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Page 1: Johnson Controls

Hot Water Solutions Hot Water Solutions by Johnson Controlsby Johnson Controls

Page 2: Johnson Controls

AgendaAgenda

Heat Pump Solutions What is a heat pump? Control & Sizing Application Benefits

Heat Recovery Solutions What is heat recovery? Control & Sizing Application Benefits

Application Considerations JCI Chiller Solutions End Note

2

Page 3: Johnson Controls

Options for improving building efficiencyOptions for improving building efficiency

3

Heat Pump

Specifically designed to provide 100% of heat as hot water Typically 120-180oF (49-82oC)

Control:Compressor capacity is controlled by Leaving

Condenser Water set point

Intent:

Compound Centrifugal (CYK) Chiller

600-2800 Tons(2115-9850 kW)

Heat Recovery

Double Bundle YORK Heat Recovery Chiller

250-2800 Tons (880-9850 kW)

Designed to chill water and provide a percentage of heat as warm water Typically 95-105oF (35-40.5oC)

Control:Compressor capacity is controlled by Leaving

Chilled Water set point

Intent:

Page 4: Johnson Controls

4

Heat Pump Systems

Page 5: Johnson Controls

What is a Heat Pump?What is a Heat Pump?

5

ASHRAE Handbook (2008):

“A Heat Pump extracts heat from a source and transfers it to a sink at a higher temperature”

“In engineering, however, the term Heat Pump is generally reserved for equipment that heats for beneficial purposes, rather than that which removes heat for cooling only”

System Designs:Air-Source Ground-Source Water-Source

YORK Affinity Series

YORK Geysir Series

YORK Screw Chiller (YS)

Page 6: Johnson Controls

What is a Heat Pump? What is a Heat Pump? –– Chiller VaporChiller Vapor--Compression CycleCompression Cycle

6

MotorMotor

Input work

Chiller:Useful work

44F 95F(6.7C) (35C)

EvaporatorEvaporator Heat Pump CondenserHeat Pump Condenser

CompComp

Page 7: Johnson Controls

What is a Heat Pump?What is a Heat Pump? –– Refrigerant PRefrigerant P--H DiagramH Diagram

7

Pres

sure

Energy / Enthalpy

Liquid

Line

Vapo

r Lin

e

Evaporator

Input

Cooling

Heat Rejected

1.25 X Evaporator Heat

110F(43.3C)96F(35.6C)

Page 8: Johnson Controls

8

Typical Arrangement: “Side-car”

130°F Hot water loop

Chilled water loop

150°F

42°F

Heat PumpHeat Pump

58°F 42°F50°F

150°FBoilerBoiler(54.4°C) (65.6°C)

(65.6°C)

(14.4°C)

(5.6°C)

(10°C) (5.6°C)

Heat Pump Control & SizingHeat Pump Control & Sizing

CH1CH1

CH2CH2

CH3CH3

CHnCHn

Page 9: Johnson Controls

Heat Pump BenefitsHeat Pump Benefits

Compliance with Industry Standards & Programs LEED ASHRAE 90.1 (simultaneous heating & cooling)

9

Why use heat pumps?

Social / Environmental Advantages CO2 reductions Reduced water consumption

Economic Advantages Operational savings

Let’s take a closer look at each benefit…

Page 10: Johnson Controls

Heat Pump BenefitsHeat Pump Benefits

10

Economic Advantages Operational Savings

Economic Advantages Operational Savings

1 unit

0.35 unit

Heating COP = 1.35 / 0.35 = 3.8Combined COP = 2.35 / 0.35 = 6.7

Comp

Input work

Useful cooling1.35 unit

Useful Heating

Cooling COP = 1.00 / 0.35 = 2.9

150°F42°F(65.6°C)(5.6°C)

MotorMotor

EvaporatorEvaporator Heat Pump CondenserHeat Pump Condenser

CompComp

Page 11: Johnson Controls

Cost to produce 10,000 kcal• Natural Gas Water Heater

– 10,000 kcal / 90% efficiency / 8,500 kcal/SCM x Rs.20/SCM = Rs.26.14

• Fuel Oil Water Heater– 10,000 kcal / 90% efficiency / 9,000 kcal/ltr x Rs.35/ltr = Rs.43.20

• Electric Water Heater– 10,000 kcal / 95% efficiency / 860 kcal/hr/kW x Rs.6.00/kW.hr = Rs.73.44

• Heat Pump– 10,000 kcal / 380% efficiency / 860 kcal/hr/kW x Rs.6.00/kW.hr = Rs.18.35– 10,000 kcal / 670% efficiency / 860 kcal/hr/kW x Rs.6.00/kW.hr = Rs.10.41

COPh = 3.8 (no cooling credit)

COPc+h = 6.7 (with cooling credit)

Electric Rs.6.00/kW.hrGas Rs.20/SCM

Page 12: Johnson Controls

Heat Pump BenefitsHeat Pump Benefits

12

Social / Environmental Advantages CO2 reductions Reduced water consumption

Social / Environmental Advantages CO2 reductions Reduced water consumption

Natural Gas Boiler(85% efficient)

Heat Pump

A 600 Ton Heat Pump, at a 65% average load, would offset approximately 55,000 MMBTU and would save 1467 Tons of CO2 annually compared to a natural gas boiler.

This is equivalent of removing 244 cars from the road!

13.0 lbs of CO2 per 100,000 BTU

7.7 lbs of CO2 per 100,000 BTU

Page 13: Johnson Controls

Heat Pump BenefitsHeat Pump Benefits

13

How much water do we save by not sending it to the cooling tower?

Assuming: Cooling tower consumption per evaporation rate of 1% & blow-down of 0.3% (4 cycles of concentration)3 gpm/ton (0.054 L/s) condenser water flow

Ex: 600 Ton (2110 kW) Heat Pump, with a 65% utilization factor:

Water savings would be 22,500 gallons (85,171 L) per DAY!

Social / Environmental Advantages CO2 reductions Reduced water consumption

Social / Environmental Advantages CO2 reductions Reduced water consumption

Page 14: Johnson Controls

14

Heat Recovery Systems

Page 15: Johnson Controls

What is Heat Recovery?What is Heat Recovery?

15

ASHRAE Handbook (2008): “In many large buildings, internal heat gains require year-round chiller

operation. The chiller condenser water heat is often wasted through a cooling tower”

“[Heat recovery] uses otherwise wasted heat to provide heat at the higher temperatures required for space heating, reheat, and domestic water heating”

YORK Double Bundle Heat Recovery Chiller

Water-SourceSystem Designs:

Air-Source

Outside Air

Supply Air

Exhaust Air

Return Air

Page 16: Johnson Controls

What is Heat Recovery?What is Heat Recovery?

CompressorMotor

Evaporator

Condenser

Expansion Device

Cooling Tower

Adding Energy(Electricity)

Heat Recovery

105 ºF(40.5 ºC)

95 ºF(35 ºC)

54 ºF(12.2 ºC)

44 ºF(6.7 ºC)

105 ºF(40.5 ºC)

95 ºF(35 ºC)

16

Page 17: Johnson Controls

What is Heat Recovery?What is Heat Recovery?

17

The cooling load controls the system and the Hot Water temperature is variable.

Heat Recovery

Water Tank

Pre-heat domestic water

storage tank

Supplemental heating (boiler) may be needed to achieve full heat

load

Supplemental heating (boiler) may be needed to achieve full heat

load

YORK Double Bundle Heat Recovery Chiller

Page 18: Johnson Controls

18

YORK YORK Heat PumpHeat Pump SolutionsSolutions

YS Screw Heat Pump

Evap Tons 100-330 Tons(350-1160 kW)

Max leaving hot water = 140oF (60oC)

Max Lift = 100oF (37.8oC)

Max heat per unit = 5,300 MBH (1,560 kW)

Simultaneous heating & cooling

Single screw compressor package

Experience InnovationSustainable Solutions

Customer Commitment

Page 19: Johnson Controls

19

YORK YORK Heat RecoveryHeat Recovery SolutionsSolutions

YK Centrifugal Heat Recovery

Max leaving hot water = 110oF (43.3oC)

Max Lift = 65oF (18.3oC)

Max heat per unit = 40,000 MBH

(11,725 kW)

Simultaneously Cooling & Heating

Single centrifugal compressor package

Experience InnovationSustainable Solutions

Customer Commitment

Evap Tons 280-2800 Tons(985-9850 kW)

Page 20: Johnson Controls

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Reduce your energy costs today!

With our extensive track record of success, Johnson Controls is well matched to meet your hot water needs by delivering flexible, innovative, and sustainable

equipment for efficient and long lasting operation.