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  • Lincolns Plans for ReconstructionPardon Confederate officialsForm new governments Send southern representatives to CongressFreedmens Bureau created to assist former slaves

  • Presidential ReconstructionPresident Andrew Johnsons Plan: (based on Lincolns) Ratify 13th AmendmentAccept supreme power of U.S. governmentAmnesty (forgiveness) to southernersReturn property Each state had to write a new constitution: declare secession illegal & abolish slavery

  • Congressional ReactionRadical Republicans:Nickname for party members leading CongressBelieved the federal govt should play an active role in remaking SouthGoals: Destroy Souths old ruling classMake it a place of small farms, free schools, respect for labor, & political equality for all

    Black codes laws passed in the South to limit the freedom of former slaves Northerners suspected Southerners were trying to bring back the Old South (slavery)

  • Congressional Legislation13th AmendmentAbolished slaveryCivil Rights Act of 1866 All persons born in the U.S. are citizens All citizens are entitled to equal rights14th Amendment All born in the U.S. are citizens All citizens granted equal protection of the law

  • Congressional LegislationReconstruction Acts South=5 military districts Voting for all adult males Ratify 14th Amendment

    15th Amendment Cannot deny a person right to vote on race, color, or previous condition of servitude

  • 187018681868187018681868187018681868187018661870Date readmitted to the UnionBoundary of military district

  • Presidential ImpeachmentJohnson tried to block Congressional Reconstruction

    Congress passed Tenure of Office Act President cannot fire govt. employees without permissionJohnson suspended Sec. of War & tried to hire a new one

    House of Representatives impeached the President for wrongdoing against public office Avoided removal in the Senate by one vote

  • African Americans in CongressDuring Reconstruction, more than 600 African American served in state legislatures 14 U.S. Congressman from Southern states

    Hiram Revels-1st African American to serve as a senator During the war he was a minister in a church & recruited blacks to fight for the Union From left to right: Senator Hiram R. Revels and Representatives Benjamin S. Turner, Robert D. De Large, Josiah T. Walls, Jefferson H. Long, Joseph H. Rainey, and Robert Brown Elliot.

  • Contract System of LaborFormer slaves worked on plantations as paid workers with contracts

    Pros Chose who to work forFamilies could not be split up

    Cons Wages were poor Workers cheatedPunished for breaking contracts

  • Sharecropping Most Americans (mostly freed people) could not afford land

    Tenant farmingRent land to grow crops

    SharecropperWorker who rents land from the land owner Pays for seeds/supplies with profits from sales Sharecropper cycleForced to grow cash crops & buy food on credit When crops were sold profit didnt pay debt, so debt carried over to the next year

  • Fighting ReconstructionGroups like the White League and Ku Klux Klan Secret southern group that did not want African Americans to have rights

    Their objective was to restore Democratic control & keep African Americans powerless

    Attacked African-Americans targeting those that owned land or were prosperous Beat people, burned homes, lynched people

  • The New-Old South"About 500,000 freedmen voted in the South during the 1868 electionMost freedmen supported Grant

    Women were angered by the 15th Amendment Uneducated former slaves received the right to vote, but educated white women did notImposed poll taxes & literacy tests to restrict African Americans from voting

    Grant urged Congress to pass an anti-Klan bill to stop the terrorizing of African-AmericansBill led to a more fair election in 1872

  • Grant's Bad DecisionsScandals within Grants administration hurt the Republican Party

    Grant put unqualified army friends & his wifes relatives in government positions

    Panic of 1873Many powerful Eastern banks made bad loans, ran out of money, & shut downStock market temporarily closed & RR industry suffered

  • Impact of the Panic of 1873More than 18,000 companies shut down & thousands lost jobs

    Republicans lost power due to public blame

    Democrats won victories in 1874 & tried to restore the old south

    Rutherford B. Hayes wins Election of 1876Republicans & Democrats claimed victory in 3 southern statesCompromise of 1877-solved the election & gave concessions to both sides in the SouthRun on the bank (1873)

  • Opening the Great PlainsThe frontier was the sparsely populated area on the western side of the nation

    The Great Plains was area stretched from the Missouri River to the Rocky Mountains

    Transcontinental RR carried resources of the west to markets in the East & brought miners, ranchers and farmers west to develop the western resources further

    The U.S. government forced the Native Americans on the Great Plains onto Reservations

  • Growth & Expansion

    Homestead Act Government encouraged western settlement 160 acres of free land to anyone who agreed to live on the land for 5 years & improve itMorrill Act Federal land to fund public colleges that taught agriculture & mechanical arts

    Dawes Act Encourage Native Americans to give up their traditional cultures and become farmersSent children to schools to be Americanized

  • Post Reconstruction SouthRestrict the rights of African Americans when they passed laws restricting their freedomsLiteracy tests & poll taxes Prevent blacks from voting

    Jim Crow laws forced separation of white & black people in public places Segregation through separate schools, restrooms, & seating

    Court case upheld these laws by declaring them separate but equal & not a violation of the 14th Amendment

    Cartoon print shows Vice President Andrew Johnson sitting atop a globe, attempting to stitch together the map of the United States with needle and thread. Abraham Lincoln stands, right, using a split rail to position the globe. Johnson warns, "Take it quietly Uncle Abe and I will draw it closer than ever." While Lincoln commends him, "A few more stitches Andy and the good old Union will be mended." Poster of Seymour, a southern Democratic candidate, and how the KKK is nothing more than a Confederate wanting what they had pre-Reconstruction.Cartoon poking fun at Ulysses S. Grant's corrupt administration. Grant is portrayed as an acrobat held aloft by the "Whiskey Ring" and Navy Ring" while carrying his cronies with a strap marked "corruption." Appeared in Puck magazine, 1880, artist: Joseph Ferdinand Keppler