aida country report turkey

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  • December 2015

    Edited by:

    Country Report: Turkey

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    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This report was researched and drafted by Oktay Durukan, with contributions from yk Tumer and Veysel Essiz, of Refugee Rights Turkey, and edited by ECRE.

    The information in this report is up-to-date as of 15 December 2015.

    The AIDA project The AIDA project is jointly coordinated by the European Council on Refugees and Exiles (ECRE), Forum Rfugis-Cosi, Irish Refugee Council and the Hungarian Helsinki Committee. It aims to provide up-to date information on asylum practice in 16 EU Member States (AT, BE, BG, CY, CR, DE, FR, GR, HU, IE, IT, MT, NL, PL, SE, UK) and 2 non-EU counties (Switzerland, Turkey) which is easily accessible to the media, researchers, advocates, legal practitioners and the general public through the dedicated website www.asylumineurope.org. Furthermore the project seeks to promote the implementation and transposition of EU asylum legislation reflecting the highest possible standards of protection in line with international refugee and human rights law and based on best practice.

    This report is part of the second phase of the AIDA project (Asylum Information Database) funded by the European Programme for Integration and Migration (EPIM) and the Adessium Foundation.

    http://www.asylumineurope.org/

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Glossary & List of Abbreviations ......................................................................................... 6

    Statistics ................................................................................................................................ 7

    Overview of the legal framework ........................................................................................ 11

    Overview of main changes since the first report .............................................................. 14

    Introduction to the Asylum Context in Turkey .................................................................. 15

    Asylum Procedure ............................................................................................................... 25

    A. General ....................................................................................................................................... 25

    1. Flow chart ............................................................................................................................... 25

    2. Types of procedures ............................................................................................................... 27

    3. List the authorities that intervene in each stage of the procedure .......................................... 27

    4. Number of staff and nature of the first instance authority....................................................... 27

    5. Short overview of the asylum procedure ................................................................................ 28

    B. Procedures ................................................................................................................................ 29

    1. Registration of the asylum application .................................................................................... 29

    2. Regular procedure .................................................................................................................. 33

    3. Dublin ...................................................................................................................................... 44

    4. Admissibility procedure ........................................................................................................... 45

    5. Border procedure (border and transit zones) ......................................................................... 49

    6. Accelerated procedure............................................................................................................ 53

    C. Information for asylum seekers and access to NGOs and UNHCR ..................................... 56

    D. Subsequent applications ......................................................................................................... 58

    E. Guarantees for vulnerable groups of asylum seekers (children, traumatised persons,

    survivors of torture) .......................................................................................................................... 60

    1. Special procedural guarantees ............................................................................................... 60

    2. Use of medical reports ............................................................................................................ 60

    3. Age assessment and legal representation of unaccompanied children ................................. 62

    F. The safe country concepts ...................................................................................................... 64

    G. Treatment of specific nationalities .......................................................................................... 66

    Reception Conditions .......................................................................................................... 70

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    A. Access and forms of reception conditions ............................................................................ 70

    1. Criteria and restrictions to access reception conditions ......................................................... 70

    2. Forms and levels of material reception conditions ................................................................. 72

    3. Types of accommodation........................................................................................................ 75

    4. Conditions in reception facilities ............................................................................................. 77

    5. Reduction or withdrawal of reception conditions .................................................................... 78

    6. Access to reception centres by third parties ........................................................................... 79

    7. Addressing special reception needs of vulnerable persons ................................................... 80

    8. Provision of information .......................................................................................................... 81

    9. Freedom of movement ............................................................................................................ 81

    B. Employment and education ..................................................................................................... 83

    1. Access to the labour market ................................................................................................... 83

    2. Access to education ................................................................................................................ 85

    C. Health care ................................................................................................................................. 86

    Detention of Asylum Seekers ............................................................................................. 90

    A. General overview ...................................................................................................................... 90

    B. Legal framework of detention .................................................................................................. 92

    1. Grounds for detention ............................................................................................................. 92

    2. Alternatives to detention ......................................................................................................... 94

    3. Detention of vulnerable applicants ......................................................................................... 94

    4. Duration of detention .............................................................................................................. 95

    C. Detention conditions ................................................................................................................ 95

    1. Place of detention ................................................................................................................... 95

    2. Conditions in detention facilities ............................................................................................. 98

    D. Procedural safeguards ........................................................................................................... 100

    1. Judicial review of the detention order ................................................................................... 100

    2. Legal assistance for review of detention .............................................................................. 101

    Temporary Protection Regime .......................................................................................... 104

    A. Introduction: Turkeys temporary protection regime for refugees from Syria ................. 104

    1. 2011-2014: Temporary protection based on political discretion and improvisation ............. 104

    2. The Temporary Protection Regulation of 22 October 2014 .................................................. 106

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    B. Legal framework and practice provided by the Temporary Protection Regulation ......... 107

    1. Scope and legal basis ........................................................................................................... 107

    2. Procedure for the declaration and termination of temporary protection ......