluk

Anson

Penang 130

miles.

diwing the south-west monsoon,is

the weather, thoiigh not quite what

met

with in the Englishhesitate tofully

Channel,

is still

sufficiently

unpleasant tovessels,

make anyone

attempt even so short a journey onsatisfied if

whose owners seem

they can get safely from port to port in any length of

time, carrying as heavy a cargosible

and as many deck passengers as posof

;

neither cargo nor passengers being the pleasantestin even the calmest weather.

combeall

panions

The

vessels are said to

owned

in

Singapore or Penang, where some of them were built,

when andhabitant'

bytotell.

whom would

probably

puzzle

the

oldest

in-

31

VI. MINING." And, as a miner delves. For hidden treasure bedded deep in stone, So seek ye and find the treasure patriotism In lands remote."ir.

M.

Ilfiatetti.

The nameand

of this State, that is the inoderusilver

uame, means

silver,

though galena an 1

have been found in

Perak

these

minerals do not compare in frequency with the oxide of tin which,usually black,is

is

as brilliantly white as silver

when

smelted.

Thatit

not the origin of the State's

name given by Malays, butis

is

probably the correct one.thatit is

Alluvial tin ore

so widely distributed

but

little

exaggeration tohills.

say

it

can be found anywhere

within a few miles of theprospected;

Lodes have been discovered andfavourable result,

but, so far, without

no well defined

continuous vein of the metal having been met with.It

seems as though the main rock formations and disconnected

boulders of the hills had contained the ore in greater or less quantity

and

that,

by erosion and the ordinary action of sun andtheir

rain, the

heavy

mineral particles had foundso

way

into

mountain streams and

down

into the valleys, where in the course of ages they

had

acin-

cumulated and beenfrequently,

covered by an overburden

of

soil.

Not

this process has

taken place more than once and agravel,

jfirst

stratum of tin-bearing sand anded

wash-dirt

as

it

is

call-

is

followed by a second overburden of earth and a second andtin ore, usually lying

richer deposit of

amongst waterworn boulders

32

MINING.

(>u

a

foundatiou of fine white clay aud that on the bed rock.

It

is

the uueveuuess of these deposits that makes alluvial tin mining

sc

>

risky a venture.attracts the

The

risk

of hjss of

Ijut

possibility of large

profit

gambling

instincts

the Chiue.se, but this insecurity

detersIt

Europeans whose

ways are not the

ways

of

the

Celestial.

might naturally be thought that careful boring would showwhere the tinis,

ex-

actlyits

how

thickis

the wash-dirt andpractically

how

extensivf

area.

Theoretically this

so,

the

opening of the

ground alone giveswhere thereis

certainty.

The boring

tools will not

shew

tin

none, but in this

water-charged, gravelly

soil,

the in-

strument, in passing through a thin layer of wash-dirt, often carries

down with

it,

to a considerable distance, the stones

and heavy

parti-

cles of ore, so that,

when

the tube

is

with-drawn,

it

shews traces of

tin through a

much

greater depth than that of the actual tin-beaiing

stratum.

European

companies founded

on thehope.-;

results

given bv

boring tools have had occasion to regret the

built

on the perwill

formances of this instrument.

No

doubt,

careful

handling

do

much and

the reverse

is

largely responsible for unreliable results, butis

the fact remains that boring alone

not a perfect test of the groiuid.

Now,aud

this

makesI

all

the difference Ijetweeu the

work

of Chinese

Euroi:>eans.

do not wish to go intois.

Chinese mining methodslargest

;

but, as the

Malay Peninsulais

l.y

far, the

tin producer iu

the world, as labourfor prices that

sufficiently

cheap here to enable us to workother mines except those in

would probably

close all

Netherlands India, and as iu Singapore there are smelting works twiceas

large

as any

other

such works in the world, there

is

a certain

MINING.

33

aiiiouat of interest attaching to this question. to say that a

It

is,

however, enoughtlie

Malay

Pawang (medicine-man) hasdog has forand, whatis

same

sort

oi"

uose for tin that a

triifHe

truffles.

At

least that is sothi;

with the Perak

Pawaug

of

more

importance,his

CMiinaman believes in him.confidence in histhe ore.buys, or

Usually,

too, the

Malay proves

own

own powers by diggingmore than enoughfor a

a

small hole and shewing

That

is

Chinaman who straightwaythe laud on tribute.labourers,

more commonly, agrees

to take

He

finds the capital

and a palm shed where thein

who

usually

have an interestis

the mine,

live.

Before any pumping machinery

necessary,

it

has usually been ascertained, by the removal of thetiie

overburden,a failure the

what

wash-dirtloses a

is

worth.

If

the whole thingruolies

is

capitalist

little

and theofore,

make

noth-

ing

;

if

there

is

even a small qiiantitytotal failurestlie

the

capitalist losesit

nothing.

But the

are very

rare,

andall

mostly hap-

pens that, whenhis interestprofits, there

advancer has

recoveredhis,

his exj^euses

and

and hiswillstill

commission andIje

the lion's share of the

a fair

amount

to

dividethis

amongst thethis

la-

bourers.of

Twois

very significant facts prove

;

one, that

form

work

mightily popular,i;oolies

and the other that disputes between

advancer and

are

very

uncommon.

That

is

Chinese tiny

mining; butit

tlio

Europeau, what of him and his methods

Well

might not be altogether inexact to describe them asthosefirst

" contrariwise,"

except in the case ofCelestial.

who

try to

emulatesaid

the almond-eyedit is

The Europeanbut

bores.if

I have

not an alto-

gether

reliable plan

it

may,

carefully done, be

almost as sue-

34

MINING.as complete trustis

LX'ssrul

in theliy

Malay Pawaiig.ai](i

Tlioi,s

usually,

European ininiuy

done

couijjanies,

company

mojiey

is

almost like Government money.becausebyit

It

is

not of toopai-ticular,

nii.ii;]j

accountis

seems to belong to no one infor

and

given

Providence

the

support of

deserving

expert

and often

travelled individuals.

Several of

these are necessary to fairlv starttliey are

a

European mining venture, andtheyai-e

nKjstly

engaged

long

before

wanted.

There

is

the manager

and the subive

manager, the accountant, the engineer, the smelter

but do

not

all

know

the oft told tale that neveris

seems to point any moral atinfactit

all.

Machinery

bought, houses are built,

the cajjital of thefor,

company

is

spent

no

doubt thatnot

is

what

was subscribedif

and the shareholders

shall

be disappointedit.

the management,

the experts and the employes can helpget so far

And

then

if

ever things

some

Chinese are

employed on wages

or

contract,

the

former for choice, to remove the overburden.of great

After possiljly a

se)-ies

hardships to the

staff

and

disasters to the

company,

it

is

found that the

tin raised is

infinitesimal in value

when comparedwork goes

with the rate of expenditure, and that the longer the

on the greaterthe paid

will

be theis

losses.

This

is

usually discovered

when

up

capital

all

but exhausted.

The company

is

woundjjeople

up and the

State gets a

bad name withare the

investors,

and the only

who

really enjoy themselves

neighbouring Chinese miners

who buylarge

the mine andoutof

plant for an old song and

make

several

fortunes

working

on

their

own

ridiculous

and

primitive methods,

MINING.

35

This

is

a State where exactly such things have happened moreits

than once and, however badlyinvestors,it

name mayit

smell

in the nostrils of

produces more tin than ever

did and more than any

other State in the Peninsula.

The quantity exported

in 1892

is

given as 16,638 tons.the curious that the most

A

little

careful enquiry

will satisfy

successful Chinese miners

Capitan Ah Kwi for instance do not owetin,

the

bulk of their

wealth to

but

tn

other

adventitious

cir-

cumstances, such as the holding of Revenuere.sfiun.'Ps

Farms and the variousIn'

of

that

business

which

is

covered

the term

'

Thavke

labour

'

or

Mining Advancer.wherelie

But even where a European

will

workelse-

intelligently,

does not insist that which he has learnthere,

where must be the only correct plan

where his gi-ound

is

good

and he works

skilfully,

honestly, and economically,is

even should he

be the only European on the mine, heprofit

denied the avenues of

open

to

the

Chinese advancer,to a

and his salary alone would

mean a

fair profit

Chinaman.found in Perak and, under the mosthave shewnthat

Such men are

also to be

favourable circumstan(;es,

they

Europeans

neessary

buildings at

former

sta1i(-ii

and

a less good one at

Balu

G-ajah.

The meetings are

annualarc

and attract horses("'tlier

from

Selangor

and the Colony.to

There

avenues of

amusement openl)ison,

men. big gameleopard,

shdotiiin',

elephant,crocodile,

rhinoceros,

tiger,

black

samb)ir,

jiig.

and.is

in

their

season,

most

excellent

snipe andbest

jiigemi

shooting

got in Peralc.rhinoceros,

July and August are the

monthslasts

for elephant,

and;

bison,

while the

snipe seasoni

from September to April and the Krian District yieldsbagsriver

he biggestPei-ak areis

though thereduring

is

capital shooting on the islands

in the

November

and

December.

March and

April

probably the best months for green pigeon and, though there

no

driving, the sport nearly resembles the shooting of driven partridges

pigeon in flocks probablytostop.

fly

faster

and are perhaps more

difficilt

GroMthe

is

played, but, while cricket retains

its

present popularity,is

game

of weird

terms and strange implements

not- likely totlie

take very strong hold in Perak.State,

Thereis

is

an impression, outside

that proficiency

in

cricket

the

surest road to Crovernmentfor,

preferment, but that must be an exagge/ation

with very few ex-

EUROPEAN SOCIETY.(rptio]is,

the

heads ofIt is

nil

Distrirts

and Government Departments,that thepeoj^ile

are non-cricketers.are

a fact, however,

of Peralrfield.

proudfeeling

ofis

the suci-ess they have obtained in the cricket

The

not unnatural.

Perak

possesses

some very

cnvialile

health

resorts,

duly

ap-

preciated and patronised

by the Europeans of theThatis cvirious,

State,

but hardlyIjaii

ever visited by strangers.

for,

on G-tinong

andif at

Arang Paraall inferior to

(the Hermitage),

vrill

be found a climate,

little

that of the Eiviera.

The thermometerin

varies

between

.59

F.

in

the earlyis

morning and abont 73 F.

the heat of thefor fires;

day,

thatis

in the shade of course,

(piite cold enough

the

sceneryroses

magnificent, the airviolets which,

balmy and heavy with the

scent of

and

with

many

other flowers of temperate climes,

bloom herespecially;

in profusion all theliut,

year round.

From Jnne

to

Augustfeet

also

in other

months, the jungle about 3,000wildforestflowers, the

above sea level

i.s

carpeted with

harebell,

anemone, and primrose of the Malaytree

jungle,at

while

groimdtime,a.s

andwell

orchids in great

quantity

]i)ossoiii

the

same

asof

the wonderful magnoliaIjau.

wliicli

grows wild in the higherof

altitudi-s

In the

dark recesses

these

hill forests

arealso

silent

birds

of

wonderful [plumage,

troop of monkeys

are

some-

times

seen,

but they do not appear to appreciate theIn

cold of theseofstill

altitudes.

any open

sun-lit

clearing,

quantitiesif,

brilliant evening-,

coloured butterflies are certain to be found anda lantern be put out on the top of Ijau,

on a

immense

numbers

of rarelight.

moths and

flying

in.sects

of all sorts

will

be attracted to the

EUROPEAN SOCIETY.Thereeitheris

73

a good mountain road, nine or ten miles long

to the

top of

hill.

Ou G-unougat asea.

Ijau the Resident has a cottage,lowerelevation,

and therethe

are

two bungalows

our

'4AW and

other

2,100 feet above the

lu the Kinta District thereand, with the comjoletiou of theto the

is

a sauitorium' ou G-uuoug Kledaug,accessible also

railway, this will be

people of Bataugis

Padang and Lower Perak.of

There

a

great dearth

hotels iu Perak,

I believe there is

one such establishment in Taipeng, but the Government has built

Best Houses

all

over the State and they offer better

shelter to

man

and beast than the average Dak Bungalow of India. Hospitality inthe Native Statessorelyvisitis,

however,

proverbial,

though

it

has been oftento

tried,

and no true sportsman or good fellow need hesitate

Perak even without an introduction.

Perakof

is

one of thosesociety

places for

the moralG-,

and

religious beingIt possesses

whose EuropeanEnglish

the

S,

P,

has cared,a

a a

popular

Church

clergyman,

small

Church,

and

Parsonage

all

mainly supported by the voluntary contributions of

the community.

There are also at

least

two

Roman

Catholic Chapelsis

under the charge of devoted pastors.

The graveyard

a necessity,

and you

will find a lovinglylie

cared for G-od's Acre at each station,

where already.

not a few of those who, like Henrytried to do their duty,society of

Lawrence

have, in their

more humble way,

and can verythis the land

badly

1

)e

spared from the email European

of their exile.

X.THE FUTURE.Be quoi deraain aera-t-il fait L'homme aujourd'hui seme laBemaiu Bieu't

cause

fait mCirir I'eifect,

I have told a little of the past,

more of the present

;

the futureof

uo

mau

kuoweth.

I have no ambitiou to

attempt the role

ait

prophet, but, looking to the

dangers passed and the rocks ahead,

may be

possible to suggest a course

by which

to steer the ship of State.

I heard the late Sir Frederick Dickson say that,

in

his belief,

Perak

would develop into aItis

greater

and more valuable possessionthe Isle greatit

than Ceylon."

possible

;

he had a wide experience of

where

every prospect

pleases,''

andof

certainly

Perak

has

capabilities,

but

it

will

want a deal

develoj)ment

before

can

successfully rival the premierlast

Crown Colony.seems shortfive

Looking back over theindeed

twenty years,

the time

and

it

has

not

been wasted, but lookingyears each seems a veryless,

forward tofarL-ry.

Ijrief

intervals of twenty

In that time, perhaps even inbut, long before

the alluvial tin deposits might be exhausted,

then, lode

mining may have takenexist

its place.

Gold and galena areother

known

to

and

will surely be

worked, while

valuableis

mineralscleared

will

probably be discovered

when

the;

country

better

and systematic prospecting undertaken

meanwhile wisdom

suggests the encouragement of agriculture, both in the low and hill

THE FUTURE.country, the improvement of the labourof every reasonableto convert of those

^h

supply,

and the employment

means

to

induce European and native plantersforest land

some of the vast stretches of

into

plantationswill thrive

tropical productsproiit.

which experiment has provedit

and yield a

So only will

be possible

to secure

revenue

independent of those mineral resources which

mayreal

not last for ever,

and the workingprosperity.lie

of

which cannot alone ensure

and permanent

When

that day comes, the extension of railways to meetwill give the State anotherit

i

wants of planters

and better source ofMeanwhile,

revenue than some of those on whichthe capital of the countryis

now

depends.it,

being taken out of

but fortimately

some of

it,

that which

is

paid in export duty and that which indirectlyit is

belongs to the working of tin for

contributed by the miners,

i.s

being wisely spent in the construction of roads, railways, telegraphs,

andto

waterworks,

all

of

which contribute

directly

or

indirectly

the

revenue, while they do

more

for the

permanent advancement

of the country than

any other form of expenditure.that the ad-

What

has been said in earlier chapters proves

ministration of Perak and the other States und^'r British

Protecticn

has

been

stvikins:,'ly

su.ccessful.

But can

it

crmtimic on the same

lines ?is

That

is

the quesiton for the immediate Futiu-H.its

The problem

not an altogether simple one, and on

solution depends that

remoter future which only some of us

will live to see.let well

The natural enquiryswertheiris

is

'

why not

alone

?

'

and the an-

given in a previous chapter.

The States have out-grown

long clothes.

There are now too many valuable interests at

7(!

THE FUTURE.too

stake,

many Europeans,

too large an(lecide,

official

service, too

many

important legal (juestions to

too

many

difforent industries.

and too manypopulation for

laws required toall

protect

or control

ioo

large a

these matters to be left practically in the hands ofis

one man, even when that one man's authorityof

limited to the State

Perak with the Grovernor

of

tlie

Straits Settlements

behind him,is

and then, even supposing thatpositionof

all this

were for the best, whatr

the

the

Resident after

all

In. the

face

of

existing

instructions, it

would be

difficult to define.

There are other excellent

reasons,

outside those given and outside the State, to explain

why

the existing regime

has

hithertoit

answered so well and to lead

thinking people to fear thatwise

cannot safely he perpetuated.

The

man

forewarned will do what he can to prevent the possibility

of difficulty,

and

if it

be granted that thereffir

is

reasonable ground forof

a

new departure,

or

a more exactit,

definitionis

authority,it

which ever youshould take.

like to call

the only question

the direction

A

feeling

is

gaining ground that the dircrtion should be notall

annexation but the federation ofControl, either subordinate toStraits

the Protected States under one

or independent of the (governor of the

Settlements.deliberately lireakiun' faith with the Malays, annexation

Withoutis

impossible.

With

the chiefs,

and through them with the people,;

such a step would be exceedingly unpopularto fail to appreciate the premises.

to ignore this fact

is

British

Territory

means

British

law

;

and native

prejudices, ancient native customs, the privileges of

THE FUTURE.liereditary chiefs,

cannot

live

besideof

it.

British

Grovernment alsothat would not

means a considerable amount

circumlocution

advanc(? the interests of the States and, like all the very liest things,it

means

exjoense.

It is fairly certain that,

setting aside the feelings

of the

Malays and treating our enga^^empnts with them as expedientstheir ]iurpose,tlie

which had answeredStatesjilaces

annexation of

the

Malay

wouldwouldsuft'er in

be a lilunder, and,

while the advancementof

of these

be (herked, the trade

the

neighbouring

Colony

wouldIt

sympathy.asked,if

may

lie

not annexation

whv tV'dcration

?

The

re])ly is

that federation, while

it

disturbs no existing arrangement, breaks

no

promises, does

not alter the status of the Malay Rulers and chiefs,

may

be

made

to clearly define the positions of the Residents, to give

them a controllingwill

chief

who, by his constant presence in the States,

know

as

much

about them as the Residents themselves and will

thus enable him, or throughsupervision

him

the

G-overnor, to

exercise a

closer

over the affairs of each State.this.

But federation means a great deal more than

If intelligently

brought about with due consideration sheivn for the feelings of theNative Rulers, and p)rudently workedthein

cordial

accord with

all

Residents,

it

would mean that these States united would possess

resources enough to deal with rebellious Malays or turbulent Chinese

without any extraneousissue for all the Statespool;

helj:)

;

it

.should

mean

a

Cli

ivernment

Note

it

would mean that rich States could helptha.t

ones

to

their

mu.tual benefit,

uniformity and continuityin one

of

policy

would he secured, that experience gained

State

Tft

THE FVTUBE.utilized in the others,

would hethodsof

and that laws, regulations, and mehe asfar

administration

would

as

possihle

idi'uticul

throuf^houtto

the federation,

Aor

small State might not have the funds

build a

modern Prisonit

pay the the

salary

of

an English

Judge, but

might

easily share in

these benefits at a comparativelyavailableits

small coat, while every State would feel the effect of the bestabilityaffairs.

and experience brought

to bear

on the administration of

Federation would also mean the consolidation of the Nativi'tlie

States Civil Service andI

general advantage ofit is

its

members.disassociate

have gone lieyond Perak, but

impossible toof this

theits

other States from a right

consideration

question,

and and

determination will give a

surer indication of her future

theirs than the vision of

any latter-day prophet.

,

.

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