pcs darkroom formulary

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F OR MUL ARY Photo Chemicall Supplies

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Page 1: PCS Darkroom Formulary

THE PCS DARKROOM FORMULARY

Photo Chemicall Supplies

CON TEN l S

INTRODUCTION US INC TilE FORJ-IULAE BIACK AND WIIlTE FILM PROCESSING 4

Composition of Negative Developers 4 Black and White Developermiddot Formulae 6

1 General purpose Jeveloper~ 6 2 Fine grmiddotain developers 7 ) Super fine grain developers 7 4 Acutance (High Definition) developers 9 5 Speed increasing developer for push-processing 9 6 High Contrast (lith) developers 10 7 Honobaths 11

Ektachrome E-6 process 2) Processing colour negative films (plus XP-l snd

APPENDIX) Anhydrous and Hydrated forms of Salts )1

APPENDIX 6 References and Further Reading ]) Acknowledgements )4

Stop Baths 11 Fixers 12 Reversal Processing of B amp W film 13

MODIFYING THE PROCESSED NEGATIVE 14 Inten~ification 14 Reduction 15

B amp W PRINT PROCESSES 16 Print developers 16 Stop baths 17 Print fixers 17 Wash aids for paper prints 17 Hypo el imina tor II Print toning 17 Print reducers 19

COLOUR PROCESSING 20 Processing colour reversal films (for colour slides) 20

Agfachrome 41 process 21

Vario XL B amp W films) 25 Agfacolor N process 25 Flexicolor C-41 process 27

APPENDIX 1 Chemical Names and Synonyms 29 APPENDIX 2 Colour Developing Agents 30

APPENDIX 4 Sodium versus Potassium Salts 32 APPENDIX 5 Weights and Heasures 32

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Introduction Why~ Brew it yourse

Photgropilers have alway liked to mlke up their own processing solutions Originally there were few prepack(~d mixturEs avaiLlble and the photographer had little choice but to oake up his own The raw chemicals w( reeasily avlilable and the formulae were idely pubtished L1ter hen th e fil mamfactuulS begtln marketing their Omiddot1n developErs fixers etc many photoshygraphers continutd to brew their own chiefly because it was so mllch cheaper tharl the pre-packed chemicals Today there has been a resurgence of interest in do-it-yourself processing and I will outline someuro of the [(Isons for this below

ECONOHY The savings to bt made in compounding your own processing solutions arc

considerable especially with the colour procesues In colour processing we arc attempcinr to match the rsutts obtained from the manufacturers O chelical s rather than trying to create specia effects of our own Economy is thlls the main rea sun for making up our own colour chemicals An ilurtunt extension of this is that nltlny of the solutions (such as tlevelopers) which det()riolmiddotte through atmospheric oxidatioll cltn be made lP in toO or more parts Jhich scpar~ILely will k ee p for very long periods These lHay simply bE mixed in the quantity required illll iled-iately before use thus elimi nating middotoste The econ b r1Lc adv o nt~ge s of comshypounding standard black and wllitt chclicals should not 012 ovCrlook c tl either For exarllplc the cost of the actual chemicals required to ll13ke up 1 high aClltance negative developer which will yield three litres o[ working strength developer i s less than 5 pence The equivalent commercial pack costs aroulld (100

FL EXIBILITY Most formulations of processing solutions within each group usc basically

the same chemicals in varying proportions Consequently with a 51111 stock of chemicals it is possible to make up a wide variety of developers soy each i t h B different (unctio Is ltin e Xlll1lpl Y Oll migIt not ish to 1T) 0 5 li rr k it of Lith developers just f or one or Lo films but thl de vci oper Call be 1 s i ly and cheaply made up in any quantity from standard cheillicals

CREATIVITY There are many formulae available for creating special effects ltIt (very

st3ge in black and white processing The re are special developers tJlt give h igh contrast low contrast high acu t allce fine grain COlrse prJin etc There are chemicals to modify the negative after development such os redu c tion and intensification which can be used to maintain reduce or increosc the contrast in the developed image Reversal processing of block and white film can yield very ple~sing transparencies with a tonol gradation not pussible in prints

The developed black and wllite print can also be modified tucreate special effects These may include local reduction chromogenic redevelopment sepia toning metallic toning dye toning anti archival processing

Using the Formulae Ch~micals

It is important to use chemicals that conform to the standards specified [or

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I

photographic chemicals These standnrds $pecify m1ximum limits for impurities that are important photogrnphicaUy as wet as a minimum assay All chemicills supplied by Photo ChemiCill Supplies conform to the appropriate British Standards or where there is none to the American Standards specifications

Sltfety ---Although the n1lt1jority of chemicals used in photographic procesling are

completely harmless in notnla use there arc a few which present special hnzards Some of the developing i1gents especially metol and the colour developer

derivatives of p-phenylencdiaminc can cause a form of dermatitis as the ski n becomes sens itised hy repented exposure With modern colour print processing drums and daylight tanks for films it is not necessary to come into contac t gt4 i th processing solutions Corrosive substances cove r both acids and strong al k a l is Avoi d ing direct skin contact is simplest Dod safest but should spillage occ~r flush wi th clean water

~hen dilute sulphuric acid is relt]uired for use remember that concentra ted sulph u ric acid reacts violenty to water and the acid sh ould be add ro d drop by drop nt first to the water Never add water to the acid as this causes vio ~ ent

bumpin g and s p itting It is best to bu) mineral acids as 10 vv solutio-L as these 3 r~ safe to handle and you simply us e 10 times the volume specified for the conce ntrated acid

Norm1l laboratory hygiene sho uld be observed that is immediately wipe up any spillages of powd e rs or liquids and keep the working area clear All bo t tles of mlt1d e up 50 lution R sho uld be cle lrly labelled with the contents and proc o_ alll] s h ou ld

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Cleanliness A clear uncluttered working environment is essential in the successful

compounding of solutions Mixing vessels and utensils should be of glass or plastic and should be easy to clean Certain typeg of contamination arc more serious than others such as contamination of developers hy chemicals used as fixers Some c ompounds should not be used in the darkroom at all (such as the sul~lides and thiourea which are powerful foggants used in sepia toning) and should not be s tored near sensitised materials

Ie ilhing Out Not ~ll chemicals require the same degree of accuracy in weighJng out but

for consistency and reproducibility the Ieighing should be as accurate as pos s ible A balance snch as that sold hy Photo Chemical Supplies is ideal as it offers accuracy down to OOlg at a ver) reasonable price Some chemicals sllch )s Phenidone (a developer) which are required in small accurately measured quantities yet which would deteriorate in solution can be weighfd out directly into small vial~ in the nlt]uired quantities The outer plastic con Iiners for 35mm film cassettes are useful for this as moH types are airtight

U$ ing St o ck Sullltiol1s It i D s ometimES easier to store chemicals as stock solutions of known

concentrIlion which can then he dispensed by volume rather than by weighing The mlln tlisadvantnge is that most chemica19 in solution deteriorate with time and they do this at different rates Some chemicals are best stored as stock

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solutions such as the mineral acids mentioned earlier souium thiocYlOate which is very deliquescent (keeps best as a 20 solution) and potassium iodide which is only used in very small quantities as a restrainer and is most conveniently kept as a OlZ solution (lglitre)

It is a simple matter to calculate the quantity of a concentrated stock solution required to make up any desired volume of more dilute working solttion The fo11omiddoting formula

C-req x V-final V-reqC-stock

IOhere C-req the desired concentration (r)

C-stock the concentration oE stock solution (Z) V- final the final total volume desired V-req the volume of concentrated stock required

gives the volume of concentrated stock solution required (V-req) for diluting up to the final volume desired (V-final) to yield a solution of the required concentration (C-req)

QLlltlity 0 Water Water is the main ingredient in all photog r aphic processing solutions anu

it is probably the most variable component The only solutions in which water qua lity need be t~ken into account are the develupers for Eilus anu in the final B h for films

Very soEt water can cause swelling of the film emulsion tlsunlly wh(gtn used a~ a wash in high temperature colour process es such as C-41 nnu E-6 at JSuCIOOoF In f act in areas with very soft IOGter it is advisllble to nn ific Lnlly hltlnl en ti~ water u~ed in the was h cycles of colour processes by arldini sal ts such IS 1lJg esiwTi or sodium s ul phate (ordinary Eps(rn salts or Glau he r s s il lts) It 1

r a t e or approximately 20g per litre Very hard water is more troublesome It is the lIOluble magnesium and

e ll cium salts which are the main cause of water hardn ess Wh en developers are m de up thes e metals form insol uble salts with some o f th e common i ngredient s o f

e lopers such as 5ulphites carbo12tes phosphates ltlnJ bo r a t e s Til s e i nsoluble pre ci pitates can adhere to the film surface Other nletal ions such as coprer and ir an can Lccelerate the rate of aerial oxidation of uevelopers by acting os catalysts anu in higher concentration can cause sl icltt forcing of the fillft The

e ence oE i ron in the wat er can also cause staining of film and pltlpelmiddots The ~ arest procedure i s t o se di s ti lled or de-iunis ed wate r (suell as

P(r ified Water DP so l a by (l oots) for mak ing up develope rs This is an add itional expense which is not always required especially if sequestering ag nts are used but is particularly rerommended when rnltlking U[) cOllcentrltlt ed s t ock developer solutions which are later diluted for one-shot use This improves the keeping qualities of the concentrate and o rdinary tap ater can be used for the dilution A sequestering agent can be incorporated into either the tltlp wa ter or the concentrate

As hard water dries it leaves a scaly dlposit which can be very difficult to er v~ f rom i lms and it car a ffect the printing quality of ne ga tives A useful pract ice i to use one or t-o changes of a small quantity of distilled wate r to hic h a drop or two of wetting agent may be adued as the final ash

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BampW Film Processing

S_Oill2QlITIOJLQLJ3LACJL~1lD WHITE NEGATIVE DEVELOPERS

Deve lopers generally h1ve the following components

a) Developing agent(s) b) PrcRerv~tive

c) Alkali d) Restrainer

There may be other additions such as sequestering agents organic antifoggants and wetting agents

The Developing Agents The most commonly used developing agents are ~etol hydroquinone and Pheridone

There are many compounds which act as developers but most are now only of histoicaL interest as various combinations of the above three compounds can create almost any type of developer There are a [ew developing agentS in commercial usc which have special properties such as grc)t solubility which permits the formulation of highly concentrated developers These developing agents are of little interest to the 1I111teur who makes up his own developers and certainly oEfer no advantages Tl ~

[orl1lulae in tllis booklet are mainly tho~e using metol hydroquinone and Phenidona fetol and Phenidone have similar properties in that they are fast working

developers yielding 1010 contrast images lIydroquinone is a slow contrasty developer TIley arc seldom used a ione however but as metolhydroquinone (MQ) or Phenidone hycicoquinone (PQ) combinations Tllese mixtures show superadditivity that i the activity of the mixture is greater than the sum of the activities of the developers when lIsed separately lIytlroquinone is used on its own in high contrast developers where its action is Jccelerated by the use of caustic alkalis (eg sooium hydroxide) TIle properties of a developer are determined by its overall composition rather than by the choice of develoring Jgent alone Most developing agents including the three mentioned Jbove arc only active in alkaline sollJtions The pH and the nature oE the alkali are of prime importltJtlce in determining the properties of the working developer

The Preservltive The function of the preservative is co protect the developer from aerial

oxidation Tile compound almost univerRally used is sodium sulphite although potassium sulphite and the corresponding metabisulphites may also be used The sJlphite has other [Inctions in the developer and an importRnt one of these is its action as a silver halide solvent Thi6 effect is made use of in fine-grain developers where the sulphite reduces the actual grJin size by dissolving some of the silver halide A concentration of Jround IOOglitre is required for this to be significant

In some colour developers where the sulphite concentration is J1W other antioxidJnts SUCII as hydroxylamine are used as preservatives

The Alkali ---- The a 1ka 1i is somet imes re [erred to as th~ acce lera tor because mos t deve lopers arc only efficient in alk1line solutions The three commonly used types of alkali arc a) tile c1uHtic alkalis (sodium and potassium hydroxide) b) the carbonates Bnd c) the mild alknlis and alkaline buffers

The callstic alkalis give rise to high eneq~y developers usually with poor keeping qualicies The carbonates are less aggressive in their nction and are very

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widely us(d The mild alkalis such as bor-ax (sodium tetraborate) Kod1lk (sodium P1o t aborate) (lnu the alkaline buffer mixtures are extensively used in mooern fineshygr ain developers

The Restrainer The most commonly used restrainer is potassiulII bromide Tile effect of uromicle

is to reuuce fog formation (the development of unexposed parts of the emulsion) and to slow down the rnte of development Potassium iodioe has a similar nction but much lower concentrations must be used (approximately one thousandth of the quantity Df bromide) Too much restrainer results in a lowering of the image contrast 3nd should be avoided

Other Conponents Sequestering agents are added to developers tu overcome problems caused by

impurltles in the water used to make up developers (sec page 3) The mos t commonly used compounds are the cmnplex phosphates notably sodiulll hexa me tnphosphate (Calgon) and ethylenedinninetetraacetic acid (E DTA) nnd its derivatives Calgon is ellenp and very effective at sequcstel ing calcium ano magne s ium ions The disadvantages are firstly that it is not very effective ltlgaillst other mct~1l ions and secondly the complex phosphates break down in alkaline solutions so are nsuitabll for use in concentrated stock developers The di s advantJges of EDTA a nd related compounds are firstly cost Jnd secondly they can accelerate ltleri u l ox i dation of the developer in certain circu~st ances

Some developers require aoditional restr(Jiners in the form of organic anti shypoundaggants This is partic ul a rl y true of Phenid one 1nd its derivative s ltlnd some ~o l o ur deve l opers The mo s t common l y used is benzotriazole but 6-nitroben zimishydazole which is about 100 times more potent is also encountered

Host modern develop2cs contain a wetting agent to en s ure the event wetti[~ ) f the film and the el imination of air bubbles The ltlmount used sltoulo not e xceed

Iproximaeiy 0 5g per Litre othelwise fODming Iwy Cltlus e p r oblems

~~k l ng up Solutions The chemicals should be dissolved in about two thirds of the fillal volume

of wat e r sh loin IN TilE ORDER IN WHICH THEY APPEAR IN TilE FORNULA a nd then the snl ution made up to the f i nal volume with water It is i mpo rtUlt that eAch c it mi cal add ed is completely di ssolved before the neKt is introduccd

Hixing vessels and ut ensi l s sho uld be of glass or plastic nd shoulo be tEZ erved for photographic use I-lhen mAking up a series of so lutions fo1 Any pit t i c ulltl r process it is good practice to make lip the soluti olls in the O[oer in lch t hey lITe to be us ad a s t his eu ces tit e ffects of cl ( rY-O Vl r contlIl1ination

Host ch emic als di ssolve more readily in warm Wltl[ e r but this s hou ld never eyce ecl SOoC (120

0 F) The s olu t i on can then be made up to final volume with

(o ld water I t is a useful prac t ice t o mltlke up developers as concentrated stock solutions

These ha ve be t ter ke ep ing qUltllit i es and are easier to s tore A typical developer would hav t he developing agent(s) and sulphite in one solutiun And the ltllkali restraine-s etc in the other Since sodium sulphite is distinctlYltllkalinc in solution the aerial o)(idation of the developing agents Ciln be further inhibited by substi t uting s odium metnbisulphite [or all or part of the sodi um sulphite The met a bsu l phi t e ha a greo1t solubil i ty t han su lphite is In c lficicnt presershyilt ive and is acid in reltlctiou so thJt the developerr are complet c ly inhibited

Of course the alkali content of the other solution must be incre1Scd pr oportionltJtely

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111 order to make the working developer alkAline

BLlCK AND llHITE DEVELOPER FORMULAE

In all the formulae in this booklet the quant1t1es are given in grams g ~ for solids and millilitres (ml) for liquids Development times are approximate bLC it is R simple matter to determine experimentally the development times which sui your particular film stock and which yield the contrast and density tau desi r t- o

The chromoGcnic black llId white films XP-l (llfard) and Vario XI(igfa) have been desirned for the Flexicolor C-41 process (see page 2n 1 Gene ral rurpose Developers

These Jeve(opel ~ Crable 1) do not use the silver halide solvent effect a nd s o are not true fine-grain developers However modern films have such inherently fine rrain that true fine grain developers are less important today than they were a fel years ago

Tnble 1 CellP-ral Purpose Devel opers

No 1 No2 No 3 No4 No 5 So ft Normal Normal Contrast Contr ~lQ NQ PQ ~IQ PQ (DI65) (D61a) (ID62 ) (ID2) (IDn)

~Ie t o 1 6 3 2

Sodl m s ulphit e anh yd 25 90 50 75 7

lI yJ r0111 i n__middot _e _ _ _ b 12 8 v__8_Jn ____________________~~~~ ________~

Sodium cnrbonate anh yd 37 11 60 375 48

Phenid onc 05 C 22 ~~------------------------------------~~~~------------~=

rotnssium bromi de 2 2 2 ~--------------~--------~----~~------~---------

Iknzotri azo le 1 20 10

SodiJJm metabi sulphite 2

Wa ter to 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

Dilution 1+3 l middotq 1+3 1+2 None (5tock + Iater) 1+3 1+7 1+5

Approximate development 10 6-7 3-4 5 5 time at 20deg C 12-14 6-7 9

----------------------------------------------------------~---------------

The soft working developer (No1) is useful for ~ubjects with an extended brightness range recorded on slow contrllsty film such as Pan F The ilormlt11 contrast developers (Nos 2 1nd 3) nre eminently practical developers ~ith wide application especially f Or rol1filO1 sheetfilm and plates Formulae 105 4 and 5 are contrasty developers suitnb1e for ordinary films and pllltes 111d can be us ed wiLhout dilution (or lille films such as pes Ortholith 35mm lith film When uld U1Hlilllted No ( is very similar to D19b and IDl9 X-ray film developers

Cal~oll m1Y be IISpJ ill these formulte and should be added before all other ingredieut~ Use up to 3glitre in hard water areas

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2 Fine Gr~in Developers TI(se we ll established fine grain developers (sec Table 2) are particularly

suitnble for miniature films (J5mm or sm31Ier)

1Llble 2 Fine Grain DevelopE

No 6 Fine Grain MQ D76

No 7 Fine Grain D76d

MQ No 8 Fine Grain PQ

Hetol 2 2

Sodium sulphite anhyd 100 100 100

Hyci r-oqui none 5 5 5

Borax 2 8 3

BorIc acid 8 35

Potas sium bromide

Phenldone 02

Hat~r to 1000 1000 1000

Approximate development time 6-10 12-15 10

Formula No6 represents the standard develope r against hiell all otlle r developers are judged Formula No7 is a buffered version o f No6 and yields morc consistent results but since the pH is slightly 10e1 th e developnie nt time s will be longe r Formula No 8 is a PQ developer with characteristics simillr to No7

All the above formulae can be diluted either 1+1 or 1+3 Lo r olle-shet prCccSStng yielding enhlllced acutancc but developmcnt tillllS should be approxshyimately doubled (1+1) or trebled (1+3)

3 Super Fine Grain Developers

These developers (see table 3) usc colour developing agents which are derivatives of -phenylenediallline the classic fine grain developer p-phcnylshyenediallline irself Iws too lIIany unpleasant charct c ristics to be of any use bull nowadays These colour deve lope rs a n~ S low work j ng and rl yc ill aliltI hydcoqu ino ne hav e been included ill formulae 9 and 10 t o nccelcratc developlIIClIt In [annul No II sodium carbolwte is the accelerntor The lulphite cOllcclltrntion is relatively high to make use of the solv(llt effect Sulphite c annot be ulcd in such high concentrntion in colour develolllIClIt of (OIOllf lTIall-inl1l IS iL inhibits the (01 ollr coup I ing rene t ion

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Table 3 Super fine Grain Developers

No 9 No 10 No 11 FocDl fXIO Kod Dk

-shy--_-------------_ Gcnocllrome 20 6

~~lJc in 20

ydroquinolle 6

Nydochrome (CD 3) 5

Sodillm sulphite anhyrl 100 100 30

Sodium carbonate anhyd 30

Borax 20 4

Boric acid 4

lola ter to 1000 1000 1000

Dilution (Stock + 3ter) 1+7 None None

Jppr(l~irnnte development time at 20 C 12-15 8 20

4 tcutallce or IIiIll D(~finiti(1n Developers ----The middot dZutancemiddot dt2vclopecs arc gencrnlly very dilute and require onl y suffic u~nt ngitation to prevent the [ormatLon of streamers The effect of this is twofold Firrtly the developer becomes exhllIsted in areas of heavy exposure yet remains active in the shadow areas This results in good shadow detail (resulting in an incre1se in effective emulsion speed) yet the highlight areas do not become blocked liP This type of cornp~nsRting development yields reduced macro-contrast but the result is not the same ltIS that acheived by ordinary soft-working developers siOlce tl(~ important highlight und shado bull contrast is good and the gradation of the less important ~id-tone9 is compressed The second effect of the high dilutfonl minimum agitation techniqlle is the forl1l3tion of ~Iackie lines which enhlllce apparent imGgc sharpness at the boundaries between lightly and heavily exposed 1re35 This is due to fresh developer on the lightly exposed side of the boundary diffusing across and acceleratill~ deve l opment in the adjacent heavily exposed emulsion Bromide a product of the developm~nt reaction diffuses in the revcrs direction and retilrds development in the lightly exposed en1l1sion adjacent to the boundary The net effect is an incn~ase in the apparent sharpne~s of the boundary

Developers of this type arc not fine grain developers and it is essential that they be used ith slower film8 (bdoN 150 ISI) which have fine grain emulsionr These sloNer films have a thin emulsion and are n3turally contrasty wih good acutillicc 1middotlith the fast films which normally yield a soft grainy neltative the reduction in macro-contrast produces a dull flat image which cannot b improved by printing on hard parer due to the grain In addition the thick emulflion of these [~ut films docs no t lend itself to the development of Mackie lines

Innlula No 12 (nr Table LI) the oriin~l Llclltance fonuJla can be made Jp in two parts the IlIrtol and sulphite in one solution and the carborlJte in the s e cond solution Forll1lae Nos 14 and 15 can be made up as concentrJted stock solucion s and 3f1in t h (o alkali (sonium or potassium carbonate) is kept as a SCp1ilt e solution Wi t h yenormuJ rio 15 the Pinacryptol Yellow solution shoul not be included in the concentrated stock solution but added just before lIe Pinacryptol Yel101Y is l desensicising dye which is decomposed by sulphite When preparing

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f o r mulae Nos 14 alld IS as concentrated stock soluti u llS it is aclvisable tu make up the solutions (except the carbonlt solution) in 10 iS0prufyl a lcohul (1 part isopropyl alcohol + 9 parts ltIter) as this helps d issulve thp Jeve lopin~ agents and improves the keeping q ua lities All these forllluiltl ( give tu one stop increase in effective emulsion speed

Formula 10 14 (FXlh) is a modification of iln)thcr (UrJlluln (FXl) where the sodium sulphite concentrat ion is only 5g per litre instemiddotad o[ lt0amp pe r 1 itrc This low sulphite furmula yields very high definition negatives bJt is more critical as to tKposure Development times are as [ornlula 10 15 (FX2)

Table 4 High Definition (Acutance) DeveL~~

No 12 Nu l) No 14 No 15 Beutler Jindisch HIll FX2

Crawl(l C_~w 1 e j

~ie tu 1 5 05 02gt

0ycin 075 I

Catechol (Pyrocatechin) 125

5(ld i urn sulphi~~ anhyd 25 80 10 35

Sodium carbonitf~ J an1d 25 25

Pot3ssium carbonate 7S

Po tas sium iodide 0001 solll 5

Pynacryptol yellow 12000 solli 3 5

----------- -----------------------------------------------------~----1000 1000 1000 100 0

----~---------------Dilution 1+10 25ml stock Nunc None

+l5ml potshyassium hydroxide 10k water to 10001111

[)c vmiddotd pmcnt t i llle 7 -1 0 15 - 20 8- J0 12- 15 at 20c i

5 Speed increasing developer f or push-processin g Thi s fine-grain IQ developcrrlO(iS) gives Ill incrcase in cillulsion speed of

a bou t one stop in normi1 use but further specd illcrenses can be achieved by cKtCnding the development tillle Jlth film slich IS 1115 this dolgt not lead to excessive contra~t or grain This developer may aiso be used [or dillllC 011(gtshy

shot procesfiing for enhanccd ltIcutance Dt 1+1 and Ii-] d llut lun (wilII cxt e nLilJ dcvclopmcnt tillles) giving a hulf 10 Olll stop incrcase in slwecl lhi developer is ~irnilar in 1 11 respects to 11[onl ltllltroll1

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Formula No 16 Fine grain speed increDsine developer (ID68)

Sodium sulphite a~lyd 850g llydroquinone 50g Borax 70g Boric acid 20g Phenidone 013g Potassium bromide LOg ImiddotJaCer to 1000 ml

Dllution Time (1115)

None 6middotmiddot9 1+1 11-16 1+3 22-30

Usc undiluted for the indiclted time to give the following speed increases on 111[5

800llSA (1 stop) 8-) mins l600ASA (2 stops) ll-12mins 3~00ASA (3 stops) 16-18mins

6 nigh Contrast Developers These developers give high contrast negatives lind are bese used on thin

emulsion high contrast film such as pes Ortholith film obtainable in 35mm cassettes from Photo ClwlllicoJ Supplies The first is the classic Caustic-hydroquinone developer and the s(cond is the s cand a -d Iniectious development low ulphitic developer T1e lotter is more delnonding of accurate exposure and development bUI

yields the highcst possible contrast for col our separation work and ha~f-tone dot screening Lith film may also be successfully developed using formula~ Nos 4 and 5 (undiluted) which hove better keeping qllalities once used but yield a blightly lowe contrast

No 17 CauGtic-llydro1uinone High Concrast Developer

SOLUTION A llydroquinone 25g

Potassium mctabisulphite 258 (or Sodium metabisulphite 2l5b ) PotassiUM bromide 25p (or Sodium bromide 2l5g) -I1ter to 1000ml

SOLUTlOCl B Sodillm hydroxide 36g (or Potassium hydroxide 50g) -IGter to lOOOml

Usc eqllJI P1rts A and Il and develop for 2-4 minutes The quantity of alkllli in Solntion B may be safely halved without loss of contrast but devrlopment time should be extended slihtly The two solutions keep indefinitely separately but ke e ping properties nre limited once mixed Use an acid stop bath before fixing to avoid staining

Nlt) 18 Infectious Lith Developer

SOLUTlON A Sodium sulphite anhyd 1

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Parafonnaldehyde 15 Po tassilil metaLisulphite 5 (or Sodium metabisulp lti t e I Jg) Water to 500ml

SOLUTiON Il Sodium sulphite anhyd 60 Tloric acid 15 Ilydroquinone 45 Potassium bromide J Water tJ 1500ml

------------------~~~ Use 1 part Solution A and 3 parts Solution Baud develop [or 2 minutes (Mix well and allow to stand for a few minutes before illuoersing fil m) The tlltO

solltloIls keep indefinitely separately and also keep quite well once mixed Both these high contrast dev elopers should be rl ixed fresh [ o r each film [or

best rf9ults pes Ortholith film is orthochromatic and developmcnt can be [olloved under a red safelight

7 HOlloba lils --TIse are solutions ill which development 1nd fixation t a ke place in the same bath In addition to the convenience of being single operation othlter advantages arc that the process is not dependent on criticll tilllillgt telllperatu(e o r agitJtion lmage contrast cannot be altered by extending or c u rtailing d(vel o pne nt but is built-into the mOllobath formula This can be set when m-Iking up the 1II01l0bath pri llci pally by varying the amount of fixing agent (sodium thios u llhate) includ e d The more fixing agent added the softer the contrast III addition the a moun t or act ivi ty of the developing agent can infl ue nce the contnlst o[ the (esult ill g ne gative

Tab le 5 Monobath formulae No 19 No 20

Socl i-lm sylphite anhyd 50 50

12 12

4

Sodiuln thiosulphate anhyd 70 (55-90) 60 (15-80)

Sod i lm h ydro ~ide=-____________--_4 10

Wat er to 1000 1000

P r oc ltss i ng time 5 mi ns +- mi n 5 llI ins-

+ mi n

i ll( degree of cont ras t produc ed will VIH y f ro on ~ f i 1m ype t o allo thl tmiddot and the qu antity of thiosulpbate requir ed will have to be determined e xpe(imentally

Ifor y o ur favourite film stock If a higher contrast than that given by using the lowest quantity of thiosulphate is required the hydroquinone concentration can be I increa s e d by about 25-30 Iloth these monobnths can be re-llned for up to ten [ill1ls or until the film is no longer cleared by the fixing agent CInLidenta lly a [ew minutes in a1 ordinary negative fixer will restore the [ilm) Films an plocessed for about 5 minutes (less for slow films) and washed Jnd dri e d nortlllly

pTO _ regJ1sect It is always good practice to use n stop bath betwee n the developing and

fixing baths An acid stop b1th not only halts develolIlllt 1lld millilliis s cont3mishynation o[ the fixer but also removes the scum formed Ly ~olle developer s nnd prevents

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st1ining particularly of lith materials after a hydroquinone-cauntic dcvclopcr

Table 6 Stop bath formulac

No 21 No 22 No 2) No 24 Acid Stop Buffered Stop Hardening Hardening

Sto~ Bath Stor Bath 2

Sodium Acctate )1l20 ))

Acetic acid (glaciat)(mt) 25 10 65

Chromium potassium sulphate 30 15

Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000

A few drops of stop hattgt indicator such as that obtainable from Photo Chemical Supplies lllay be added The indicator ch111ges from pale ycllow to blue 19 soon as the 11 rilles above 70 (neutral) Thc hardening baths (2) and 24) are sed after high temperature development Formulae 21 and 22 are also suitable stop baths for print processing

yrxrms

Fixation 15 necessary to remove the undeveloped silver halide from the ernU L ion lIardening agents may bc added to harden the emulsion Hardening is essential for films which have been reversal processed or processed at high temperatures and for bromide papers that arc going to be hot-glazed Typical fixers are shown in Table 7

Table 7 Fixllg [laths

No 25 No 26 No 27 No 28 Standard Buffered Buffered Buffered Acid Hypo Hardening Rapid Ilarden bullng Fix~r Hypo Fixer 7ixer Rapid Fixer

Sod i urn t h io 11 ]_--ptat-=e2-=anhtyd_ _ ~____-=-___________________160 150

(or Sodium thinsulphate cryst) (50) (240 )

Ammonium thiosulphate 175 200

Sodium sulphite anhyd 15 25 15

Sodium metabisulphite 25

Acetic acid glacial IS 10 15

Bodc acid 75 10 75

Potassium alum 15 15

Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000

All are used undiluted for films but may be diluted 1+1 for papers The buffered flxer~ havf a partiClllnrly long lifc and the buffered non-hardening rapid fixer (No 27) is recommended for plastic-coated papers such 1S 11fospeed

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REVERSlL PROCESSING OF Damp_ W FILM

Ileversl processing of black Ilnd white film yields positive transparencies with Il beautiful tonal gradation As with all reversal processes exposure and first development must be very carefully controlled beciluse density variatiolls cannot be compensated (or in printing The process involves the developmellt of Lile negative image (first developer) dissolving away the s i lvcr thus fOnilPU (bleach bath) clering and re-exposure to white light (reversal exposure) and develorshyment of the silver halide thus re-exposed (second development) The film is then fixed and washed in the normal way I t is the firs t deve lope r wh ich de termincs the quality of the final image It is usual to include a small quantity of silver halide solvent to brighten the highlights and sodiulll thiosullilate or sodiulll thiocyanate are usually used for this The subsequent processes are carried on more or less to completion so timing is not as critical as with the first developer In the fol~owiJlg procedure the first developer is retained antI used again [or the second dev e lopment

Rev r rsal processing solutions

No 29 Reversal developer (stock solution)

Netol 3g Sodium sulphite anhyd SOg lIydroquinone l2g Sodium carbonate anhyd 6()g Potassium bromide 4g Water to lOOOml

Dilution (stock + water) 1+1

To the diluted working strength developer add sodiulll thiosulphate at the following rale (gram~ per litre)

PAN F FP4 llPS Sodium thiosulphate anhyd 5 75 5 (a~ Sodium thiosulphat~

cryst) (8) (12) (8) AlternAtively a print deve l oper such as Dromophen may be used diluted 1+1 ith thiooulpilate dded as above

No 30 Blcach (two part stock solutions) SOLUTI ON A

Potassium permanganate 2g Water to SOOml

SOLUTION B Sulphuric acid 10 vv lOOml Water to SOOml These stock solutions will keep indefinitely but deteriorate rapidly when mixed

For use mix equal parts of A and D and discard after each film Potassium dichromate (lOg) may be used in place of the Potassium permanganate in Solution A

No 31 Clearing Bath

Sodium (or Potassium) metabisulphite 25g Water to 1000ml

Fixer ---The bleaching solution softens the emulsion and a hardening fixer must be used

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The hardening fixers given enrl ier laquo(onnube Nos 26 and 28) are ideal

Procedure 1 First developel 12 mins at 20

0 e for all llford films with an inversion every 15 seconds Keep the developer for use in the second development

2 Wnsh 3 mins with frequent changes 3 llicach 5 mins with strong continuous agitation Roarbull lights may be

switched on after two minutes in the bleach 4 I~n s h 2 mins with frequent chnnges 5 Clear 2 mins in the Clearing bath 6 Iash 2 mins with changes 7 Reversal exposure Re-expose ench cnd of the spiral for 2 mins at 12-18 inches

from a 100 watt bulb This is best done underwater in a clear gls9 bowl standing on a sheet of white paper Rotate the bulb or the spiral during re-exposure to ensure even illumination

8 Second developer Develop for 6-8 mins at 20 0 C in the developer solution retained from the first development Development time is not critical but should go to completion

9 Rin s e 10 Fix Fix in acid htrdening fixer for 10 mins (formula No 2cent ) or

4 mins (formula No 28) It Final 5h Wash for 30 mins and dryas usual

Modifying the Processed Negative Th e silver imJge obtained after development and fixation may be either l r censhy

sified or r educ ed TIlis is to compensate (or errors in exposure or dlvelopment or both

INTE~(UFICTION

The following for muLt has been select e d [rom the many published because i t is simple effective etsily controlled and yields a permanently enhllnced negative The basic chemicals are reasollably safe unlike the mercury and uranium intensifiers

No 32 Chromium Intensifier

STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium dichromate 12 5g lJnter to 200 ml

STOCK SO LUTION II Hydrochloric acid 10 vv (36 ww) 30ml ( o r I1ydrochloric acid 10 1 ww) (L Iml) (or Hydrochloric acid cone) (]ml) WJter to 200ml For use mi~ 1 part Solution A with 3 parts water and add 1 part rolution n

The negative should be properly fixed and well washed Old negatives should be sO kcd in water for a few minutes The negative is immersed in the intensifier [or 2-3 minutes until the image is (ully bleached (it turns a yellowy-brown colour) It is then washed well until the yellow stain is removed The intensified image is then re-developed after exposure to daylight (or a light bulb 1 minute each side at 18 inches) in l nOli-solvent type developer This may be a print developer or general purpose necative developer such as formtJl No3 or any universal j developer An advantage of thi s intensifier is that the whole proces8 may be repe a ted several times with an increase in intensification each time as the image

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is built up

~EDUCTrON

There are three classes of reducers which reduce the amount o[ silver in the negative in different ways

The subtraltive reducers remove silver from all parts o[ the illlagc (shadows and highlights) at about the salTle rate 50 that the contrast 15 incrcaBed This is uscful for Jver-euroxposed negatives which tend to be flat

The peoporti)lal reducers remove silver in proportion to the density so that the contrast grildient is maintained This type of reducer is suitable for those negatives which are too dense for easy printing through over-exposure ~ombined

with over-development The uper-proportional reducersattack the IllDvy silver depositll more than

[he lightly exposed parts leading to a reduction ill contrast and density Dense contrasty negltives are usually the result of over-development

No 33 Farmers Reducer (Subtractive)

STOCK SOLUTION A Sodium thiosulphate anhyd 32g (or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (SOg) Water to 500ml

STOCK SOLUTION B Potassium ferricyanide 109 Water to 100ml Immediately before use mix 15 p3rts A with 15 parts w(lter and ~dd 1 pa[t B

The process of reduction should be watched carefully and may be stoppcd at nny time by flooding wi th wn ter The ac t i vi ty 0 [ the reducer may be n 1te [cd by va ry ing the qunutity of Soltltion II added [ncrensing t he [crricyanidc increa ses the activity and vice versa The stock solutions keep indefinitely hut the working solution hu 3

short life

No 34 Permanganate - Persulphate Reducer (Proportional)

STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium permanganate 1 solution lZ 5ml Sulphuric acid 10 wlw 65ml Water to 500ml

STOCK SOLUTLON II Ammonium persulphate 25g Water to 1000mi Distilled water should be used to make up these solutions for use take one

part A two ports distilled water and two parts B A slower acting mixture is I part A 4 parts water and 1 part II and this may be easier to control A[ter reduction the action con be halted and the brown stain removed by immersing the negative in a 1-2 solution of sodium (or potnssiul1l) metabisulphite The negative should he thoroughly waMhed before being dried

No 35 Pelslliphate Reducer (Super-proportional) Ammonium persulphate 125g Sulphuric acid lOr ww 5m1 Distilled water to 500101

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The ne)a t i ve shou 1d be fu lly wn shed The leduc t ion mus t be wa tC1ed close ly as the rate varies ~idely with different emulsions nnd with some modern high speed ~mulsions it iR not effective ]t all to 12-157 solution of sodium Ilulphite anhyd can be Ilseu as ] s top bath Imd the negat ive is fi na lly given a good wash

BampW Print Processes [1) NI_I2EV~1QI2yRS

Print developers arc generally fairly contrasty compared to negative developers and of course it ig not necclisary or desirable to use fine grain or acutance techniqupound for prints The colour tone of the image is the main variable in print developers but the colour obtained will depend largely on the type of print paper (eg bromide chlorobromide or chloride)

Table 8 Standard Print Developers

No 36 No 37 No 38 No 39 D163 ID62 ID20 New

PQ Univ NQ Paper Winchester

~middotc to 1 22 3 35

Sodium sulphite anhyd 75 50 50 35

-lL(~ro(l~1 i WJlle 17 12 12 86

Socli11Tl -----shy

carbollate lt1nilyd 65 60 60 63

lhellidolle 05

Potassium bromide 28 2 4 l9

I3cn7otriazole 1 15-25 20 37

Wettinr agent 10 10 10 10

Wnter to 1000 1000 1000 1000

Dilution (stock + water) 1+3 1+3 1+3 1+2 Calgon may be added to all the above at the rate of 2g per litre If the ueveloper is uRed at less dilution development iR more rlpid The

benzotriClzole in these formulilc irnproves the brightness of highlights by reduc i ng fog and also shifts the colour of the illlage towards black or blue-black The New middotIinchester formula (No 39) is a universal paper delTeloper giving good black to nc s and is the basis of many commercially available print developers

Table 9 Warm-tone Print DClTelopers

No +O ~Jo 41

~Lltf01 I i nonc _________--25 ---8_ ___

Sodium Dulphite anhyd 60 60

Sad i IIll carboIlHe anhyd 90 90

~ycin 25

Potassium oronlidc 2

~ater to 1000 1000

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Dilution (Stock + water) 1+3 1+2 Time 2-3 mins 1-2~ mins

Formula No 41 has a warmer tone tllan No 40 but both arc best used on warm-tone papers

STQ- [lATHS FOR PR_INT~

The 1I0n-hilnlenlng stop blths given carlier (Nos 21 and 22) arc suitable f0 r prints as is a 47 solution oE sodium or potassium mctabisulphite (I~Oplitre) good economical stop bilth can be made up by adding 1 part stop batl (as above) to two parts old fixer and mixing up a fresh fixing bath When the stop batll shows exhaustion the stop bath ia discarded and the old fixer converted to the ncw st op bath This double use of fixing solution Lcally does prolong the life of the fl xer bath as a large part of the fixation takes place in the stop bath and the diluti on ensures that no staining occurs

PRINi FIXERS Any of the fixer formulae given earlier for negativcs will provide fix e rs

suitatle for papers (formulae 25-28) The rapid fixers have a much grentcr cJptc ity than the hypo filter s and formula 27 is especially recommended for plastic-coatcd pap~rs Prints on normal paper wh i ch a r c t o be hot-glazed should be fixed in 1

hardening fixer (formulae 26 or 28) Formula 25 is obviously the cheapest to ma ke up but the pll should be monitored and more metabisulphite added to restOt-e thc acidity when required All may be used diluted 1+1 It is advisable not to U 5C the some solution for fixing both films and pape rs even if the same formula is used but to keep film filter and paper fixer i n s eparate bottles

t~ID F9H PAPER PInNTsect The fibre base of normal printing pl pe rs retains acid chemicals from the fj xing

bath which are difficult to remove by -a s h ing alone If after a brief rine 11C

print is i~nersed in a 2-5 solution o f s od ium carbonate anhyd for 2-] minutes the subsequent nonnl wash ensures that all the hypo and hYPolilver camplexes a t c removed This alkaline bath should be used whenever any subsequent trcatmenl of the print such as toning is to be carried out

LYPO ELI~IN~TOB 11C following solution (formula No 42) serves to oxidise the thiosulphate t o

~ulphate which is then easily washed ou t o f the paper

~~_~po Elimin_ator

Hydrogen peroltide solution 3 (10 volume) 125ml or Hydrogen peroxide solution 6 (20 volume) 63mU Ammonia solution 0B80sg 10ml Hater to 1000ml immerse the prints in the above solution after a normill W8lh in running W (l ~ er

for about 5 minutes followed by a fu cthc r Hash of about 10 minute This hyposhyelimnator is made up of volatile compOIw nts so that there is_ no risk of elininllor salts remaining in the p1per-base after drying

PRINT TONING Prints may be toned a variety of colours and depending on subject can yielel very

pleasing results All prints must be tlloroughly washed prior to toning and old prints

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~lloliid be soaked ~n water for a few minute s to soften the emulsion

1) Sepia Toning Th follow(ng method yields perm1nlnt prints with a good brown tone In fact

prints treated in lhis way have greater permanence than untreated prints and the lmiddotLlwd is USLd ill 3rchival processinl The print is first bleached ill a ferri shyqnidcbroHiide bleach until the d3ri~est partH of the image tire a raint straw LU lour 1 t is lilen placed in the toner b3th 1111lt1 the sepia image quickly reappears

Nu (d FerricyanidcDromi de Bleach

Potassium [erricyanide 40g Potassium bromide 251 Jater to 1000mi Tllis stock solution is used undiluted and keeps well if stored in the dark or

ll a dnk bottle It may be re-used until exhausted h[ter bleaching the print 1~ washed well and trGnsferred to tbe following solution

Uu 44 Sepia Toning BGth -Thiolre1 109

Potassium bromide 40g Sodiul1i hydroxide 3-6g WJter to 1000mi The qu~n[ity of sodium hydroxide can be adjusted between the above limits to

yield the desired tone colour This toning bath is preferable to the traditional suJiul11 sulphide hath because of the unpiensant smell and properties of sodium sulphide solutions Thiourea and sod i um sulphide should not be used or stored in lilt dGrkroom or near sensitised materials

bJ lllie Toner This process does not re qruire a bleach stage but the print should be thoroughly

- s hed a[te1 fixation The process intell5ifies the image slightly so prints to bpshytOiled blue should be mnde a little lighter than they would otherwise be

Nu 45 Dlue Toning Bath

SOLUTION A

Potassium ferricyanide Ig Sulphuric acid 10 ww 30ml Wnter to 500ml

SUIUTION 13

Alliinonilim ferric citrate (green) Ig

Sulphuric acid 10 ww 30ml Water to 5001111 Mi elt[uGI parts hand B immediately before use The wet print is immersed

ulltil the desired tone is reached and then washed Excessive wnsh ing will ble a ch lliit the blue colour and just sufficient wash to remove the yellow tain should be lven This bleaching is largely eliminated if the print is lshed in water conshy[lining a l ittle acetic acid (51111 or less per litre)

c) Red TOiler Th~TtO~ing is il traditional red tOller using copper sulphate hglin no

b I each is llluircd

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No 46 Red TOllin~ Bath

SOLUTION A Cupric s~lphate (511 deg) 12 5g

2Sodium citrate 500g (or Potassium citrate) (55g) Water to SCOml

SOLUTION B Potassium ferricyanide 109 Sodium citrate 50 g (or Potassium citrate) (SSg) Water to SCOml Use equal volumes of II and B mixed just before use The image colour changes

through warm black then sepia to rea 2nd t he process can be halted at any stage by flushing with water The print is th~n wa s hed and dried normally

PRINT nEDUCERS Print reducers are generally used Eor the local reduction of dense parts of

iarge prints for generally brightening dense flat prints or for removing fiilvcr completely from unwanted areas Farmers Reducer (formula No 33) is the most commonly used print reducer and shoul d Df t sed s ufficiently diluted to allow control of the reduction proc ess Use scr 1p dn ts to de t e rmine the appropriate conditions ~len using Farmers Reducer wash the pr in t frequently in running water or permanent yellow staining may occur Farmers Reduc e r used very dilute is ideal for brightening dense flat prints It is a s ub t ractive reducer and gives bright highshylights a nd increased contrast

~len heavy deposits of silver have 0 igt e remov ed completely such as that cause1 by pinholes in line nega t i ves Fa nna r s Reduce r is not su i tab Ie because of the possibility of staining The followin g formula (No 47) is an iodine re ducer which i9 very effect i ve at removing dense silver

No 47 Iodine Reduce r

Potas sium iodide 1Sg Iodine crystals 05g Water to lOOml This reducer is applied to the mOl s t lot ~et) print with a swab or brush and

the resulting brown Btain is easily r emove d in a 15 solution of sodium thiosulphate Illlhyd (or 25 sodium thiosulphate cryst ) after a rinse in water The print should then be thoroughly rinsed

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Colour Processing Besides offering real economy brew-it-yourself colour processing is v~ry

satisfying and can yield results superior to those offered by ln3ny commercial proshycfSSinl~ houses All that is required ilre careful working methods and atttntion to dltlails Tlte Icrwrill instruction relating to monochrome proc(ssin~ should be r~d in conjunction with thcse notes on colour processing It should be emphasised that the formulae given in this section are not those of the film manufacturers who do not publish their formulae but have been worked out to yield results comparable with the manufacturers recommended processing

Time and Temperature Cololl~ ma-terials are not as flexible as black and white materials with regard

to development conditions since wide deviation from the recommended development can yield shifts in colour balrnce ohich lQay be impossible to correct in printing With reversal materials in particular exposure must be accurate and the time and temperature of the first development is crucial as thi largely determines the quality of the ftnal transparency In the C(j process the processing temperature is rather high (3a

oC) bllt this must be maintained at least for the first dtvelopment There is

slightly more leeway ~Iith the other st~ges but these should b~ kept within the limite shown The sallie applies with colour development of negative materials and again the processing tenrperature of the C41 procefiS is high (also JaoC) The times given in the formulae include 10-15 seconds to uHo~ for draining the tank

H~king up the Solutions As wi th all the - formulae in this bookl e t the chemicals should be dissolved in

tire order given Some of the colour dev e lo p ing agents while extremely solub i I wa te r tend to separn te out in the a 1 k a 1 ine J eve loper sol ut ions Ita aov isab le to dissolve the colour developing agen t to gether with the hydroxylamine (hydro shycldoride or sulphnte) where p r e sent se pa r a te ly i n part of th e total volume of water alld add this slowly 0 th e rerna mJer o f the solution some time before use rile hydroxylamine acts as an antioxidant and is required because the sulphite conshyclntrltion hCls eO be low Hydroxylamine is rapidly decomposed in alkaline solutions ill the pr se nce of sequestering agents of the EDTA type so Cnlgon should be used i n h~rd water ~~ r e s rather than EDTA

V~QCESliING G9J~QI1lLill=VERSAL FILMs_U0R COLOUR SLIDES) There are at present two princiPlll systems for colour reversal film prGcessing

(excluding Kodachrome) The first is the ~g fachrome 41 process covering all Agfa r-tJVersal fi 1m (except Igfachrotnc [(IOOS Profe ssional - proce Sl E6) olhether sold process paid or not Thepound are few if any other makes o f [i Tm available in Britain ohich use this process The second ir the Kodak Ektachrome E6 process hich covers IllOSt of the rCIllining colour n~versal films There are a few filns Idlich ltIre still made for outdated process es sLlch as ORWO f i l ms ohich are proc e s sed by an old Igf~ process Rnd some specillised Ko d ak films suc h as Ektachrome In f rared Film find Photomicrography Color Film 248J which are processed by the old E-4 process There may still be a [ew films from independent manufacturers designed for the old E ~ process

Kodak Kod~lchlome films are sold process paid and user processing is not feasible

Keversal Exposures - Reversal film mUfit be given a fogging exposure to light (Where chemical fegging is not used) after the first development Because the emulsion is very much less sensitive at this stage than normal film this exposure mtlst be rather intense It

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is best to remove the film from the spinl and SCC-SDW it through plain wter below a Photo flood lamp Ilowever a wet delicate film is difficult to reload into the spi ra 1 (bes t done under lola ter) and it is cas icr to leave the film in thc 5 pi ra 1 nlld extend the exposure time With clear spira ls thc exrosure time should be at lea~t

doubled and with the translucent nylon spira l s the exposure should be increased 5-10 fold When the film is not removed for the exposure place the spiral in a white 001011 of water (or a clear glass bowl on J wl ite surface) and place the lamp above it During the exposure of each end of the s pir a l the lamp or bowl should be moved about so that the exposure is more even Watc r and cl~ctricity dont mix so care is needed and a hot photoflood lamp will burst if s plashed Dont skimp on th e reversal exposhysure - it is easy to underexpose but dif f ic ul t to overexpose For the Ektachrome E-6 p r-ocess a reversa l bath which chemi c3 1y fogs tile film making the reversal exposure unnecessary i s available from Pb c to Chemical Supplies

The Agfachrome 41 Proce ss Suitablc for all Agfa Reversal poundll ns (except Agfachrorne RIOOS Professional

available in 120 size and sheet film only)

formul ~ e - Agfachrome 41 No 48 First Developer

Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g middot1e to 1 3g Sodium sulphite anhyd SOg Hydroquinone 6g Sodium carbonate anhyd 40g Potassium thiocyanate 25g Potassium bromide 2g otassium iodide 0 1 Solution 6ml wate to 1000111

No 49 Stop Bath

Ac etic acid glac iol 101 Sodium acetate (3H 0) lO g

2Water to 10001111

No 50 Colour Developer PART I

Sodium sulphit e anhyd 3 5g Hydroxylamine hydrochloride I t Potassium bromide 19 Colour Developing Agent see below Ethylenediamine (50 vv Soln) 16ml (or 2-phenylethylamine) (3ml) -later to 300ml

PART BI Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g S~dium carbonate anhyd 62g Water to 500ml

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c) lour iPVf loping age nts [0[ Part lI

Colour Dev e loper 1 (sulphate) 28g or Colour l)eve l o pe r I (chloIide) ( CIH) 22g or Cenochrollc 2 5g or Dtoxych rome 3 2g

lOOt usc add ParL II slowly to Part D with tirring and make up to a total volume o f 10U0Il1I

No 51 [leach ~-----Po tas s ium-[e rr i CY[lnidc 80g

Potassium bromide 30g Sodium acetate (J1l 0) 50g2lor ic Jeid 5g Potnssiwa nll11 30g Water to 10001111

Ngt 52 Fixcr ---S-oJI~-tTiosu I ph a te anhyd l25g

(or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (200g) Sodiul1l s ulphi te lnhyd lag Imiddotlater to 1000ml

Th pit of this fixer is approximately neutral Do not use an acid fixer because it Jill blcnch th e dyes

Nu 53 Stnbiliser - --- We t ti~g agelt - Im1

Forlllaide hyde 0 5ml I-Jte r to IOOOml

~ (lCeslng Procedure lIrfachrome 41

At 20 0 C (minutes) At 24degC (minutes )

1 First Developer 18 - zr-----shy lJ-l~ (z00-O 50C) (2l 0 -02SoC)

2 Rin sc ~ 3 St op bath 4 3 4 1[151 10 7 S Reve r sni Exposure See be l~w 6 Colour developer 14 (20 0 -0SoC) 11 (z4 0 02SoC) 7 - 1 5 h 20 14 8 Ill eac ll 9 I-[lsh 5 4 lll Fix 5 4 ll Wash 10 7 12 Stabil iser 1 1 1] Dry (30 D

e) mox

One minute each side with film r emo ved from spiral 2 minuteR each end rf clear sl c rlll lid 5-10 minutes ench end of ttanslucent nylon spirill frolll a No2 Photoflood a l I lie t re () f le t)

Thp t Cll peratllre during the Lwo developme nt stages should be maintained within til limits shown For other stages tlte t e lllperature may range from 17-20lC or 21 - 2llC The third wash (Htole n iu raLh e r long and it is important that it is llt lL shorted In soft watcr ilHilS this lung wallh nwy c ause the clUulsion to slocll Su un int e l-mediate bilth of 5 minutes immediately J(tcr the colour developer can be given to prevent excessive swelling This is a 2 solution of either sodium

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sulphate or magnesium sulphate (Glaubers salts or Epsom Salts) If the intermediate bath is used the third wash may be shortened by 5 minutes In the two developer baths agitation should be continuous for the first 30 seconds followed by two invershysions every half minute for the rest of the period

As usual it is the developer solutio 1~ which deteriorate first The remalnlng solutions (stop hath bleach and fixer ) have double the capacity of tIle two developers Ea ch litre of developer should process 6-8 films but the development timcs should be extended by 30 seconds at 20degC (or 20 5cco~ds at 24 o

C) after the first two films anQ after each subsequent two films hi applies to both the first and colour deve lo pers

rne Ektachrome E-6 Pro ess 1 am indebted to Mr Derek Wa tkl 9 r0~ permission to reproduce this formula

wh i ch first appe1red in the March 198 1 i sgt lc of the magazine SLR Camera (Haymnket Publi t hing Ltd 38-42 Hampton Road TCd ingcon Middlcsex)

There are a lot of films from man n~rUl facturers sold under a wide variety of brand names which are compatible with the E-6 process Even Agfa make an E-6 compatible film (Agfachrome RIOOS Professional)

FormuL ae - E-6 i-lo-54---first Deve 1upe r

Sodium 6exametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g Sodium sulphite anhyd J9g Potassium carbonate anhyd 14g Sodium bicarbonate 12g Phen i done O 6g Itydroluinone 6g Sodium bromide 22g Sodium thiocyanate Ig Sodium hydroxide 33g Pot~asium iodide (01 50ln) 45ml Water to 1000m~ pH 9 6-005

No 5~ Stop Bath 1 ------S0dium acetate anhyd 30g

(or Sodium acetate 320) (50g) Acetic acid glacial 6ml Water to 1000m~ pit 55-02

No 56 Colour Develoger Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g tri-50dium orthophosphate 1220 36g Sodium hydroxide 3g Sodium sul~lite anhyd 4 5g 3gtdium bromide 065g Potassium iodide (01 Soln) 30ml Sodium thiocyanate 1 3g Citrazinic acid 1 25g CD-3 l1g ~oter to 1000mi + pH 1165-005

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S LOp lath 2 Same as Stop lath 1 but once used do no t interchange them

No 57 ll l e ach lotassiulil (erricyanide 80g Potassium bromide 20g Ji-So JiullI hydrogen orthophosphattnnhyd 12g (or di-Sodium hydrogen olthophosphnte

1211 2deg) (JOg) Acetic acid glacial 5ml Hater to IOOOrot plt 55-02

No 58 Fixe r - - Sndi-u-thiosulphate Mlhyo 125g

(or SodiulTl thiosulpilte cryst ) (200g) SodiuJJ sulphite anhyd 5g So dium me tabisulphite O5g Water to lOOOlllt 11 72-02

~Jc tt ing JgCllt lmL

L r to lOOOml

Time ~pe ratute

l First development 6r J8-U57 - shygt Stop iJath 1 2 33-JoC J Ih 2 3J-J90C 4 Reversal Exposure Two minutes each side with (ilm removed

froro spiral 5 minutes each side of clear spiral ano 10 minutes each side of nylon spiral with No 2 PhotofLoud at

(Or HeveJs31 JlJth) (ObtainJhle 12 inches frolll Photo Chical Supplies) 2 JJ-J90C

5 Col o ur u(ve [o[JllICnt G JSlOC 6 St o p Bath 2 2 JJ-l)degC 7 1-1 2 ])-J9()C g 11 [e middoth 5 JJ-l9C l) Rins e ~ 3J-390C [0 fix 5 3J-390C II Wnsh 6 33-J90C I ~ S tid il s c 1 3J-390C n Dry (Fillll cllt~Jrs on drying) r uTES ) As wilh all revlrsnl processes the [irut developer largely delermines the ehnrilct(tmiddotistic~ o[ the final translnrency Jntl the rcconlllltnJeu time anJ temp~rature

hlHJ1J be Iuhlrcu to b) AgitJtion in 11 ba ths (except the optional reversal bnth and the stabiliser

- - - - - - - ------------

wllich should not be agitated) is continuous for the first 15 seconds followed by two

inversions of the tank each subsequent half minute With the reversal bath and stnbiliRer an initial inversion to ensure uniform distribution is all that is required cl The conditioner bth in the offici)l process is lwl required in the pLOceJllre given hele as this useR ferricyllnide bleach rather than all EUTA hl(ach d) The two Rtop hth re of identical compositioll bllt should not be illtcrchlIircl due tu dnmn~illg carry-over contomination e) The caplcity of the solutiolls is 10 filll1ll pr litre (36 exposure - 35 or 120 roll film) bnt the tillle in the first developer must be extencled hy 15 second~ after the first two films and after each subsequent two films (by 20 seconds fOl the last two films) f) The made-up solutions should be scored in dark bottles at room temperature not in the refrigerator The first developer will keep for two months unused or for four weeks once used The colomiddoti developer will keep for 3 months unused or 2 lIIo11~hs partly used nd all the remaining solutions will keep for 6 months ur longer Although the first developer contains many ingredients it is not expensi ve to moke up Thus it is worthwhile retaining the remaining solutions to be used ith a ((esh ly made fi rs t deve loper if the fu 11 capac i ty canno t be used in the four we ek life 0f the original first developer g) Drying temperature should not exceed 60

0 C and all EktachrOllle films only clclr

when nearly dry For information on process control and fault finding in both Agfachrome 41 and

Ektachrome E-6 the reader is referred to The Focal Guide to Colour Film Proces~ing by Derek IJAtkins (published by the Focal Press norough Green SevEnolt)ks Kent TNlS 8PB) This excellent book also gives 11 the background information you may require Also in the book is a substitute E-4 process (as well an a low cost Ln~ temperature simplified E-4 process) for those films using this system This book also covers colour negative film processing

PROCESSING COLOUR NEGATIVE FILMS (PLUS XP-l AND VARIa XL BL~CK A~~lJTE FIL~ ~~__________~_ ____~______M~)__ __

As with colour reversal film the two major manufacturers of ~olour fil~s A~ [a

and Kodak each have tlieir own fi lms and processing systemy [or cololJr negative~ Again the trend seems to be towards a unified compatible system based on Kodaks C-lfl prccens

Processing negative film is very much eaGier tlan reversal processing for two reasons Firstly there are fewer steps in the processing sequence with no revcr~al EXpOSlln required and secondly there ill a little more latitude with tlte pro cessing since most faults can be corrected later at the print ing sta ge HOI_e ver cons iL e nt good resutts depend on consistent processing Attention to detail ~ile proce8s i ng a film can save a lot of time later on

Agfacolor N Negative Process ---T-tiis-process is in tended for all II fa co lour nega t i ve film (CNS CNS2 ann 80S Pr~fe9sionol) excluding AgCacoluur CNS400 negative film This ltter is designed to be processed in Agfacol o r Peo ceMs 70 chemicals and is compatible witl l Kodaks Flexicolor C41 process as is Agf a s chromogenic 131ack and ~hite film Vor l XL

The Agfacolor N process is slightly unusual in that the devclopmpnt is 11101-11(

to continue in the lowlgtr layers of the e mulsion during an intermedi1 t e bath wll icll immediately follows the colour developer

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Pu rmulnc - Agfucolour N i u 59- Colur- ll(vIoI~er SULUTION A

Sodium hexnmetaphosphate (Calgon) 2g PutnsSilJln carl)ooatc atlhyd 75p Potassium bromide 25p Wat e r Lo 500ml

~()LUTroN Il

lIydroxylamine hydrochloride 19 (or Hydroxylamine sulphate) 0 2g) Sodium sulphite anhyd 35g Colour Dcvcloppr 1 (Sulph~te) 28g (or Colour Developer 1 (chlorideraquo C22g) (or Cenocilrome) (25g) (0 t Droxych rome) (J2g) ) t e r to SOOml

I l d B tlJ A with stirring before use

Nu 60 Intermediate Bath -- -~lgn~sin sulpil1te--===- JOg

Mixed (or used) Colour Deve lope r 501n 30ml 1000011

No 61 Bleach --S-(Tll~eXaeLaphospilate (Cnlgon) 5g

Potassiulll fcrricY1nide 42g Potassium brolllidp 12g 10[ltl8siu dihydrogen orthophosphate 15g di-Potassium hydrogcn ortilophosplwte

nll Jil yd Sg Water to 1000111

Nl 62 Fixer -------sz-dG----Umiddotios ul phn te nnhyd 125g

(01 Socii um thiosulphntc cryst) (200g) SodiulIl sulphitc anhyd 109 Wnter to 1000ml

ltc~ing Procedure Agfacolollr N Time (mins) Telpernture degc-S----shy

1 Colour developer 20-02 2 Intermediate bath 4 2005 J -IDsh 15 (lllinilllllm)-20 15-20 4 IHench 6 2005 5 Hash 6 15-20 6 FLx 6 18-20 7 -Ilsh 10 15-20 fl ~~ett lllg agent bath 15-20 N)lI~S

Agit1tilln in niL stDges is continuous (or the fi1st minute followed by o ue j version of Lhc LIll( (very hoi ( minute thcrcnfter

llevcl)plIlcnt 11I3Y be varied betccn 7 - 9 minutes Increase ueve10pment to 9 llItes Lo incrcasc contrast and reduC(~ the time to 7 minutes (or softer results

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The orange mask is formed in the bleach bath and the recommended time and temperature for this stage should be followed as the density of the mask increases with time

All the solutions including the co l our developer solutions (separately) shoilid keep for at least 4 months Once mixed the colour developer (and the intermediate bath) will only Inst a f ew weeks

The capacity is 6 - S films (135- 36 o C 120) per litre but the development ttne shoul d be incr eased with each film or pair of films to compensate for developer e xha ustion The c a pa c ity of the co lou r d vetoper s may be e xtended by mixing onl y

al f of so lu tions I a n d B and proceSS in f( 4 i ilms in e ach h a lf In this ca s e prolong the development time by one mi nute a f ter eacll film

Flexi color C-41 Tlis process was developed by Kod lt1 ilt [or the mach i ne pro ces~ing of their nc~

colour negative films Kodacolor II and Ve ricolor II The majorit y of colour films from independent manufacturers are now made compatible with the C-~l process In addition there are the two chromogenic bl ack and white films lifords XPI and Ag Eal s Vario XL whi ch were designed fo r C- 41 processing l gfas fast colour nega t i ve film CNS400 should also be proce sed i n C- 41 chemicals

Because C-41 was designed for use i n au t omated commercial laboratories the processing t emperature is rather h i gh (IOO or 3So

C) As with the ~ktachrome E-6 precess these high temperatures bring abo ut the a s sociated problems of short development times and DE maintaining t hL t empe ra ture betwe en the prescribed limit~ Tha t t hes e pro b lems are easi l y ove rc ome i s J emon s trat ed by the many thousa nds of amac e urs who s ucce ss f ully process t hei L own pol and Vari o XL monochrome films in

oC-4 chemicals at 3S C

The following formulae represent a l ow cosi substitute procedure using a traditional ferricyanide bleach

ihe substi t ute process is reproduc d fr om The Focalguide to Colour Film Proc es sing by Derek Wat ki ns with k i nd p2r ssion from the Focal Press

Formu11e C-4l

No 63 Colour Developer Sodium hexarroetaph()sphate (Calgon) 2g Po tassium carbonate anhyd 38g Sodium sulphite anhyd 5g Potassium iodide 01 Soln 2ml Potassium bromide 1 5g lIydroxamine hydrochloride 2g CD-4 5g Wlter to 1000ml

No 64 Stop Bath Ae tic acid glacial 20011 Sodium acet1te 311 0 25g

2Water to 1000ml

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------ ----------------

~

No 65 Bleach Potassium nitrate 2SB Potassium ferricyanide 30g Potassium bromide 12g Boric acid 5g Sodium tetraborate (Borax) 19 Water to 1000ml

No 66 Fixer Sodium thioulphate anhyd 125g (or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (ZOOg) Sodium metabisulphite 20g Water to LOOOtnl

No 53 Stabiliser Wetting a ~r~ nt 1m1 Formaldehyde 40 511 )1 ~ater to lOOOm1

f ocessinG Procedure e-4l (with [erricY~lnid( bleach)

Time Temperature degc l Colour development 31- 38~~--

2 Stop bath 35-40 J Wash 35-40 4 Bleach 35-40 5 ~ash 35-40 6 Fix 35-40 7 ~ash 35-40 8 Stabiliser 35 -40 9 Dry

Agitation in the developer is continuous for the first half minute followed by one inversion of the tank each quarter minute thereafter In the remaining solution s the agitation may be reduced t o t lJO in ver sions every half minute after tilE init i a l )0 sec onds cont inuous agit a tio n e ach bath

TIll capacity of the so lut ions is a pplC))limately twelve films per litre if the dev eloper is made up as two 500ml port iuns dn d six films devel oped in eacll portion The development time should be extended by minute after the f irst two films and by middot a further i minute aft er t he seco nd 1lt1 fi ms A comb i ned b1each f ix bath may be u~cd in this procss b t t o[ cours Lilis calllu t be a f e rr i c Yll1ido ball ed bleach A sllitable formula can be found in t h e Br i i sh J our nal of Photography Annual

PIWCESSING COLOUR PRINTS For copyrigllt reasons we arc unabl e t o re produce the substi t ute fo rmulae for

colour print processing The f onnulae and pr ocedure s are quit e straight~orward and lIIay be found in the British Journal of Photography Annual Photocopies of the relevan t pnu es may be obtained for a nominal sum from the publishers This applies to earlic~ editions of the book and to the current edition after stocks are sold out (u s ually April or Hay) The address to 0 i s

Tlte Ed i tor Ilritish Journal of Photography Annmiddot qL Henry Greenwood ( Co Ltu 28 Creat James Street London WeI Telephone 01-404 4202

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APPENDIX I Chemical Names Seeals- Appendix 2 for Colour Developing Adurol Amidol Amidosulphonic acid Ammonium alum Ammonium hydroxide l2-B(nzenediol 14-Benzenediol Bor1cic acid Borax Calgon Chlorchydroquinone Chrcmlt alum Copper sulphate Copper chloride l2-Diaminoethane 24- Diaminophenol hydrochloride Digol l2-Dihydroxybenzene l4-Dihydroxybenzene 26-Dihydroxyisonicotinic acid Elo Ethy l enediaminetetraacetic acid and sa l ts Ethyl~ne glycol Ferri~ ammonium citrate Formalin p-Hydroxyphenyl glycine Iron perch loride Iron trichloride Kcdalk p-HtLhylaminophenol sulphate Nethyl p1raaminophenol sulphate middotIonoch 10 rhyd rOluinone 1- Pheny 1- 3-pyrazo lidone Potasnium alum Potassium bichromate Potassium bisulphite Potassium chrome alum Propan-2-01 Pyrocatechin (Pyrocatechol) Pyrogall ic acid Quino Sodium bisulphite Sodium hydrosulphite Thiocarbamide I 2 3-Trihydroxybenzene

and Synonyms Agent)

Chloroquinol 24-Diaminophenol hydrochloride Sulphamic acid Aluminium ammonium sulphate Aoononia solution Catechol (Pyrocatechol Pyrocatechin) Hydroquinone Boric acid Sodium tetraborate Sodium hexametaphosphate Chloroquinol (Adurol) Chromium potassium sulphate Cupric sulphate Cupric chloride Ethylenediamine Amidol Diethylene glycol Catechol Hydroquinone Citrazinic acid Hetol EDTA acid and salts Ethanediol Ammonium ferric citrate Formaldehyde solution Glycin Ferric chloride Ferric chloride Sodium metaborate Hetol Hetol Chloroquinol Phenidone Aluminium potnssium sulphate Potassium dichromate Potassium metabisulphite Chromium potassium sulphate Isopropyl alcohol (Isopropanol) Catechol Pyroglillol Ilydroquinone Sodium metabisulphite Sodium dithionite Thiourea Pyrogallol

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Jl)[l~NDIX 2

There appears to be considerable confusion surrounding the various colour developing agents This is probably due to the fact that these complex compounds helve all been given a different trade name by each manufacturer or distributor L1Ch compound may even have more than one chemical name depending on the chemical nOlllcnclature system used The following is a list of the chemical names and synonyms of the common colour developing agents All of them are derivatives of para-phenylenediamine the classic fine grain black and white developer and they sllare in varying degrees the unpleasant characteristics of this material They should be handled with care and skin contact or inhalation of dust should be avoided llecause these compounds are similar in structure and mode of action they arc interchangeable to some extent the differences being plincipally differcncfs ill activity and solubility Differences in solubility can cause slight colour cilmges but this is really important only with reversal films since with colour 1I~~ative films and colour papers colour casts can usually be corrected by filtration in printing The relative quantities re qui r ed ani adjustments to development times or exposure will have to be determined by experiment The names underlined are those used by Photo Chemical Supplies

Colour Developer I (Sulphate) - Ac t i vo 1 7 (Jejlt1Sltmi--shy= Uiethyl-p-phenylencdiamine sulphate =NN-Diethyl-l4-pbenylenerliamlne sulphate

C lO

II 16

NZ

H2

S04

Holht - 26232

Colour Developer 1 (Chloride) shy middotCOiKodak)

Die til y1- p-pheny lenedl alnine hydroch lorid e = NN-Diethyl-l4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride

MolWt = 20070

lt~ur [tgt velrer CD 2 (Kod~dd Activol 2 (Johnsons) [olochrome (M amp ll) NN-Diethyl-2-methyl-l4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride 4-Alllino-NN-diethyl-m-toluidine hydroch lo r ide

~ol Wt ~ 214 i3

Colour Developer 3 ~-CD3(Kod ak)

Activol 3 (Johnsons) ilyJoch rome (M amp ll) N-E thy 1- 3 -me thy 1- N- (f -me thylsul phonamidoe thy 1) -p-phenylenediamine sesqu isul pha te

monohydrate - Am lllO - N - e thy 1-N - (i me thanesu llhonalnidoe thy 1) -m- to 1uid inc s e s qu is u1pha t e

monohydrate

HolJt 43652

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Colour Develo~er 4 CD4 (Kodik)

= N-Ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyi-2-methyl-l4-phenylenediamine sulphate

~lolWt c 29235CllH18N20112S04

Droxychrome (M amp B) Activol 8 (Johnsons) Colaur Developcr 32 (Merck) T32 (Orwo) N-Ethyl-N-2-hydroxyethyl)-l4-phenylenediamine sulphate monohydrate

Wt 29634CIOH16N20middot1l2S04middotJI20 tiO

Ac60 (Agfa) Colour Developer 60 (Merck) N-Butyl-N-(4-sulphobutyl)-1 4-pheny l~ neciiamine

4-(N-Butyl-N-(4- s u phobutyl)amino)2 t ~ l i _e

Cl4 i 24 N203S HoliVt 30042

Gcnochrome (M amp B) - Acti~ol 1 (Johnsons)

S 28 OM) NN-Diethyl-l4-phenylcnediamine 9ulphit 2 Diethyl-p-phenylencdiamin~ sulphite

Mol ot t 23734

The bhse is ident i cal to Colour Develope r Sulpha t e and Hydrochloride)

APPENDIX 3 Anhydrous and lIydrncd Forms of Sal ts Many of the chemicals commonly used in photographic processing arc availllhlc

either in anhydrous forms or in one or more states of hydration If these oiffc l-ent forms are used in the ratio of their me l e u t ar weights then the amount of active ingredient is constant For example s od i um carbonate is available as the anhydrous powder (Molecular weight 105 99) and as tle decahydrate (Na C0 10I1 0 molecular2 3 2weight 21l6l4) The ratio of their molecular weights is 1270 so for every gram of anhydrous sodium carbonate required 270 grams of the decahydrate would have to be used It is important to remember thill point whe) compa r ing prices of chemicals because a hydrated crystalline form may appear cheaper weight for weight but be actually more expensive because of the add it ional quantity required

The following is a list of the commonly used chemicals which are available 1n different degrees of hydration showing their molecular weights and the ratios in which they should be used Those underlined are the forms which are supplied by Photo Chemical Supplies and are the most usual most economic or most stable form of the chemical concerned

Cupric chloride CUCI =13445 ~20=17048 Use 1127Z Cupric sulphate CuS0 =1596l _+511 deg=2[1)68 Use 1 1 564 2Ferric chloride FeC13c1622l +611 deg=27030 Use 11672Magnesium sulphate ~lgS04120=1J8 39 Z20=24647 Use 1 1 78

Potassium carbonate ~2C03=1J821 +1~1l20=l65_23 Use 1119

di-Potassium hydrogen ~211P04=174l8 +3H 0=22822 Usc 1 1 312orthophosphate

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-- --

~5 rJ Jiunt acct~te Cl COONa = 8203 Ue 1166~~2~= 13(~p~_3o d ium uisul phate NaIlS0 =12006 ~middotZO=lJ8 03 Use 1115

4~2SlJ=105 99 +10il20~2l6 14 Use 1270

)laquo ( ium d i hyd rogp n orthophosphate +211 0=15601 Use 1130

--2 -~---

d l-Slt)(JiJnl hydroren orlhophosphate Na

211P0

4=14196 +21122= 58~l~ Use 1 1 25 252

~ c liJgtn sulphlte +]011 0=32219 lise 1217~a23 =1t-Q~ 2~- dium suiphite i2 S03= 1~6 04 +711 deg=25215 Use 1200

2So diulIl tliiocYlOate N3SCN=8107 +2HZ2l2JQ Use 114-1 ( Ilst stored as 20 solutions)

S dilllll thiosu1phalc i02~22)=15sect1J +51120~24l1l Use 1157

Stannous chloride 21129=22563 Use 1119

l li-SodiUlll orthophosphate - thp mhydrous and crystalline forms not interChangeable due to alkalinity of the crystalline form whi~~ contains applox 2~~ sodium hydroxide

1 i IEND I X LI ~oJiuhl versus Potilssium Salts -- -- - r111( lIajority of phot~g-l--aphic--rroccs s ing soluti~~s sodiulU salts lIIay be

S dltituted [or pntasraquoiullI s 1lts n sodium salts are genentlly diEaper cmiddotleciall) since legs of tlte godiuHl salt is tequired to giV E the same molecular middotmiddot iuivalent In the Clse of tlte anhydrous carbonates and sulphites the sodium lts an 1sJ deliquescent than the potassium salls and 1re therefor easier to sL ore alld hnllJle The only advantage of the potassiLlln salts is their greater s o luui lily Ih e n highly concentrated solutions are made up lleCRuse of the slightly hi her nlkaLinity of the potnssiulO salts SOllie care in controtiing the pH is needed 1-111 11 substituting sodiulll [or potassium salts in buffer sy~te1ls For this reuson L1 uSllal buffer snIts nre not given here The (ollowing is a list of the ratios in which sorne of the CCgtlnlllon sodium nnd potassium sollts should be lIsed to give the I IiU (ecular equiv11cnts

Piltassiurn bromide Sod iUln bromide 100865 PutassiulTI cIrbonnte nnhyd Sodium carbonate Ilnhyd 100765 lJtlssium l)l1tS tUIlI

citr3LIO 0112deg)

hydroxide Sodium citrate (211

2deg)

SodiulII hyel ox ide 100905 100710

l u tass ium l1letabisulphite SodiullI metabislliphite 100 855 f o tl3S iunl Icrslllphilte Sodillm persulphate 100 880 Potassium sulphite anhyd Sodium sulphite anhyd 100 795

ArPENDIX 5 Wei~lts and Measures There are OIany old books which contain phot o graphic formulae 11 lot of which

al e still v11id todilY In Brilain thcse old formulae were Ilsuillly given in avoidupois ulli t rud the following tnbles 0I1Y be uficd to convert these formulae to the metric sf tem Avoi rdupJis Wli~ilts ~~~d TfT~r---- 16 ounces (oz) 7000 grnins (grs) f153 6gra1ll8 (g)

1 Juncc (llZ) 16 tJrll1ls (drm) 4375 grains (grs) 2835 grams (g) dram (drill) 2734 grHins (grs) 177 grams (g)

(1543 grains (grs) 10 gL1n1 (g) )

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Liquid Heaures (Ilritish alld Netd c )

1 quart 2 pints (pL) = 40 fluid oUllces (Floz) 1 136 1 it re (I) pint 20 fluid ounces (Fl nz) 568 millilitres (m1) fluid ounc~ (Floz)= B fluid drams (or d r c hills) 28lllml fluid drachm 60 minims 355ml

(1 minilll = 1 drop)

Temperature conv e rsion Fahrnheit to Celsius (Centigrade) (xoF - 32) x S = yOC

lt) Celsiu9 to Fahrenheit (yU C x 9) + 32 = xOF

5

APPlNlllX 6 Refrences and Funher Reading The following ia a short 1 ist uf publi c ations which readers will find

useful (or further informatiun 1 Jacobson C1 and Jacoblun R E (1976) Developing 18th Edit ion

Focal Press (see below) 2 Jacobson Cl a nd Hannheim LA (1975) Elllarging 22nd Edition Futal Press J Jacobson RE Ray SF Attridge GG and Axford NR (1978) Hanual of

Photography 7th Edition Focal Press I bull Langfo rd H J (1980) Advanced Photogl-aphy 4th Fdition Focal Press S Hason LFA_ ( 1975) Photographic Processing Chemistry 2nd Editioll Focil Press 6 Wat k ins D (19 78) The Focalguide to Coluur Film Processing Focal Press 7 Ilritish Journal of Photography Annual 1982 Henry Greenwood [ Co_ Ltd 28 Great

James Stn ~ t London WCl

The Focal Press Butterworth [ Co (Pllblishers) Ltd Ilorough Green Sevenoaks Kent TN15 flPH

Books 1 2 and] are all standard refere n c e w rks on photographic processing Ilook 4 is a ve r y useftl soutce of inforlUBtion on all aspe cts of photography but particularly on tone and colour reproduc t ion on sensitised materials The bouk by LFA_ Hasun (S) is es~ential [or those wishing to devise formulations of their own especially co loul formulations but the reader shoulJ have some chemical knowshyledge Book No 6 explains the principles o[ colour film processing and describegt th use of a variety of processing kits as well as providing Bubltitute formulae [or brew-it-yourself enthusiasts

The British Juurnal of Photography Annual (n is the traditiollal source of formulae fo r those wishing to mix up their own solut iOlls The formulae cover all aspects of both black and white and colour proc e ssing

NOTE The purpo se of this booklet is to stilllul te interest in the compounding of

photographi c processing solutiuns by tho se ph o t ographers wh o s e ek a greater undershystanding of the medium The ruatedal ill this buoklet is presented in good faith but because results are d e pe ndent on so many factors outside our control we cannot accept l iability for any processing [aults or inju~y to petsolls or property that might ari9 howsoever callsed Becaugte o f the subject ive nature of the medium it is the r e spons ibility of the user to Elac e rtain for himself the suitability of any [ormula or process in relation to hi8 mat e r ials e quipment and objectives Any suggestions from I a ders whi c h could be incorporated into foture editions o[ lhis booklet will be welcome _

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II c knuw l edgcmcnts

Til e author wOlld l ike to thank the f11 owing f o r pc n nisRiOll to us e m1terial for inclusion in this book let

Kod a k te for details of thfir formuln p (morw c hrome) ltlnd for addi t ional h e lpflll info rmati o n

IHo rd Ltd for permis~i on to reproduce their pllb lish e d formula e

Agfa- Ge v a ert Ltd for informat io n o n their p rod u c ts and pro c eRRinr

The Fo c al P If) 9S who publish a wiel e r ang e oC b oks u n plHtogl middot ~PY for permisAion t o US Ilel(cted m1terial [rom SOllI e of their puhlicltions (R ( e Appendix ()

~1r )( rek Watkins for pe rmissio n t o r e pr ud u c ( his slIbstitute 1-6 proc 1ing prn ee- dur( whi c h was first puhlished in the maga zine SLH Camer~

~h G W Crawley fditor of the Bri tish Journal of Photography for prmis9ion lltl rfprodllcE SOIll( of his FX sprifs -f d(vclop(rs

Th E ahv( prsons or organisnion9 (middot 1nnot Iccept 1ny liabil i t y arisin from the nprodnct inn of their lIIal([ial in Ihi hooklet

Writtfn by R C Potts ~fSc and publish e d hy PHOTO CHEMICAL SUPPliES 21 LODGE CLOSE

COWL EY MIDDLE SEX

UBB 2ES - 34 shy

No responsibility accepted for any formula or information contained in this document This is a scan of the original document

Use chemicals and formulae at your own risk Intended for personal and educational use only

Page 2: PCS Darkroom Formulary

CON TEN l S

INTRODUCTION US INC TilE FORJ-IULAE BIACK AND WIIlTE FILM PROCESSING 4

Composition of Negative Developers 4 Black and White Developermiddot Formulae 6

1 General purpose Jeveloper~ 6 2 Fine grmiddotain developers 7 ) Super fine grain developers 7 4 Acutance (High Definition) developers 9 5 Speed increasing developer for push-processing 9 6 High Contrast (lith) developers 10 7 Honobaths 11

Ektachrome E-6 process 2) Processing colour negative films (plus XP-l snd

APPENDIX) Anhydrous and Hydrated forms of Salts )1

APPENDIX 6 References and Further Reading ]) Acknowledgements )4

Stop Baths 11 Fixers 12 Reversal Processing of B amp W film 13

MODIFYING THE PROCESSED NEGATIVE 14 Inten~ification 14 Reduction 15

B amp W PRINT PROCESSES 16 Print developers 16 Stop baths 17 Print fixers 17 Wash aids for paper prints 17 Hypo el imina tor II Print toning 17 Print reducers 19

COLOUR PROCESSING 20 Processing colour reversal films (for colour slides) 20

Agfachrome 41 process 21

Vario XL B amp W films) 25 Agfacolor N process 25 Flexicolor C-41 process 27

APPENDIX 1 Chemical Names and Synonyms 29 APPENDIX 2 Colour Developing Agents 30

APPENDIX 4 Sodium versus Potassium Salts 32 APPENDIX 5 Weights and Heasures 32

------

Introduction Why~ Brew it yourse

Photgropilers have alway liked to mlke up their own processing solutions Originally there were few prepack(~d mixturEs avaiLlble and the photographer had little choice but to oake up his own The raw chemicals w( reeasily avlilable and the formulae were idely pubtished L1ter hen th e fil mamfactuulS begtln marketing their Omiddot1n developErs fixers etc many photoshygraphers continutd to brew their own chiefly because it was so mllch cheaper tharl the pre-packed chemicals Today there has been a resurgence of interest in do-it-yourself processing and I will outline someuro of the [(Isons for this below

ECONOHY The savings to bt made in compounding your own processing solutions arc

considerable especially with the colour procesues In colour processing we arc attempcinr to match the rsutts obtained from the manufacturers O chelical s rather than trying to create specia effects of our own Economy is thlls the main rea sun for making up our own colour chemicals An ilurtunt extension of this is that nltlny of the solutions (such as tlevelopers) which det()riolmiddotte through atmospheric oxidatioll cltn be made lP in toO or more parts Jhich scpar~ILely will k ee p for very long periods These lHay simply bE mixed in the quantity required illll iled-iately before use thus elimi nating middotoste The econ b r1Lc adv o nt~ge s of comshypounding standard black and wllitt chclicals should not 012 ovCrlook c tl either For exarllplc the cost of the actual chemicals required to ll13ke up 1 high aClltance negative developer which will yield three litres o[ working strength developer i s less than 5 pence The equivalent commercial pack costs aroulld (100

FL EXIBILITY Most formulations of processing solutions within each group usc basically

the same chemicals in varying proportions Consequently with a 51111 stock of chemicals it is possible to make up a wide variety of developers soy each i t h B different (unctio Is ltin e Xlll1lpl Y Oll migIt not ish to 1T) 0 5 li rr k it of Lith developers just f or one or Lo films but thl de vci oper Call be 1 s i ly and cheaply made up in any quantity from standard cheillicals

CREATIVITY There are many formulae available for creating special effects ltIt (very

st3ge in black and white processing The re are special developers tJlt give h igh contrast low contrast high acu t allce fine grain COlrse prJin etc There are chemicals to modify the negative after development such os redu c tion and intensification which can be used to maintain reduce or increosc the contrast in the developed image Reversal processing of block and white film can yield very ple~sing transparencies with a tonol gradation not pussible in prints

The developed black and wllite print can also be modified tucreate special effects These may include local reduction chromogenic redevelopment sepia toning metallic toning dye toning anti archival processing

Using the Formulae Ch~micals

It is important to use chemicals that conform to the standards specified [or

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I

photographic chemicals These standnrds $pecify m1ximum limits for impurities that are important photogrnphicaUy as wet as a minimum assay All chemicills supplied by Photo ChemiCill Supplies conform to the appropriate British Standards or where there is none to the American Standards specifications

Sltfety ---Although the n1lt1jority of chemicals used in photographic procesling are

completely harmless in notnla use there arc a few which present special hnzards Some of the developing i1gents especially metol and the colour developer

derivatives of p-phenylencdiaminc can cause a form of dermatitis as the ski n becomes sens itised hy repented exposure With modern colour print processing drums and daylight tanks for films it is not necessary to come into contac t gt4 i th processing solutions Corrosive substances cove r both acids and strong al k a l is Avoi d ing direct skin contact is simplest Dod safest but should spillage occ~r flush wi th clean water

~hen dilute sulphuric acid is relt]uired for use remember that concentra ted sulph u ric acid reacts violenty to water and the acid sh ould be add ro d drop by drop nt first to the water Never add water to the acid as this causes vio ~ ent

bumpin g and s p itting It is best to bu) mineral acids as 10 vv solutio-L as these 3 r~ safe to handle and you simply us e 10 times the volume specified for the conce ntrated acid

Norm1l laboratory hygiene sho uld be observed that is immediately wipe up any spillages of powd e rs or liquids and keep the working area clear All bo t tles of mlt1d e up 50 lution R sho uld be cle lrly labelled with the contents and proc o_ alll] s h ou ld

Al che info rmation

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labellelt1 proposa~s

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Cleanliness A clear uncluttered working environment is essential in the successful

compounding of solutions Mixing vessels and utensils should be of glass or plastic and should be easy to clean Certain typeg of contamination arc more serious than others such as contamination of developers hy chemicals used as fixers Some c ompounds should not be used in the darkroom at all (such as the sul~lides and thiourea which are powerful foggants used in sepia toning) and should not be s tored near sensitised materials

Ie ilhing Out Not ~ll chemicals require the same degree of accuracy in weighJng out but

for consistency and reproducibility the Ieighing should be as accurate as pos s ible A balance snch as that sold hy Photo Chemical Supplies is ideal as it offers accuracy down to OOlg at a ver) reasonable price Some chemicals sllch )s Phenidone (a developer) which are required in small accurately measured quantities yet which would deteriorate in solution can be weighfd out directly into small vial~ in the nlt]uired quantities The outer plastic con Iiners for 35mm film cassettes are useful for this as moH types are airtight

U$ ing St o ck Sullltiol1s It i D s ometimES easier to store chemicals as stock solutions of known

concentrIlion which can then he dispensed by volume rather than by weighing The mlln tlisadvantnge is that most chemica19 in solution deteriorate with time and they do this at different rates Some chemicals are best stored as stock

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solutions such as the mineral acids mentioned earlier souium thiocYlOate which is very deliquescent (keeps best as a 20 solution) and potassium iodide which is only used in very small quantities as a restrainer and is most conveniently kept as a OlZ solution (lglitre)

It is a simple matter to calculate the quantity of a concentrated stock solution required to make up any desired volume of more dilute working solttion The fo11omiddoting formula

C-req x V-final V-reqC-stock

IOhere C-req the desired concentration (r)

C-stock the concentration oE stock solution (Z) V- final the final total volume desired V-req the volume of concentrated stock required

gives the volume of concentrated stock solution required (V-req) for diluting up to the final volume desired (V-final) to yield a solution of the required concentration (C-req)

QLlltlity 0 Water Water is the main ingredient in all photog r aphic processing solutions anu

it is probably the most variable component The only solutions in which water qua lity need be t~ken into account are the develupers for Eilus anu in the final B h for films

Very soEt water can cause swelling of the film emulsion tlsunlly wh(gtn used a~ a wash in high temperature colour process es such as C-41 nnu E-6 at JSuCIOOoF In f act in areas with very soft IOGter it is advisllble to nn ific Lnlly hltlnl en ti~ water u~ed in the was h cycles of colour processes by arldini sal ts such IS 1lJg esiwTi or sodium s ul phate (ordinary Eps(rn salts or Glau he r s s il lts) It 1

r a t e or approximately 20g per litre Very hard water is more troublesome It is the lIOluble magnesium and

e ll cium salts which are the main cause of water hardn ess Wh en developers are m de up thes e metals form insol uble salts with some o f th e common i ngredient s o f

e lopers such as 5ulphites carbo12tes phosphates ltlnJ bo r a t e s Til s e i nsoluble pre ci pitates can adhere to the film surface Other nletal ions such as coprer and ir an can Lccelerate the rate of aerial oxidation of uevelopers by acting os catalysts anu in higher concentration can cause sl icltt forcing of the fillft The

e ence oE i ron in the wat er can also cause staining of film and pltlpelmiddots The ~ arest procedure i s t o se di s ti lled or de-iunis ed wate r (suell as

P(r ified Water DP so l a by (l oots) for mak ing up develope rs This is an add itional expense which is not always required especially if sequestering ag nts are used but is particularly rerommended when rnltlking U[) cOllcentrltlt ed s t ock developer solutions which are later diluted for one-shot use This improves the keeping qualities of the concentrate and o rdinary tap ater can be used for the dilution A sequestering agent can be incorporated into either the tltlp wa ter or the concentrate

As hard water dries it leaves a scaly dlposit which can be very difficult to er v~ f rom i lms and it car a ffect the printing quality of ne ga tives A useful pract ice i to use one or t-o changes of a small quantity of distilled wate r to hic h a drop or two of wetting agent may be adued as the final ash

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BampW Film Processing

S_Oill2QlITIOJLQLJ3LACJL~1lD WHITE NEGATIVE DEVELOPERS

Deve lopers generally h1ve the following components

a) Developing agent(s) b) PrcRerv~tive

c) Alkali d) Restrainer

There may be other additions such as sequestering agents organic antifoggants and wetting agents

The Developing Agents The most commonly used developing agents are ~etol hydroquinone and Pheridone

There are many compounds which act as developers but most are now only of histoicaL interest as various combinations of the above three compounds can create almost any type of developer There are a [ew developing agentS in commercial usc which have special properties such as grc)t solubility which permits the formulation of highly concentrated developers These developing agents are of little interest to the 1I111teur who makes up his own developers and certainly oEfer no advantages Tl ~

[orl1lulae in tllis booklet are mainly tho~e using metol hydroquinone and Phenidona fetol and Phenidone have similar properties in that they are fast working

developers yielding 1010 contrast images lIydroquinone is a slow contrasty developer TIley arc seldom used a ione however but as metolhydroquinone (MQ) or Phenidone hycicoquinone (PQ) combinations Tllese mixtures show superadditivity that i the activity of the mixture is greater than the sum of the activities of the developers when lIsed separately lIytlroquinone is used on its own in high contrast developers where its action is Jccelerated by the use of caustic alkalis (eg sooium hydroxide) TIle properties of a developer are determined by its overall composition rather than by the choice of develoring Jgent alone Most developing agents including the three mentioned Jbove arc only active in alkaline sollJtions The pH and the nature oE the alkali are of prime importltJtlce in determining the properties of the working developer

The Preservltive The function of the preservative is co protect the developer from aerial

oxidation Tile compound almost univerRally used is sodium sulphite although potassium sulphite and the corresponding metabisulphites may also be used The sJlphite has other [Inctions in the developer and an importRnt one of these is its action as a silver halide solvent Thi6 effect is made use of in fine-grain developers where the sulphite reduces the actual grJin size by dissolving some of the silver halide A concentration of Jround IOOglitre is required for this to be significant

In some colour developers where the sulphite concentration is J1W other antioxidJnts SUCII as hydroxylamine are used as preservatives

The Alkali ---- The a 1ka 1i is somet imes re [erred to as th~ acce lera tor because mos t deve lopers arc only efficient in alk1line solutions The three commonly used types of alkali arc a) tile c1uHtic alkalis (sodium and potassium hydroxide) b) the carbonates Bnd c) the mild alknlis and alkaline buffers

The callstic alkalis give rise to high eneq~y developers usually with poor keeping qualicies The carbonates are less aggressive in their nction and are very

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widely us(d The mild alkalis such as bor-ax (sodium tetraborate) Kod1lk (sodium P1o t aborate) (lnu the alkaline buffer mixtures are extensively used in mooern fineshygr ain developers

The Restrainer The most commonly used restrainer is potassiulII bromide Tile effect of uromicle

is to reuuce fog formation (the development of unexposed parts of the emulsion) and to slow down the rnte of development Potassium iodioe has a similar nction but much lower concentrations must be used (approximately one thousandth of the quantity Df bromide) Too much restrainer results in a lowering of the image contrast 3nd should be avoided

Other Conponents Sequestering agents are added to developers tu overcome problems caused by

impurltles in the water used to make up developers (sec page 3) The mos t commonly used compounds are the cmnplex phosphates notably sodiulll hexa me tnphosphate (Calgon) and ethylenedinninetetraacetic acid (E DTA) nnd its derivatives Calgon is ellenp and very effective at sequcstel ing calcium ano magne s ium ions The disadvantages are firstly that it is not very effective ltlgaillst other mct~1l ions and secondly the complex phosphates break down in alkaline solutions so are nsuitabll for use in concentrated stock developers The di s advantJges of EDTA a nd related compounds are firstly cost Jnd secondly they can accelerate ltleri u l ox i dation of the developer in certain circu~st ances

Some developers require aoditional restr(Jiners in the form of organic anti shypoundaggants This is partic ul a rl y true of Phenid one 1nd its derivative s ltlnd some ~o l o ur deve l opers The mo s t common l y used is benzotriazole but 6-nitroben zimishydazole which is about 100 times more potent is also encountered

Host modern develop2cs contain a wetting agent to en s ure the event wetti[~ ) f the film and the el imination of air bubbles The ltlmount used sltoulo not e xceed

Iproximaeiy 0 5g per Litre othelwise fODming Iwy Cltlus e p r oblems

~~k l ng up Solutions The chemicals should be dissolved in about two thirds of the fillal volume

of wat e r sh loin IN TilE ORDER IN WHICH THEY APPEAR IN TilE FORNULA a nd then the snl ution made up to the f i nal volume with water It is i mpo rtUlt that eAch c it mi cal add ed is completely di ssolved before the neKt is introduccd

Hixing vessels and ut ensi l s sho uld be of glass or plastic nd shoulo be tEZ erved for photographic use I-lhen mAking up a series of so lutions fo1 Any pit t i c ulltl r process it is good practice to make lip the soluti olls in the O[oer in lch t hey lITe to be us ad a s t his eu ces tit e ffects of cl ( rY-O Vl r contlIl1ination

Host ch emic als di ssolve more readily in warm Wltl[ e r but this s hou ld never eyce ecl SOoC (120

0 F) The s olu t i on can then be made up to final volume with

(o ld water I t is a useful prac t ice t o mltlke up developers as concentrated stock solutions

These ha ve be t ter ke ep ing qUltllit i es and are easier to s tore A typical developer would hav t he developing agent(s) and sulphite in one solutiun And the ltllkali restraine-s etc in the other Since sodium sulphite is distinctlYltllkalinc in solution the aerial o)(idation of the developing agents Ciln be further inhibited by substi t uting s odium metnbisulphite [or all or part of the sodi um sulphite The met a bsu l phi t e ha a greo1t solubil i ty t han su lphite is In c lficicnt presershyilt ive and is acid in reltlctiou so thJt the developerr are complet c ly inhibited

Of course the alkali content of the other solution must be incre1Scd pr oportionltJtely

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111 order to make the working developer alkAline

BLlCK AND llHITE DEVELOPER FORMULAE

In all the formulae in this booklet the quant1t1es are given in grams g ~ for solids and millilitres (ml) for liquids Development times are approximate bLC it is R simple matter to determine experimentally the development times which sui your particular film stock and which yield the contrast and density tau desi r t- o

The chromoGcnic black llId white films XP-l (llfard) and Vario XI(igfa) have been desirned for the Flexicolor C-41 process (see page 2n 1 Gene ral rurpose Developers

These Jeve(opel ~ Crable 1) do not use the silver halide solvent effect a nd s o are not true fine-grain developers However modern films have such inherently fine rrain that true fine grain developers are less important today than they were a fel years ago

Tnble 1 CellP-ral Purpose Devel opers

No 1 No2 No 3 No4 No 5 So ft Normal Normal Contrast Contr ~lQ NQ PQ ~IQ PQ (DI65) (D61a) (ID62 ) (ID2) (IDn)

~Ie t o 1 6 3 2

Sodl m s ulphit e anh yd 25 90 50 75 7

lI yJ r0111 i n__middot _e _ _ _ b 12 8 v__8_Jn ____________________~~~~ ________~

Sodium cnrbonate anh yd 37 11 60 375 48

Phenid onc 05 C 22 ~~------------------------------------~~~~------------~=

rotnssium bromi de 2 2 2 ~--------------~--------~----~~------~---------

Iknzotri azo le 1 20 10

SodiJJm metabi sulphite 2

Wa ter to 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

Dilution 1+3 l middotq 1+3 1+2 None (5tock + Iater) 1+3 1+7 1+5

Approximate development 10 6-7 3-4 5 5 time at 20deg C 12-14 6-7 9

----------------------------------------------------------~---------------

The soft working developer (No1) is useful for ~ubjects with an extended brightness range recorded on slow contrllsty film such as Pan F The ilormlt11 contrast developers (Nos 2 1nd 3) nre eminently practical developers ~ith wide application especially f Or rol1filO1 sheetfilm and plates Formulae 105 4 and 5 are contrasty developers suitnb1e for ordinary films and pllltes 111d can be us ed wiLhout dilution (or lille films such as pes Ortholith 35mm lith film When uld U1Hlilllted No ( is very similar to D19b and IDl9 X-ray film developers

Cal~oll m1Y be IISpJ ill these formulte and should be added before all other ingredieut~ Use up to 3glitre in hard water areas

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2 Fine Gr~in Developers TI(se we ll established fine grain developers (sec Table 2) are particularly

suitnble for miniature films (J5mm or sm31Ier)

1Llble 2 Fine Grain DevelopE

No 6 Fine Grain MQ D76

No 7 Fine Grain D76d

MQ No 8 Fine Grain PQ

Hetol 2 2

Sodium sulphite anhyd 100 100 100

Hyci r-oqui none 5 5 5

Borax 2 8 3

BorIc acid 8 35

Potas sium bromide

Phenldone 02

Hat~r to 1000 1000 1000

Approximate development time 6-10 12-15 10

Formula No6 represents the standard develope r against hiell all otlle r developers are judged Formula No7 is a buffered version o f No6 and yields morc consistent results but since the pH is slightly 10e1 th e developnie nt time s will be longe r Formula No 8 is a PQ developer with characteristics simillr to No7

All the above formulae can be diluted either 1+1 or 1+3 Lo r olle-shet prCccSStng yielding enhlllced acutancc but developmcnt tillllS should be approxshyimately doubled (1+1) or trebled (1+3)

3 Super Fine Grain Developers

These developers (see table 3) usc colour developing agents which are derivatives of -phenylenediallline the classic fine grain developer p-phcnylshyenediallline irself Iws too lIIany unpleasant charct c ristics to be of any use bull nowadays These colour deve lope rs a n~ S low work j ng and rl yc ill aliltI hydcoqu ino ne hav e been included ill formulae 9 and 10 t o nccelcratc developlIIClIt In [annul No II sodium carbolwte is the accelerntor The lulphite cOllcclltrntion is relatively high to make use of the solv(llt effect Sulphite c annot be ulcd in such high concentrntion in colour develolllIClIt of (OIOllf lTIall-inl1l IS iL inhibits the (01 ollr coup I ing rene t ion

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Table 3 Super fine Grain Developers

No 9 No 10 No 11 FocDl fXIO Kod Dk

-shy--_-------------_ Gcnocllrome 20 6

~~lJc in 20

ydroquinolle 6

Nydochrome (CD 3) 5

Sodillm sulphite anhyrl 100 100 30

Sodium carbonate anhyd 30

Borax 20 4

Boric acid 4

lola ter to 1000 1000 1000

Dilution (Stock + 3ter) 1+7 None None

Jppr(l~irnnte development time at 20 C 12-15 8 20

4 tcutallce or IIiIll D(~finiti(1n Developers ----The middot dZutancemiddot dt2vclopecs arc gencrnlly very dilute and require onl y suffic u~nt ngitation to prevent the [ormatLon of streamers The effect of this is twofold Firrtly the developer becomes exhllIsted in areas of heavy exposure yet remains active in the shadow areas This results in good shadow detail (resulting in an incre1se in effective emulsion speed) yet the highlight areas do not become blocked liP This type of cornp~nsRting development yields reduced macro-contrast but the result is not the same ltIS that acheived by ordinary soft-working developers siOlce tl(~ important highlight und shado bull contrast is good and the gradation of the less important ~id-tone9 is compressed The second effect of the high dilutfonl minimum agitation techniqlle is the forl1l3tion of ~Iackie lines which enhlllce apparent imGgc sharpness at the boundaries between lightly and heavily exposed 1re35 This is due to fresh developer on the lightly exposed side of the boundary diffusing across and acceleratill~ deve l opment in the adjacent heavily exposed emulsion Bromide a product of the developm~nt reaction diffuses in the revcrs direction and retilrds development in the lightly exposed en1l1sion adjacent to the boundary The net effect is an incn~ase in the apparent sharpne~s of the boundary

Developers of this type arc not fine grain developers and it is essential that they be used ith slower film8 (bdoN 150 ISI) which have fine grain emulsionr These sloNer films have a thin emulsion and are n3turally contrasty wih good acutillicc 1middotlith the fast films which normally yield a soft grainy neltative the reduction in macro-contrast produces a dull flat image which cannot b improved by printing on hard parer due to the grain In addition the thick emulflion of these [~ut films docs no t lend itself to the development of Mackie lines

Innlula No 12 (nr Table LI) the oriin~l Llclltance fonuJla can be made Jp in two parts the IlIrtol and sulphite in one solution and the carborlJte in the s e cond solution Forll1lae Nos 14 and 15 can be made up as concentrJted stock solucion s and 3f1in t h (o alkali (sonium or potassium carbonate) is kept as a SCp1ilt e solution Wi t h yenormuJ rio 15 the Pinacryptol Yellow solution shoul not be included in the concentrated stock solution but added just before lIe Pinacryptol Yel101Y is l desensicising dye which is decomposed by sulphite When preparing

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f o r mulae Nos 14 alld IS as concentrated stock soluti u llS it is aclvisable tu make up the solutions (except the carbonlt solution) in 10 iS0prufyl a lcohul (1 part isopropyl alcohol + 9 parts ltIter) as this helps d issulve thp Jeve lopin~ agents and improves the keeping q ua lities All these forllluiltl ( give tu one stop increase in effective emulsion speed

Formula 10 14 (FXlh) is a modification of iln)thcr (UrJlluln (FXl) where the sodium sulphite concentrat ion is only 5g per litre instemiddotad o[ lt0amp pe r 1 itrc This low sulphite furmula yields very high definition negatives bJt is more critical as to tKposure Development times are as [ornlula 10 15 (FX2)

Table 4 High Definition (Acutance) DeveL~~

No 12 Nu l) No 14 No 15 Beutler Jindisch HIll FX2

Crawl(l C_~w 1 e j

~ie tu 1 5 05 02gt

0ycin 075 I

Catechol (Pyrocatechin) 125

5(ld i urn sulphi~~ anhyd 25 80 10 35

Sodium carbonitf~ J an1d 25 25

Pot3ssium carbonate 7S

Po tas sium iodide 0001 solll 5

Pynacryptol yellow 12000 solli 3 5

----------- -----------------------------------------------------~----1000 1000 1000 100 0

----~---------------Dilution 1+10 25ml stock Nunc None

+l5ml potshyassium hydroxide 10k water to 10001111

[)c vmiddotd pmcnt t i llle 7 -1 0 15 - 20 8- J0 12- 15 at 20c i

5 Speed increasing developer f or push-processin g Thi s fine-grain IQ developcrrlO(iS) gives Ill incrcase in cillulsion speed of

a bou t one stop in normi1 use but further specd illcrenses can be achieved by cKtCnding the development tillle Jlth film slich IS 1115 this dolgt not lead to excessive contra~t or grain This developer may aiso be used [or dillllC 011(gtshy

shot procesfiing for enhanccd ltIcutance Dt 1+1 and Ii-] d llut lun (wilII cxt e nLilJ dcvclopmcnt tillles) giving a hulf 10 Olll stop incrcase in slwecl lhi developer is ~irnilar in 1 11 respects to 11[onl ltllltroll1

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Formula No 16 Fine grain speed increDsine developer (ID68)

Sodium sulphite a~lyd 850g llydroquinone 50g Borax 70g Boric acid 20g Phenidone 013g Potassium bromide LOg ImiddotJaCer to 1000 ml

Dllution Time (1115)

None 6middotmiddot9 1+1 11-16 1+3 22-30

Usc undiluted for the indiclted time to give the following speed increases on 111[5

800llSA (1 stop) 8-) mins l600ASA (2 stops) ll-12mins 3~00ASA (3 stops) 16-18mins

6 nigh Contrast Developers These developers give high contrast negatives lind are bese used on thin

emulsion high contrast film such as pes Ortholith film obtainable in 35mm cassettes from Photo ClwlllicoJ Supplies The first is the classic Caustic-hydroquinone developer and the s(cond is the s cand a -d Iniectious development low ulphitic developer T1e lotter is more delnonding of accurate exposure and development bUI

yields the highcst possible contrast for col our separation work and ha~f-tone dot screening Lith film may also be successfully developed using formula~ Nos 4 and 5 (undiluted) which hove better keeping qllalities once used but yield a blightly lowe contrast

No 17 CauGtic-llydro1uinone High Concrast Developer

SOLUTION A llydroquinone 25g

Potassium mctabisulphite 258 (or Sodium metabisulphite 2l5b ) PotassiUM bromide 25p (or Sodium bromide 2l5g) -I1ter to 1000ml

SOLUTlOCl B Sodillm hydroxide 36g (or Potassium hydroxide 50g) -IGter to lOOOml

Usc eqllJI P1rts A and Il and develop for 2-4 minutes The quantity of alkllli in Solntion B may be safely halved without loss of contrast but devrlopment time should be extended slihtly The two solutions keep indefinitely separately but ke e ping properties nre limited once mixed Use an acid stop bath before fixing to avoid staining

Nlt) 18 Infectious Lith Developer

SOLUTlON A Sodium sulphite anhyd 1

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Parafonnaldehyde 15 Po tassilil metaLisulphite 5 (or Sodium metabisulp lti t e I Jg) Water to 500ml

SOLUTiON Il Sodium sulphite anhyd 60 Tloric acid 15 Ilydroquinone 45 Potassium bromide J Water tJ 1500ml

------------------~~~ Use 1 part Solution A and 3 parts Solution Baud develop [or 2 minutes (Mix well and allow to stand for a few minutes before illuoersing fil m) The tlltO

solltloIls keep indefinitely separately and also keep quite well once mixed Both these high contrast dev elopers should be rl ixed fresh [ o r each film [or

best rf9ults pes Ortholith film is orthochromatic and developmcnt can be [olloved under a red safelight

7 HOlloba lils --TIse are solutions ill which development 1nd fixation t a ke place in the same bath In addition to the convenience of being single operation othlter advantages arc that the process is not dependent on criticll tilllillgt telllperatu(e o r agitJtion lmage contrast cannot be altered by extending or c u rtailing d(vel o pne nt but is built-into the mOllobath formula This can be set when m-Iking up the 1II01l0bath pri llci pally by varying the amount of fixing agent (sodium thios u llhate) includ e d The more fixing agent added the softer the contrast III addition the a moun t or act ivi ty of the developing agent can infl ue nce the contnlst o[ the (esult ill g ne gative

Tab le 5 Monobath formulae No 19 No 20

Socl i-lm sylphite anhyd 50 50

12 12

4

Sodiuln thiosulphate anhyd 70 (55-90) 60 (15-80)

Sod i lm h ydro ~ide=-____________--_4 10

Wat er to 1000 1000

P r oc ltss i ng time 5 mi ns +- mi n 5 llI ins-

+ mi n

i ll( degree of cont ras t produc ed will VIH y f ro on ~ f i 1m ype t o allo thl tmiddot and the qu antity of thiosulpbate requir ed will have to be determined e xpe(imentally

Ifor y o ur favourite film stock If a higher contrast than that given by using the lowest quantity of thiosulphate is required the hydroquinone concentration can be I increa s e d by about 25-30 Iloth these monobnths can be re-llned for up to ten [ill1ls or until the film is no longer cleared by the fixing agent CInLidenta lly a [ew minutes in a1 ordinary negative fixer will restore the [ilm) Films an plocessed for about 5 minutes (less for slow films) and washed Jnd dri e d nortlllly

pTO _ regJ1sect It is always good practice to use n stop bath betwee n the developing and

fixing baths An acid stop b1th not only halts develolIlllt 1lld millilliis s cont3mishynation o[ the fixer but also removes the scum formed Ly ~olle developer s nnd prevents

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st1ining particularly of lith materials after a hydroquinone-cauntic dcvclopcr

Table 6 Stop bath formulac

No 21 No 22 No 2) No 24 Acid Stop Buffered Stop Hardening Hardening

Sto~ Bath Stor Bath 2

Sodium Acctate )1l20 ))

Acetic acid (glaciat)(mt) 25 10 65

Chromium potassium sulphate 30 15

Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000

A few drops of stop hattgt indicator such as that obtainable from Photo Chemical Supplies lllay be added The indicator ch111ges from pale ycllow to blue 19 soon as the 11 rilles above 70 (neutral) Thc hardening baths (2) and 24) are sed after high temperature development Formulae 21 and 22 are also suitable stop baths for print processing

yrxrms

Fixation 15 necessary to remove the undeveloped silver halide from the ernU L ion lIardening agents may bc added to harden the emulsion Hardening is essential for films which have been reversal processed or processed at high temperatures and for bromide papers that arc going to be hot-glazed Typical fixers are shown in Table 7

Table 7 Fixllg [laths

No 25 No 26 No 27 No 28 Standard Buffered Buffered Buffered Acid Hypo Hardening Rapid Ilarden bullng Fix~r Hypo Fixer 7ixer Rapid Fixer

Sod i urn t h io 11 ]_--ptat-=e2-=anhtyd_ _ ~____-=-___________________160 150

(or Sodium thinsulphate cryst) (50) (240 )

Ammonium thiosulphate 175 200

Sodium sulphite anhyd 15 25 15

Sodium metabisulphite 25

Acetic acid glacial IS 10 15

Bodc acid 75 10 75

Potassium alum 15 15

Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000

All are used undiluted for films but may be diluted 1+1 for papers The buffered flxer~ havf a partiClllnrly long lifc and the buffered non-hardening rapid fixer (No 27) is recommended for plastic-coated papers such 1S 11fospeed

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REVERSlL PROCESSING OF Damp_ W FILM

Ileversl processing of black Ilnd white film yields positive transparencies with Il beautiful tonal gradation As with all reversal processes exposure and first development must be very carefully controlled beciluse density variatiolls cannot be compensated (or in printing The process involves the developmellt of Lile negative image (first developer) dissolving away the s i lvcr thus fOnilPU (bleach bath) clering and re-exposure to white light (reversal exposure) and develorshyment of the silver halide thus re-exposed (second development) The film is then fixed and washed in the normal way I t is the firs t deve lope r wh ich de termincs the quality of the final image It is usual to include a small quantity of silver halide solvent to brighten the highlights and sodiulll thiosullilate or sodiulll thiocyanate are usually used for this The subsequent processes are carried on more or less to completion so timing is not as critical as with the first developer In the fol~owiJlg procedure the first developer is retained antI used again [or the second dev e lopment

Rev r rsal processing solutions

No 29 Reversal developer (stock solution)

Netol 3g Sodium sulphite anhyd SOg lIydroquinone l2g Sodium carbonate anhyd 6()g Potassium bromide 4g Water to lOOOml

Dilution (stock + water) 1+1

To the diluted working strength developer add sodiulll thiosulphate at the following rale (gram~ per litre)

PAN F FP4 llPS Sodium thiosulphate anhyd 5 75 5 (a~ Sodium thiosulphat~

cryst) (8) (12) (8) AlternAtively a print deve l oper such as Dromophen may be used diluted 1+1 ith thiooulpilate dded as above

No 30 Blcach (two part stock solutions) SOLUTI ON A

Potassium permanganate 2g Water to SOOml

SOLUTION B Sulphuric acid 10 vv lOOml Water to SOOml These stock solutions will keep indefinitely but deteriorate rapidly when mixed

For use mix equal parts of A and D and discard after each film Potassium dichromate (lOg) may be used in place of the Potassium permanganate in Solution A

No 31 Clearing Bath

Sodium (or Potassium) metabisulphite 25g Water to 1000ml

Fixer ---The bleaching solution softens the emulsion and a hardening fixer must be used

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The hardening fixers given enrl ier laquo(onnube Nos 26 and 28) are ideal

Procedure 1 First developel 12 mins at 20

0 e for all llford films with an inversion every 15 seconds Keep the developer for use in the second development

2 Wnsh 3 mins with frequent changes 3 llicach 5 mins with strong continuous agitation Roarbull lights may be

switched on after two minutes in the bleach 4 I~n s h 2 mins with frequent chnnges 5 Clear 2 mins in the Clearing bath 6 Iash 2 mins with changes 7 Reversal exposure Re-expose ench cnd of the spiral for 2 mins at 12-18 inches

from a 100 watt bulb This is best done underwater in a clear gls9 bowl standing on a sheet of white paper Rotate the bulb or the spiral during re-exposure to ensure even illumination

8 Second developer Develop for 6-8 mins at 20 0 C in the developer solution retained from the first development Development time is not critical but should go to completion

9 Rin s e 10 Fix Fix in acid htrdening fixer for 10 mins (formula No 2cent ) or

4 mins (formula No 28) It Final 5h Wash for 30 mins and dryas usual

Modifying the Processed Negative Th e silver imJge obtained after development and fixation may be either l r censhy

sified or r educ ed TIlis is to compensate (or errors in exposure or dlvelopment or both

INTE~(UFICTION

The following for muLt has been select e d [rom the many published because i t is simple effective etsily controlled and yields a permanently enhllnced negative The basic chemicals are reasollably safe unlike the mercury and uranium intensifiers

No 32 Chromium Intensifier

STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium dichromate 12 5g lJnter to 200 ml

STOCK SO LUTION II Hydrochloric acid 10 vv (36 ww) 30ml ( o r I1ydrochloric acid 10 1 ww) (L Iml) (or Hydrochloric acid cone) (]ml) WJter to 200ml For use mi~ 1 part Solution A with 3 parts water and add 1 part rolution n

The negative should be properly fixed and well washed Old negatives should be sO kcd in water for a few minutes The negative is immersed in the intensifier [or 2-3 minutes until the image is (ully bleached (it turns a yellowy-brown colour) It is then washed well until the yellow stain is removed The intensified image is then re-developed after exposure to daylight (or a light bulb 1 minute each side at 18 inches) in l nOli-solvent type developer This may be a print developer or general purpose necative developer such as formtJl No3 or any universal j developer An advantage of thi s intensifier is that the whole proces8 may be repe a ted several times with an increase in intensification each time as the image

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is built up

~EDUCTrON

There are three classes of reducers which reduce the amount o[ silver in the negative in different ways

The subtraltive reducers remove silver from all parts o[ the illlagc (shadows and highlights) at about the salTle rate 50 that the contrast 15 incrcaBed This is uscful for Jver-euroxposed negatives which tend to be flat

The peoporti)lal reducers remove silver in proportion to the density so that the contrast grildient is maintained This type of reducer is suitable for those negatives which are too dense for easy printing through over-exposure ~ombined

with over-development The uper-proportional reducersattack the IllDvy silver depositll more than

[he lightly exposed parts leading to a reduction ill contrast and density Dense contrasty negltives are usually the result of over-development

No 33 Farmers Reducer (Subtractive)

STOCK SOLUTION A Sodium thiosulphate anhyd 32g (or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (SOg) Water to 500ml

STOCK SOLUTION B Potassium ferricyanide 109 Water to 100ml Immediately before use mix 15 p3rts A with 15 parts w(lter and ~dd 1 pa[t B

The process of reduction should be watched carefully and may be stoppcd at nny time by flooding wi th wn ter The ac t i vi ty 0 [ the reducer may be n 1te [cd by va ry ing the qunutity of Soltltion II added [ncrensing t he [crricyanidc increa ses the activity and vice versa The stock solutions keep indefinitely hut the working solution hu 3

short life

No 34 Permanganate - Persulphate Reducer (Proportional)

STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium permanganate 1 solution lZ 5ml Sulphuric acid 10 wlw 65ml Water to 500ml

STOCK SOLUTLON II Ammonium persulphate 25g Water to 1000mi Distilled water should be used to make up these solutions for use take one

part A two ports distilled water and two parts B A slower acting mixture is I part A 4 parts water and 1 part II and this may be easier to control A[ter reduction the action con be halted and the brown stain removed by immersing the negative in a 1-2 solution of sodium (or potnssiul1l) metabisulphite The negative should he thoroughly waMhed before being dried

No 35 Pelslliphate Reducer (Super-proportional) Ammonium persulphate 125g Sulphuric acid lOr ww 5m1 Distilled water to 500101

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The ne)a t i ve shou 1d be fu lly wn shed The leduc t ion mus t be wa tC1ed close ly as the rate varies ~idely with different emulsions nnd with some modern high speed ~mulsions it iR not effective ]t all to 12-157 solution of sodium Ilulphite anhyd can be Ilseu as ] s top bath Imd the negat ive is fi na lly given a good wash

BampW Print Processes [1) NI_I2EV~1QI2yRS

Print developers arc generally fairly contrasty compared to negative developers and of course it ig not necclisary or desirable to use fine grain or acutance techniqupound for prints The colour tone of the image is the main variable in print developers but the colour obtained will depend largely on the type of print paper (eg bromide chlorobromide or chloride)

Table 8 Standard Print Developers

No 36 No 37 No 38 No 39 D163 ID62 ID20 New

PQ Univ NQ Paper Winchester

~middotc to 1 22 3 35

Sodium sulphite anhyd 75 50 50 35

-lL(~ro(l~1 i WJlle 17 12 12 86

Socli11Tl -----shy

carbollate lt1nilyd 65 60 60 63

lhellidolle 05

Potassium bromide 28 2 4 l9

I3cn7otriazole 1 15-25 20 37

Wettinr agent 10 10 10 10

Wnter to 1000 1000 1000 1000

Dilution (stock + water) 1+3 1+3 1+3 1+2 Calgon may be added to all the above at the rate of 2g per litre If the ueveloper is uRed at less dilution development iR more rlpid The

benzotriClzole in these formulilc irnproves the brightness of highlights by reduc i ng fog and also shifts the colour of the illlage towards black or blue-black The New middotIinchester formula (No 39) is a universal paper delTeloper giving good black to nc s and is the basis of many commercially available print developers

Table 9 Warm-tone Print DClTelopers

No +O ~Jo 41

~Lltf01 I i nonc _________--25 ---8_ ___

Sodium Dulphite anhyd 60 60

Sad i IIll carboIlHe anhyd 90 90

~ycin 25

Potassium oronlidc 2

~ater to 1000 1000

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Dilution (Stock + water) 1+3 1+2 Time 2-3 mins 1-2~ mins

Formula No 41 has a warmer tone tllan No 40 but both arc best used on warm-tone papers

STQ- [lATHS FOR PR_INT~

The 1I0n-hilnlenlng stop blths given carlier (Nos 21 and 22) arc suitable f0 r prints as is a 47 solution oE sodium or potassium mctabisulphite (I~Oplitre) good economical stop bilth can be made up by adding 1 part stop batl (as above) to two parts old fixer and mixing up a fresh fixing bath When the stop batll shows exhaustion the stop bath ia discarded and the old fixer converted to the ncw st op bath This double use of fixing solution Lcally does prolong the life of the fl xer bath as a large part of the fixation takes place in the stop bath and the diluti on ensures that no staining occurs

PRINi FIXERS Any of the fixer formulae given earlier for negativcs will provide fix e rs

suitatle for papers (formulae 25-28) The rapid fixers have a much grentcr cJptc ity than the hypo filter s and formula 27 is especially recommended for plastic-coatcd pap~rs Prints on normal paper wh i ch a r c t o be hot-glazed should be fixed in 1

hardening fixer (formulae 26 or 28) Formula 25 is obviously the cheapest to ma ke up but the pll should be monitored and more metabisulphite added to restOt-e thc acidity when required All may be used diluted 1+1 It is advisable not to U 5C the some solution for fixing both films and pape rs even if the same formula is used but to keep film filter and paper fixer i n s eparate bottles

t~ID F9H PAPER PInNTsect The fibre base of normal printing pl pe rs retains acid chemicals from the fj xing

bath which are difficult to remove by -a s h ing alone If after a brief rine 11C

print is i~nersed in a 2-5 solution o f s od ium carbonate anhyd for 2-] minutes the subsequent nonnl wash ensures that all the hypo and hYPolilver camplexes a t c removed This alkaline bath should be used whenever any subsequent trcatmenl of the print such as toning is to be carried out

LYPO ELI~IN~TOB 11C following solution (formula No 42) serves to oxidise the thiosulphate t o

~ulphate which is then easily washed ou t o f the paper

~~_~po Elimin_ator

Hydrogen peroltide solution 3 (10 volume) 125ml or Hydrogen peroxide solution 6 (20 volume) 63mU Ammonia solution 0B80sg 10ml Hater to 1000ml immerse the prints in the above solution after a normill W8lh in running W (l ~ er

for about 5 minutes followed by a fu cthc r Hash of about 10 minute This hyposhyelimnator is made up of volatile compOIw nts so that there is_ no risk of elininllor salts remaining in the p1per-base after drying

PRINT TONING Prints may be toned a variety of colours and depending on subject can yielel very

pleasing results All prints must be tlloroughly washed prior to toning and old prints

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~lloliid be soaked ~n water for a few minute s to soften the emulsion

1) Sepia Toning Th follow(ng method yields perm1nlnt prints with a good brown tone In fact

prints treated in lhis way have greater permanence than untreated prints and the lmiddotLlwd is USLd ill 3rchival processinl The print is first bleached ill a ferri shyqnidcbroHiide bleach until the d3ri~est partH of the image tire a raint straw LU lour 1 t is lilen placed in the toner b3th 1111lt1 the sepia image quickly reappears

Nu (d FerricyanidcDromi de Bleach

Potassium [erricyanide 40g Potassium bromide 251 Jater to 1000mi Tllis stock solution is used undiluted and keeps well if stored in the dark or

ll a dnk bottle It may be re-used until exhausted h[ter bleaching the print 1~ washed well and trGnsferred to tbe following solution

Uu 44 Sepia Toning BGth -Thiolre1 109

Potassium bromide 40g Sodiul1i hydroxide 3-6g WJter to 1000mi The qu~n[ity of sodium hydroxide can be adjusted between the above limits to

yield the desired tone colour This toning bath is preferable to the traditional suJiul11 sulphide hath because of the unpiensant smell and properties of sodium sulphide solutions Thiourea and sod i um sulphide should not be used or stored in lilt dGrkroom or near sensitised materials

bJ lllie Toner This process does not re qruire a bleach stage but the print should be thoroughly

- s hed a[te1 fixation The process intell5ifies the image slightly so prints to bpshytOiled blue should be mnde a little lighter than they would otherwise be

Nu 45 Dlue Toning Bath

SOLUTION A

Potassium ferricyanide Ig Sulphuric acid 10 ww 30ml Wnter to 500ml

SUIUTION 13

Alliinonilim ferric citrate (green) Ig

Sulphuric acid 10 ww 30ml Water to 5001111 Mi elt[uGI parts hand B immediately before use The wet print is immersed

ulltil the desired tone is reached and then washed Excessive wnsh ing will ble a ch lliit the blue colour and just sufficient wash to remove the yellow tain should be lven This bleaching is largely eliminated if the print is lshed in water conshy[lining a l ittle acetic acid (51111 or less per litre)

c) Red TOiler Th~TtO~ing is il traditional red tOller using copper sulphate hglin no

b I each is llluircd

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No 46 Red TOllin~ Bath

SOLUTION A Cupric s~lphate (511 deg) 12 5g

2Sodium citrate 500g (or Potassium citrate) (55g) Water to SCOml

SOLUTION B Potassium ferricyanide 109 Sodium citrate 50 g (or Potassium citrate) (SSg) Water to SCOml Use equal volumes of II and B mixed just before use The image colour changes

through warm black then sepia to rea 2nd t he process can be halted at any stage by flushing with water The print is th~n wa s hed and dried normally

PRINT nEDUCERS Print reducers are generally used Eor the local reduction of dense parts of

iarge prints for generally brightening dense flat prints or for removing fiilvcr completely from unwanted areas Farmers Reducer (formula No 33) is the most commonly used print reducer and shoul d Df t sed s ufficiently diluted to allow control of the reduction proc ess Use scr 1p dn ts to de t e rmine the appropriate conditions ~len using Farmers Reducer wash the pr in t frequently in running water or permanent yellow staining may occur Farmers Reduc e r used very dilute is ideal for brightening dense flat prints It is a s ub t ractive reducer and gives bright highshylights a nd increased contrast

~len heavy deposits of silver have 0 igt e remov ed completely such as that cause1 by pinholes in line nega t i ves Fa nna r s Reduce r is not su i tab Ie because of the possibility of staining The followin g formula (No 47) is an iodine re ducer which i9 very effect i ve at removing dense silver

No 47 Iodine Reduce r

Potas sium iodide 1Sg Iodine crystals 05g Water to lOOml This reducer is applied to the mOl s t lot ~et) print with a swab or brush and

the resulting brown Btain is easily r emove d in a 15 solution of sodium thiosulphate Illlhyd (or 25 sodium thiosulphate cryst ) after a rinse in water The print should then be thoroughly rinsed

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Colour Processing Besides offering real economy brew-it-yourself colour processing is v~ry

satisfying and can yield results superior to those offered by ln3ny commercial proshycfSSinl~ houses All that is required ilre careful working methods and atttntion to dltlails Tlte Icrwrill instruction relating to monochrome proc(ssin~ should be r~d in conjunction with thcse notes on colour processing It should be emphasised that the formulae given in this section are not those of the film manufacturers who do not publish their formulae but have been worked out to yield results comparable with the manufacturers recommended processing

Time and Temperature Cololl~ ma-terials are not as flexible as black and white materials with regard

to development conditions since wide deviation from the recommended development can yield shifts in colour balrnce ohich lQay be impossible to correct in printing With reversal materials in particular exposure must be accurate and the time and temperature of the first development is crucial as thi largely determines the quality of the ftnal transparency In the C(j process the processing temperature is rather high (3a

oC) bllt this must be maintained at least for the first dtvelopment There is

slightly more leeway ~Iith the other st~ges but these should b~ kept within the limite shown The sallie applies with colour development of negative materials and again the processing tenrperature of the C41 procefiS is high (also JaoC) The times given in the formulae include 10-15 seconds to uHo~ for draining the tank

H~king up the Solutions As wi th all the - formulae in this bookl e t the chemicals should be dissolved in

tire order given Some of the colour dev e lo p ing agents while extremely solub i I wa te r tend to separn te out in the a 1 k a 1 ine J eve loper sol ut ions Ita aov isab le to dissolve the colour developing agen t to gether with the hydroxylamine (hydro shycldoride or sulphnte) where p r e sent se pa r a te ly i n part of th e total volume of water alld add this slowly 0 th e rerna mJer o f the solution some time before use rile hydroxylamine acts as an antioxidant and is required because the sulphite conshyclntrltion hCls eO be low Hydroxylamine is rapidly decomposed in alkaline solutions ill the pr se nce of sequestering agents of the EDTA type so Cnlgon should be used i n h~rd water ~~ r e s rather than EDTA

V~QCESliING G9J~QI1lLill=VERSAL FILMs_U0R COLOUR SLIDES) There are at present two princiPlll systems for colour reversal film prGcessing

(excluding Kodachrome) The first is the ~g fachrome 41 process covering all Agfa r-tJVersal fi 1m (except Igfachrotnc [(IOOS Profe ssional - proce Sl E6) olhether sold process paid or not Thepound are few if any other makes o f [i Tm available in Britain ohich use this process The second ir the Kodak Ektachrome E6 process hich covers IllOSt of the rCIllining colour n~versal films There are a few filns Idlich ltIre still made for outdated process es sLlch as ORWO f i l ms ohich are proc e s sed by an old Igf~ process Rnd some specillised Ko d ak films suc h as Ektachrome In f rared Film find Photomicrography Color Film 248J which are processed by the old E-4 process There may still be a [ew films from independent manufacturers designed for the old E ~ process

Kodak Kod~lchlome films are sold process paid and user processing is not feasible

Keversal Exposures - Reversal film mUfit be given a fogging exposure to light (Where chemical fegging is not used) after the first development Because the emulsion is very much less sensitive at this stage than normal film this exposure mtlst be rather intense It

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is best to remove the film from the spinl and SCC-SDW it through plain wter below a Photo flood lamp Ilowever a wet delicate film is difficult to reload into the spi ra 1 (bes t done under lola ter) and it is cas icr to leave the film in thc 5 pi ra 1 nlld extend the exposure time With clear spira ls thc exrosure time should be at lea~t

doubled and with the translucent nylon spira l s the exposure should be increased 5-10 fold When the film is not removed for the exposure place the spiral in a white 001011 of water (or a clear glass bowl on J wl ite surface) and place the lamp above it During the exposure of each end of the s pir a l the lamp or bowl should be moved about so that the exposure is more even Watc r and cl~ctricity dont mix so care is needed and a hot photoflood lamp will burst if s plashed Dont skimp on th e reversal exposhysure - it is easy to underexpose but dif f ic ul t to overexpose For the Ektachrome E-6 p r-ocess a reversa l bath which chemi c3 1y fogs tile film making the reversal exposure unnecessary i s available from Pb c to Chemical Supplies

The Agfachrome 41 Proce ss Suitablc for all Agfa Reversal poundll ns (except Agfachrorne RIOOS Professional

available in 120 size and sheet film only)

formul ~ e - Agfachrome 41 No 48 First Developer

Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g middot1e to 1 3g Sodium sulphite anhyd SOg Hydroquinone 6g Sodium carbonate anhyd 40g Potassium thiocyanate 25g Potassium bromide 2g otassium iodide 0 1 Solution 6ml wate to 1000111

No 49 Stop Bath

Ac etic acid glac iol 101 Sodium acetate (3H 0) lO g

2Water to 10001111

No 50 Colour Developer PART I

Sodium sulphit e anhyd 3 5g Hydroxylamine hydrochloride I t Potassium bromide 19 Colour Developing Agent see below Ethylenediamine (50 vv Soln) 16ml (or 2-phenylethylamine) (3ml) -later to 300ml

PART BI Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g S~dium carbonate anhyd 62g Water to 500ml

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c) lour iPVf loping age nts [0[ Part lI

Colour Dev e loper 1 (sulphate) 28g or Colour l)eve l o pe r I (chloIide) ( CIH) 22g or Cenochrollc 2 5g or Dtoxych rome 3 2g

lOOt usc add ParL II slowly to Part D with tirring and make up to a total volume o f 10U0Il1I

No 51 [leach ~-----Po tas s ium-[e rr i CY[lnidc 80g

Potassium bromide 30g Sodium acetate (J1l 0) 50g2lor ic Jeid 5g Potnssiwa nll11 30g Water to 10001111

Ngt 52 Fixcr ---S-oJI~-tTiosu I ph a te anhyd l25g

(or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (200g) Sodiul1l s ulphi te lnhyd lag Imiddotlater to 1000ml

Th pit of this fixer is approximately neutral Do not use an acid fixer because it Jill blcnch th e dyes

Nu 53 Stnbiliser - --- We t ti~g agelt - Im1

Forlllaide hyde 0 5ml I-Jte r to IOOOml

~ (lCeslng Procedure lIrfachrome 41

At 20 0 C (minutes) At 24degC (minutes )

1 First Developer 18 - zr-----shy lJ-l~ (z00-O 50C) (2l 0 -02SoC)

2 Rin sc ~ 3 St op bath 4 3 4 1[151 10 7 S Reve r sni Exposure See be l~w 6 Colour developer 14 (20 0 -0SoC) 11 (z4 0 02SoC) 7 - 1 5 h 20 14 8 Ill eac ll 9 I-[lsh 5 4 lll Fix 5 4 ll Wash 10 7 12 Stabil iser 1 1 1] Dry (30 D

e) mox

One minute each side with film r emo ved from spiral 2 minuteR each end rf clear sl c rlll lid 5-10 minutes ench end of ttanslucent nylon spirill frolll a No2 Photoflood a l I lie t re () f le t)

Thp t Cll peratllre during the Lwo developme nt stages should be maintained within til limits shown For other stages tlte t e lllperature may range from 17-20lC or 21 - 2llC The third wash (Htole n iu raLh e r long and it is important that it is llt lL shorted In soft watcr ilHilS this lung wallh nwy c ause the clUulsion to slocll Su un int e l-mediate bilth of 5 minutes immediately J(tcr the colour developer can be given to prevent excessive swelling This is a 2 solution of either sodium

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sulphate or magnesium sulphate (Glaubers salts or Epsom Salts) If the intermediate bath is used the third wash may be shortened by 5 minutes In the two developer baths agitation should be continuous for the first 30 seconds followed by two invershysions every half minute for the rest of the period

As usual it is the developer solutio 1~ which deteriorate first The remalnlng solutions (stop hath bleach and fixer ) have double the capacity of tIle two developers Ea ch litre of developer should process 6-8 films but the development timcs should be extended by 30 seconds at 20degC (or 20 5cco~ds at 24 o

C) after the first two films anQ after each subsequent two films hi applies to both the first and colour deve lo pers

rne Ektachrome E-6 Pro ess 1 am indebted to Mr Derek Wa tkl 9 r0~ permission to reproduce this formula

wh i ch first appe1red in the March 198 1 i sgt lc of the magazine SLR Camera (Haymnket Publi t hing Ltd 38-42 Hampton Road TCd ingcon Middlcsex)

There are a lot of films from man n~rUl facturers sold under a wide variety of brand names which are compatible with the E-6 process Even Agfa make an E-6 compatible film (Agfachrome RIOOS Professional)

FormuL ae - E-6 i-lo-54---first Deve 1upe r

Sodium 6exametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g Sodium sulphite anhyd J9g Potassium carbonate anhyd 14g Sodium bicarbonate 12g Phen i done O 6g Itydroluinone 6g Sodium bromide 22g Sodium thiocyanate Ig Sodium hydroxide 33g Pot~asium iodide (01 50ln) 45ml Water to 1000m~ pH 9 6-005

No 5~ Stop Bath 1 ------S0dium acetate anhyd 30g

(or Sodium acetate 320) (50g) Acetic acid glacial 6ml Water to 1000m~ pit 55-02

No 56 Colour Develoger Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g tri-50dium orthophosphate 1220 36g Sodium hydroxide 3g Sodium sul~lite anhyd 4 5g 3gtdium bromide 065g Potassium iodide (01 Soln) 30ml Sodium thiocyanate 1 3g Citrazinic acid 1 25g CD-3 l1g ~oter to 1000mi + pH 1165-005

bull 23 shy

S LOp lath 2 Same as Stop lath 1 but once used do no t interchange them

No 57 ll l e ach lotassiulil (erricyanide 80g Potassium bromide 20g Ji-So JiullI hydrogen orthophosphattnnhyd 12g (or di-Sodium hydrogen olthophosphnte

1211 2deg) (JOg) Acetic acid glacial 5ml Hater to IOOOrot plt 55-02

No 58 Fixe r - - Sndi-u-thiosulphate Mlhyo 125g

(or SodiulTl thiosulpilte cryst ) (200g) SodiuJJ sulphite anhyd 5g So dium me tabisulphite O5g Water to lOOOlllt 11 72-02

~Jc tt ing JgCllt lmL

L r to lOOOml

Time ~pe ratute

l First development 6r J8-U57 - shygt Stop iJath 1 2 33-JoC J Ih 2 3J-J90C 4 Reversal Exposure Two minutes each side with (ilm removed

froro spiral 5 minutes each side of clear spiral ano 10 minutes each side of nylon spiral with No 2 PhotofLoud at

(Or HeveJs31 JlJth) (ObtainJhle 12 inches frolll Photo Chical Supplies) 2 JJ-J90C

5 Col o ur u(ve [o[JllICnt G JSlOC 6 St o p Bath 2 2 JJ-l)degC 7 1-1 2 ])-J9()C g 11 [e middoth 5 JJ-l9C l) Rins e ~ 3J-390C [0 fix 5 3J-390C II Wnsh 6 33-J90C I ~ S tid il s c 1 3J-390C n Dry (Fillll cllt~Jrs on drying) r uTES ) As wilh all revlrsnl processes the [irut developer largely delermines the ehnrilct(tmiddotistic~ o[ the final translnrency Jntl the rcconlllltnJeu time anJ temp~rature

hlHJ1J be Iuhlrcu to b) AgitJtion in 11 ba ths (except the optional reversal bnth and the stabiliser

- - - - - - - ------------

wllich should not be agitated) is continuous for the first 15 seconds followed by two

inversions of the tank each subsequent half minute With the reversal bath and stnbiliRer an initial inversion to ensure uniform distribution is all that is required cl The conditioner bth in the offici)l process is lwl required in the pLOceJllre given hele as this useR ferricyllnide bleach rather than all EUTA hl(ach d) The two Rtop hth re of identical compositioll bllt should not be illtcrchlIircl due tu dnmn~illg carry-over contomination e) The caplcity of the solutiolls is 10 filll1ll pr litre (36 exposure - 35 or 120 roll film) bnt the tillle in the first developer must be extencled hy 15 second~ after the first two films and after each subsequent two films (by 20 seconds fOl the last two films) f) The made-up solutions should be scored in dark bottles at room temperature not in the refrigerator The first developer will keep for two months unused or for four weeks once used The colomiddoti developer will keep for 3 months unused or 2 lIIo11~hs partly used nd all the remaining solutions will keep for 6 months ur longer Although the first developer contains many ingredients it is not expensi ve to moke up Thus it is worthwhile retaining the remaining solutions to be used ith a ((esh ly made fi rs t deve loper if the fu 11 capac i ty canno t be used in the four we ek life 0f the original first developer g) Drying temperature should not exceed 60

0 C and all EktachrOllle films only clclr

when nearly dry For information on process control and fault finding in both Agfachrome 41 and

Ektachrome E-6 the reader is referred to The Focal Guide to Colour Film Proces~ing by Derek IJAtkins (published by the Focal Press norough Green SevEnolt)ks Kent TNlS 8PB) This excellent book also gives 11 the background information you may require Also in the book is a substitute E-4 process (as well an a low cost Ln~ temperature simplified E-4 process) for those films using this system This book also covers colour negative film processing

PROCESSING COLOUR NEGATIVE FILMS (PLUS XP-l AND VARIa XL BL~CK A~~lJTE FIL~ ~~__________~_ ____~______M~)__ __

As with colour reversal film the two major manufacturers of ~olour fil~s A~ [a

and Kodak each have tlieir own fi lms and processing systemy [or cololJr negative~ Again the trend seems to be towards a unified compatible system based on Kodaks C-lfl prccens

Processing negative film is very much eaGier tlan reversal processing for two reasons Firstly there are fewer steps in the processing sequence with no revcr~al EXpOSlln required and secondly there ill a little more latitude with tlte pro cessing since most faults can be corrected later at the print ing sta ge HOI_e ver cons iL e nt good resutts depend on consistent processing Attention to detail ~ile proce8s i ng a film can save a lot of time later on

Agfacolor N Negative Process ---T-tiis-process is in tended for all II fa co lour nega t i ve film (CNS CNS2 ann 80S Pr~fe9sionol) excluding AgCacoluur CNS400 negative film This ltter is designed to be processed in Agfacol o r Peo ceMs 70 chemicals and is compatible witl l Kodaks Flexicolor C41 process as is Agf a s chromogenic 131ack and ~hite film Vor l XL

The Agfacolor N process is slightly unusual in that the devclopmpnt is 11101-11(

to continue in the lowlgtr layers of the e mulsion during an intermedi1 t e bath wll icll immediately follows the colour developer

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Pu rmulnc - Agfucolour N i u 59- Colur- ll(vIoI~er SULUTION A

Sodium hexnmetaphosphate (Calgon) 2g PutnsSilJln carl)ooatc atlhyd 75p Potassium bromide 25p Wat e r Lo 500ml

~()LUTroN Il

lIydroxylamine hydrochloride 19 (or Hydroxylamine sulphate) 0 2g) Sodium sulphite anhyd 35g Colour Dcvcloppr 1 (Sulph~te) 28g (or Colour Developer 1 (chlorideraquo C22g) (or Cenocilrome) (25g) (0 t Droxych rome) (J2g) ) t e r to SOOml

I l d B tlJ A with stirring before use

Nu 60 Intermediate Bath -- -~lgn~sin sulpil1te--===- JOg

Mixed (or used) Colour Deve lope r 501n 30ml 1000011

No 61 Bleach --S-(Tll~eXaeLaphospilate (Cnlgon) 5g

Potassiulll fcrricY1nide 42g Potassium brolllidp 12g 10[ltl8siu dihydrogen orthophosphate 15g di-Potassium hydrogcn ortilophosplwte

nll Jil yd Sg Water to 1000111

Nl 62 Fixer -------sz-dG----Umiddotios ul phn te nnhyd 125g

(01 Socii um thiosulphntc cryst) (200g) SodiulIl sulphitc anhyd 109 Wnter to 1000ml

ltc~ing Procedure Agfacolollr N Time (mins) Telpernture degc-S----shy

1 Colour developer 20-02 2 Intermediate bath 4 2005 J -IDsh 15 (lllinilllllm)-20 15-20 4 IHench 6 2005 5 Hash 6 15-20 6 FLx 6 18-20 7 -Ilsh 10 15-20 fl ~~ett lllg agent bath 15-20 N)lI~S

Agit1tilln in niL stDges is continuous (or the fi1st minute followed by o ue j version of Lhc LIll( (very hoi ( minute thcrcnfter

llevcl)plIlcnt 11I3Y be varied betccn 7 - 9 minutes Increase ueve10pment to 9 llItes Lo incrcasc contrast and reduC(~ the time to 7 minutes (or softer results

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The orange mask is formed in the bleach bath and the recommended time and temperature for this stage should be followed as the density of the mask increases with time

All the solutions including the co l our developer solutions (separately) shoilid keep for at least 4 months Once mixed the colour developer (and the intermediate bath) will only Inst a f ew weeks

The capacity is 6 - S films (135- 36 o C 120) per litre but the development ttne shoul d be incr eased with each film or pair of films to compensate for developer e xha ustion The c a pa c ity of the co lou r d vetoper s may be e xtended by mixing onl y

al f of so lu tions I a n d B and proceSS in f( 4 i ilms in e ach h a lf In this ca s e prolong the development time by one mi nute a f ter eacll film

Flexi color C-41 Tlis process was developed by Kod lt1 ilt [or the mach i ne pro ces~ing of their nc~

colour negative films Kodacolor II and Ve ricolor II The majorit y of colour films from independent manufacturers are now made compatible with the C-~l process In addition there are the two chromogenic bl ack and white films lifords XPI and Ag Eal s Vario XL whi ch were designed fo r C- 41 processing l gfas fast colour nega t i ve film CNS400 should also be proce sed i n C- 41 chemicals

Because C-41 was designed for use i n au t omated commercial laboratories the processing t emperature is rather h i gh (IOO or 3So

C) As with the ~ktachrome E-6 precess these high temperatures bring abo ut the a s sociated problems of short development times and DE maintaining t hL t empe ra ture betwe en the prescribed limit~ Tha t t hes e pro b lems are easi l y ove rc ome i s J emon s trat ed by the many thousa nds of amac e urs who s ucce ss f ully process t hei L own pol and Vari o XL monochrome films in

oC-4 chemicals at 3S C

The following formulae represent a l ow cosi substitute procedure using a traditional ferricyanide bleach

ihe substi t ute process is reproduc d fr om The Focalguide to Colour Film Proc es sing by Derek Wat ki ns with k i nd p2r ssion from the Focal Press

Formu11e C-4l

No 63 Colour Developer Sodium hexarroetaph()sphate (Calgon) 2g Po tassium carbonate anhyd 38g Sodium sulphite anhyd 5g Potassium iodide 01 Soln 2ml Potassium bromide 1 5g lIydroxamine hydrochloride 2g CD-4 5g Wlter to 1000ml

No 64 Stop Bath Ae tic acid glacial 20011 Sodium acet1te 311 0 25g

2Water to 1000ml

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------ ----------------

~

No 65 Bleach Potassium nitrate 2SB Potassium ferricyanide 30g Potassium bromide 12g Boric acid 5g Sodium tetraborate (Borax) 19 Water to 1000ml

No 66 Fixer Sodium thioulphate anhyd 125g (or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (ZOOg) Sodium metabisulphite 20g Water to LOOOtnl

No 53 Stabiliser Wetting a ~r~ nt 1m1 Formaldehyde 40 511 )1 ~ater to lOOOm1

f ocessinG Procedure e-4l (with [erricY~lnid( bleach)

Time Temperature degc l Colour development 31- 38~~--

2 Stop bath 35-40 J Wash 35-40 4 Bleach 35-40 5 ~ash 35-40 6 Fix 35-40 7 ~ash 35-40 8 Stabiliser 35 -40 9 Dry

Agitation in the developer is continuous for the first half minute followed by one inversion of the tank each quarter minute thereafter In the remaining solution s the agitation may be reduced t o t lJO in ver sions every half minute after tilE init i a l )0 sec onds cont inuous agit a tio n e ach bath

TIll capacity of the so lut ions is a pplC))limately twelve films per litre if the dev eloper is made up as two 500ml port iuns dn d six films devel oped in eacll portion The development time should be extended by minute after the f irst two films and by middot a further i minute aft er t he seco nd 1lt1 fi ms A comb i ned b1each f ix bath may be u~cd in this procss b t t o[ cours Lilis calllu t be a f e rr i c Yll1ido ball ed bleach A sllitable formula can be found in t h e Br i i sh J our nal of Photography Annual

PIWCESSING COLOUR PRINTS For copyrigllt reasons we arc unabl e t o re produce the substi t ute fo rmulae for

colour print processing The f onnulae and pr ocedure s are quit e straight~orward and lIIay be found in the British Journal of Photography Annual Photocopies of the relevan t pnu es may be obtained for a nominal sum from the publishers This applies to earlic~ editions of the book and to the current edition after stocks are sold out (u s ually April or Hay) The address to 0 i s

Tlte Ed i tor Ilritish Journal of Photography Annmiddot qL Henry Greenwood ( Co Ltu 28 Creat James Street London WeI Telephone 01-404 4202

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APPENDIX I Chemical Names Seeals- Appendix 2 for Colour Developing Adurol Amidol Amidosulphonic acid Ammonium alum Ammonium hydroxide l2-B(nzenediol 14-Benzenediol Bor1cic acid Borax Calgon Chlorchydroquinone Chrcmlt alum Copper sulphate Copper chloride l2-Diaminoethane 24- Diaminophenol hydrochloride Digol l2-Dihydroxybenzene l4-Dihydroxybenzene 26-Dihydroxyisonicotinic acid Elo Ethy l enediaminetetraacetic acid and sa l ts Ethyl~ne glycol Ferri~ ammonium citrate Formalin p-Hydroxyphenyl glycine Iron perch loride Iron trichloride Kcdalk p-HtLhylaminophenol sulphate Nethyl p1raaminophenol sulphate middotIonoch 10 rhyd rOluinone 1- Pheny 1- 3-pyrazo lidone Potasnium alum Potassium bichromate Potassium bisulphite Potassium chrome alum Propan-2-01 Pyrocatechin (Pyrocatechol) Pyrogall ic acid Quino Sodium bisulphite Sodium hydrosulphite Thiocarbamide I 2 3-Trihydroxybenzene

and Synonyms Agent)

Chloroquinol 24-Diaminophenol hydrochloride Sulphamic acid Aluminium ammonium sulphate Aoononia solution Catechol (Pyrocatechol Pyrocatechin) Hydroquinone Boric acid Sodium tetraborate Sodium hexametaphosphate Chloroquinol (Adurol) Chromium potassium sulphate Cupric sulphate Cupric chloride Ethylenediamine Amidol Diethylene glycol Catechol Hydroquinone Citrazinic acid Hetol EDTA acid and salts Ethanediol Ammonium ferric citrate Formaldehyde solution Glycin Ferric chloride Ferric chloride Sodium metaborate Hetol Hetol Chloroquinol Phenidone Aluminium potnssium sulphate Potassium dichromate Potassium metabisulphite Chromium potassium sulphate Isopropyl alcohol (Isopropanol) Catechol Pyroglillol Ilydroquinone Sodium metabisulphite Sodium dithionite Thiourea Pyrogallol

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Jl)[l~NDIX 2

There appears to be considerable confusion surrounding the various colour developing agents This is probably due to the fact that these complex compounds helve all been given a different trade name by each manufacturer or distributor L1Ch compound may even have more than one chemical name depending on the chemical nOlllcnclature system used The following is a list of the chemical names and synonyms of the common colour developing agents All of them are derivatives of para-phenylenediamine the classic fine grain black and white developer and they sllare in varying degrees the unpleasant characteristics of this material They should be handled with care and skin contact or inhalation of dust should be avoided llecause these compounds are similar in structure and mode of action they arc interchangeable to some extent the differences being plincipally differcncfs ill activity and solubility Differences in solubility can cause slight colour cilmges but this is really important only with reversal films since with colour 1I~~ative films and colour papers colour casts can usually be corrected by filtration in printing The relative quantities re qui r ed ani adjustments to development times or exposure will have to be determined by experiment The names underlined are those used by Photo Chemical Supplies

Colour Developer I (Sulphate) - Ac t i vo 1 7 (Jejlt1Sltmi--shy= Uiethyl-p-phenylencdiamine sulphate =NN-Diethyl-l4-pbenylenerliamlne sulphate

C lO

II 16

NZ

H2

S04

Holht - 26232

Colour Developer 1 (Chloride) shy middotCOiKodak)

Die til y1- p-pheny lenedl alnine hydroch lorid e = NN-Diethyl-l4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride

MolWt = 20070

lt~ur [tgt velrer CD 2 (Kod~dd Activol 2 (Johnsons) [olochrome (M amp ll) NN-Diethyl-2-methyl-l4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride 4-Alllino-NN-diethyl-m-toluidine hydroch lo r ide

~ol Wt ~ 214 i3

Colour Developer 3 ~-CD3(Kod ak)

Activol 3 (Johnsons) ilyJoch rome (M amp ll) N-E thy 1- 3 -me thy 1- N- (f -me thylsul phonamidoe thy 1) -p-phenylenediamine sesqu isul pha te

monohydrate - Am lllO - N - e thy 1-N - (i me thanesu llhonalnidoe thy 1) -m- to 1uid inc s e s qu is u1pha t e

monohydrate

HolJt 43652

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Colour Develo~er 4 CD4 (Kodik)

= N-Ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyi-2-methyl-l4-phenylenediamine sulphate

~lolWt c 29235CllH18N20112S04

Droxychrome (M amp B) Activol 8 (Johnsons) Colaur Developcr 32 (Merck) T32 (Orwo) N-Ethyl-N-2-hydroxyethyl)-l4-phenylenediamine sulphate monohydrate

Wt 29634CIOH16N20middot1l2S04middotJI20 tiO

Ac60 (Agfa) Colour Developer 60 (Merck) N-Butyl-N-(4-sulphobutyl)-1 4-pheny l~ neciiamine

4-(N-Butyl-N-(4- s u phobutyl)amino)2 t ~ l i _e

Cl4 i 24 N203S HoliVt 30042

Gcnochrome (M amp B) - Acti~ol 1 (Johnsons)

S 28 OM) NN-Diethyl-l4-phenylcnediamine 9ulphit 2 Diethyl-p-phenylencdiamin~ sulphite

Mol ot t 23734

The bhse is ident i cal to Colour Develope r Sulpha t e and Hydrochloride)

APPENDIX 3 Anhydrous and lIydrncd Forms of Sal ts Many of the chemicals commonly used in photographic processing arc availllhlc

either in anhydrous forms or in one or more states of hydration If these oiffc l-ent forms are used in the ratio of their me l e u t ar weights then the amount of active ingredient is constant For example s od i um carbonate is available as the anhydrous powder (Molecular weight 105 99) and as tle decahydrate (Na C0 10I1 0 molecular2 3 2weight 21l6l4) The ratio of their molecular weights is 1270 so for every gram of anhydrous sodium carbonate required 270 grams of the decahydrate would have to be used It is important to remember thill point whe) compa r ing prices of chemicals because a hydrated crystalline form may appear cheaper weight for weight but be actually more expensive because of the add it ional quantity required

The following is a list of the commonly used chemicals which are available 1n different degrees of hydration showing their molecular weights and the ratios in which they should be used Those underlined are the forms which are supplied by Photo Chemical Supplies and are the most usual most economic or most stable form of the chemical concerned

Cupric chloride CUCI =13445 ~20=17048 Use 1127Z Cupric sulphate CuS0 =1596l _+511 deg=2[1)68 Use 1 1 564 2Ferric chloride FeC13c1622l +611 deg=27030 Use 11672Magnesium sulphate ~lgS04120=1J8 39 Z20=24647 Use 1 1 78

Potassium carbonate ~2C03=1J821 +1~1l20=l65_23 Use 1119

di-Potassium hydrogen ~211P04=174l8 +3H 0=22822 Usc 1 1 312orthophosphate

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-- --

~5 rJ Jiunt acct~te Cl COONa = 8203 Ue 1166~~2~= 13(~p~_3o d ium uisul phate NaIlS0 =12006 ~middotZO=lJ8 03 Use 1115

4~2SlJ=105 99 +10il20~2l6 14 Use 1270

)laquo ( ium d i hyd rogp n orthophosphate +211 0=15601 Use 1130

--2 -~---

d l-Slt)(JiJnl hydroren orlhophosphate Na

211P0

4=14196 +21122= 58~l~ Use 1 1 25 252

~ c liJgtn sulphlte +]011 0=32219 lise 1217~a23 =1t-Q~ 2~- dium suiphite i2 S03= 1~6 04 +711 deg=25215 Use 1200

2So diulIl tliiocYlOate N3SCN=8107 +2HZ2l2JQ Use 114-1 ( Ilst stored as 20 solutions)

S dilllll thiosu1phalc i02~22)=15sect1J +51120~24l1l Use 1157

Stannous chloride 21129=22563 Use 1119

l li-SodiUlll orthophosphate - thp mhydrous and crystalline forms not interChangeable due to alkalinity of the crystalline form whi~~ contains applox 2~~ sodium hydroxide

1 i IEND I X LI ~oJiuhl versus Potilssium Salts -- -- - r111( lIajority of phot~g-l--aphic--rroccs s ing soluti~~s sodiulU salts lIIay be

S dltituted [or pntasraquoiullI s 1lts n sodium salts are genentlly diEaper cmiddotleciall) since legs of tlte godiuHl salt is tequired to giV E the same molecular middotmiddot iuivalent In the Clse of tlte anhydrous carbonates and sulphites the sodium lts an 1sJ deliquescent than the potassium salls and 1re therefor easier to sL ore alld hnllJle The only advantage of the potassiLlln salts is their greater s o luui lily Ih e n highly concentrated solutions are made up lleCRuse of the slightly hi her nlkaLinity of the potnssiulO salts SOllie care in controtiing the pH is needed 1-111 11 substituting sodiulll [or potassium salts in buffer sy~te1ls For this reuson L1 uSllal buffer snIts nre not given here The (ollowing is a list of the ratios in which sorne of the CCgtlnlllon sodium nnd potassium sollts should be lIsed to give the I IiU (ecular equiv11cnts

Piltassiurn bromide Sod iUln bromide 100865 PutassiulTI cIrbonnte nnhyd Sodium carbonate Ilnhyd 100765 lJtlssium l)l1tS tUIlI

citr3LIO 0112deg)

hydroxide Sodium citrate (211

2deg)

SodiulII hyel ox ide 100905 100710

l u tass ium l1letabisulphite SodiullI metabislliphite 100 855 f o tl3S iunl Icrslllphilte Sodillm persulphate 100 880 Potassium sulphite anhyd Sodium sulphite anhyd 100 795

ArPENDIX 5 Wei~lts and Measures There are OIany old books which contain phot o graphic formulae 11 lot of which

al e still v11id todilY In Brilain thcse old formulae were Ilsuillly given in avoidupois ulli t rud the following tnbles 0I1Y be uficd to convert these formulae to the metric sf tem Avoi rdupJis Wli~ilts ~~~d TfT~r---- 16 ounces (oz) 7000 grnins (grs) f153 6gra1ll8 (g)

1 Juncc (llZ) 16 tJrll1ls (drm) 4375 grains (grs) 2835 grams (g) dram (drill) 2734 grHins (grs) 177 grams (g)

(1543 grains (grs) 10 gL1n1 (g) )

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Liquid Heaures (Ilritish alld Netd c )

1 quart 2 pints (pL) = 40 fluid oUllces (Floz) 1 136 1 it re (I) pint 20 fluid ounces (Fl nz) 568 millilitres (m1) fluid ounc~ (Floz)= B fluid drams (or d r c hills) 28lllml fluid drachm 60 minims 355ml

(1 minilll = 1 drop)

Temperature conv e rsion Fahrnheit to Celsius (Centigrade) (xoF - 32) x S = yOC

lt) Celsiu9 to Fahrenheit (yU C x 9) + 32 = xOF

5

APPlNlllX 6 Refrences and Funher Reading The following ia a short 1 ist uf publi c ations which readers will find

useful (or further informatiun 1 Jacobson C1 and Jacoblun R E (1976) Developing 18th Edit ion

Focal Press (see below) 2 Jacobson Cl a nd Hannheim LA (1975) Elllarging 22nd Edition Futal Press J Jacobson RE Ray SF Attridge GG and Axford NR (1978) Hanual of

Photography 7th Edition Focal Press I bull Langfo rd H J (1980) Advanced Photogl-aphy 4th Fdition Focal Press S Hason LFA_ ( 1975) Photographic Processing Chemistry 2nd Editioll Focil Press 6 Wat k ins D (19 78) The Focalguide to Coluur Film Processing Focal Press 7 Ilritish Journal of Photography Annual 1982 Henry Greenwood [ Co_ Ltd 28 Great

James Stn ~ t London WCl

The Focal Press Butterworth [ Co (Pllblishers) Ltd Ilorough Green Sevenoaks Kent TN15 flPH

Books 1 2 and] are all standard refere n c e w rks on photographic processing Ilook 4 is a ve r y useftl soutce of inforlUBtion on all aspe cts of photography but particularly on tone and colour reproduc t ion on sensitised materials The bouk by LFA_ Hasun (S) is es~ential [or those wishing to devise formulations of their own especially co loul formulations but the reader shoulJ have some chemical knowshyledge Book No 6 explains the principles o[ colour film processing and describegt th use of a variety of processing kits as well as providing Bubltitute formulae [or brew-it-yourself enthusiasts

The British Juurnal of Photography Annual (n is the traditiollal source of formulae fo r those wishing to mix up their own solut iOlls The formulae cover all aspects of both black and white and colour proc e ssing

NOTE The purpo se of this booklet is to stilllul te interest in the compounding of

photographi c processing solutiuns by tho se ph o t ographers wh o s e ek a greater undershystanding of the medium The ruatedal ill this buoklet is presented in good faith but because results are d e pe ndent on so many factors outside our control we cannot accept l iability for any processing [aults or inju~y to petsolls or property that might ari9 howsoever callsed Becaugte o f the subject ive nature of the medium it is the r e spons ibility of the user to Elac e rtain for himself the suitability of any [ormula or process in relation to hi8 mat e r ials e quipment and objectives Any suggestions from I a ders whi c h could be incorporated into foture editions o[ lhis booklet will be welcome _

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II c knuw l edgcmcnts

Til e author wOlld l ike to thank the f11 owing f o r pc n nisRiOll to us e m1terial for inclusion in this book let

Kod a k te for details of thfir formuln p (morw c hrome) ltlnd for addi t ional h e lpflll info rmati o n

IHo rd Ltd for permis~i on to reproduce their pllb lish e d formula e

Agfa- Ge v a ert Ltd for informat io n o n their p rod u c ts and pro c eRRinr

The Fo c al P If) 9S who publish a wiel e r ang e oC b oks u n plHtogl middot ~PY for permisAion t o US Ilel(cted m1terial [rom SOllI e of their puhlicltions (R ( e Appendix ()

~1r )( rek Watkins for pe rmissio n t o r e pr ud u c ( his slIbstitute 1-6 proc 1ing prn ee- dur( whi c h was first puhlished in the maga zine SLH Camer~

~h G W Crawley fditor of the Bri tish Journal of Photography for prmis9ion lltl rfprodllcE SOIll( of his FX sprifs -f d(vclop(rs

Th E ahv( prsons or organisnion9 (middot 1nnot Iccept 1ny liabil i t y arisin from the nprodnct inn of their lIIal([ial in Ihi hooklet

Writtfn by R C Potts ~fSc and publish e d hy PHOTO CHEMICAL SUPPliES 21 LODGE CLOSE

COWL EY MIDDLE SEX

UBB 2ES - 34 shy

No responsibility accepted for any formula or information contained in this document This is a scan of the original document

Use chemicals and formulae at your own risk Intended for personal and educational use only

Page 3: PCS Darkroom Formulary

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Introduction Why~ Brew it yourse

Photgropilers have alway liked to mlke up their own processing solutions Originally there were few prepack(~d mixturEs avaiLlble and the photographer had little choice but to oake up his own The raw chemicals w( reeasily avlilable and the formulae were idely pubtished L1ter hen th e fil mamfactuulS begtln marketing their Omiddot1n developErs fixers etc many photoshygraphers continutd to brew their own chiefly because it was so mllch cheaper tharl the pre-packed chemicals Today there has been a resurgence of interest in do-it-yourself processing and I will outline someuro of the [(Isons for this below

ECONOHY The savings to bt made in compounding your own processing solutions arc

considerable especially with the colour procesues In colour processing we arc attempcinr to match the rsutts obtained from the manufacturers O chelical s rather than trying to create specia effects of our own Economy is thlls the main rea sun for making up our own colour chemicals An ilurtunt extension of this is that nltlny of the solutions (such as tlevelopers) which det()riolmiddotte through atmospheric oxidatioll cltn be made lP in toO or more parts Jhich scpar~ILely will k ee p for very long periods These lHay simply bE mixed in the quantity required illll iled-iately before use thus elimi nating middotoste The econ b r1Lc adv o nt~ge s of comshypounding standard black and wllitt chclicals should not 012 ovCrlook c tl either For exarllplc the cost of the actual chemicals required to ll13ke up 1 high aClltance negative developer which will yield three litres o[ working strength developer i s less than 5 pence The equivalent commercial pack costs aroulld (100

FL EXIBILITY Most formulations of processing solutions within each group usc basically

the same chemicals in varying proportions Consequently with a 51111 stock of chemicals it is possible to make up a wide variety of developers soy each i t h B different (unctio Is ltin e Xlll1lpl Y Oll migIt not ish to 1T) 0 5 li rr k it of Lith developers just f or one or Lo films but thl de vci oper Call be 1 s i ly and cheaply made up in any quantity from standard cheillicals

CREATIVITY There are many formulae available for creating special effects ltIt (very

st3ge in black and white processing The re are special developers tJlt give h igh contrast low contrast high acu t allce fine grain COlrse prJin etc There are chemicals to modify the negative after development such os redu c tion and intensification which can be used to maintain reduce or increosc the contrast in the developed image Reversal processing of block and white film can yield very ple~sing transparencies with a tonol gradation not pussible in prints

The developed black and wllite print can also be modified tucreate special effects These may include local reduction chromogenic redevelopment sepia toning metallic toning dye toning anti archival processing

Using the Formulae Ch~micals

It is important to use chemicals that conform to the standards specified [or

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I

photographic chemicals These standnrds $pecify m1ximum limits for impurities that are important photogrnphicaUy as wet as a minimum assay All chemicills supplied by Photo ChemiCill Supplies conform to the appropriate British Standards or where there is none to the American Standards specifications

Sltfety ---Although the n1lt1jority of chemicals used in photographic procesling are

completely harmless in notnla use there arc a few which present special hnzards Some of the developing i1gents especially metol and the colour developer

derivatives of p-phenylencdiaminc can cause a form of dermatitis as the ski n becomes sens itised hy repented exposure With modern colour print processing drums and daylight tanks for films it is not necessary to come into contac t gt4 i th processing solutions Corrosive substances cove r both acids and strong al k a l is Avoi d ing direct skin contact is simplest Dod safest but should spillage occ~r flush wi th clean water

~hen dilute sulphuric acid is relt]uired for use remember that concentra ted sulph u ric acid reacts violenty to water and the acid sh ould be add ro d drop by drop nt first to the water Never add water to the acid as this causes vio ~ ent

bumpin g and s p itting It is best to bu) mineral acids as 10 vv solutio-L as these 3 r~ safe to handle and you simply us e 10 times the volume specified for the conce ntrated acid

Norm1l laboratory hygiene sho uld be observed that is immediately wipe up any spillages of powd e rs or liquids and keep the working area clear All bo t tles of mlt1d e up 50 lution R sho uld be cle lrly labelled with the contents and proc o_ alll] s h ou ld

Al che info rmation

be

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s co red ou t t cals SIlPp here appro

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reach by Ph

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of oto acco

children C lpmi cals

withrdance Suppl i es

latest are EEC

labellelt1 proposa~s

with a rd

Cleanliness A clear uncluttered working environment is essential in the successful

compounding of solutions Mixing vessels and utensils should be of glass or plastic and should be easy to clean Certain typeg of contamination arc more serious than others such as contamination of developers hy chemicals used as fixers Some c ompounds should not be used in the darkroom at all (such as the sul~lides and thiourea which are powerful foggants used in sepia toning) and should not be s tored near sensitised materials

Ie ilhing Out Not ~ll chemicals require the same degree of accuracy in weighJng out but

for consistency and reproducibility the Ieighing should be as accurate as pos s ible A balance snch as that sold hy Photo Chemical Supplies is ideal as it offers accuracy down to OOlg at a ver) reasonable price Some chemicals sllch )s Phenidone (a developer) which are required in small accurately measured quantities yet which would deteriorate in solution can be weighfd out directly into small vial~ in the nlt]uired quantities The outer plastic con Iiners for 35mm film cassettes are useful for this as moH types are airtight

U$ ing St o ck Sullltiol1s It i D s ometimES easier to store chemicals as stock solutions of known

concentrIlion which can then he dispensed by volume rather than by weighing The mlln tlisadvantnge is that most chemica19 in solution deteriorate with time and they do this at different rates Some chemicals are best stored as stock

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solutions such as the mineral acids mentioned earlier souium thiocYlOate which is very deliquescent (keeps best as a 20 solution) and potassium iodide which is only used in very small quantities as a restrainer and is most conveniently kept as a OlZ solution (lglitre)

It is a simple matter to calculate the quantity of a concentrated stock solution required to make up any desired volume of more dilute working solttion The fo11omiddoting formula

C-req x V-final V-reqC-stock

IOhere C-req the desired concentration (r)

C-stock the concentration oE stock solution (Z) V- final the final total volume desired V-req the volume of concentrated stock required

gives the volume of concentrated stock solution required (V-req) for diluting up to the final volume desired (V-final) to yield a solution of the required concentration (C-req)

QLlltlity 0 Water Water is the main ingredient in all photog r aphic processing solutions anu

it is probably the most variable component The only solutions in which water qua lity need be t~ken into account are the develupers for Eilus anu in the final B h for films

Very soEt water can cause swelling of the film emulsion tlsunlly wh(gtn used a~ a wash in high temperature colour process es such as C-41 nnu E-6 at JSuCIOOoF In f act in areas with very soft IOGter it is advisllble to nn ific Lnlly hltlnl en ti~ water u~ed in the was h cycles of colour processes by arldini sal ts such IS 1lJg esiwTi or sodium s ul phate (ordinary Eps(rn salts or Glau he r s s il lts) It 1

r a t e or approximately 20g per litre Very hard water is more troublesome It is the lIOluble magnesium and

e ll cium salts which are the main cause of water hardn ess Wh en developers are m de up thes e metals form insol uble salts with some o f th e common i ngredient s o f

e lopers such as 5ulphites carbo12tes phosphates ltlnJ bo r a t e s Til s e i nsoluble pre ci pitates can adhere to the film surface Other nletal ions such as coprer and ir an can Lccelerate the rate of aerial oxidation of uevelopers by acting os catalysts anu in higher concentration can cause sl icltt forcing of the fillft The

e ence oE i ron in the wat er can also cause staining of film and pltlpelmiddots The ~ arest procedure i s t o se di s ti lled or de-iunis ed wate r (suell as

P(r ified Water DP so l a by (l oots) for mak ing up develope rs This is an add itional expense which is not always required especially if sequestering ag nts are used but is particularly rerommended when rnltlking U[) cOllcentrltlt ed s t ock developer solutions which are later diluted for one-shot use This improves the keeping qualities of the concentrate and o rdinary tap ater can be used for the dilution A sequestering agent can be incorporated into either the tltlp wa ter or the concentrate

As hard water dries it leaves a scaly dlposit which can be very difficult to er v~ f rom i lms and it car a ffect the printing quality of ne ga tives A useful pract ice i to use one or t-o changes of a small quantity of distilled wate r to hic h a drop or two of wetting agent may be adued as the final ash

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BampW Film Processing

S_Oill2QlITIOJLQLJ3LACJL~1lD WHITE NEGATIVE DEVELOPERS

Deve lopers generally h1ve the following components

a) Developing agent(s) b) PrcRerv~tive

c) Alkali d) Restrainer

There may be other additions such as sequestering agents organic antifoggants and wetting agents

The Developing Agents The most commonly used developing agents are ~etol hydroquinone and Pheridone

There are many compounds which act as developers but most are now only of histoicaL interest as various combinations of the above three compounds can create almost any type of developer There are a [ew developing agentS in commercial usc which have special properties such as grc)t solubility which permits the formulation of highly concentrated developers These developing agents are of little interest to the 1I111teur who makes up his own developers and certainly oEfer no advantages Tl ~

[orl1lulae in tllis booklet are mainly tho~e using metol hydroquinone and Phenidona fetol and Phenidone have similar properties in that they are fast working

developers yielding 1010 contrast images lIydroquinone is a slow contrasty developer TIley arc seldom used a ione however but as metolhydroquinone (MQ) or Phenidone hycicoquinone (PQ) combinations Tllese mixtures show superadditivity that i the activity of the mixture is greater than the sum of the activities of the developers when lIsed separately lIytlroquinone is used on its own in high contrast developers where its action is Jccelerated by the use of caustic alkalis (eg sooium hydroxide) TIle properties of a developer are determined by its overall composition rather than by the choice of develoring Jgent alone Most developing agents including the three mentioned Jbove arc only active in alkaline sollJtions The pH and the nature oE the alkali are of prime importltJtlce in determining the properties of the working developer

The Preservltive The function of the preservative is co protect the developer from aerial

oxidation Tile compound almost univerRally used is sodium sulphite although potassium sulphite and the corresponding metabisulphites may also be used The sJlphite has other [Inctions in the developer and an importRnt one of these is its action as a silver halide solvent Thi6 effect is made use of in fine-grain developers where the sulphite reduces the actual grJin size by dissolving some of the silver halide A concentration of Jround IOOglitre is required for this to be significant

In some colour developers where the sulphite concentration is J1W other antioxidJnts SUCII as hydroxylamine are used as preservatives

The Alkali ---- The a 1ka 1i is somet imes re [erred to as th~ acce lera tor because mos t deve lopers arc only efficient in alk1line solutions The three commonly used types of alkali arc a) tile c1uHtic alkalis (sodium and potassium hydroxide) b) the carbonates Bnd c) the mild alknlis and alkaline buffers

The callstic alkalis give rise to high eneq~y developers usually with poor keeping qualicies The carbonates are less aggressive in their nction and are very

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widely us(d The mild alkalis such as bor-ax (sodium tetraborate) Kod1lk (sodium P1o t aborate) (lnu the alkaline buffer mixtures are extensively used in mooern fineshygr ain developers

The Restrainer The most commonly used restrainer is potassiulII bromide Tile effect of uromicle

is to reuuce fog formation (the development of unexposed parts of the emulsion) and to slow down the rnte of development Potassium iodioe has a similar nction but much lower concentrations must be used (approximately one thousandth of the quantity Df bromide) Too much restrainer results in a lowering of the image contrast 3nd should be avoided

Other Conponents Sequestering agents are added to developers tu overcome problems caused by

impurltles in the water used to make up developers (sec page 3) The mos t commonly used compounds are the cmnplex phosphates notably sodiulll hexa me tnphosphate (Calgon) and ethylenedinninetetraacetic acid (E DTA) nnd its derivatives Calgon is ellenp and very effective at sequcstel ing calcium ano magne s ium ions The disadvantages are firstly that it is not very effective ltlgaillst other mct~1l ions and secondly the complex phosphates break down in alkaline solutions so are nsuitabll for use in concentrated stock developers The di s advantJges of EDTA a nd related compounds are firstly cost Jnd secondly they can accelerate ltleri u l ox i dation of the developer in certain circu~st ances

Some developers require aoditional restr(Jiners in the form of organic anti shypoundaggants This is partic ul a rl y true of Phenid one 1nd its derivative s ltlnd some ~o l o ur deve l opers The mo s t common l y used is benzotriazole but 6-nitroben zimishydazole which is about 100 times more potent is also encountered

Host modern develop2cs contain a wetting agent to en s ure the event wetti[~ ) f the film and the el imination of air bubbles The ltlmount used sltoulo not e xceed

Iproximaeiy 0 5g per Litre othelwise fODming Iwy Cltlus e p r oblems

~~k l ng up Solutions The chemicals should be dissolved in about two thirds of the fillal volume

of wat e r sh loin IN TilE ORDER IN WHICH THEY APPEAR IN TilE FORNULA a nd then the snl ution made up to the f i nal volume with water It is i mpo rtUlt that eAch c it mi cal add ed is completely di ssolved before the neKt is introduccd

Hixing vessels and ut ensi l s sho uld be of glass or plastic nd shoulo be tEZ erved for photographic use I-lhen mAking up a series of so lutions fo1 Any pit t i c ulltl r process it is good practice to make lip the soluti olls in the O[oer in lch t hey lITe to be us ad a s t his eu ces tit e ffects of cl ( rY-O Vl r contlIl1ination

Host ch emic als di ssolve more readily in warm Wltl[ e r but this s hou ld never eyce ecl SOoC (120

0 F) The s olu t i on can then be made up to final volume with

(o ld water I t is a useful prac t ice t o mltlke up developers as concentrated stock solutions

These ha ve be t ter ke ep ing qUltllit i es and are easier to s tore A typical developer would hav t he developing agent(s) and sulphite in one solutiun And the ltllkali restraine-s etc in the other Since sodium sulphite is distinctlYltllkalinc in solution the aerial o)(idation of the developing agents Ciln be further inhibited by substi t uting s odium metnbisulphite [or all or part of the sodi um sulphite The met a bsu l phi t e ha a greo1t solubil i ty t han su lphite is In c lficicnt presershyilt ive and is acid in reltlctiou so thJt the developerr are complet c ly inhibited

Of course the alkali content of the other solution must be incre1Scd pr oportionltJtely

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111 order to make the working developer alkAline

BLlCK AND llHITE DEVELOPER FORMULAE

In all the formulae in this booklet the quant1t1es are given in grams g ~ for solids and millilitres (ml) for liquids Development times are approximate bLC it is R simple matter to determine experimentally the development times which sui your particular film stock and which yield the contrast and density tau desi r t- o

The chromoGcnic black llId white films XP-l (llfard) and Vario XI(igfa) have been desirned for the Flexicolor C-41 process (see page 2n 1 Gene ral rurpose Developers

These Jeve(opel ~ Crable 1) do not use the silver halide solvent effect a nd s o are not true fine-grain developers However modern films have such inherently fine rrain that true fine grain developers are less important today than they were a fel years ago

Tnble 1 CellP-ral Purpose Devel opers

No 1 No2 No 3 No4 No 5 So ft Normal Normal Contrast Contr ~lQ NQ PQ ~IQ PQ (DI65) (D61a) (ID62 ) (ID2) (IDn)

~Ie t o 1 6 3 2

Sodl m s ulphit e anh yd 25 90 50 75 7

lI yJ r0111 i n__middot _e _ _ _ b 12 8 v__8_Jn ____________________~~~~ ________~

Sodium cnrbonate anh yd 37 11 60 375 48

Phenid onc 05 C 22 ~~------------------------------------~~~~------------~=

rotnssium bromi de 2 2 2 ~--------------~--------~----~~------~---------

Iknzotri azo le 1 20 10

SodiJJm metabi sulphite 2

Wa ter to 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

Dilution 1+3 l middotq 1+3 1+2 None (5tock + Iater) 1+3 1+7 1+5

Approximate development 10 6-7 3-4 5 5 time at 20deg C 12-14 6-7 9

----------------------------------------------------------~---------------

The soft working developer (No1) is useful for ~ubjects with an extended brightness range recorded on slow contrllsty film such as Pan F The ilormlt11 contrast developers (Nos 2 1nd 3) nre eminently practical developers ~ith wide application especially f Or rol1filO1 sheetfilm and plates Formulae 105 4 and 5 are contrasty developers suitnb1e for ordinary films and pllltes 111d can be us ed wiLhout dilution (or lille films such as pes Ortholith 35mm lith film When uld U1Hlilllted No ( is very similar to D19b and IDl9 X-ray film developers

Cal~oll m1Y be IISpJ ill these formulte and should be added before all other ingredieut~ Use up to 3glitre in hard water areas

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2 Fine Gr~in Developers TI(se we ll established fine grain developers (sec Table 2) are particularly

suitnble for miniature films (J5mm or sm31Ier)

1Llble 2 Fine Grain DevelopE

No 6 Fine Grain MQ D76

No 7 Fine Grain D76d

MQ No 8 Fine Grain PQ

Hetol 2 2

Sodium sulphite anhyd 100 100 100

Hyci r-oqui none 5 5 5

Borax 2 8 3

BorIc acid 8 35

Potas sium bromide

Phenldone 02

Hat~r to 1000 1000 1000

Approximate development time 6-10 12-15 10

Formula No6 represents the standard develope r against hiell all otlle r developers are judged Formula No7 is a buffered version o f No6 and yields morc consistent results but since the pH is slightly 10e1 th e developnie nt time s will be longe r Formula No 8 is a PQ developer with characteristics simillr to No7

All the above formulae can be diluted either 1+1 or 1+3 Lo r olle-shet prCccSStng yielding enhlllced acutancc but developmcnt tillllS should be approxshyimately doubled (1+1) or trebled (1+3)

3 Super Fine Grain Developers

These developers (see table 3) usc colour developing agents which are derivatives of -phenylenediallline the classic fine grain developer p-phcnylshyenediallline irself Iws too lIIany unpleasant charct c ristics to be of any use bull nowadays These colour deve lope rs a n~ S low work j ng and rl yc ill aliltI hydcoqu ino ne hav e been included ill formulae 9 and 10 t o nccelcratc developlIIClIt In [annul No II sodium carbolwte is the accelerntor The lulphite cOllcclltrntion is relatively high to make use of the solv(llt effect Sulphite c annot be ulcd in such high concentrntion in colour develolllIClIt of (OIOllf lTIall-inl1l IS iL inhibits the (01 ollr coup I ing rene t ion

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Table 3 Super fine Grain Developers

No 9 No 10 No 11 FocDl fXIO Kod Dk

-shy--_-------------_ Gcnocllrome 20 6

~~lJc in 20

ydroquinolle 6

Nydochrome (CD 3) 5

Sodillm sulphite anhyrl 100 100 30

Sodium carbonate anhyd 30

Borax 20 4

Boric acid 4

lola ter to 1000 1000 1000

Dilution (Stock + 3ter) 1+7 None None

Jppr(l~irnnte development time at 20 C 12-15 8 20

4 tcutallce or IIiIll D(~finiti(1n Developers ----The middot dZutancemiddot dt2vclopecs arc gencrnlly very dilute and require onl y suffic u~nt ngitation to prevent the [ormatLon of streamers The effect of this is twofold Firrtly the developer becomes exhllIsted in areas of heavy exposure yet remains active in the shadow areas This results in good shadow detail (resulting in an incre1se in effective emulsion speed) yet the highlight areas do not become blocked liP This type of cornp~nsRting development yields reduced macro-contrast but the result is not the same ltIS that acheived by ordinary soft-working developers siOlce tl(~ important highlight und shado bull contrast is good and the gradation of the less important ~id-tone9 is compressed The second effect of the high dilutfonl minimum agitation techniqlle is the forl1l3tion of ~Iackie lines which enhlllce apparent imGgc sharpness at the boundaries between lightly and heavily exposed 1re35 This is due to fresh developer on the lightly exposed side of the boundary diffusing across and acceleratill~ deve l opment in the adjacent heavily exposed emulsion Bromide a product of the developm~nt reaction diffuses in the revcrs direction and retilrds development in the lightly exposed en1l1sion adjacent to the boundary The net effect is an incn~ase in the apparent sharpne~s of the boundary

Developers of this type arc not fine grain developers and it is essential that they be used ith slower film8 (bdoN 150 ISI) which have fine grain emulsionr These sloNer films have a thin emulsion and are n3turally contrasty wih good acutillicc 1middotlith the fast films which normally yield a soft grainy neltative the reduction in macro-contrast produces a dull flat image which cannot b improved by printing on hard parer due to the grain In addition the thick emulflion of these [~ut films docs no t lend itself to the development of Mackie lines

Innlula No 12 (nr Table LI) the oriin~l Llclltance fonuJla can be made Jp in two parts the IlIrtol and sulphite in one solution and the carborlJte in the s e cond solution Forll1lae Nos 14 and 15 can be made up as concentrJted stock solucion s and 3f1in t h (o alkali (sonium or potassium carbonate) is kept as a SCp1ilt e solution Wi t h yenormuJ rio 15 the Pinacryptol Yellow solution shoul not be included in the concentrated stock solution but added just before lIe Pinacryptol Yel101Y is l desensicising dye which is decomposed by sulphite When preparing

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-------- ---------------------------

f o r mulae Nos 14 alld IS as concentrated stock soluti u llS it is aclvisable tu make up the solutions (except the carbonlt solution) in 10 iS0prufyl a lcohul (1 part isopropyl alcohol + 9 parts ltIter) as this helps d issulve thp Jeve lopin~ agents and improves the keeping q ua lities All these forllluiltl ( give tu one stop increase in effective emulsion speed

Formula 10 14 (FXlh) is a modification of iln)thcr (UrJlluln (FXl) where the sodium sulphite concentrat ion is only 5g per litre instemiddotad o[ lt0amp pe r 1 itrc This low sulphite furmula yields very high definition negatives bJt is more critical as to tKposure Development times are as [ornlula 10 15 (FX2)

Table 4 High Definition (Acutance) DeveL~~

No 12 Nu l) No 14 No 15 Beutler Jindisch HIll FX2

Crawl(l C_~w 1 e j

~ie tu 1 5 05 02gt

0ycin 075 I

Catechol (Pyrocatechin) 125

5(ld i urn sulphi~~ anhyd 25 80 10 35

Sodium carbonitf~ J an1d 25 25

Pot3ssium carbonate 7S

Po tas sium iodide 0001 solll 5

Pynacryptol yellow 12000 solli 3 5

----------- -----------------------------------------------------~----1000 1000 1000 100 0

----~---------------Dilution 1+10 25ml stock Nunc None

+l5ml potshyassium hydroxide 10k water to 10001111

[)c vmiddotd pmcnt t i llle 7 -1 0 15 - 20 8- J0 12- 15 at 20c i

5 Speed increasing developer f or push-processin g Thi s fine-grain IQ developcrrlO(iS) gives Ill incrcase in cillulsion speed of

a bou t one stop in normi1 use but further specd illcrenses can be achieved by cKtCnding the development tillle Jlth film slich IS 1115 this dolgt not lead to excessive contra~t or grain This developer may aiso be used [or dillllC 011(gtshy

shot procesfiing for enhanccd ltIcutance Dt 1+1 and Ii-] d llut lun (wilII cxt e nLilJ dcvclopmcnt tillles) giving a hulf 10 Olll stop incrcase in slwecl lhi developer is ~irnilar in 1 11 respects to 11[onl ltllltroll1

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Formula No 16 Fine grain speed increDsine developer (ID68)

Sodium sulphite a~lyd 850g llydroquinone 50g Borax 70g Boric acid 20g Phenidone 013g Potassium bromide LOg ImiddotJaCer to 1000 ml

Dllution Time (1115)

None 6middotmiddot9 1+1 11-16 1+3 22-30

Usc undiluted for the indiclted time to give the following speed increases on 111[5

800llSA (1 stop) 8-) mins l600ASA (2 stops) ll-12mins 3~00ASA (3 stops) 16-18mins

6 nigh Contrast Developers These developers give high contrast negatives lind are bese used on thin

emulsion high contrast film such as pes Ortholith film obtainable in 35mm cassettes from Photo ClwlllicoJ Supplies The first is the classic Caustic-hydroquinone developer and the s(cond is the s cand a -d Iniectious development low ulphitic developer T1e lotter is more delnonding of accurate exposure and development bUI

yields the highcst possible contrast for col our separation work and ha~f-tone dot screening Lith film may also be successfully developed using formula~ Nos 4 and 5 (undiluted) which hove better keeping qllalities once used but yield a blightly lowe contrast

No 17 CauGtic-llydro1uinone High Concrast Developer

SOLUTION A llydroquinone 25g

Potassium mctabisulphite 258 (or Sodium metabisulphite 2l5b ) PotassiUM bromide 25p (or Sodium bromide 2l5g) -I1ter to 1000ml

SOLUTlOCl B Sodillm hydroxide 36g (or Potassium hydroxide 50g) -IGter to lOOOml

Usc eqllJI P1rts A and Il and develop for 2-4 minutes The quantity of alkllli in Solntion B may be safely halved without loss of contrast but devrlopment time should be extended slihtly The two solutions keep indefinitely separately but ke e ping properties nre limited once mixed Use an acid stop bath before fixing to avoid staining

Nlt) 18 Infectious Lith Developer

SOLUTlON A Sodium sulphite anhyd 1

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Parafonnaldehyde 15 Po tassilil metaLisulphite 5 (or Sodium metabisulp lti t e I Jg) Water to 500ml

SOLUTiON Il Sodium sulphite anhyd 60 Tloric acid 15 Ilydroquinone 45 Potassium bromide J Water tJ 1500ml

------------------~~~ Use 1 part Solution A and 3 parts Solution Baud develop [or 2 minutes (Mix well and allow to stand for a few minutes before illuoersing fil m) The tlltO

solltloIls keep indefinitely separately and also keep quite well once mixed Both these high contrast dev elopers should be rl ixed fresh [ o r each film [or

best rf9ults pes Ortholith film is orthochromatic and developmcnt can be [olloved under a red safelight

7 HOlloba lils --TIse are solutions ill which development 1nd fixation t a ke place in the same bath In addition to the convenience of being single operation othlter advantages arc that the process is not dependent on criticll tilllillgt telllperatu(e o r agitJtion lmage contrast cannot be altered by extending or c u rtailing d(vel o pne nt but is built-into the mOllobath formula This can be set when m-Iking up the 1II01l0bath pri llci pally by varying the amount of fixing agent (sodium thios u llhate) includ e d The more fixing agent added the softer the contrast III addition the a moun t or act ivi ty of the developing agent can infl ue nce the contnlst o[ the (esult ill g ne gative

Tab le 5 Monobath formulae No 19 No 20

Socl i-lm sylphite anhyd 50 50

12 12

4

Sodiuln thiosulphate anhyd 70 (55-90) 60 (15-80)

Sod i lm h ydro ~ide=-____________--_4 10

Wat er to 1000 1000

P r oc ltss i ng time 5 mi ns +- mi n 5 llI ins-

+ mi n

i ll( degree of cont ras t produc ed will VIH y f ro on ~ f i 1m ype t o allo thl tmiddot and the qu antity of thiosulpbate requir ed will have to be determined e xpe(imentally

Ifor y o ur favourite film stock If a higher contrast than that given by using the lowest quantity of thiosulphate is required the hydroquinone concentration can be I increa s e d by about 25-30 Iloth these monobnths can be re-llned for up to ten [ill1ls or until the film is no longer cleared by the fixing agent CInLidenta lly a [ew minutes in a1 ordinary negative fixer will restore the [ilm) Films an plocessed for about 5 minutes (less for slow films) and washed Jnd dri e d nortlllly

pTO _ regJ1sect It is always good practice to use n stop bath betwee n the developing and

fixing baths An acid stop b1th not only halts develolIlllt 1lld millilliis s cont3mishynation o[ the fixer but also removes the scum formed Ly ~olle developer s nnd prevents

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st1ining particularly of lith materials after a hydroquinone-cauntic dcvclopcr

Table 6 Stop bath formulac

No 21 No 22 No 2) No 24 Acid Stop Buffered Stop Hardening Hardening

Sto~ Bath Stor Bath 2

Sodium Acctate )1l20 ))

Acetic acid (glaciat)(mt) 25 10 65

Chromium potassium sulphate 30 15

Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000

A few drops of stop hattgt indicator such as that obtainable from Photo Chemical Supplies lllay be added The indicator ch111ges from pale ycllow to blue 19 soon as the 11 rilles above 70 (neutral) Thc hardening baths (2) and 24) are sed after high temperature development Formulae 21 and 22 are also suitable stop baths for print processing

yrxrms

Fixation 15 necessary to remove the undeveloped silver halide from the ernU L ion lIardening agents may bc added to harden the emulsion Hardening is essential for films which have been reversal processed or processed at high temperatures and for bromide papers that arc going to be hot-glazed Typical fixers are shown in Table 7

Table 7 Fixllg [laths

No 25 No 26 No 27 No 28 Standard Buffered Buffered Buffered Acid Hypo Hardening Rapid Ilarden bullng Fix~r Hypo Fixer 7ixer Rapid Fixer

Sod i urn t h io 11 ]_--ptat-=e2-=anhtyd_ _ ~____-=-___________________160 150

(or Sodium thinsulphate cryst) (50) (240 )

Ammonium thiosulphate 175 200

Sodium sulphite anhyd 15 25 15

Sodium metabisulphite 25

Acetic acid glacial IS 10 15

Bodc acid 75 10 75

Potassium alum 15 15

Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000

All are used undiluted for films but may be diluted 1+1 for papers The buffered flxer~ havf a partiClllnrly long lifc and the buffered non-hardening rapid fixer (No 27) is recommended for plastic-coated papers such 1S 11fospeed

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REVERSlL PROCESSING OF Damp_ W FILM

Ileversl processing of black Ilnd white film yields positive transparencies with Il beautiful tonal gradation As with all reversal processes exposure and first development must be very carefully controlled beciluse density variatiolls cannot be compensated (or in printing The process involves the developmellt of Lile negative image (first developer) dissolving away the s i lvcr thus fOnilPU (bleach bath) clering and re-exposure to white light (reversal exposure) and develorshyment of the silver halide thus re-exposed (second development) The film is then fixed and washed in the normal way I t is the firs t deve lope r wh ich de termincs the quality of the final image It is usual to include a small quantity of silver halide solvent to brighten the highlights and sodiulll thiosullilate or sodiulll thiocyanate are usually used for this The subsequent processes are carried on more or less to completion so timing is not as critical as with the first developer In the fol~owiJlg procedure the first developer is retained antI used again [or the second dev e lopment

Rev r rsal processing solutions

No 29 Reversal developer (stock solution)

Netol 3g Sodium sulphite anhyd SOg lIydroquinone l2g Sodium carbonate anhyd 6()g Potassium bromide 4g Water to lOOOml

Dilution (stock + water) 1+1

To the diluted working strength developer add sodiulll thiosulphate at the following rale (gram~ per litre)

PAN F FP4 llPS Sodium thiosulphate anhyd 5 75 5 (a~ Sodium thiosulphat~

cryst) (8) (12) (8) AlternAtively a print deve l oper such as Dromophen may be used diluted 1+1 ith thiooulpilate dded as above

No 30 Blcach (two part stock solutions) SOLUTI ON A

Potassium permanganate 2g Water to SOOml

SOLUTION B Sulphuric acid 10 vv lOOml Water to SOOml These stock solutions will keep indefinitely but deteriorate rapidly when mixed

For use mix equal parts of A and D and discard after each film Potassium dichromate (lOg) may be used in place of the Potassium permanganate in Solution A

No 31 Clearing Bath

Sodium (or Potassium) metabisulphite 25g Water to 1000ml

Fixer ---The bleaching solution softens the emulsion and a hardening fixer must be used

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The hardening fixers given enrl ier laquo(onnube Nos 26 and 28) are ideal

Procedure 1 First developel 12 mins at 20

0 e for all llford films with an inversion every 15 seconds Keep the developer for use in the second development

2 Wnsh 3 mins with frequent changes 3 llicach 5 mins with strong continuous agitation Roarbull lights may be

switched on after two minutes in the bleach 4 I~n s h 2 mins with frequent chnnges 5 Clear 2 mins in the Clearing bath 6 Iash 2 mins with changes 7 Reversal exposure Re-expose ench cnd of the spiral for 2 mins at 12-18 inches

from a 100 watt bulb This is best done underwater in a clear gls9 bowl standing on a sheet of white paper Rotate the bulb or the spiral during re-exposure to ensure even illumination

8 Second developer Develop for 6-8 mins at 20 0 C in the developer solution retained from the first development Development time is not critical but should go to completion

9 Rin s e 10 Fix Fix in acid htrdening fixer for 10 mins (formula No 2cent ) or

4 mins (formula No 28) It Final 5h Wash for 30 mins and dryas usual

Modifying the Processed Negative Th e silver imJge obtained after development and fixation may be either l r censhy

sified or r educ ed TIlis is to compensate (or errors in exposure or dlvelopment or both

INTE~(UFICTION

The following for muLt has been select e d [rom the many published because i t is simple effective etsily controlled and yields a permanently enhllnced negative The basic chemicals are reasollably safe unlike the mercury and uranium intensifiers

No 32 Chromium Intensifier

STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium dichromate 12 5g lJnter to 200 ml

STOCK SO LUTION II Hydrochloric acid 10 vv (36 ww) 30ml ( o r I1ydrochloric acid 10 1 ww) (L Iml) (or Hydrochloric acid cone) (]ml) WJter to 200ml For use mi~ 1 part Solution A with 3 parts water and add 1 part rolution n

The negative should be properly fixed and well washed Old negatives should be sO kcd in water for a few minutes The negative is immersed in the intensifier [or 2-3 minutes until the image is (ully bleached (it turns a yellowy-brown colour) It is then washed well until the yellow stain is removed The intensified image is then re-developed after exposure to daylight (or a light bulb 1 minute each side at 18 inches) in l nOli-solvent type developer This may be a print developer or general purpose necative developer such as formtJl No3 or any universal j developer An advantage of thi s intensifier is that the whole proces8 may be repe a ted several times with an increase in intensification each time as the image

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is built up

~EDUCTrON

There are three classes of reducers which reduce the amount o[ silver in the negative in different ways

The subtraltive reducers remove silver from all parts o[ the illlagc (shadows and highlights) at about the salTle rate 50 that the contrast 15 incrcaBed This is uscful for Jver-euroxposed negatives which tend to be flat

The peoporti)lal reducers remove silver in proportion to the density so that the contrast grildient is maintained This type of reducer is suitable for those negatives which are too dense for easy printing through over-exposure ~ombined

with over-development The uper-proportional reducersattack the IllDvy silver depositll more than

[he lightly exposed parts leading to a reduction ill contrast and density Dense contrasty negltives are usually the result of over-development

No 33 Farmers Reducer (Subtractive)

STOCK SOLUTION A Sodium thiosulphate anhyd 32g (or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (SOg) Water to 500ml

STOCK SOLUTION B Potassium ferricyanide 109 Water to 100ml Immediately before use mix 15 p3rts A with 15 parts w(lter and ~dd 1 pa[t B

The process of reduction should be watched carefully and may be stoppcd at nny time by flooding wi th wn ter The ac t i vi ty 0 [ the reducer may be n 1te [cd by va ry ing the qunutity of Soltltion II added [ncrensing t he [crricyanidc increa ses the activity and vice versa The stock solutions keep indefinitely hut the working solution hu 3

short life

No 34 Permanganate - Persulphate Reducer (Proportional)

STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium permanganate 1 solution lZ 5ml Sulphuric acid 10 wlw 65ml Water to 500ml

STOCK SOLUTLON II Ammonium persulphate 25g Water to 1000mi Distilled water should be used to make up these solutions for use take one

part A two ports distilled water and two parts B A slower acting mixture is I part A 4 parts water and 1 part II and this may be easier to control A[ter reduction the action con be halted and the brown stain removed by immersing the negative in a 1-2 solution of sodium (or potnssiul1l) metabisulphite The negative should he thoroughly waMhed before being dried

No 35 Pelslliphate Reducer (Super-proportional) Ammonium persulphate 125g Sulphuric acid lOr ww 5m1 Distilled water to 500101

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The ne)a t i ve shou 1d be fu lly wn shed The leduc t ion mus t be wa tC1ed close ly as the rate varies ~idely with different emulsions nnd with some modern high speed ~mulsions it iR not effective ]t all to 12-157 solution of sodium Ilulphite anhyd can be Ilseu as ] s top bath Imd the negat ive is fi na lly given a good wash

BampW Print Processes [1) NI_I2EV~1QI2yRS

Print developers arc generally fairly contrasty compared to negative developers and of course it ig not necclisary or desirable to use fine grain or acutance techniqupound for prints The colour tone of the image is the main variable in print developers but the colour obtained will depend largely on the type of print paper (eg bromide chlorobromide or chloride)

Table 8 Standard Print Developers

No 36 No 37 No 38 No 39 D163 ID62 ID20 New

PQ Univ NQ Paper Winchester

~middotc to 1 22 3 35

Sodium sulphite anhyd 75 50 50 35

-lL(~ro(l~1 i WJlle 17 12 12 86

Socli11Tl -----shy

carbollate lt1nilyd 65 60 60 63

lhellidolle 05

Potassium bromide 28 2 4 l9

I3cn7otriazole 1 15-25 20 37

Wettinr agent 10 10 10 10

Wnter to 1000 1000 1000 1000

Dilution (stock + water) 1+3 1+3 1+3 1+2 Calgon may be added to all the above at the rate of 2g per litre If the ueveloper is uRed at less dilution development iR more rlpid The

benzotriClzole in these formulilc irnproves the brightness of highlights by reduc i ng fog and also shifts the colour of the illlage towards black or blue-black The New middotIinchester formula (No 39) is a universal paper delTeloper giving good black to nc s and is the basis of many commercially available print developers

Table 9 Warm-tone Print DClTelopers

No +O ~Jo 41

~Lltf01 I i nonc _________--25 ---8_ ___

Sodium Dulphite anhyd 60 60

Sad i IIll carboIlHe anhyd 90 90

~ycin 25

Potassium oronlidc 2

~ater to 1000 1000

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Dilution (Stock + water) 1+3 1+2 Time 2-3 mins 1-2~ mins

Formula No 41 has a warmer tone tllan No 40 but both arc best used on warm-tone papers

STQ- [lATHS FOR PR_INT~

The 1I0n-hilnlenlng stop blths given carlier (Nos 21 and 22) arc suitable f0 r prints as is a 47 solution oE sodium or potassium mctabisulphite (I~Oplitre) good economical stop bilth can be made up by adding 1 part stop batl (as above) to two parts old fixer and mixing up a fresh fixing bath When the stop batll shows exhaustion the stop bath ia discarded and the old fixer converted to the ncw st op bath This double use of fixing solution Lcally does prolong the life of the fl xer bath as a large part of the fixation takes place in the stop bath and the diluti on ensures that no staining occurs

PRINi FIXERS Any of the fixer formulae given earlier for negativcs will provide fix e rs

suitatle for papers (formulae 25-28) The rapid fixers have a much grentcr cJptc ity than the hypo filter s and formula 27 is especially recommended for plastic-coatcd pap~rs Prints on normal paper wh i ch a r c t o be hot-glazed should be fixed in 1

hardening fixer (formulae 26 or 28) Formula 25 is obviously the cheapest to ma ke up but the pll should be monitored and more metabisulphite added to restOt-e thc acidity when required All may be used diluted 1+1 It is advisable not to U 5C the some solution for fixing both films and pape rs even if the same formula is used but to keep film filter and paper fixer i n s eparate bottles

t~ID F9H PAPER PInNTsect The fibre base of normal printing pl pe rs retains acid chemicals from the fj xing

bath which are difficult to remove by -a s h ing alone If after a brief rine 11C

print is i~nersed in a 2-5 solution o f s od ium carbonate anhyd for 2-] minutes the subsequent nonnl wash ensures that all the hypo and hYPolilver camplexes a t c removed This alkaline bath should be used whenever any subsequent trcatmenl of the print such as toning is to be carried out

LYPO ELI~IN~TOB 11C following solution (formula No 42) serves to oxidise the thiosulphate t o

~ulphate which is then easily washed ou t o f the paper

~~_~po Elimin_ator

Hydrogen peroltide solution 3 (10 volume) 125ml or Hydrogen peroxide solution 6 (20 volume) 63mU Ammonia solution 0B80sg 10ml Hater to 1000ml immerse the prints in the above solution after a normill W8lh in running W (l ~ er

for about 5 minutes followed by a fu cthc r Hash of about 10 minute This hyposhyelimnator is made up of volatile compOIw nts so that there is_ no risk of elininllor salts remaining in the p1per-base after drying

PRINT TONING Prints may be toned a variety of colours and depending on subject can yielel very

pleasing results All prints must be tlloroughly washed prior to toning and old prints

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~lloliid be soaked ~n water for a few minute s to soften the emulsion

1) Sepia Toning Th follow(ng method yields perm1nlnt prints with a good brown tone In fact

prints treated in lhis way have greater permanence than untreated prints and the lmiddotLlwd is USLd ill 3rchival processinl The print is first bleached ill a ferri shyqnidcbroHiide bleach until the d3ri~est partH of the image tire a raint straw LU lour 1 t is lilen placed in the toner b3th 1111lt1 the sepia image quickly reappears

Nu (d FerricyanidcDromi de Bleach

Potassium [erricyanide 40g Potassium bromide 251 Jater to 1000mi Tllis stock solution is used undiluted and keeps well if stored in the dark or

ll a dnk bottle It may be re-used until exhausted h[ter bleaching the print 1~ washed well and trGnsferred to tbe following solution

Uu 44 Sepia Toning BGth -Thiolre1 109

Potassium bromide 40g Sodiul1i hydroxide 3-6g WJter to 1000mi The qu~n[ity of sodium hydroxide can be adjusted between the above limits to

yield the desired tone colour This toning bath is preferable to the traditional suJiul11 sulphide hath because of the unpiensant smell and properties of sodium sulphide solutions Thiourea and sod i um sulphide should not be used or stored in lilt dGrkroom or near sensitised materials

bJ lllie Toner This process does not re qruire a bleach stage but the print should be thoroughly

- s hed a[te1 fixation The process intell5ifies the image slightly so prints to bpshytOiled blue should be mnde a little lighter than they would otherwise be

Nu 45 Dlue Toning Bath

SOLUTION A

Potassium ferricyanide Ig Sulphuric acid 10 ww 30ml Wnter to 500ml

SUIUTION 13

Alliinonilim ferric citrate (green) Ig

Sulphuric acid 10 ww 30ml Water to 5001111 Mi elt[uGI parts hand B immediately before use The wet print is immersed

ulltil the desired tone is reached and then washed Excessive wnsh ing will ble a ch lliit the blue colour and just sufficient wash to remove the yellow tain should be lven This bleaching is largely eliminated if the print is lshed in water conshy[lining a l ittle acetic acid (51111 or less per litre)

c) Red TOiler Th~TtO~ing is il traditional red tOller using copper sulphate hglin no

b I each is llluircd

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No 46 Red TOllin~ Bath

SOLUTION A Cupric s~lphate (511 deg) 12 5g

2Sodium citrate 500g (or Potassium citrate) (55g) Water to SCOml

SOLUTION B Potassium ferricyanide 109 Sodium citrate 50 g (or Potassium citrate) (SSg) Water to SCOml Use equal volumes of II and B mixed just before use The image colour changes

through warm black then sepia to rea 2nd t he process can be halted at any stage by flushing with water The print is th~n wa s hed and dried normally

PRINT nEDUCERS Print reducers are generally used Eor the local reduction of dense parts of

iarge prints for generally brightening dense flat prints or for removing fiilvcr completely from unwanted areas Farmers Reducer (formula No 33) is the most commonly used print reducer and shoul d Df t sed s ufficiently diluted to allow control of the reduction proc ess Use scr 1p dn ts to de t e rmine the appropriate conditions ~len using Farmers Reducer wash the pr in t frequently in running water or permanent yellow staining may occur Farmers Reduc e r used very dilute is ideal for brightening dense flat prints It is a s ub t ractive reducer and gives bright highshylights a nd increased contrast

~len heavy deposits of silver have 0 igt e remov ed completely such as that cause1 by pinholes in line nega t i ves Fa nna r s Reduce r is not su i tab Ie because of the possibility of staining The followin g formula (No 47) is an iodine re ducer which i9 very effect i ve at removing dense silver

No 47 Iodine Reduce r

Potas sium iodide 1Sg Iodine crystals 05g Water to lOOml This reducer is applied to the mOl s t lot ~et) print with a swab or brush and

the resulting brown Btain is easily r emove d in a 15 solution of sodium thiosulphate Illlhyd (or 25 sodium thiosulphate cryst ) after a rinse in water The print should then be thoroughly rinsed

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Colour Processing Besides offering real economy brew-it-yourself colour processing is v~ry

satisfying and can yield results superior to those offered by ln3ny commercial proshycfSSinl~ houses All that is required ilre careful working methods and atttntion to dltlails Tlte Icrwrill instruction relating to monochrome proc(ssin~ should be r~d in conjunction with thcse notes on colour processing It should be emphasised that the formulae given in this section are not those of the film manufacturers who do not publish their formulae but have been worked out to yield results comparable with the manufacturers recommended processing

Time and Temperature Cololl~ ma-terials are not as flexible as black and white materials with regard

to development conditions since wide deviation from the recommended development can yield shifts in colour balrnce ohich lQay be impossible to correct in printing With reversal materials in particular exposure must be accurate and the time and temperature of the first development is crucial as thi largely determines the quality of the ftnal transparency In the C(j process the processing temperature is rather high (3a

oC) bllt this must be maintained at least for the first dtvelopment There is

slightly more leeway ~Iith the other st~ges but these should b~ kept within the limite shown The sallie applies with colour development of negative materials and again the processing tenrperature of the C41 procefiS is high (also JaoC) The times given in the formulae include 10-15 seconds to uHo~ for draining the tank

H~king up the Solutions As wi th all the - formulae in this bookl e t the chemicals should be dissolved in

tire order given Some of the colour dev e lo p ing agents while extremely solub i I wa te r tend to separn te out in the a 1 k a 1 ine J eve loper sol ut ions Ita aov isab le to dissolve the colour developing agen t to gether with the hydroxylamine (hydro shycldoride or sulphnte) where p r e sent se pa r a te ly i n part of th e total volume of water alld add this slowly 0 th e rerna mJer o f the solution some time before use rile hydroxylamine acts as an antioxidant and is required because the sulphite conshyclntrltion hCls eO be low Hydroxylamine is rapidly decomposed in alkaline solutions ill the pr se nce of sequestering agents of the EDTA type so Cnlgon should be used i n h~rd water ~~ r e s rather than EDTA

V~QCESliING G9J~QI1lLill=VERSAL FILMs_U0R COLOUR SLIDES) There are at present two princiPlll systems for colour reversal film prGcessing

(excluding Kodachrome) The first is the ~g fachrome 41 process covering all Agfa r-tJVersal fi 1m (except Igfachrotnc [(IOOS Profe ssional - proce Sl E6) olhether sold process paid or not Thepound are few if any other makes o f [i Tm available in Britain ohich use this process The second ir the Kodak Ektachrome E6 process hich covers IllOSt of the rCIllining colour n~versal films There are a few filns Idlich ltIre still made for outdated process es sLlch as ORWO f i l ms ohich are proc e s sed by an old Igf~ process Rnd some specillised Ko d ak films suc h as Ektachrome In f rared Film find Photomicrography Color Film 248J which are processed by the old E-4 process There may still be a [ew films from independent manufacturers designed for the old E ~ process

Kodak Kod~lchlome films are sold process paid and user processing is not feasible

Keversal Exposures - Reversal film mUfit be given a fogging exposure to light (Where chemical fegging is not used) after the first development Because the emulsion is very much less sensitive at this stage than normal film this exposure mtlst be rather intense It

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is best to remove the film from the spinl and SCC-SDW it through plain wter below a Photo flood lamp Ilowever a wet delicate film is difficult to reload into the spi ra 1 (bes t done under lola ter) and it is cas icr to leave the film in thc 5 pi ra 1 nlld extend the exposure time With clear spira ls thc exrosure time should be at lea~t

doubled and with the translucent nylon spira l s the exposure should be increased 5-10 fold When the film is not removed for the exposure place the spiral in a white 001011 of water (or a clear glass bowl on J wl ite surface) and place the lamp above it During the exposure of each end of the s pir a l the lamp or bowl should be moved about so that the exposure is more even Watc r and cl~ctricity dont mix so care is needed and a hot photoflood lamp will burst if s plashed Dont skimp on th e reversal exposhysure - it is easy to underexpose but dif f ic ul t to overexpose For the Ektachrome E-6 p r-ocess a reversa l bath which chemi c3 1y fogs tile film making the reversal exposure unnecessary i s available from Pb c to Chemical Supplies

The Agfachrome 41 Proce ss Suitablc for all Agfa Reversal poundll ns (except Agfachrorne RIOOS Professional

available in 120 size and sheet film only)

formul ~ e - Agfachrome 41 No 48 First Developer

Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g middot1e to 1 3g Sodium sulphite anhyd SOg Hydroquinone 6g Sodium carbonate anhyd 40g Potassium thiocyanate 25g Potassium bromide 2g otassium iodide 0 1 Solution 6ml wate to 1000111

No 49 Stop Bath

Ac etic acid glac iol 101 Sodium acetate (3H 0) lO g

2Water to 10001111

No 50 Colour Developer PART I

Sodium sulphit e anhyd 3 5g Hydroxylamine hydrochloride I t Potassium bromide 19 Colour Developing Agent see below Ethylenediamine (50 vv Soln) 16ml (or 2-phenylethylamine) (3ml) -later to 300ml

PART BI Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g S~dium carbonate anhyd 62g Water to 500ml

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c) lour iPVf loping age nts [0[ Part lI

Colour Dev e loper 1 (sulphate) 28g or Colour l)eve l o pe r I (chloIide) ( CIH) 22g or Cenochrollc 2 5g or Dtoxych rome 3 2g

lOOt usc add ParL II slowly to Part D with tirring and make up to a total volume o f 10U0Il1I

No 51 [leach ~-----Po tas s ium-[e rr i CY[lnidc 80g

Potassium bromide 30g Sodium acetate (J1l 0) 50g2lor ic Jeid 5g Potnssiwa nll11 30g Water to 10001111

Ngt 52 Fixcr ---S-oJI~-tTiosu I ph a te anhyd l25g

(or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (200g) Sodiul1l s ulphi te lnhyd lag Imiddotlater to 1000ml

Th pit of this fixer is approximately neutral Do not use an acid fixer because it Jill blcnch th e dyes

Nu 53 Stnbiliser - --- We t ti~g agelt - Im1

Forlllaide hyde 0 5ml I-Jte r to IOOOml

~ (lCeslng Procedure lIrfachrome 41

At 20 0 C (minutes) At 24degC (minutes )

1 First Developer 18 - zr-----shy lJ-l~ (z00-O 50C) (2l 0 -02SoC)

2 Rin sc ~ 3 St op bath 4 3 4 1[151 10 7 S Reve r sni Exposure See be l~w 6 Colour developer 14 (20 0 -0SoC) 11 (z4 0 02SoC) 7 - 1 5 h 20 14 8 Ill eac ll 9 I-[lsh 5 4 lll Fix 5 4 ll Wash 10 7 12 Stabil iser 1 1 1] Dry (30 D

e) mox

One minute each side with film r emo ved from spiral 2 minuteR each end rf clear sl c rlll lid 5-10 minutes ench end of ttanslucent nylon spirill frolll a No2 Photoflood a l I lie t re () f le t)

Thp t Cll peratllre during the Lwo developme nt stages should be maintained within til limits shown For other stages tlte t e lllperature may range from 17-20lC or 21 - 2llC The third wash (Htole n iu raLh e r long and it is important that it is llt lL shorted In soft watcr ilHilS this lung wallh nwy c ause the clUulsion to slocll Su un int e l-mediate bilth of 5 minutes immediately J(tcr the colour developer can be given to prevent excessive swelling This is a 2 solution of either sodium

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sulphate or magnesium sulphate (Glaubers salts or Epsom Salts) If the intermediate bath is used the third wash may be shortened by 5 minutes In the two developer baths agitation should be continuous for the first 30 seconds followed by two invershysions every half minute for the rest of the period

As usual it is the developer solutio 1~ which deteriorate first The remalnlng solutions (stop hath bleach and fixer ) have double the capacity of tIle two developers Ea ch litre of developer should process 6-8 films but the development timcs should be extended by 30 seconds at 20degC (or 20 5cco~ds at 24 o

C) after the first two films anQ after each subsequent two films hi applies to both the first and colour deve lo pers

rne Ektachrome E-6 Pro ess 1 am indebted to Mr Derek Wa tkl 9 r0~ permission to reproduce this formula

wh i ch first appe1red in the March 198 1 i sgt lc of the magazine SLR Camera (Haymnket Publi t hing Ltd 38-42 Hampton Road TCd ingcon Middlcsex)

There are a lot of films from man n~rUl facturers sold under a wide variety of brand names which are compatible with the E-6 process Even Agfa make an E-6 compatible film (Agfachrome RIOOS Professional)

FormuL ae - E-6 i-lo-54---first Deve 1upe r

Sodium 6exametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g Sodium sulphite anhyd J9g Potassium carbonate anhyd 14g Sodium bicarbonate 12g Phen i done O 6g Itydroluinone 6g Sodium bromide 22g Sodium thiocyanate Ig Sodium hydroxide 33g Pot~asium iodide (01 50ln) 45ml Water to 1000m~ pH 9 6-005

No 5~ Stop Bath 1 ------S0dium acetate anhyd 30g

(or Sodium acetate 320) (50g) Acetic acid glacial 6ml Water to 1000m~ pit 55-02

No 56 Colour Develoger Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g tri-50dium orthophosphate 1220 36g Sodium hydroxide 3g Sodium sul~lite anhyd 4 5g 3gtdium bromide 065g Potassium iodide (01 Soln) 30ml Sodium thiocyanate 1 3g Citrazinic acid 1 25g CD-3 l1g ~oter to 1000mi + pH 1165-005

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S LOp lath 2 Same as Stop lath 1 but once used do no t interchange them

No 57 ll l e ach lotassiulil (erricyanide 80g Potassium bromide 20g Ji-So JiullI hydrogen orthophosphattnnhyd 12g (or di-Sodium hydrogen olthophosphnte

1211 2deg) (JOg) Acetic acid glacial 5ml Hater to IOOOrot plt 55-02

No 58 Fixe r - - Sndi-u-thiosulphate Mlhyo 125g

(or SodiulTl thiosulpilte cryst ) (200g) SodiuJJ sulphite anhyd 5g So dium me tabisulphite O5g Water to lOOOlllt 11 72-02

~Jc tt ing JgCllt lmL

L r to lOOOml

Time ~pe ratute

l First development 6r J8-U57 - shygt Stop iJath 1 2 33-JoC J Ih 2 3J-J90C 4 Reversal Exposure Two minutes each side with (ilm removed

froro spiral 5 minutes each side of clear spiral ano 10 minutes each side of nylon spiral with No 2 PhotofLoud at

(Or HeveJs31 JlJth) (ObtainJhle 12 inches frolll Photo Chical Supplies) 2 JJ-J90C

5 Col o ur u(ve [o[JllICnt G JSlOC 6 St o p Bath 2 2 JJ-l)degC 7 1-1 2 ])-J9()C g 11 [e middoth 5 JJ-l9C l) Rins e ~ 3J-390C [0 fix 5 3J-390C II Wnsh 6 33-J90C I ~ S tid il s c 1 3J-390C n Dry (Fillll cllt~Jrs on drying) r uTES ) As wilh all revlrsnl processes the [irut developer largely delermines the ehnrilct(tmiddotistic~ o[ the final translnrency Jntl the rcconlllltnJeu time anJ temp~rature

hlHJ1J be Iuhlrcu to b) AgitJtion in 11 ba ths (except the optional reversal bnth and the stabiliser

- - - - - - - ------------

wllich should not be agitated) is continuous for the first 15 seconds followed by two

inversions of the tank each subsequent half minute With the reversal bath and stnbiliRer an initial inversion to ensure uniform distribution is all that is required cl The conditioner bth in the offici)l process is lwl required in the pLOceJllre given hele as this useR ferricyllnide bleach rather than all EUTA hl(ach d) The two Rtop hth re of identical compositioll bllt should not be illtcrchlIircl due tu dnmn~illg carry-over contomination e) The caplcity of the solutiolls is 10 filll1ll pr litre (36 exposure - 35 or 120 roll film) bnt the tillle in the first developer must be extencled hy 15 second~ after the first two films and after each subsequent two films (by 20 seconds fOl the last two films) f) The made-up solutions should be scored in dark bottles at room temperature not in the refrigerator The first developer will keep for two months unused or for four weeks once used The colomiddoti developer will keep for 3 months unused or 2 lIIo11~hs partly used nd all the remaining solutions will keep for 6 months ur longer Although the first developer contains many ingredients it is not expensi ve to moke up Thus it is worthwhile retaining the remaining solutions to be used ith a ((esh ly made fi rs t deve loper if the fu 11 capac i ty canno t be used in the four we ek life 0f the original first developer g) Drying temperature should not exceed 60

0 C and all EktachrOllle films only clclr

when nearly dry For information on process control and fault finding in both Agfachrome 41 and

Ektachrome E-6 the reader is referred to The Focal Guide to Colour Film Proces~ing by Derek IJAtkins (published by the Focal Press norough Green SevEnolt)ks Kent TNlS 8PB) This excellent book also gives 11 the background information you may require Also in the book is a substitute E-4 process (as well an a low cost Ln~ temperature simplified E-4 process) for those films using this system This book also covers colour negative film processing

PROCESSING COLOUR NEGATIVE FILMS (PLUS XP-l AND VARIa XL BL~CK A~~lJTE FIL~ ~~__________~_ ____~______M~)__ __

As with colour reversal film the two major manufacturers of ~olour fil~s A~ [a

and Kodak each have tlieir own fi lms and processing systemy [or cololJr negative~ Again the trend seems to be towards a unified compatible system based on Kodaks C-lfl prccens

Processing negative film is very much eaGier tlan reversal processing for two reasons Firstly there are fewer steps in the processing sequence with no revcr~al EXpOSlln required and secondly there ill a little more latitude with tlte pro cessing since most faults can be corrected later at the print ing sta ge HOI_e ver cons iL e nt good resutts depend on consistent processing Attention to detail ~ile proce8s i ng a film can save a lot of time later on

Agfacolor N Negative Process ---T-tiis-process is in tended for all II fa co lour nega t i ve film (CNS CNS2 ann 80S Pr~fe9sionol) excluding AgCacoluur CNS400 negative film This ltter is designed to be processed in Agfacol o r Peo ceMs 70 chemicals and is compatible witl l Kodaks Flexicolor C41 process as is Agf a s chromogenic 131ack and ~hite film Vor l XL

The Agfacolor N process is slightly unusual in that the devclopmpnt is 11101-11(

to continue in the lowlgtr layers of the e mulsion during an intermedi1 t e bath wll icll immediately follows the colour developer

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Pu rmulnc - Agfucolour N i u 59- Colur- ll(vIoI~er SULUTION A

Sodium hexnmetaphosphate (Calgon) 2g PutnsSilJln carl)ooatc atlhyd 75p Potassium bromide 25p Wat e r Lo 500ml

~()LUTroN Il

lIydroxylamine hydrochloride 19 (or Hydroxylamine sulphate) 0 2g) Sodium sulphite anhyd 35g Colour Dcvcloppr 1 (Sulph~te) 28g (or Colour Developer 1 (chlorideraquo C22g) (or Cenocilrome) (25g) (0 t Droxych rome) (J2g) ) t e r to SOOml

I l d B tlJ A with stirring before use

Nu 60 Intermediate Bath -- -~lgn~sin sulpil1te--===- JOg

Mixed (or used) Colour Deve lope r 501n 30ml 1000011

No 61 Bleach --S-(Tll~eXaeLaphospilate (Cnlgon) 5g

Potassiulll fcrricY1nide 42g Potassium brolllidp 12g 10[ltl8siu dihydrogen orthophosphate 15g di-Potassium hydrogcn ortilophosplwte

nll Jil yd Sg Water to 1000111

Nl 62 Fixer -------sz-dG----Umiddotios ul phn te nnhyd 125g

(01 Socii um thiosulphntc cryst) (200g) SodiulIl sulphitc anhyd 109 Wnter to 1000ml

ltc~ing Procedure Agfacolollr N Time (mins) Telpernture degc-S----shy

1 Colour developer 20-02 2 Intermediate bath 4 2005 J -IDsh 15 (lllinilllllm)-20 15-20 4 IHench 6 2005 5 Hash 6 15-20 6 FLx 6 18-20 7 -Ilsh 10 15-20 fl ~~ett lllg agent bath 15-20 N)lI~S

Agit1tilln in niL stDges is continuous (or the fi1st minute followed by o ue j version of Lhc LIll( (very hoi ( minute thcrcnfter

llevcl)plIlcnt 11I3Y be varied betccn 7 - 9 minutes Increase ueve10pment to 9 llItes Lo incrcasc contrast and reduC(~ the time to 7 minutes (or softer results

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The orange mask is formed in the bleach bath and the recommended time and temperature for this stage should be followed as the density of the mask increases with time

All the solutions including the co l our developer solutions (separately) shoilid keep for at least 4 months Once mixed the colour developer (and the intermediate bath) will only Inst a f ew weeks

The capacity is 6 - S films (135- 36 o C 120) per litre but the development ttne shoul d be incr eased with each film or pair of films to compensate for developer e xha ustion The c a pa c ity of the co lou r d vetoper s may be e xtended by mixing onl y

al f of so lu tions I a n d B and proceSS in f( 4 i ilms in e ach h a lf In this ca s e prolong the development time by one mi nute a f ter eacll film

Flexi color C-41 Tlis process was developed by Kod lt1 ilt [or the mach i ne pro ces~ing of their nc~

colour negative films Kodacolor II and Ve ricolor II The majorit y of colour films from independent manufacturers are now made compatible with the C-~l process In addition there are the two chromogenic bl ack and white films lifords XPI and Ag Eal s Vario XL whi ch were designed fo r C- 41 processing l gfas fast colour nega t i ve film CNS400 should also be proce sed i n C- 41 chemicals

Because C-41 was designed for use i n au t omated commercial laboratories the processing t emperature is rather h i gh (IOO or 3So

C) As with the ~ktachrome E-6 precess these high temperatures bring abo ut the a s sociated problems of short development times and DE maintaining t hL t empe ra ture betwe en the prescribed limit~ Tha t t hes e pro b lems are easi l y ove rc ome i s J emon s trat ed by the many thousa nds of amac e urs who s ucce ss f ully process t hei L own pol and Vari o XL monochrome films in

oC-4 chemicals at 3S C

The following formulae represent a l ow cosi substitute procedure using a traditional ferricyanide bleach

ihe substi t ute process is reproduc d fr om The Focalguide to Colour Film Proc es sing by Derek Wat ki ns with k i nd p2r ssion from the Focal Press

Formu11e C-4l

No 63 Colour Developer Sodium hexarroetaph()sphate (Calgon) 2g Po tassium carbonate anhyd 38g Sodium sulphite anhyd 5g Potassium iodide 01 Soln 2ml Potassium bromide 1 5g lIydroxamine hydrochloride 2g CD-4 5g Wlter to 1000ml

No 64 Stop Bath Ae tic acid glacial 20011 Sodium acet1te 311 0 25g

2Water to 1000ml

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------ ----------------

~

No 65 Bleach Potassium nitrate 2SB Potassium ferricyanide 30g Potassium bromide 12g Boric acid 5g Sodium tetraborate (Borax) 19 Water to 1000ml

No 66 Fixer Sodium thioulphate anhyd 125g (or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (ZOOg) Sodium metabisulphite 20g Water to LOOOtnl

No 53 Stabiliser Wetting a ~r~ nt 1m1 Formaldehyde 40 511 )1 ~ater to lOOOm1

f ocessinG Procedure e-4l (with [erricY~lnid( bleach)

Time Temperature degc l Colour development 31- 38~~--

2 Stop bath 35-40 J Wash 35-40 4 Bleach 35-40 5 ~ash 35-40 6 Fix 35-40 7 ~ash 35-40 8 Stabiliser 35 -40 9 Dry

Agitation in the developer is continuous for the first half minute followed by one inversion of the tank each quarter minute thereafter In the remaining solution s the agitation may be reduced t o t lJO in ver sions every half minute after tilE init i a l )0 sec onds cont inuous agit a tio n e ach bath

TIll capacity of the so lut ions is a pplC))limately twelve films per litre if the dev eloper is made up as two 500ml port iuns dn d six films devel oped in eacll portion The development time should be extended by minute after the f irst two films and by middot a further i minute aft er t he seco nd 1lt1 fi ms A comb i ned b1each f ix bath may be u~cd in this procss b t t o[ cours Lilis calllu t be a f e rr i c Yll1ido ball ed bleach A sllitable formula can be found in t h e Br i i sh J our nal of Photography Annual

PIWCESSING COLOUR PRINTS For copyrigllt reasons we arc unabl e t o re produce the substi t ute fo rmulae for

colour print processing The f onnulae and pr ocedure s are quit e straight~orward and lIIay be found in the British Journal of Photography Annual Photocopies of the relevan t pnu es may be obtained for a nominal sum from the publishers This applies to earlic~ editions of the book and to the current edition after stocks are sold out (u s ually April or Hay) The address to 0 i s

Tlte Ed i tor Ilritish Journal of Photography Annmiddot qL Henry Greenwood ( Co Ltu 28 Creat James Street London WeI Telephone 01-404 4202

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APPENDIX I Chemical Names Seeals- Appendix 2 for Colour Developing Adurol Amidol Amidosulphonic acid Ammonium alum Ammonium hydroxide l2-B(nzenediol 14-Benzenediol Bor1cic acid Borax Calgon Chlorchydroquinone Chrcmlt alum Copper sulphate Copper chloride l2-Diaminoethane 24- Diaminophenol hydrochloride Digol l2-Dihydroxybenzene l4-Dihydroxybenzene 26-Dihydroxyisonicotinic acid Elo Ethy l enediaminetetraacetic acid and sa l ts Ethyl~ne glycol Ferri~ ammonium citrate Formalin p-Hydroxyphenyl glycine Iron perch loride Iron trichloride Kcdalk p-HtLhylaminophenol sulphate Nethyl p1raaminophenol sulphate middotIonoch 10 rhyd rOluinone 1- Pheny 1- 3-pyrazo lidone Potasnium alum Potassium bichromate Potassium bisulphite Potassium chrome alum Propan-2-01 Pyrocatechin (Pyrocatechol) Pyrogall ic acid Quino Sodium bisulphite Sodium hydrosulphite Thiocarbamide I 2 3-Trihydroxybenzene

and Synonyms Agent)

Chloroquinol 24-Diaminophenol hydrochloride Sulphamic acid Aluminium ammonium sulphate Aoononia solution Catechol (Pyrocatechol Pyrocatechin) Hydroquinone Boric acid Sodium tetraborate Sodium hexametaphosphate Chloroquinol (Adurol) Chromium potassium sulphate Cupric sulphate Cupric chloride Ethylenediamine Amidol Diethylene glycol Catechol Hydroquinone Citrazinic acid Hetol EDTA acid and salts Ethanediol Ammonium ferric citrate Formaldehyde solution Glycin Ferric chloride Ferric chloride Sodium metaborate Hetol Hetol Chloroquinol Phenidone Aluminium potnssium sulphate Potassium dichromate Potassium metabisulphite Chromium potassium sulphate Isopropyl alcohol (Isopropanol) Catechol Pyroglillol Ilydroquinone Sodium metabisulphite Sodium dithionite Thiourea Pyrogallol

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Jl)[l~NDIX 2

There appears to be considerable confusion surrounding the various colour developing agents This is probably due to the fact that these complex compounds helve all been given a different trade name by each manufacturer or distributor L1Ch compound may even have more than one chemical name depending on the chemical nOlllcnclature system used The following is a list of the chemical names and synonyms of the common colour developing agents All of them are derivatives of para-phenylenediamine the classic fine grain black and white developer and they sllare in varying degrees the unpleasant characteristics of this material They should be handled with care and skin contact or inhalation of dust should be avoided llecause these compounds are similar in structure and mode of action they arc interchangeable to some extent the differences being plincipally differcncfs ill activity and solubility Differences in solubility can cause slight colour cilmges but this is really important only with reversal films since with colour 1I~~ative films and colour papers colour casts can usually be corrected by filtration in printing The relative quantities re qui r ed ani adjustments to development times or exposure will have to be determined by experiment The names underlined are those used by Photo Chemical Supplies

Colour Developer I (Sulphate) - Ac t i vo 1 7 (Jejlt1Sltmi--shy= Uiethyl-p-phenylencdiamine sulphate =NN-Diethyl-l4-pbenylenerliamlne sulphate

C lO

II 16

NZ

H2

S04

Holht - 26232

Colour Developer 1 (Chloride) shy middotCOiKodak)

Die til y1- p-pheny lenedl alnine hydroch lorid e = NN-Diethyl-l4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride

MolWt = 20070

lt~ur [tgt velrer CD 2 (Kod~dd Activol 2 (Johnsons) [olochrome (M amp ll) NN-Diethyl-2-methyl-l4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride 4-Alllino-NN-diethyl-m-toluidine hydroch lo r ide

~ol Wt ~ 214 i3

Colour Developer 3 ~-CD3(Kod ak)

Activol 3 (Johnsons) ilyJoch rome (M amp ll) N-E thy 1- 3 -me thy 1- N- (f -me thylsul phonamidoe thy 1) -p-phenylenediamine sesqu isul pha te

monohydrate - Am lllO - N - e thy 1-N - (i me thanesu llhonalnidoe thy 1) -m- to 1uid inc s e s qu is u1pha t e

monohydrate

HolJt 43652

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Colour Develo~er 4 CD4 (Kodik)

= N-Ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyi-2-methyl-l4-phenylenediamine sulphate

~lolWt c 29235CllH18N20112S04

Droxychrome (M amp B) Activol 8 (Johnsons) Colaur Developcr 32 (Merck) T32 (Orwo) N-Ethyl-N-2-hydroxyethyl)-l4-phenylenediamine sulphate monohydrate

Wt 29634CIOH16N20middot1l2S04middotJI20 tiO

Ac60 (Agfa) Colour Developer 60 (Merck) N-Butyl-N-(4-sulphobutyl)-1 4-pheny l~ neciiamine

4-(N-Butyl-N-(4- s u phobutyl)amino)2 t ~ l i _e

Cl4 i 24 N203S HoliVt 30042

Gcnochrome (M amp B) - Acti~ol 1 (Johnsons)

S 28 OM) NN-Diethyl-l4-phenylcnediamine 9ulphit 2 Diethyl-p-phenylencdiamin~ sulphite

Mol ot t 23734

The bhse is ident i cal to Colour Develope r Sulpha t e and Hydrochloride)

APPENDIX 3 Anhydrous and lIydrncd Forms of Sal ts Many of the chemicals commonly used in photographic processing arc availllhlc

either in anhydrous forms or in one or more states of hydration If these oiffc l-ent forms are used in the ratio of their me l e u t ar weights then the amount of active ingredient is constant For example s od i um carbonate is available as the anhydrous powder (Molecular weight 105 99) and as tle decahydrate (Na C0 10I1 0 molecular2 3 2weight 21l6l4) The ratio of their molecular weights is 1270 so for every gram of anhydrous sodium carbonate required 270 grams of the decahydrate would have to be used It is important to remember thill point whe) compa r ing prices of chemicals because a hydrated crystalline form may appear cheaper weight for weight but be actually more expensive because of the add it ional quantity required

The following is a list of the commonly used chemicals which are available 1n different degrees of hydration showing their molecular weights and the ratios in which they should be used Those underlined are the forms which are supplied by Photo Chemical Supplies and are the most usual most economic or most stable form of the chemical concerned

Cupric chloride CUCI =13445 ~20=17048 Use 1127Z Cupric sulphate CuS0 =1596l _+511 deg=2[1)68 Use 1 1 564 2Ferric chloride FeC13c1622l +611 deg=27030 Use 11672Magnesium sulphate ~lgS04120=1J8 39 Z20=24647 Use 1 1 78

Potassium carbonate ~2C03=1J821 +1~1l20=l65_23 Use 1119

di-Potassium hydrogen ~211P04=174l8 +3H 0=22822 Usc 1 1 312orthophosphate

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-- --

~5 rJ Jiunt acct~te Cl COONa = 8203 Ue 1166~~2~= 13(~p~_3o d ium uisul phate NaIlS0 =12006 ~middotZO=lJ8 03 Use 1115

4~2SlJ=105 99 +10il20~2l6 14 Use 1270

)laquo ( ium d i hyd rogp n orthophosphate +211 0=15601 Use 1130

--2 -~---

d l-Slt)(JiJnl hydroren orlhophosphate Na

211P0

4=14196 +21122= 58~l~ Use 1 1 25 252

~ c liJgtn sulphlte +]011 0=32219 lise 1217~a23 =1t-Q~ 2~- dium suiphite i2 S03= 1~6 04 +711 deg=25215 Use 1200

2So diulIl tliiocYlOate N3SCN=8107 +2HZ2l2JQ Use 114-1 ( Ilst stored as 20 solutions)

S dilllll thiosu1phalc i02~22)=15sect1J +51120~24l1l Use 1157

Stannous chloride 21129=22563 Use 1119

l li-SodiUlll orthophosphate - thp mhydrous and crystalline forms not interChangeable due to alkalinity of the crystalline form whi~~ contains applox 2~~ sodium hydroxide

1 i IEND I X LI ~oJiuhl versus Potilssium Salts -- -- - r111( lIajority of phot~g-l--aphic--rroccs s ing soluti~~s sodiulU salts lIIay be

S dltituted [or pntasraquoiullI s 1lts n sodium salts are genentlly diEaper cmiddotleciall) since legs of tlte godiuHl salt is tequired to giV E the same molecular middotmiddot iuivalent In the Clse of tlte anhydrous carbonates and sulphites the sodium lts an 1sJ deliquescent than the potassium salls and 1re therefor easier to sL ore alld hnllJle The only advantage of the potassiLlln salts is their greater s o luui lily Ih e n highly concentrated solutions are made up lleCRuse of the slightly hi her nlkaLinity of the potnssiulO salts SOllie care in controtiing the pH is needed 1-111 11 substituting sodiulll [or potassium salts in buffer sy~te1ls For this reuson L1 uSllal buffer snIts nre not given here The (ollowing is a list of the ratios in which sorne of the CCgtlnlllon sodium nnd potassium sollts should be lIsed to give the I IiU (ecular equiv11cnts

Piltassiurn bromide Sod iUln bromide 100865 PutassiulTI cIrbonnte nnhyd Sodium carbonate Ilnhyd 100765 lJtlssium l)l1tS tUIlI

citr3LIO 0112deg)

hydroxide Sodium citrate (211

2deg)

SodiulII hyel ox ide 100905 100710

l u tass ium l1letabisulphite SodiullI metabislliphite 100 855 f o tl3S iunl Icrslllphilte Sodillm persulphate 100 880 Potassium sulphite anhyd Sodium sulphite anhyd 100 795

ArPENDIX 5 Wei~lts and Measures There are OIany old books which contain phot o graphic formulae 11 lot of which

al e still v11id todilY In Brilain thcse old formulae were Ilsuillly given in avoidupois ulli t rud the following tnbles 0I1Y be uficd to convert these formulae to the metric sf tem Avoi rdupJis Wli~ilts ~~~d TfT~r---- 16 ounces (oz) 7000 grnins (grs) f153 6gra1ll8 (g)

1 Juncc (llZ) 16 tJrll1ls (drm) 4375 grains (grs) 2835 grams (g) dram (drill) 2734 grHins (grs) 177 grams (g)

(1543 grains (grs) 10 gL1n1 (g) )

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Liquid Heaures (Ilritish alld Netd c )

1 quart 2 pints (pL) = 40 fluid oUllces (Floz) 1 136 1 it re (I) pint 20 fluid ounces (Fl nz) 568 millilitres (m1) fluid ounc~ (Floz)= B fluid drams (or d r c hills) 28lllml fluid drachm 60 minims 355ml

(1 minilll = 1 drop)

Temperature conv e rsion Fahrnheit to Celsius (Centigrade) (xoF - 32) x S = yOC

lt) Celsiu9 to Fahrenheit (yU C x 9) + 32 = xOF

5

APPlNlllX 6 Refrences and Funher Reading The following ia a short 1 ist uf publi c ations which readers will find

useful (or further informatiun 1 Jacobson C1 and Jacoblun R E (1976) Developing 18th Edit ion

Focal Press (see below) 2 Jacobson Cl a nd Hannheim LA (1975) Elllarging 22nd Edition Futal Press J Jacobson RE Ray SF Attridge GG and Axford NR (1978) Hanual of

Photography 7th Edition Focal Press I bull Langfo rd H J (1980) Advanced Photogl-aphy 4th Fdition Focal Press S Hason LFA_ ( 1975) Photographic Processing Chemistry 2nd Editioll Focil Press 6 Wat k ins D (19 78) The Focalguide to Coluur Film Processing Focal Press 7 Ilritish Journal of Photography Annual 1982 Henry Greenwood [ Co_ Ltd 28 Great

James Stn ~ t London WCl

The Focal Press Butterworth [ Co (Pllblishers) Ltd Ilorough Green Sevenoaks Kent TN15 flPH

Books 1 2 and] are all standard refere n c e w rks on photographic processing Ilook 4 is a ve r y useftl soutce of inforlUBtion on all aspe cts of photography but particularly on tone and colour reproduc t ion on sensitised materials The bouk by LFA_ Hasun (S) is es~ential [or those wishing to devise formulations of their own especially co loul formulations but the reader shoulJ have some chemical knowshyledge Book No 6 explains the principles o[ colour film processing and describegt th use of a variety of processing kits as well as providing Bubltitute formulae [or brew-it-yourself enthusiasts

The British Juurnal of Photography Annual (n is the traditiollal source of formulae fo r those wishing to mix up their own solut iOlls The formulae cover all aspects of both black and white and colour proc e ssing

NOTE The purpo se of this booklet is to stilllul te interest in the compounding of

photographi c processing solutiuns by tho se ph o t ographers wh o s e ek a greater undershystanding of the medium The ruatedal ill this buoklet is presented in good faith but because results are d e pe ndent on so many factors outside our control we cannot accept l iability for any processing [aults or inju~y to petsolls or property that might ari9 howsoever callsed Becaugte o f the subject ive nature of the medium it is the r e spons ibility of the user to Elac e rtain for himself the suitability of any [ormula or process in relation to hi8 mat e r ials e quipment and objectives Any suggestions from I a ders whi c h could be incorporated into foture editions o[ lhis booklet will be welcome _

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II c knuw l edgcmcnts

Til e author wOlld l ike to thank the f11 owing f o r pc n nisRiOll to us e m1terial for inclusion in this book let

Kod a k te for details of thfir formuln p (morw c hrome) ltlnd for addi t ional h e lpflll info rmati o n

IHo rd Ltd for permis~i on to reproduce their pllb lish e d formula e

Agfa- Ge v a ert Ltd for informat io n o n their p rod u c ts and pro c eRRinr

The Fo c al P If) 9S who publish a wiel e r ang e oC b oks u n plHtogl middot ~PY for permisAion t o US Ilel(cted m1terial [rom SOllI e of their puhlicltions (R ( e Appendix ()

~1r )( rek Watkins for pe rmissio n t o r e pr ud u c ( his slIbstitute 1-6 proc 1ing prn ee- dur( whi c h was first puhlished in the maga zine SLH Camer~

~h G W Crawley fditor of the Bri tish Journal of Photography for prmis9ion lltl rfprodllcE SOIll( of his FX sprifs -f d(vclop(rs

Th E ahv( prsons or organisnion9 (middot 1nnot Iccept 1ny liabil i t y arisin from the nprodnct inn of their lIIal([ial in Ihi hooklet

Writtfn by R C Potts ~fSc and publish e d hy PHOTO CHEMICAL SUPPliES 21 LODGE CLOSE

COWL EY MIDDLE SEX

UBB 2ES - 34 shy

No responsibility accepted for any formula or information contained in this document This is a scan of the original document

Use chemicals and formulae at your own risk Intended for personal and educational use only

Page 4: PCS Darkroom Formulary

I

photographic chemicals These standnrds $pecify m1ximum limits for impurities that are important photogrnphicaUy as wet as a minimum assay All chemicills supplied by Photo ChemiCill Supplies conform to the appropriate British Standards or where there is none to the American Standards specifications

Sltfety ---Although the n1lt1jority of chemicals used in photographic procesling are

completely harmless in notnla use there arc a few which present special hnzards Some of the developing i1gents especially metol and the colour developer

derivatives of p-phenylencdiaminc can cause a form of dermatitis as the ski n becomes sens itised hy repented exposure With modern colour print processing drums and daylight tanks for films it is not necessary to come into contac t gt4 i th processing solutions Corrosive substances cove r both acids and strong al k a l is Avoi d ing direct skin contact is simplest Dod safest but should spillage occ~r flush wi th clean water

~hen dilute sulphuric acid is relt]uired for use remember that concentra ted sulph u ric acid reacts violenty to water and the acid sh ould be add ro d drop by drop nt first to the water Never add water to the acid as this causes vio ~ ent

bumpin g and s p itting It is best to bu) mineral acids as 10 vv solutio-L as these 3 r~ safe to handle and you simply us e 10 times the volume specified for the conce ntrated acid

Norm1l laboratory hygiene sho uld be observed that is immediately wipe up any spillages of powd e rs or liquids and keep the working area clear All bo t tles of mlt1d e up 50 lution R sho uld be cle lrly labelled with the contents and proc o_ alll] s h ou ld

Al che info rmation

be

w

s co red ou t t cals SIlPp here appro

of ied

priate

reach by Ph

in

of oto acco

children C lpmi cals

withrdance Suppl i es

latest are EEC

labellelt1 proposa~s

with a rd

Cleanliness A clear uncluttered working environment is essential in the successful

compounding of solutions Mixing vessels and utensils should be of glass or plastic and should be easy to clean Certain typeg of contamination arc more serious than others such as contamination of developers hy chemicals used as fixers Some c ompounds should not be used in the darkroom at all (such as the sul~lides and thiourea which are powerful foggants used in sepia toning) and should not be s tored near sensitised materials

Ie ilhing Out Not ~ll chemicals require the same degree of accuracy in weighJng out but

for consistency and reproducibility the Ieighing should be as accurate as pos s ible A balance snch as that sold hy Photo Chemical Supplies is ideal as it offers accuracy down to OOlg at a ver) reasonable price Some chemicals sllch )s Phenidone (a developer) which are required in small accurately measured quantities yet which would deteriorate in solution can be weighfd out directly into small vial~ in the nlt]uired quantities The outer plastic con Iiners for 35mm film cassettes are useful for this as moH types are airtight

U$ ing St o ck Sullltiol1s It i D s ometimES easier to store chemicals as stock solutions of known

concentrIlion which can then he dispensed by volume rather than by weighing The mlln tlisadvantnge is that most chemica19 in solution deteriorate with time and they do this at different rates Some chemicals are best stored as stock

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solutions such as the mineral acids mentioned earlier souium thiocYlOate which is very deliquescent (keeps best as a 20 solution) and potassium iodide which is only used in very small quantities as a restrainer and is most conveniently kept as a OlZ solution (lglitre)

It is a simple matter to calculate the quantity of a concentrated stock solution required to make up any desired volume of more dilute working solttion The fo11omiddoting formula

C-req x V-final V-reqC-stock

IOhere C-req the desired concentration (r)

C-stock the concentration oE stock solution (Z) V- final the final total volume desired V-req the volume of concentrated stock required

gives the volume of concentrated stock solution required (V-req) for diluting up to the final volume desired (V-final) to yield a solution of the required concentration (C-req)

QLlltlity 0 Water Water is the main ingredient in all photog r aphic processing solutions anu

it is probably the most variable component The only solutions in which water qua lity need be t~ken into account are the develupers for Eilus anu in the final B h for films

Very soEt water can cause swelling of the film emulsion tlsunlly wh(gtn used a~ a wash in high temperature colour process es such as C-41 nnu E-6 at JSuCIOOoF In f act in areas with very soft IOGter it is advisllble to nn ific Lnlly hltlnl en ti~ water u~ed in the was h cycles of colour processes by arldini sal ts such IS 1lJg esiwTi or sodium s ul phate (ordinary Eps(rn salts or Glau he r s s il lts) It 1

r a t e or approximately 20g per litre Very hard water is more troublesome It is the lIOluble magnesium and

e ll cium salts which are the main cause of water hardn ess Wh en developers are m de up thes e metals form insol uble salts with some o f th e common i ngredient s o f

e lopers such as 5ulphites carbo12tes phosphates ltlnJ bo r a t e s Til s e i nsoluble pre ci pitates can adhere to the film surface Other nletal ions such as coprer and ir an can Lccelerate the rate of aerial oxidation of uevelopers by acting os catalysts anu in higher concentration can cause sl icltt forcing of the fillft The

e ence oE i ron in the wat er can also cause staining of film and pltlpelmiddots The ~ arest procedure i s t o se di s ti lled or de-iunis ed wate r (suell as

P(r ified Water DP so l a by (l oots) for mak ing up develope rs This is an add itional expense which is not always required especially if sequestering ag nts are used but is particularly rerommended when rnltlking U[) cOllcentrltlt ed s t ock developer solutions which are later diluted for one-shot use This improves the keeping qualities of the concentrate and o rdinary tap ater can be used for the dilution A sequestering agent can be incorporated into either the tltlp wa ter or the concentrate

As hard water dries it leaves a scaly dlposit which can be very difficult to er v~ f rom i lms and it car a ffect the printing quality of ne ga tives A useful pract ice i to use one or t-o changes of a small quantity of distilled wate r to hic h a drop or two of wetting agent may be adued as the final ash

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BampW Film Processing

S_Oill2QlITIOJLQLJ3LACJL~1lD WHITE NEGATIVE DEVELOPERS

Deve lopers generally h1ve the following components

a) Developing agent(s) b) PrcRerv~tive

c) Alkali d) Restrainer

There may be other additions such as sequestering agents organic antifoggants and wetting agents

The Developing Agents The most commonly used developing agents are ~etol hydroquinone and Pheridone

There are many compounds which act as developers but most are now only of histoicaL interest as various combinations of the above three compounds can create almost any type of developer There are a [ew developing agentS in commercial usc which have special properties such as grc)t solubility which permits the formulation of highly concentrated developers These developing agents are of little interest to the 1I111teur who makes up his own developers and certainly oEfer no advantages Tl ~

[orl1lulae in tllis booklet are mainly tho~e using metol hydroquinone and Phenidona fetol and Phenidone have similar properties in that they are fast working

developers yielding 1010 contrast images lIydroquinone is a slow contrasty developer TIley arc seldom used a ione however but as metolhydroquinone (MQ) or Phenidone hycicoquinone (PQ) combinations Tllese mixtures show superadditivity that i the activity of the mixture is greater than the sum of the activities of the developers when lIsed separately lIytlroquinone is used on its own in high contrast developers where its action is Jccelerated by the use of caustic alkalis (eg sooium hydroxide) TIle properties of a developer are determined by its overall composition rather than by the choice of develoring Jgent alone Most developing agents including the three mentioned Jbove arc only active in alkaline sollJtions The pH and the nature oE the alkali are of prime importltJtlce in determining the properties of the working developer

The Preservltive The function of the preservative is co protect the developer from aerial

oxidation Tile compound almost univerRally used is sodium sulphite although potassium sulphite and the corresponding metabisulphites may also be used The sJlphite has other [Inctions in the developer and an importRnt one of these is its action as a silver halide solvent Thi6 effect is made use of in fine-grain developers where the sulphite reduces the actual grJin size by dissolving some of the silver halide A concentration of Jround IOOglitre is required for this to be significant

In some colour developers where the sulphite concentration is J1W other antioxidJnts SUCII as hydroxylamine are used as preservatives

The Alkali ---- The a 1ka 1i is somet imes re [erred to as th~ acce lera tor because mos t deve lopers arc only efficient in alk1line solutions The three commonly used types of alkali arc a) tile c1uHtic alkalis (sodium and potassium hydroxide) b) the carbonates Bnd c) the mild alknlis and alkaline buffers

The callstic alkalis give rise to high eneq~y developers usually with poor keeping qualicies The carbonates are less aggressive in their nction and are very

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widely us(d The mild alkalis such as bor-ax (sodium tetraborate) Kod1lk (sodium P1o t aborate) (lnu the alkaline buffer mixtures are extensively used in mooern fineshygr ain developers

The Restrainer The most commonly used restrainer is potassiulII bromide Tile effect of uromicle

is to reuuce fog formation (the development of unexposed parts of the emulsion) and to slow down the rnte of development Potassium iodioe has a similar nction but much lower concentrations must be used (approximately one thousandth of the quantity Df bromide) Too much restrainer results in a lowering of the image contrast 3nd should be avoided

Other Conponents Sequestering agents are added to developers tu overcome problems caused by

impurltles in the water used to make up developers (sec page 3) The mos t commonly used compounds are the cmnplex phosphates notably sodiulll hexa me tnphosphate (Calgon) and ethylenedinninetetraacetic acid (E DTA) nnd its derivatives Calgon is ellenp and very effective at sequcstel ing calcium ano magne s ium ions The disadvantages are firstly that it is not very effective ltlgaillst other mct~1l ions and secondly the complex phosphates break down in alkaline solutions so are nsuitabll for use in concentrated stock developers The di s advantJges of EDTA a nd related compounds are firstly cost Jnd secondly they can accelerate ltleri u l ox i dation of the developer in certain circu~st ances

Some developers require aoditional restr(Jiners in the form of organic anti shypoundaggants This is partic ul a rl y true of Phenid one 1nd its derivative s ltlnd some ~o l o ur deve l opers The mo s t common l y used is benzotriazole but 6-nitroben zimishydazole which is about 100 times more potent is also encountered

Host modern develop2cs contain a wetting agent to en s ure the event wetti[~ ) f the film and the el imination of air bubbles The ltlmount used sltoulo not e xceed

Iproximaeiy 0 5g per Litre othelwise fODming Iwy Cltlus e p r oblems

~~k l ng up Solutions The chemicals should be dissolved in about two thirds of the fillal volume

of wat e r sh loin IN TilE ORDER IN WHICH THEY APPEAR IN TilE FORNULA a nd then the snl ution made up to the f i nal volume with water It is i mpo rtUlt that eAch c it mi cal add ed is completely di ssolved before the neKt is introduccd

Hixing vessels and ut ensi l s sho uld be of glass or plastic nd shoulo be tEZ erved for photographic use I-lhen mAking up a series of so lutions fo1 Any pit t i c ulltl r process it is good practice to make lip the soluti olls in the O[oer in lch t hey lITe to be us ad a s t his eu ces tit e ffects of cl ( rY-O Vl r contlIl1ination

Host ch emic als di ssolve more readily in warm Wltl[ e r but this s hou ld never eyce ecl SOoC (120

0 F) The s olu t i on can then be made up to final volume with

(o ld water I t is a useful prac t ice t o mltlke up developers as concentrated stock solutions

These ha ve be t ter ke ep ing qUltllit i es and are easier to s tore A typical developer would hav t he developing agent(s) and sulphite in one solutiun And the ltllkali restraine-s etc in the other Since sodium sulphite is distinctlYltllkalinc in solution the aerial o)(idation of the developing agents Ciln be further inhibited by substi t uting s odium metnbisulphite [or all or part of the sodi um sulphite The met a bsu l phi t e ha a greo1t solubil i ty t han su lphite is In c lficicnt presershyilt ive and is acid in reltlctiou so thJt the developerr are complet c ly inhibited

Of course the alkali content of the other solution must be incre1Scd pr oportionltJtely

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111 order to make the working developer alkAline

BLlCK AND llHITE DEVELOPER FORMULAE

In all the formulae in this booklet the quant1t1es are given in grams g ~ for solids and millilitres (ml) for liquids Development times are approximate bLC it is R simple matter to determine experimentally the development times which sui your particular film stock and which yield the contrast and density tau desi r t- o

The chromoGcnic black llId white films XP-l (llfard) and Vario XI(igfa) have been desirned for the Flexicolor C-41 process (see page 2n 1 Gene ral rurpose Developers

These Jeve(opel ~ Crable 1) do not use the silver halide solvent effect a nd s o are not true fine-grain developers However modern films have such inherently fine rrain that true fine grain developers are less important today than they were a fel years ago

Tnble 1 CellP-ral Purpose Devel opers

No 1 No2 No 3 No4 No 5 So ft Normal Normal Contrast Contr ~lQ NQ PQ ~IQ PQ (DI65) (D61a) (ID62 ) (ID2) (IDn)

~Ie t o 1 6 3 2

Sodl m s ulphit e anh yd 25 90 50 75 7

lI yJ r0111 i n__middot _e _ _ _ b 12 8 v__8_Jn ____________________~~~~ ________~

Sodium cnrbonate anh yd 37 11 60 375 48

Phenid onc 05 C 22 ~~------------------------------------~~~~------------~=

rotnssium bromi de 2 2 2 ~--------------~--------~----~~------~---------

Iknzotri azo le 1 20 10

SodiJJm metabi sulphite 2

Wa ter to 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

Dilution 1+3 l middotq 1+3 1+2 None (5tock + Iater) 1+3 1+7 1+5

Approximate development 10 6-7 3-4 5 5 time at 20deg C 12-14 6-7 9

----------------------------------------------------------~---------------

The soft working developer (No1) is useful for ~ubjects with an extended brightness range recorded on slow contrllsty film such as Pan F The ilormlt11 contrast developers (Nos 2 1nd 3) nre eminently practical developers ~ith wide application especially f Or rol1filO1 sheetfilm and plates Formulae 105 4 and 5 are contrasty developers suitnb1e for ordinary films and pllltes 111d can be us ed wiLhout dilution (or lille films such as pes Ortholith 35mm lith film When uld U1Hlilllted No ( is very similar to D19b and IDl9 X-ray film developers

Cal~oll m1Y be IISpJ ill these formulte and should be added before all other ingredieut~ Use up to 3glitre in hard water areas

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2 Fine Gr~in Developers TI(se we ll established fine grain developers (sec Table 2) are particularly

suitnble for miniature films (J5mm or sm31Ier)

1Llble 2 Fine Grain DevelopE

No 6 Fine Grain MQ D76

No 7 Fine Grain D76d

MQ No 8 Fine Grain PQ

Hetol 2 2

Sodium sulphite anhyd 100 100 100

Hyci r-oqui none 5 5 5

Borax 2 8 3

BorIc acid 8 35

Potas sium bromide

Phenldone 02

Hat~r to 1000 1000 1000

Approximate development time 6-10 12-15 10

Formula No6 represents the standard develope r against hiell all otlle r developers are judged Formula No7 is a buffered version o f No6 and yields morc consistent results but since the pH is slightly 10e1 th e developnie nt time s will be longe r Formula No 8 is a PQ developer with characteristics simillr to No7

All the above formulae can be diluted either 1+1 or 1+3 Lo r olle-shet prCccSStng yielding enhlllced acutancc but developmcnt tillllS should be approxshyimately doubled (1+1) or trebled (1+3)

3 Super Fine Grain Developers

These developers (see table 3) usc colour developing agents which are derivatives of -phenylenediallline the classic fine grain developer p-phcnylshyenediallline irself Iws too lIIany unpleasant charct c ristics to be of any use bull nowadays These colour deve lope rs a n~ S low work j ng and rl yc ill aliltI hydcoqu ino ne hav e been included ill formulae 9 and 10 t o nccelcratc developlIIClIt In [annul No II sodium carbolwte is the accelerntor The lulphite cOllcclltrntion is relatively high to make use of the solv(llt effect Sulphite c annot be ulcd in such high concentrntion in colour develolllIClIt of (OIOllf lTIall-inl1l IS iL inhibits the (01 ollr coup I ing rene t ion

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Table 3 Super fine Grain Developers

No 9 No 10 No 11 FocDl fXIO Kod Dk

-shy--_-------------_ Gcnocllrome 20 6

~~lJc in 20

ydroquinolle 6

Nydochrome (CD 3) 5

Sodillm sulphite anhyrl 100 100 30

Sodium carbonate anhyd 30

Borax 20 4

Boric acid 4

lola ter to 1000 1000 1000

Dilution (Stock + 3ter) 1+7 None None

Jppr(l~irnnte development time at 20 C 12-15 8 20

4 tcutallce or IIiIll D(~finiti(1n Developers ----The middot dZutancemiddot dt2vclopecs arc gencrnlly very dilute and require onl y suffic u~nt ngitation to prevent the [ormatLon of streamers The effect of this is twofold Firrtly the developer becomes exhllIsted in areas of heavy exposure yet remains active in the shadow areas This results in good shadow detail (resulting in an incre1se in effective emulsion speed) yet the highlight areas do not become blocked liP This type of cornp~nsRting development yields reduced macro-contrast but the result is not the same ltIS that acheived by ordinary soft-working developers siOlce tl(~ important highlight und shado bull contrast is good and the gradation of the less important ~id-tone9 is compressed The second effect of the high dilutfonl minimum agitation techniqlle is the forl1l3tion of ~Iackie lines which enhlllce apparent imGgc sharpness at the boundaries between lightly and heavily exposed 1re35 This is due to fresh developer on the lightly exposed side of the boundary diffusing across and acceleratill~ deve l opment in the adjacent heavily exposed emulsion Bromide a product of the developm~nt reaction diffuses in the revcrs direction and retilrds development in the lightly exposed en1l1sion adjacent to the boundary The net effect is an incn~ase in the apparent sharpne~s of the boundary

Developers of this type arc not fine grain developers and it is essential that they be used ith slower film8 (bdoN 150 ISI) which have fine grain emulsionr These sloNer films have a thin emulsion and are n3turally contrasty wih good acutillicc 1middotlith the fast films which normally yield a soft grainy neltative the reduction in macro-contrast produces a dull flat image which cannot b improved by printing on hard parer due to the grain In addition the thick emulflion of these [~ut films docs no t lend itself to the development of Mackie lines

Innlula No 12 (nr Table LI) the oriin~l Llclltance fonuJla can be made Jp in two parts the IlIrtol and sulphite in one solution and the carborlJte in the s e cond solution Forll1lae Nos 14 and 15 can be made up as concentrJted stock solucion s and 3f1in t h (o alkali (sonium or potassium carbonate) is kept as a SCp1ilt e solution Wi t h yenormuJ rio 15 the Pinacryptol Yellow solution shoul not be included in the concentrated stock solution but added just before lIe Pinacryptol Yel101Y is l desensicising dye which is decomposed by sulphite When preparing

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-------- ---------------------------

f o r mulae Nos 14 alld IS as concentrated stock soluti u llS it is aclvisable tu make up the solutions (except the carbonlt solution) in 10 iS0prufyl a lcohul (1 part isopropyl alcohol + 9 parts ltIter) as this helps d issulve thp Jeve lopin~ agents and improves the keeping q ua lities All these forllluiltl ( give tu one stop increase in effective emulsion speed

Formula 10 14 (FXlh) is a modification of iln)thcr (UrJlluln (FXl) where the sodium sulphite concentrat ion is only 5g per litre instemiddotad o[ lt0amp pe r 1 itrc This low sulphite furmula yields very high definition negatives bJt is more critical as to tKposure Development times are as [ornlula 10 15 (FX2)

Table 4 High Definition (Acutance) DeveL~~

No 12 Nu l) No 14 No 15 Beutler Jindisch HIll FX2

Crawl(l C_~w 1 e j

~ie tu 1 5 05 02gt

0ycin 075 I

Catechol (Pyrocatechin) 125

5(ld i urn sulphi~~ anhyd 25 80 10 35

Sodium carbonitf~ J an1d 25 25

Pot3ssium carbonate 7S

Po tas sium iodide 0001 solll 5

Pynacryptol yellow 12000 solli 3 5

----------- -----------------------------------------------------~----1000 1000 1000 100 0

----~---------------Dilution 1+10 25ml stock Nunc None

+l5ml potshyassium hydroxide 10k water to 10001111

[)c vmiddotd pmcnt t i llle 7 -1 0 15 - 20 8- J0 12- 15 at 20c i

5 Speed increasing developer f or push-processin g Thi s fine-grain IQ developcrrlO(iS) gives Ill incrcase in cillulsion speed of

a bou t one stop in normi1 use but further specd illcrenses can be achieved by cKtCnding the development tillle Jlth film slich IS 1115 this dolgt not lead to excessive contra~t or grain This developer may aiso be used [or dillllC 011(gtshy

shot procesfiing for enhanccd ltIcutance Dt 1+1 and Ii-] d llut lun (wilII cxt e nLilJ dcvclopmcnt tillles) giving a hulf 10 Olll stop incrcase in slwecl lhi developer is ~irnilar in 1 11 respects to 11[onl ltllltroll1

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Formula No 16 Fine grain speed increDsine developer (ID68)

Sodium sulphite a~lyd 850g llydroquinone 50g Borax 70g Boric acid 20g Phenidone 013g Potassium bromide LOg ImiddotJaCer to 1000 ml

Dllution Time (1115)

None 6middotmiddot9 1+1 11-16 1+3 22-30

Usc undiluted for the indiclted time to give the following speed increases on 111[5

800llSA (1 stop) 8-) mins l600ASA (2 stops) ll-12mins 3~00ASA (3 stops) 16-18mins

6 nigh Contrast Developers These developers give high contrast negatives lind are bese used on thin

emulsion high contrast film such as pes Ortholith film obtainable in 35mm cassettes from Photo ClwlllicoJ Supplies The first is the classic Caustic-hydroquinone developer and the s(cond is the s cand a -d Iniectious development low ulphitic developer T1e lotter is more delnonding of accurate exposure and development bUI

yields the highcst possible contrast for col our separation work and ha~f-tone dot screening Lith film may also be successfully developed using formula~ Nos 4 and 5 (undiluted) which hove better keeping qllalities once used but yield a blightly lowe contrast

No 17 CauGtic-llydro1uinone High Concrast Developer

SOLUTION A llydroquinone 25g

Potassium mctabisulphite 258 (or Sodium metabisulphite 2l5b ) PotassiUM bromide 25p (or Sodium bromide 2l5g) -I1ter to 1000ml

SOLUTlOCl B Sodillm hydroxide 36g (or Potassium hydroxide 50g) -IGter to lOOOml

Usc eqllJI P1rts A and Il and develop for 2-4 minutes The quantity of alkllli in Solntion B may be safely halved without loss of contrast but devrlopment time should be extended slihtly The two solutions keep indefinitely separately but ke e ping properties nre limited once mixed Use an acid stop bath before fixing to avoid staining

Nlt) 18 Infectious Lith Developer

SOLUTlON A Sodium sulphite anhyd 1

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Parafonnaldehyde 15 Po tassilil metaLisulphite 5 (or Sodium metabisulp lti t e I Jg) Water to 500ml

SOLUTiON Il Sodium sulphite anhyd 60 Tloric acid 15 Ilydroquinone 45 Potassium bromide J Water tJ 1500ml

------------------~~~ Use 1 part Solution A and 3 parts Solution Baud develop [or 2 minutes (Mix well and allow to stand for a few minutes before illuoersing fil m) The tlltO

solltloIls keep indefinitely separately and also keep quite well once mixed Both these high contrast dev elopers should be rl ixed fresh [ o r each film [or

best rf9ults pes Ortholith film is orthochromatic and developmcnt can be [olloved under a red safelight

7 HOlloba lils --TIse are solutions ill which development 1nd fixation t a ke place in the same bath In addition to the convenience of being single operation othlter advantages arc that the process is not dependent on criticll tilllillgt telllperatu(e o r agitJtion lmage contrast cannot be altered by extending or c u rtailing d(vel o pne nt but is built-into the mOllobath formula This can be set when m-Iking up the 1II01l0bath pri llci pally by varying the amount of fixing agent (sodium thios u llhate) includ e d The more fixing agent added the softer the contrast III addition the a moun t or act ivi ty of the developing agent can infl ue nce the contnlst o[ the (esult ill g ne gative

Tab le 5 Monobath formulae No 19 No 20

Socl i-lm sylphite anhyd 50 50

12 12

4

Sodiuln thiosulphate anhyd 70 (55-90) 60 (15-80)

Sod i lm h ydro ~ide=-____________--_4 10

Wat er to 1000 1000

P r oc ltss i ng time 5 mi ns +- mi n 5 llI ins-

+ mi n

i ll( degree of cont ras t produc ed will VIH y f ro on ~ f i 1m ype t o allo thl tmiddot and the qu antity of thiosulpbate requir ed will have to be determined e xpe(imentally

Ifor y o ur favourite film stock If a higher contrast than that given by using the lowest quantity of thiosulphate is required the hydroquinone concentration can be I increa s e d by about 25-30 Iloth these monobnths can be re-llned for up to ten [ill1ls or until the film is no longer cleared by the fixing agent CInLidenta lly a [ew minutes in a1 ordinary negative fixer will restore the [ilm) Films an plocessed for about 5 minutes (less for slow films) and washed Jnd dri e d nortlllly

pTO _ regJ1sect It is always good practice to use n stop bath betwee n the developing and

fixing baths An acid stop b1th not only halts develolIlllt 1lld millilliis s cont3mishynation o[ the fixer but also removes the scum formed Ly ~olle developer s nnd prevents

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st1ining particularly of lith materials after a hydroquinone-cauntic dcvclopcr

Table 6 Stop bath formulac

No 21 No 22 No 2) No 24 Acid Stop Buffered Stop Hardening Hardening

Sto~ Bath Stor Bath 2

Sodium Acctate )1l20 ))

Acetic acid (glaciat)(mt) 25 10 65

Chromium potassium sulphate 30 15

Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000

A few drops of stop hattgt indicator such as that obtainable from Photo Chemical Supplies lllay be added The indicator ch111ges from pale ycllow to blue 19 soon as the 11 rilles above 70 (neutral) Thc hardening baths (2) and 24) are sed after high temperature development Formulae 21 and 22 are also suitable stop baths for print processing

yrxrms

Fixation 15 necessary to remove the undeveloped silver halide from the ernU L ion lIardening agents may bc added to harden the emulsion Hardening is essential for films which have been reversal processed or processed at high temperatures and for bromide papers that arc going to be hot-glazed Typical fixers are shown in Table 7

Table 7 Fixllg [laths

No 25 No 26 No 27 No 28 Standard Buffered Buffered Buffered Acid Hypo Hardening Rapid Ilarden bullng Fix~r Hypo Fixer 7ixer Rapid Fixer

Sod i urn t h io 11 ]_--ptat-=e2-=anhtyd_ _ ~____-=-___________________160 150

(or Sodium thinsulphate cryst) (50) (240 )

Ammonium thiosulphate 175 200

Sodium sulphite anhyd 15 25 15

Sodium metabisulphite 25

Acetic acid glacial IS 10 15

Bodc acid 75 10 75

Potassium alum 15 15

Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000

All are used undiluted for films but may be diluted 1+1 for papers The buffered flxer~ havf a partiClllnrly long lifc and the buffered non-hardening rapid fixer (No 27) is recommended for plastic-coated papers such 1S 11fospeed

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REVERSlL PROCESSING OF Damp_ W FILM

Ileversl processing of black Ilnd white film yields positive transparencies with Il beautiful tonal gradation As with all reversal processes exposure and first development must be very carefully controlled beciluse density variatiolls cannot be compensated (or in printing The process involves the developmellt of Lile negative image (first developer) dissolving away the s i lvcr thus fOnilPU (bleach bath) clering and re-exposure to white light (reversal exposure) and develorshyment of the silver halide thus re-exposed (second development) The film is then fixed and washed in the normal way I t is the firs t deve lope r wh ich de termincs the quality of the final image It is usual to include a small quantity of silver halide solvent to brighten the highlights and sodiulll thiosullilate or sodiulll thiocyanate are usually used for this The subsequent processes are carried on more or less to completion so timing is not as critical as with the first developer In the fol~owiJlg procedure the first developer is retained antI used again [or the second dev e lopment

Rev r rsal processing solutions

No 29 Reversal developer (stock solution)

Netol 3g Sodium sulphite anhyd SOg lIydroquinone l2g Sodium carbonate anhyd 6()g Potassium bromide 4g Water to lOOOml

Dilution (stock + water) 1+1

To the diluted working strength developer add sodiulll thiosulphate at the following rale (gram~ per litre)

PAN F FP4 llPS Sodium thiosulphate anhyd 5 75 5 (a~ Sodium thiosulphat~

cryst) (8) (12) (8) AlternAtively a print deve l oper such as Dromophen may be used diluted 1+1 ith thiooulpilate dded as above

No 30 Blcach (two part stock solutions) SOLUTI ON A

Potassium permanganate 2g Water to SOOml

SOLUTION B Sulphuric acid 10 vv lOOml Water to SOOml These stock solutions will keep indefinitely but deteriorate rapidly when mixed

For use mix equal parts of A and D and discard after each film Potassium dichromate (lOg) may be used in place of the Potassium permanganate in Solution A

No 31 Clearing Bath

Sodium (or Potassium) metabisulphite 25g Water to 1000ml

Fixer ---The bleaching solution softens the emulsion and a hardening fixer must be used

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The hardening fixers given enrl ier laquo(onnube Nos 26 and 28) are ideal

Procedure 1 First developel 12 mins at 20

0 e for all llford films with an inversion every 15 seconds Keep the developer for use in the second development

2 Wnsh 3 mins with frequent changes 3 llicach 5 mins with strong continuous agitation Roarbull lights may be

switched on after two minutes in the bleach 4 I~n s h 2 mins with frequent chnnges 5 Clear 2 mins in the Clearing bath 6 Iash 2 mins with changes 7 Reversal exposure Re-expose ench cnd of the spiral for 2 mins at 12-18 inches

from a 100 watt bulb This is best done underwater in a clear gls9 bowl standing on a sheet of white paper Rotate the bulb or the spiral during re-exposure to ensure even illumination

8 Second developer Develop for 6-8 mins at 20 0 C in the developer solution retained from the first development Development time is not critical but should go to completion

9 Rin s e 10 Fix Fix in acid htrdening fixer for 10 mins (formula No 2cent ) or

4 mins (formula No 28) It Final 5h Wash for 30 mins and dryas usual

Modifying the Processed Negative Th e silver imJge obtained after development and fixation may be either l r censhy

sified or r educ ed TIlis is to compensate (or errors in exposure or dlvelopment or both

INTE~(UFICTION

The following for muLt has been select e d [rom the many published because i t is simple effective etsily controlled and yields a permanently enhllnced negative The basic chemicals are reasollably safe unlike the mercury and uranium intensifiers

No 32 Chromium Intensifier

STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium dichromate 12 5g lJnter to 200 ml

STOCK SO LUTION II Hydrochloric acid 10 vv (36 ww) 30ml ( o r I1ydrochloric acid 10 1 ww) (L Iml) (or Hydrochloric acid cone) (]ml) WJter to 200ml For use mi~ 1 part Solution A with 3 parts water and add 1 part rolution n

The negative should be properly fixed and well washed Old negatives should be sO kcd in water for a few minutes The negative is immersed in the intensifier [or 2-3 minutes until the image is (ully bleached (it turns a yellowy-brown colour) It is then washed well until the yellow stain is removed The intensified image is then re-developed after exposure to daylight (or a light bulb 1 minute each side at 18 inches) in l nOli-solvent type developer This may be a print developer or general purpose necative developer such as formtJl No3 or any universal j developer An advantage of thi s intensifier is that the whole proces8 may be repe a ted several times with an increase in intensification each time as the image

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is built up

~EDUCTrON

There are three classes of reducers which reduce the amount o[ silver in the negative in different ways

The subtraltive reducers remove silver from all parts o[ the illlagc (shadows and highlights) at about the salTle rate 50 that the contrast 15 incrcaBed This is uscful for Jver-euroxposed negatives which tend to be flat

The peoporti)lal reducers remove silver in proportion to the density so that the contrast grildient is maintained This type of reducer is suitable for those negatives which are too dense for easy printing through over-exposure ~ombined

with over-development The uper-proportional reducersattack the IllDvy silver depositll more than

[he lightly exposed parts leading to a reduction ill contrast and density Dense contrasty negltives are usually the result of over-development

No 33 Farmers Reducer (Subtractive)

STOCK SOLUTION A Sodium thiosulphate anhyd 32g (or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (SOg) Water to 500ml

STOCK SOLUTION B Potassium ferricyanide 109 Water to 100ml Immediately before use mix 15 p3rts A with 15 parts w(lter and ~dd 1 pa[t B

The process of reduction should be watched carefully and may be stoppcd at nny time by flooding wi th wn ter The ac t i vi ty 0 [ the reducer may be n 1te [cd by va ry ing the qunutity of Soltltion II added [ncrensing t he [crricyanidc increa ses the activity and vice versa The stock solutions keep indefinitely hut the working solution hu 3

short life

No 34 Permanganate - Persulphate Reducer (Proportional)

STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium permanganate 1 solution lZ 5ml Sulphuric acid 10 wlw 65ml Water to 500ml

STOCK SOLUTLON II Ammonium persulphate 25g Water to 1000mi Distilled water should be used to make up these solutions for use take one

part A two ports distilled water and two parts B A slower acting mixture is I part A 4 parts water and 1 part II and this may be easier to control A[ter reduction the action con be halted and the brown stain removed by immersing the negative in a 1-2 solution of sodium (or potnssiul1l) metabisulphite The negative should he thoroughly waMhed before being dried

No 35 Pelslliphate Reducer (Super-proportional) Ammonium persulphate 125g Sulphuric acid lOr ww 5m1 Distilled water to 500101

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The ne)a t i ve shou 1d be fu lly wn shed The leduc t ion mus t be wa tC1ed close ly as the rate varies ~idely with different emulsions nnd with some modern high speed ~mulsions it iR not effective ]t all to 12-157 solution of sodium Ilulphite anhyd can be Ilseu as ] s top bath Imd the negat ive is fi na lly given a good wash

BampW Print Processes [1) NI_I2EV~1QI2yRS

Print developers arc generally fairly contrasty compared to negative developers and of course it ig not necclisary or desirable to use fine grain or acutance techniqupound for prints The colour tone of the image is the main variable in print developers but the colour obtained will depend largely on the type of print paper (eg bromide chlorobromide or chloride)

Table 8 Standard Print Developers

No 36 No 37 No 38 No 39 D163 ID62 ID20 New

PQ Univ NQ Paper Winchester

~middotc to 1 22 3 35

Sodium sulphite anhyd 75 50 50 35

-lL(~ro(l~1 i WJlle 17 12 12 86

Socli11Tl -----shy

carbollate lt1nilyd 65 60 60 63

lhellidolle 05

Potassium bromide 28 2 4 l9

I3cn7otriazole 1 15-25 20 37

Wettinr agent 10 10 10 10

Wnter to 1000 1000 1000 1000

Dilution (stock + water) 1+3 1+3 1+3 1+2 Calgon may be added to all the above at the rate of 2g per litre If the ueveloper is uRed at less dilution development iR more rlpid The

benzotriClzole in these formulilc irnproves the brightness of highlights by reduc i ng fog and also shifts the colour of the illlage towards black or blue-black The New middotIinchester formula (No 39) is a universal paper delTeloper giving good black to nc s and is the basis of many commercially available print developers

Table 9 Warm-tone Print DClTelopers

No +O ~Jo 41

~Lltf01 I i nonc _________--25 ---8_ ___

Sodium Dulphite anhyd 60 60

Sad i IIll carboIlHe anhyd 90 90

~ycin 25

Potassium oronlidc 2

~ater to 1000 1000

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Dilution (Stock + water) 1+3 1+2 Time 2-3 mins 1-2~ mins

Formula No 41 has a warmer tone tllan No 40 but both arc best used on warm-tone papers

STQ- [lATHS FOR PR_INT~

The 1I0n-hilnlenlng stop blths given carlier (Nos 21 and 22) arc suitable f0 r prints as is a 47 solution oE sodium or potassium mctabisulphite (I~Oplitre) good economical stop bilth can be made up by adding 1 part stop batl (as above) to two parts old fixer and mixing up a fresh fixing bath When the stop batll shows exhaustion the stop bath ia discarded and the old fixer converted to the ncw st op bath This double use of fixing solution Lcally does prolong the life of the fl xer bath as a large part of the fixation takes place in the stop bath and the diluti on ensures that no staining occurs

PRINi FIXERS Any of the fixer formulae given earlier for negativcs will provide fix e rs

suitatle for papers (formulae 25-28) The rapid fixers have a much grentcr cJptc ity than the hypo filter s and formula 27 is especially recommended for plastic-coatcd pap~rs Prints on normal paper wh i ch a r c t o be hot-glazed should be fixed in 1

hardening fixer (formulae 26 or 28) Formula 25 is obviously the cheapest to ma ke up but the pll should be monitored and more metabisulphite added to restOt-e thc acidity when required All may be used diluted 1+1 It is advisable not to U 5C the some solution for fixing both films and pape rs even if the same formula is used but to keep film filter and paper fixer i n s eparate bottles

t~ID F9H PAPER PInNTsect The fibre base of normal printing pl pe rs retains acid chemicals from the fj xing

bath which are difficult to remove by -a s h ing alone If after a brief rine 11C

print is i~nersed in a 2-5 solution o f s od ium carbonate anhyd for 2-] minutes the subsequent nonnl wash ensures that all the hypo and hYPolilver camplexes a t c removed This alkaline bath should be used whenever any subsequent trcatmenl of the print such as toning is to be carried out

LYPO ELI~IN~TOB 11C following solution (formula No 42) serves to oxidise the thiosulphate t o

~ulphate which is then easily washed ou t o f the paper

~~_~po Elimin_ator

Hydrogen peroltide solution 3 (10 volume) 125ml or Hydrogen peroxide solution 6 (20 volume) 63mU Ammonia solution 0B80sg 10ml Hater to 1000ml immerse the prints in the above solution after a normill W8lh in running W (l ~ er

for about 5 minutes followed by a fu cthc r Hash of about 10 minute This hyposhyelimnator is made up of volatile compOIw nts so that there is_ no risk of elininllor salts remaining in the p1per-base after drying

PRINT TONING Prints may be toned a variety of colours and depending on subject can yielel very

pleasing results All prints must be tlloroughly washed prior to toning and old prints

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~lloliid be soaked ~n water for a few minute s to soften the emulsion

1) Sepia Toning Th follow(ng method yields perm1nlnt prints with a good brown tone In fact

prints treated in lhis way have greater permanence than untreated prints and the lmiddotLlwd is USLd ill 3rchival processinl The print is first bleached ill a ferri shyqnidcbroHiide bleach until the d3ri~est partH of the image tire a raint straw LU lour 1 t is lilen placed in the toner b3th 1111lt1 the sepia image quickly reappears

Nu (d FerricyanidcDromi de Bleach

Potassium [erricyanide 40g Potassium bromide 251 Jater to 1000mi Tllis stock solution is used undiluted and keeps well if stored in the dark or

ll a dnk bottle It may be re-used until exhausted h[ter bleaching the print 1~ washed well and trGnsferred to tbe following solution

Uu 44 Sepia Toning BGth -Thiolre1 109

Potassium bromide 40g Sodiul1i hydroxide 3-6g WJter to 1000mi The qu~n[ity of sodium hydroxide can be adjusted between the above limits to

yield the desired tone colour This toning bath is preferable to the traditional suJiul11 sulphide hath because of the unpiensant smell and properties of sodium sulphide solutions Thiourea and sod i um sulphide should not be used or stored in lilt dGrkroom or near sensitised materials

bJ lllie Toner This process does not re qruire a bleach stage but the print should be thoroughly

- s hed a[te1 fixation The process intell5ifies the image slightly so prints to bpshytOiled blue should be mnde a little lighter than they would otherwise be

Nu 45 Dlue Toning Bath

SOLUTION A

Potassium ferricyanide Ig Sulphuric acid 10 ww 30ml Wnter to 500ml

SUIUTION 13

Alliinonilim ferric citrate (green) Ig

Sulphuric acid 10 ww 30ml Water to 5001111 Mi elt[uGI parts hand B immediately before use The wet print is immersed

ulltil the desired tone is reached and then washed Excessive wnsh ing will ble a ch lliit the blue colour and just sufficient wash to remove the yellow tain should be lven This bleaching is largely eliminated if the print is lshed in water conshy[lining a l ittle acetic acid (51111 or less per litre)

c) Red TOiler Th~TtO~ing is il traditional red tOller using copper sulphate hglin no

b I each is llluircd

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No 46 Red TOllin~ Bath

SOLUTION A Cupric s~lphate (511 deg) 12 5g

2Sodium citrate 500g (or Potassium citrate) (55g) Water to SCOml

SOLUTION B Potassium ferricyanide 109 Sodium citrate 50 g (or Potassium citrate) (SSg) Water to SCOml Use equal volumes of II and B mixed just before use The image colour changes

through warm black then sepia to rea 2nd t he process can be halted at any stage by flushing with water The print is th~n wa s hed and dried normally

PRINT nEDUCERS Print reducers are generally used Eor the local reduction of dense parts of

iarge prints for generally brightening dense flat prints or for removing fiilvcr completely from unwanted areas Farmers Reducer (formula No 33) is the most commonly used print reducer and shoul d Df t sed s ufficiently diluted to allow control of the reduction proc ess Use scr 1p dn ts to de t e rmine the appropriate conditions ~len using Farmers Reducer wash the pr in t frequently in running water or permanent yellow staining may occur Farmers Reduc e r used very dilute is ideal for brightening dense flat prints It is a s ub t ractive reducer and gives bright highshylights a nd increased contrast

~len heavy deposits of silver have 0 igt e remov ed completely such as that cause1 by pinholes in line nega t i ves Fa nna r s Reduce r is not su i tab Ie because of the possibility of staining The followin g formula (No 47) is an iodine re ducer which i9 very effect i ve at removing dense silver

No 47 Iodine Reduce r

Potas sium iodide 1Sg Iodine crystals 05g Water to lOOml This reducer is applied to the mOl s t lot ~et) print with a swab or brush and

the resulting brown Btain is easily r emove d in a 15 solution of sodium thiosulphate Illlhyd (or 25 sodium thiosulphate cryst ) after a rinse in water The print should then be thoroughly rinsed

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Colour Processing Besides offering real economy brew-it-yourself colour processing is v~ry

satisfying and can yield results superior to those offered by ln3ny commercial proshycfSSinl~ houses All that is required ilre careful working methods and atttntion to dltlails Tlte Icrwrill instruction relating to monochrome proc(ssin~ should be r~d in conjunction with thcse notes on colour processing It should be emphasised that the formulae given in this section are not those of the film manufacturers who do not publish their formulae but have been worked out to yield results comparable with the manufacturers recommended processing

Time and Temperature Cololl~ ma-terials are not as flexible as black and white materials with regard

to development conditions since wide deviation from the recommended development can yield shifts in colour balrnce ohich lQay be impossible to correct in printing With reversal materials in particular exposure must be accurate and the time and temperature of the first development is crucial as thi largely determines the quality of the ftnal transparency In the C(j process the processing temperature is rather high (3a

oC) bllt this must be maintained at least for the first dtvelopment There is

slightly more leeway ~Iith the other st~ges but these should b~ kept within the limite shown The sallie applies with colour development of negative materials and again the processing tenrperature of the C41 procefiS is high (also JaoC) The times given in the formulae include 10-15 seconds to uHo~ for draining the tank

H~king up the Solutions As wi th all the - formulae in this bookl e t the chemicals should be dissolved in

tire order given Some of the colour dev e lo p ing agents while extremely solub i I wa te r tend to separn te out in the a 1 k a 1 ine J eve loper sol ut ions Ita aov isab le to dissolve the colour developing agen t to gether with the hydroxylamine (hydro shycldoride or sulphnte) where p r e sent se pa r a te ly i n part of th e total volume of water alld add this slowly 0 th e rerna mJer o f the solution some time before use rile hydroxylamine acts as an antioxidant and is required because the sulphite conshyclntrltion hCls eO be low Hydroxylamine is rapidly decomposed in alkaline solutions ill the pr se nce of sequestering agents of the EDTA type so Cnlgon should be used i n h~rd water ~~ r e s rather than EDTA

V~QCESliING G9J~QI1lLill=VERSAL FILMs_U0R COLOUR SLIDES) There are at present two princiPlll systems for colour reversal film prGcessing

(excluding Kodachrome) The first is the ~g fachrome 41 process covering all Agfa r-tJVersal fi 1m (except Igfachrotnc [(IOOS Profe ssional - proce Sl E6) olhether sold process paid or not Thepound are few if any other makes o f [i Tm available in Britain ohich use this process The second ir the Kodak Ektachrome E6 process hich covers IllOSt of the rCIllining colour n~versal films There are a few filns Idlich ltIre still made for outdated process es sLlch as ORWO f i l ms ohich are proc e s sed by an old Igf~ process Rnd some specillised Ko d ak films suc h as Ektachrome In f rared Film find Photomicrography Color Film 248J which are processed by the old E-4 process There may still be a [ew films from independent manufacturers designed for the old E ~ process

Kodak Kod~lchlome films are sold process paid and user processing is not feasible

Keversal Exposures - Reversal film mUfit be given a fogging exposure to light (Where chemical fegging is not used) after the first development Because the emulsion is very much less sensitive at this stage than normal film this exposure mtlst be rather intense It

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is best to remove the film from the spinl and SCC-SDW it through plain wter below a Photo flood lamp Ilowever a wet delicate film is difficult to reload into the spi ra 1 (bes t done under lola ter) and it is cas icr to leave the film in thc 5 pi ra 1 nlld extend the exposure time With clear spira ls thc exrosure time should be at lea~t

doubled and with the translucent nylon spira l s the exposure should be increased 5-10 fold When the film is not removed for the exposure place the spiral in a white 001011 of water (or a clear glass bowl on J wl ite surface) and place the lamp above it During the exposure of each end of the s pir a l the lamp or bowl should be moved about so that the exposure is more even Watc r and cl~ctricity dont mix so care is needed and a hot photoflood lamp will burst if s plashed Dont skimp on th e reversal exposhysure - it is easy to underexpose but dif f ic ul t to overexpose For the Ektachrome E-6 p r-ocess a reversa l bath which chemi c3 1y fogs tile film making the reversal exposure unnecessary i s available from Pb c to Chemical Supplies

The Agfachrome 41 Proce ss Suitablc for all Agfa Reversal poundll ns (except Agfachrorne RIOOS Professional

available in 120 size and sheet film only)

formul ~ e - Agfachrome 41 No 48 First Developer

Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g middot1e to 1 3g Sodium sulphite anhyd SOg Hydroquinone 6g Sodium carbonate anhyd 40g Potassium thiocyanate 25g Potassium bromide 2g otassium iodide 0 1 Solution 6ml wate to 1000111

No 49 Stop Bath

Ac etic acid glac iol 101 Sodium acetate (3H 0) lO g

2Water to 10001111

No 50 Colour Developer PART I

Sodium sulphit e anhyd 3 5g Hydroxylamine hydrochloride I t Potassium bromide 19 Colour Developing Agent see below Ethylenediamine (50 vv Soln) 16ml (or 2-phenylethylamine) (3ml) -later to 300ml

PART BI Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g S~dium carbonate anhyd 62g Water to 500ml

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c) lour iPVf loping age nts [0[ Part lI

Colour Dev e loper 1 (sulphate) 28g or Colour l)eve l o pe r I (chloIide) ( CIH) 22g or Cenochrollc 2 5g or Dtoxych rome 3 2g

lOOt usc add ParL II slowly to Part D with tirring and make up to a total volume o f 10U0Il1I

No 51 [leach ~-----Po tas s ium-[e rr i CY[lnidc 80g

Potassium bromide 30g Sodium acetate (J1l 0) 50g2lor ic Jeid 5g Potnssiwa nll11 30g Water to 10001111

Ngt 52 Fixcr ---S-oJI~-tTiosu I ph a te anhyd l25g

(or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (200g) Sodiul1l s ulphi te lnhyd lag Imiddotlater to 1000ml

Th pit of this fixer is approximately neutral Do not use an acid fixer because it Jill blcnch th e dyes

Nu 53 Stnbiliser - --- We t ti~g agelt - Im1

Forlllaide hyde 0 5ml I-Jte r to IOOOml

~ (lCeslng Procedure lIrfachrome 41

At 20 0 C (minutes) At 24degC (minutes )

1 First Developer 18 - zr-----shy lJ-l~ (z00-O 50C) (2l 0 -02SoC)

2 Rin sc ~ 3 St op bath 4 3 4 1[151 10 7 S Reve r sni Exposure See be l~w 6 Colour developer 14 (20 0 -0SoC) 11 (z4 0 02SoC) 7 - 1 5 h 20 14 8 Ill eac ll 9 I-[lsh 5 4 lll Fix 5 4 ll Wash 10 7 12 Stabil iser 1 1 1] Dry (30 D

e) mox

One minute each side with film r emo ved from spiral 2 minuteR each end rf clear sl c rlll lid 5-10 minutes ench end of ttanslucent nylon spirill frolll a No2 Photoflood a l I lie t re () f le t)

Thp t Cll peratllre during the Lwo developme nt stages should be maintained within til limits shown For other stages tlte t e lllperature may range from 17-20lC or 21 - 2llC The third wash (Htole n iu raLh e r long and it is important that it is llt lL shorted In soft watcr ilHilS this lung wallh nwy c ause the clUulsion to slocll Su un int e l-mediate bilth of 5 minutes immediately J(tcr the colour developer can be given to prevent excessive swelling This is a 2 solution of either sodium

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sulphate or magnesium sulphate (Glaubers salts or Epsom Salts) If the intermediate bath is used the third wash may be shortened by 5 minutes In the two developer baths agitation should be continuous for the first 30 seconds followed by two invershysions every half minute for the rest of the period

As usual it is the developer solutio 1~ which deteriorate first The remalnlng solutions (stop hath bleach and fixer ) have double the capacity of tIle two developers Ea ch litre of developer should process 6-8 films but the development timcs should be extended by 30 seconds at 20degC (or 20 5cco~ds at 24 o

C) after the first two films anQ after each subsequent two films hi applies to both the first and colour deve lo pers

rne Ektachrome E-6 Pro ess 1 am indebted to Mr Derek Wa tkl 9 r0~ permission to reproduce this formula

wh i ch first appe1red in the March 198 1 i sgt lc of the magazine SLR Camera (Haymnket Publi t hing Ltd 38-42 Hampton Road TCd ingcon Middlcsex)

There are a lot of films from man n~rUl facturers sold under a wide variety of brand names which are compatible with the E-6 process Even Agfa make an E-6 compatible film (Agfachrome RIOOS Professional)

FormuL ae - E-6 i-lo-54---first Deve 1upe r

Sodium 6exametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g Sodium sulphite anhyd J9g Potassium carbonate anhyd 14g Sodium bicarbonate 12g Phen i done O 6g Itydroluinone 6g Sodium bromide 22g Sodium thiocyanate Ig Sodium hydroxide 33g Pot~asium iodide (01 50ln) 45ml Water to 1000m~ pH 9 6-005

No 5~ Stop Bath 1 ------S0dium acetate anhyd 30g

(or Sodium acetate 320) (50g) Acetic acid glacial 6ml Water to 1000m~ pit 55-02

No 56 Colour Develoger Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g tri-50dium orthophosphate 1220 36g Sodium hydroxide 3g Sodium sul~lite anhyd 4 5g 3gtdium bromide 065g Potassium iodide (01 Soln) 30ml Sodium thiocyanate 1 3g Citrazinic acid 1 25g CD-3 l1g ~oter to 1000mi + pH 1165-005

bull 23 shy

S LOp lath 2 Same as Stop lath 1 but once used do no t interchange them

No 57 ll l e ach lotassiulil (erricyanide 80g Potassium bromide 20g Ji-So JiullI hydrogen orthophosphattnnhyd 12g (or di-Sodium hydrogen olthophosphnte

1211 2deg) (JOg) Acetic acid glacial 5ml Hater to IOOOrot plt 55-02

No 58 Fixe r - - Sndi-u-thiosulphate Mlhyo 125g

(or SodiulTl thiosulpilte cryst ) (200g) SodiuJJ sulphite anhyd 5g So dium me tabisulphite O5g Water to lOOOlllt 11 72-02

~Jc tt ing JgCllt lmL

L r to lOOOml

Time ~pe ratute

l First development 6r J8-U57 - shygt Stop iJath 1 2 33-JoC J Ih 2 3J-J90C 4 Reversal Exposure Two minutes each side with (ilm removed

froro spiral 5 minutes each side of clear spiral ano 10 minutes each side of nylon spiral with No 2 PhotofLoud at

(Or HeveJs31 JlJth) (ObtainJhle 12 inches frolll Photo Chical Supplies) 2 JJ-J90C

5 Col o ur u(ve [o[JllICnt G JSlOC 6 St o p Bath 2 2 JJ-l)degC 7 1-1 2 ])-J9()C g 11 [e middoth 5 JJ-l9C l) Rins e ~ 3J-390C [0 fix 5 3J-390C II Wnsh 6 33-J90C I ~ S tid il s c 1 3J-390C n Dry (Fillll cllt~Jrs on drying) r uTES ) As wilh all revlrsnl processes the [irut developer largely delermines the ehnrilct(tmiddotistic~ o[ the final translnrency Jntl the rcconlllltnJeu time anJ temp~rature

hlHJ1J be Iuhlrcu to b) AgitJtion in 11 ba ths (except the optional reversal bnth and the stabiliser

- - - - - - - ------------

wllich should not be agitated) is continuous for the first 15 seconds followed by two

inversions of the tank each subsequent half minute With the reversal bath and stnbiliRer an initial inversion to ensure uniform distribution is all that is required cl The conditioner bth in the offici)l process is lwl required in the pLOceJllre given hele as this useR ferricyllnide bleach rather than all EUTA hl(ach d) The two Rtop hth re of identical compositioll bllt should not be illtcrchlIircl due tu dnmn~illg carry-over contomination e) The caplcity of the solutiolls is 10 filll1ll pr litre (36 exposure - 35 or 120 roll film) bnt the tillle in the first developer must be extencled hy 15 second~ after the first two films and after each subsequent two films (by 20 seconds fOl the last two films) f) The made-up solutions should be scored in dark bottles at room temperature not in the refrigerator The first developer will keep for two months unused or for four weeks once used The colomiddoti developer will keep for 3 months unused or 2 lIIo11~hs partly used nd all the remaining solutions will keep for 6 months ur longer Although the first developer contains many ingredients it is not expensi ve to moke up Thus it is worthwhile retaining the remaining solutions to be used ith a ((esh ly made fi rs t deve loper if the fu 11 capac i ty canno t be used in the four we ek life 0f the original first developer g) Drying temperature should not exceed 60

0 C and all EktachrOllle films only clclr

when nearly dry For information on process control and fault finding in both Agfachrome 41 and

Ektachrome E-6 the reader is referred to The Focal Guide to Colour Film Proces~ing by Derek IJAtkins (published by the Focal Press norough Green SevEnolt)ks Kent TNlS 8PB) This excellent book also gives 11 the background information you may require Also in the book is a substitute E-4 process (as well an a low cost Ln~ temperature simplified E-4 process) for those films using this system This book also covers colour negative film processing

PROCESSING COLOUR NEGATIVE FILMS (PLUS XP-l AND VARIa XL BL~CK A~~lJTE FIL~ ~~__________~_ ____~______M~)__ __

As with colour reversal film the two major manufacturers of ~olour fil~s A~ [a

and Kodak each have tlieir own fi lms and processing systemy [or cololJr negative~ Again the trend seems to be towards a unified compatible system based on Kodaks C-lfl prccens

Processing negative film is very much eaGier tlan reversal processing for two reasons Firstly there are fewer steps in the processing sequence with no revcr~al EXpOSlln required and secondly there ill a little more latitude with tlte pro cessing since most faults can be corrected later at the print ing sta ge HOI_e ver cons iL e nt good resutts depend on consistent processing Attention to detail ~ile proce8s i ng a film can save a lot of time later on

Agfacolor N Negative Process ---T-tiis-process is in tended for all II fa co lour nega t i ve film (CNS CNS2 ann 80S Pr~fe9sionol) excluding AgCacoluur CNS400 negative film This ltter is designed to be processed in Agfacol o r Peo ceMs 70 chemicals and is compatible witl l Kodaks Flexicolor C41 process as is Agf a s chromogenic 131ack and ~hite film Vor l XL

The Agfacolor N process is slightly unusual in that the devclopmpnt is 11101-11(

to continue in the lowlgtr layers of the e mulsion during an intermedi1 t e bath wll icll immediately follows the colour developer

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Pu rmulnc - Agfucolour N i u 59- Colur- ll(vIoI~er SULUTION A

Sodium hexnmetaphosphate (Calgon) 2g PutnsSilJln carl)ooatc atlhyd 75p Potassium bromide 25p Wat e r Lo 500ml

~()LUTroN Il

lIydroxylamine hydrochloride 19 (or Hydroxylamine sulphate) 0 2g) Sodium sulphite anhyd 35g Colour Dcvcloppr 1 (Sulph~te) 28g (or Colour Developer 1 (chlorideraquo C22g) (or Cenocilrome) (25g) (0 t Droxych rome) (J2g) ) t e r to SOOml

I l d B tlJ A with stirring before use

Nu 60 Intermediate Bath -- -~lgn~sin sulpil1te--===- JOg

Mixed (or used) Colour Deve lope r 501n 30ml 1000011

No 61 Bleach --S-(Tll~eXaeLaphospilate (Cnlgon) 5g

Potassiulll fcrricY1nide 42g Potassium brolllidp 12g 10[ltl8siu dihydrogen orthophosphate 15g di-Potassium hydrogcn ortilophosplwte

nll Jil yd Sg Water to 1000111

Nl 62 Fixer -------sz-dG----Umiddotios ul phn te nnhyd 125g

(01 Socii um thiosulphntc cryst) (200g) SodiulIl sulphitc anhyd 109 Wnter to 1000ml

ltc~ing Procedure Agfacolollr N Time (mins) Telpernture degc-S----shy

1 Colour developer 20-02 2 Intermediate bath 4 2005 J -IDsh 15 (lllinilllllm)-20 15-20 4 IHench 6 2005 5 Hash 6 15-20 6 FLx 6 18-20 7 -Ilsh 10 15-20 fl ~~ett lllg agent bath 15-20 N)lI~S

Agit1tilln in niL stDges is continuous (or the fi1st minute followed by o ue j version of Lhc LIll( (very hoi ( minute thcrcnfter

llevcl)plIlcnt 11I3Y be varied betccn 7 - 9 minutes Increase ueve10pment to 9 llItes Lo incrcasc contrast and reduC(~ the time to 7 minutes (or softer results

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The orange mask is formed in the bleach bath and the recommended time and temperature for this stage should be followed as the density of the mask increases with time

All the solutions including the co l our developer solutions (separately) shoilid keep for at least 4 months Once mixed the colour developer (and the intermediate bath) will only Inst a f ew weeks

The capacity is 6 - S films (135- 36 o C 120) per litre but the development ttne shoul d be incr eased with each film or pair of films to compensate for developer e xha ustion The c a pa c ity of the co lou r d vetoper s may be e xtended by mixing onl y

al f of so lu tions I a n d B and proceSS in f( 4 i ilms in e ach h a lf In this ca s e prolong the development time by one mi nute a f ter eacll film

Flexi color C-41 Tlis process was developed by Kod lt1 ilt [or the mach i ne pro ces~ing of their nc~

colour negative films Kodacolor II and Ve ricolor II The majorit y of colour films from independent manufacturers are now made compatible with the C-~l process In addition there are the two chromogenic bl ack and white films lifords XPI and Ag Eal s Vario XL whi ch were designed fo r C- 41 processing l gfas fast colour nega t i ve film CNS400 should also be proce sed i n C- 41 chemicals

Because C-41 was designed for use i n au t omated commercial laboratories the processing t emperature is rather h i gh (IOO or 3So

C) As with the ~ktachrome E-6 precess these high temperatures bring abo ut the a s sociated problems of short development times and DE maintaining t hL t empe ra ture betwe en the prescribed limit~ Tha t t hes e pro b lems are easi l y ove rc ome i s J emon s trat ed by the many thousa nds of amac e urs who s ucce ss f ully process t hei L own pol and Vari o XL monochrome films in

oC-4 chemicals at 3S C

The following formulae represent a l ow cosi substitute procedure using a traditional ferricyanide bleach

ihe substi t ute process is reproduc d fr om The Focalguide to Colour Film Proc es sing by Derek Wat ki ns with k i nd p2r ssion from the Focal Press

Formu11e C-4l

No 63 Colour Developer Sodium hexarroetaph()sphate (Calgon) 2g Po tassium carbonate anhyd 38g Sodium sulphite anhyd 5g Potassium iodide 01 Soln 2ml Potassium bromide 1 5g lIydroxamine hydrochloride 2g CD-4 5g Wlter to 1000ml

No 64 Stop Bath Ae tic acid glacial 20011 Sodium acet1te 311 0 25g

2Water to 1000ml

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------ ----------------

~

No 65 Bleach Potassium nitrate 2SB Potassium ferricyanide 30g Potassium bromide 12g Boric acid 5g Sodium tetraborate (Borax) 19 Water to 1000ml

No 66 Fixer Sodium thioulphate anhyd 125g (or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (ZOOg) Sodium metabisulphite 20g Water to LOOOtnl

No 53 Stabiliser Wetting a ~r~ nt 1m1 Formaldehyde 40 511 )1 ~ater to lOOOm1

f ocessinG Procedure e-4l (with [erricY~lnid( bleach)

Time Temperature degc l Colour development 31- 38~~--

2 Stop bath 35-40 J Wash 35-40 4 Bleach 35-40 5 ~ash 35-40 6 Fix 35-40 7 ~ash 35-40 8 Stabiliser 35 -40 9 Dry

Agitation in the developer is continuous for the first half minute followed by one inversion of the tank each quarter minute thereafter In the remaining solution s the agitation may be reduced t o t lJO in ver sions every half minute after tilE init i a l )0 sec onds cont inuous agit a tio n e ach bath

TIll capacity of the so lut ions is a pplC))limately twelve films per litre if the dev eloper is made up as two 500ml port iuns dn d six films devel oped in eacll portion The development time should be extended by minute after the f irst two films and by middot a further i minute aft er t he seco nd 1lt1 fi ms A comb i ned b1each f ix bath may be u~cd in this procss b t t o[ cours Lilis calllu t be a f e rr i c Yll1ido ball ed bleach A sllitable formula can be found in t h e Br i i sh J our nal of Photography Annual

PIWCESSING COLOUR PRINTS For copyrigllt reasons we arc unabl e t o re produce the substi t ute fo rmulae for

colour print processing The f onnulae and pr ocedure s are quit e straight~orward and lIIay be found in the British Journal of Photography Annual Photocopies of the relevan t pnu es may be obtained for a nominal sum from the publishers This applies to earlic~ editions of the book and to the current edition after stocks are sold out (u s ually April or Hay) The address to 0 i s

Tlte Ed i tor Ilritish Journal of Photography Annmiddot qL Henry Greenwood ( Co Ltu 28 Creat James Street London WeI Telephone 01-404 4202

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APPENDIX I Chemical Names Seeals- Appendix 2 for Colour Developing Adurol Amidol Amidosulphonic acid Ammonium alum Ammonium hydroxide l2-B(nzenediol 14-Benzenediol Bor1cic acid Borax Calgon Chlorchydroquinone Chrcmlt alum Copper sulphate Copper chloride l2-Diaminoethane 24- Diaminophenol hydrochloride Digol l2-Dihydroxybenzene l4-Dihydroxybenzene 26-Dihydroxyisonicotinic acid Elo Ethy l enediaminetetraacetic acid and sa l ts Ethyl~ne glycol Ferri~ ammonium citrate Formalin p-Hydroxyphenyl glycine Iron perch loride Iron trichloride Kcdalk p-HtLhylaminophenol sulphate Nethyl p1raaminophenol sulphate middotIonoch 10 rhyd rOluinone 1- Pheny 1- 3-pyrazo lidone Potasnium alum Potassium bichromate Potassium bisulphite Potassium chrome alum Propan-2-01 Pyrocatechin (Pyrocatechol) Pyrogall ic acid Quino Sodium bisulphite Sodium hydrosulphite Thiocarbamide I 2 3-Trihydroxybenzene

and Synonyms Agent)

Chloroquinol 24-Diaminophenol hydrochloride Sulphamic acid Aluminium ammonium sulphate Aoononia solution Catechol (Pyrocatechol Pyrocatechin) Hydroquinone Boric acid Sodium tetraborate Sodium hexametaphosphate Chloroquinol (Adurol) Chromium potassium sulphate Cupric sulphate Cupric chloride Ethylenediamine Amidol Diethylene glycol Catechol Hydroquinone Citrazinic acid Hetol EDTA acid and salts Ethanediol Ammonium ferric citrate Formaldehyde solution Glycin Ferric chloride Ferric chloride Sodium metaborate Hetol Hetol Chloroquinol Phenidone Aluminium potnssium sulphate Potassium dichromate Potassium metabisulphite Chromium potassium sulphate Isopropyl alcohol (Isopropanol) Catechol Pyroglillol Ilydroquinone Sodium metabisulphite Sodium dithionite Thiourea Pyrogallol

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Jl)[l~NDIX 2

There appears to be considerable confusion surrounding the various colour developing agents This is probably due to the fact that these complex compounds helve all been given a different trade name by each manufacturer or distributor L1Ch compound may even have more than one chemical name depending on the chemical nOlllcnclature system used The following is a list of the chemical names and synonyms of the common colour developing agents All of them are derivatives of para-phenylenediamine the classic fine grain black and white developer and they sllare in varying degrees the unpleasant characteristics of this material They should be handled with care and skin contact or inhalation of dust should be avoided llecause these compounds are similar in structure and mode of action they arc interchangeable to some extent the differences being plincipally differcncfs ill activity and solubility Differences in solubility can cause slight colour cilmges but this is really important only with reversal films since with colour 1I~~ative films and colour papers colour casts can usually be corrected by filtration in printing The relative quantities re qui r ed ani adjustments to development times or exposure will have to be determined by experiment The names underlined are those used by Photo Chemical Supplies

Colour Developer I (Sulphate) - Ac t i vo 1 7 (Jejlt1Sltmi--shy= Uiethyl-p-phenylencdiamine sulphate =NN-Diethyl-l4-pbenylenerliamlne sulphate

C lO

II 16

NZ

H2

S04

Holht - 26232

Colour Developer 1 (Chloride) shy middotCOiKodak)

Die til y1- p-pheny lenedl alnine hydroch lorid e = NN-Diethyl-l4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride

MolWt = 20070

lt~ur [tgt velrer CD 2 (Kod~dd Activol 2 (Johnsons) [olochrome (M amp ll) NN-Diethyl-2-methyl-l4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride 4-Alllino-NN-diethyl-m-toluidine hydroch lo r ide

~ol Wt ~ 214 i3

Colour Developer 3 ~-CD3(Kod ak)

Activol 3 (Johnsons) ilyJoch rome (M amp ll) N-E thy 1- 3 -me thy 1- N- (f -me thylsul phonamidoe thy 1) -p-phenylenediamine sesqu isul pha te

monohydrate - Am lllO - N - e thy 1-N - (i me thanesu llhonalnidoe thy 1) -m- to 1uid inc s e s qu is u1pha t e

monohydrate

HolJt 43652

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Colour Develo~er 4 CD4 (Kodik)

= N-Ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyi-2-methyl-l4-phenylenediamine sulphate

~lolWt c 29235CllH18N20112S04

Droxychrome (M amp B) Activol 8 (Johnsons) Colaur Developcr 32 (Merck) T32 (Orwo) N-Ethyl-N-2-hydroxyethyl)-l4-phenylenediamine sulphate monohydrate

Wt 29634CIOH16N20middot1l2S04middotJI20 tiO

Ac60 (Agfa) Colour Developer 60 (Merck) N-Butyl-N-(4-sulphobutyl)-1 4-pheny l~ neciiamine

4-(N-Butyl-N-(4- s u phobutyl)amino)2 t ~ l i _e

Cl4 i 24 N203S HoliVt 30042

Gcnochrome (M amp B) - Acti~ol 1 (Johnsons)

S 28 OM) NN-Diethyl-l4-phenylcnediamine 9ulphit 2 Diethyl-p-phenylencdiamin~ sulphite

Mol ot t 23734

The bhse is ident i cal to Colour Develope r Sulpha t e and Hydrochloride)

APPENDIX 3 Anhydrous and lIydrncd Forms of Sal ts Many of the chemicals commonly used in photographic processing arc availllhlc

either in anhydrous forms or in one or more states of hydration If these oiffc l-ent forms are used in the ratio of their me l e u t ar weights then the amount of active ingredient is constant For example s od i um carbonate is available as the anhydrous powder (Molecular weight 105 99) and as tle decahydrate (Na C0 10I1 0 molecular2 3 2weight 21l6l4) The ratio of their molecular weights is 1270 so for every gram of anhydrous sodium carbonate required 270 grams of the decahydrate would have to be used It is important to remember thill point whe) compa r ing prices of chemicals because a hydrated crystalline form may appear cheaper weight for weight but be actually more expensive because of the add it ional quantity required

The following is a list of the commonly used chemicals which are available 1n different degrees of hydration showing their molecular weights and the ratios in which they should be used Those underlined are the forms which are supplied by Photo Chemical Supplies and are the most usual most economic or most stable form of the chemical concerned

Cupric chloride CUCI =13445 ~20=17048 Use 1127Z Cupric sulphate CuS0 =1596l _+511 deg=2[1)68 Use 1 1 564 2Ferric chloride FeC13c1622l +611 deg=27030 Use 11672Magnesium sulphate ~lgS04120=1J8 39 Z20=24647 Use 1 1 78

Potassium carbonate ~2C03=1J821 +1~1l20=l65_23 Use 1119

di-Potassium hydrogen ~211P04=174l8 +3H 0=22822 Usc 1 1 312orthophosphate

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-- --

~5 rJ Jiunt acct~te Cl COONa = 8203 Ue 1166~~2~= 13(~p~_3o d ium uisul phate NaIlS0 =12006 ~middotZO=lJ8 03 Use 1115

4~2SlJ=105 99 +10il20~2l6 14 Use 1270

)laquo ( ium d i hyd rogp n orthophosphate +211 0=15601 Use 1130

--2 -~---

d l-Slt)(JiJnl hydroren orlhophosphate Na

211P0

4=14196 +21122= 58~l~ Use 1 1 25 252

~ c liJgtn sulphlte +]011 0=32219 lise 1217~a23 =1t-Q~ 2~- dium suiphite i2 S03= 1~6 04 +711 deg=25215 Use 1200

2So diulIl tliiocYlOate N3SCN=8107 +2HZ2l2JQ Use 114-1 ( Ilst stored as 20 solutions)

S dilllll thiosu1phalc i02~22)=15sect1J +51120~24l1l Use 1157

Stannous chloride 21129=22563 Use 1119

l li-SodiUlll orthophosphate - thp mhydrous and crystalline forms not interChangeable due to alkalinity of the crystalline form whi~~ contains applox 2~~ sodium hydroxide

1 i IEND I X LI ~oJiuhl versus Potilssium Salts -- -- - r111( lIajority of phot~g-l--aphic--rroccs s ing soluti~~s sodiulU salts lIIay be

S dltituted [or pntasraquoiullI s 1lts n sodium salts are genentlly diEaper cmiddotleciall) since legs of tlte godiuHl salt is tequired to giV E the same molecular middotmiddot iuivalent In the Clse of tlte anhydrous carbonates and sulphites the sodium lts an 1sJ deliquescent than the potassium salls and 1re therefor easier to sL ore alld hnllJle The only advantage of the potassiLlln salts is their greater s o luui lily Ih e n highly concentrated solutions are made up lleCRuse of the slightly hi her nlkaLinity of the potnssiulO salts SOllie care in controtiing the pH is needed 1-111 11 substituting sodiulll [or potassium salts in buffer sy~te1ls For this reuson L1 uSllal buffer snIts nre not given here The (ollowing is a list of the ratios in which sorne of the CCgtlnlllon sodium nnd potassium sollts should be lIsed to give the I IiU (ecular equiv11cnts

Piltassiurn bromide Sod iUln bromide 100865 PutassiulTI cIrbonnte nnhyd Sodium carbonate Ilnhyd 100765 lJtlssium l)l1tS tUIlI

citr3LIO 0112deg)

hydroxide Sodium citrate (211

2deg)

SodiulII hyel ox ide 100905 100710

l u tass ium l1letabisulphite SodiullI metabislliphite 100 855 f o tl3S iunl Icrslllphilte Sodillm persulphate 100 880 Potassium sulphite anhyd Sodium sulphite anhyd 100 795

ArPENDIX 5 Wei~lts and Measures There are OIany old books which contain phot o graphic formulae 11 lot of which

al e still v11id todilY In Brilain thcse old formulae were Ilsuillly given in avoidupois ulli t rud the following tnbles 0I1Y be uficd to convert these formulae to the metric sf tem Avoi rdupJis Wli~ilts ~~~d TfT~r---- 16 ounces (oz) 7000 grnins (grs) f153 6gra1ll8 (g)

1 Juncc (llZ) 16 tJrll1ls (drm) 4375 grains (grs) 2835 grams (g) dram (drill) 2734 grHins (grs) 177 grams (g)

(1543 grains (grs) 10 gL1n1 (g) )

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Liquid Heaures (Ilritish alld Netd c )

1 quart 2 pints (pL) = 40 fluid oUllces (Floz) 1 136 1 it re (I) pint 20 fluid ounces (Fl nz) 568 millilitres (m1) fluid ounc~ (Floz)= B fluid drams (or d r c hills) 28lllml fluid drachm 60 minims 355ml

(1 minilll = 1 drop)

Temperature conv e rsion Fahrnheit to Celsius (Centigrade) (xoF - 32) x S = yOC

lt) Celsiu9 to Fahrenheit (yU C x 9) + 32 = xOF

5

APPlNlllX 6 Refrences and Funher Reading The following ia a short 1 ist uf publi c ations which readers will find

useful (or further informatiun 1 Jacobson C1 and Jacoblun R E (1976) Developing 18th Edit ion

Focal Press (see below) 2 Jacobson Cl a nd Hannheim LA (1975) Elllarging 22nd Edition Futal Press J Jacobson RE Ray SF Attridge GG and Axford NR (1978) Hanual of

Photography 7th Edition Focal Press I bull Langfo rd H J (1980) Advanced Photogl-aphy 4th Fdition Focal Press S Hason LFA_ ( 1975) Photographic Processing Chemistry 2nd Editioll Focil Press 6 Wat k ins D (19 78) The Focalguide to Coluur Film Processing Focal Press 7 Ilritish Journal of Photography Annual 1982 Henry Greenwood [ Co_ Ltd 28 Great

James Stn ~ t London WCl

The Focal Press Butterworth [ Co (Pllblishers) Ltd Ilorough Green Sevenoaks Kent TN15 flPH

Books 1 2 and] are all standard refere n c e w rks on photographic processing Ilook 4 is a ve r y useftl soutce of inforlUBtion on all aspe cts of photography but particularly on tone and colour reproduc t ion on sensitised materials The bouk by LFA_ Hasun (S) is es~ential [or those wishing to devise formulations of their own especially co loul formulations but the reader shoulJ have some chemical knowshyledge Book No 6 explains the principles o[ colour film processing and describegt th use of a variety of processing kits as well as providing Bubltitute formulae [or brew-it-yourself enthusiasts

The British Juurnal of Photography Annual (n is the traditiollal source of formulae fo r those wishing to mix up their own solut iOlls The formulae cover all aspects of both black and white and colour proc e ssing

NOTE The purpo se of this booklet is to stilllul te interest in the compounding of

photographi c processing solutiuns by tho se ph o t ographers wh o s e ek a greater undershystanding of the medium The ruatedal ill this buoklet is presented in good faith but because results are d e pe ndent on so many factors outside our control we cannot accept l iability for any processing [aults or inju~y to petsolls or property that might ari9 howsoever callsed Becaugte o f the subject ive nature of the medium it is the r e spons ibility of the user to Elac e rtain for himself the suitability of any [ormula or process in relation to hi8 mat e r ials e quipment and objectives Any suggestions from I a ders whi c h could be incorporated into foture editions o[ lhis booklet will be welcome _

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II c knuw l edgcmcnts

Til e author wOlld l ike to thank the f11 owing f o r pc n nisRiOll to us e m1terial for inclusion in this book let

Kod a k te for details of thfir formuln p (morw c hrome) ltlnd for addi t ional h e lpflll info rmati o n

IHo rd Ltd for permis~i on to reproduce their pllb lish e d formula e

Agfa- Ge v a ert Ltd for informat io n o n their p rod u c ts and pro c eRRinr

The Fo c al P If) 9S who publish a wiel e r ang e oC b oks u n plHtogl middot ~PY for permisAion t o US Ilel(cted m1terial [rom SOllI e of their puhlicltions (R ( e Appendix ()

~1r )( rek Watkins for pe rmissio n t o r e pr ud u c ( his slIbstitute 1-6 proc 1ing prn ee- dur( whi c h was first puhlished in the maga zine SLH Camer~

~h G W Crawley fditor of the Bri tish Journal of Photography for prmis9ion lltl rfprodllcE SOIll( of his FX sprifs -f d(vclop(rs

Th E ahv( prsons or organisnion9 (middot 1nnot Iccept 1ny liabil i t y arisin from the nprodnct inn of their lIIal([ial in Ihi hooklet

Writtfn by R C Potts ~fSc and publish e d hy PHOTO CHEMICAL SUPPliES 21 LODGE CLOSE

COWL EY MIDDLE SEX

UBB 2ES - 34 shy

No responsibility accepted for any formula or information contained in this document This is a scan of the original document

Use chemicals and formulae at your own risk Intended for personal and educational use only

Page 5: PCS Darkroom Formulary

solutions such as the mineral acids mentioned earlier souium thiocYlOate which is very deliquescent (keeps best as a 20 solution) and potassium iodide which is only used in very small quantities as a restrainer and is most conveniently kept as a OlZ solution (lglitre)

It is a simple matter to calculate the quantity of a concentrated stock solution required to make up any desired volume of more dilute working solttion The fo11omiddoting formula

C-req x V-final V-reqC-stock

IOhere C-req the desired concentration (r)

C-stock the concentration oE stock solution (Z) V- final the final total volume desired V-req the volume of concentrated stock required

gives the volume of concentrated stock solution required (V-req) for diluting up to the final volume desired (V-final) to yield a solution of the required concentration (C-req)

QLlltlity 0 Water Water is the main ingredient in all photog r aphic processing solutions anu

it is probably the most variable component The only solutions in which water qua lity need be t~ken into account are the develupers for Eilus anu in the final B h for films

Very soEt water can cause swelling of the film emulsion tlsunlly wh(gtn used a~ a wash in high temperature colour process es such as C-41 nnu E-6 at JSuCIOOoF In f act in areas with very soft IOGter it is advisllble to nn ific Lnlly hltlnl en ti~ water u~ed in the was h cycles of colour processes by arldini sal ts such IS 1lJg esiwTi or sodium s ul phate (ordinary Eps(rn salts or Glau he r s s il lts) It 1

r a t e or approximately 20g per litre Very hard water is more troublesome It is the lIOluble magnesium and

e ll cium salts which are the main cause of water hardn ess Wh en developers are m de up thes e metals form insol uble salts with some o f th e common i ngredient s o f

e lopers such as 5ulphites carbo12tes phosphates ltlnJ bo r a t e s Til s e i nsoluble pre ci pitates can adhere to the film surface Other nletal ions such as coprer and ir an can Lccelerate the rate of aerial oxidation of uevelopers by acting os catalysts anu in higher concentration can cause sl icltt forcing of the fillft The

e ence oE i ron in the wat er can also cause staining of film and pltlpelmiddots The ~ arest procedure i s t o se di s ti lled or de-iunis ed wate r (suell as

P(r ified Water DP so l a by (l oots) for mak ing up develope rs This is an add itional expense which is not always required especially if sequestering ag nts are used but is particularly rerommended when rnltlking U[) cOllcentrltlt ed s t ock developer solutions which are later diluted for one-shot use This improves the keeping qualities of the concentrate and o rdinary tap ater can be used for the dilution A sequestering agent can be incorporated into either the tltlp wa ter or the concentrate

As hard water dries it leaves a scaly dlposit which can be very difficult to er v~ f rom i lms and it car a ffect the printing quality of ne ga tives A useful pract ice i to use one or t-o changes of a small quantity of distilled wate r to hic h a drop or two of wetting agent may be adued as the final ash

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BampW Film Processing

S_Oill2QlITIOJLQLJ3LACJL~1lD WHITE NEGATIVE DEVELOPERS

Deve lopers generally h1ve the following components

a) Developing agent(s) b) PrcRerv~tive

c) Alkali d) Restrainer

There may be other additions such as sequestering agents organic antifoggants and wetting agents

The Developing Agents The most commonly used developing agents are ~etol hydroquinone and Pheridone

There are many compounds which act as developers but most are now only of histoicaL interest as various combinations of the above three compounds can create almost any type of developer There are a [ew developing agentS in commercial usc which have special properties such as grc)t solubility which permits the formulation of highly concentrated developers These developing agents are of little interest to the 1I111teur who makes up his own developers and certainly oEfer no advantages Tl ~

[orl1lulae in tllis booklet are mainly tho~e using metol hydroquinone and Phenidona fetol and Phenidone have similar properties in that they are fast working

developers yielding 1010 contrast images lIydroquinone is a slow contrasty developer TIley arc seldom used a ione however but as metolhydroquinone (MQ) or Phenidone hycicoquinone (PQ) combinations Tllese mixtures show superadditivity that i the activity of the mixture is greater than the sum of the activities of the developers when lIsed separately lIytlroquinone is used on its own in high contrast developers where its action is Jccelerated by the use of caustic alkalis (eg sooium hydroxide) TIle properties of a developer are determined by its overall composition rather than by the choice of develoring Jgent alone Most developing agents including the three mentioned Jbove arc only active in alkaline sollJtions The pH and the nature oE the alkali are of prime importltJtlce in determining the properties of the working developer

The Preservltive The function of the preservative is co protect the developer from aerial

oxidation Tile compound almost univerRally used is sodium sulphite although potassium sulphite and the corresponding metabisulphites may also be used The sJlphite has other [Inctions in the developer and an importRnt one of these is its action as a silver halide solvent Thi6 effect is made use of in fine-grain developers where the sulphite reduces the actual grJin size by dissolving some of the silver halide A concentration of Jround IOOglitre is required for this to be significant

In some colour developers where the sulphite concentration is J1W other antioxidJnts SUCII as hydroxylamine are used as preservatives

The Alkali ---- The a 1ka 1i is somet imes re [erred to as th~ acce lera tor because mos t deve lopers arc only efficient in alk1line solutions The three commonly used types of alkali arc a) tile c1uHtic alkalis (sodium and potassium hydroxide) b) the carbonates Bnd c) the mild alknlis and alkaline buffers

The callstic alkalis give rise to high eneq~y developers usually with poor keeping qualicies The carbonates are less aggressive in their nction and are very

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widely us(d The mild alkalis such as bor-ax (sodium tetraborate) Kod1lk (sodium P1o t aborate) (lnu the alkaline buffer mixtures are extensively used in mooern fineshygr ain developers

The Restrainer The most commonly used restrainer is potassiulII bromide Tile effect of uromicle

is to reuuce fog formation (the development of unexposed parts of the emulsion) and to slow down the rnte of development Potassium iodioe has a similar nction but much lower concentrations must be used (approximately one thousandth of the quantity Df bromide) Too much restrainer results in a lowering of the image contrast 3nd should be avoided

Other Conponents Sequestering agents are added to developers tu overcome problems caused by

impurltles in the water used to make up developers (sec page 3) The mos t commonly used compounds are the cmnplex phosphates notably sodiulll hexa me tnphosphate (Calgon) and ethylenedinninetetraacetic acid (E DTA) nnd its derivatives Calgon is ellenp and very effective at sequcstel ing calcium ano magne s ium ions The disadvantages are firstly that it is not very effective ltlgaillst other mct~1l ions and secondly the complex phosphates break down in alkaline solutions so are nsuitabll for use in concentrated stock developers The di s advantJges of EDTA a nd related compounds are firstly cost Jnd secondly they can accelerate ltleri u l ox i dation of the developer in certain circu~st ances

Some developers require aoditional restr(Jiners in the form of organic anti shypoundaggants This is partic ul a rl y true of Phenid one 1nd its derivative s ltlnd some ~o l o ur deve l opers The mo s t common l y used is benzotriazole but 6-nitroben zimishydazole which is about 100 times more potent is also encountered

Host modern develop2cs contain a wetting agent to en s ure the event wetti[~ ) f the film and the el imination of air bubbles The ltlmount used sltoulo not e xceed

Iproximaeiy 0 5g per Litre othelwise fODming Iwy Cltlus e p r oblems

~~k l ng up Solutions The chemicals should be dissolved in about two thirds of the fillal volume

of wat e r sh loin IN TilE ORDER IN WHICH THEY APPEAR IN TilE FORNULA a nd then the snl ution made up to the f i nal volume with water It is i mpo rtUlt that eAch c it mi cal add ed is completely di ssolved before the neKt is introduccd

Hixing vessels and ut ensi l s sho uld be of glass or plastic nd shoulo be tEZ erved for photographic use I-lhen mAking up a series of so lutions fo1 Any pit t i c ulltl r process it is good practice to make lip the soluti olls in the O[oer in lch t hey lITe to be us ad a s t his eu ces tit e ffects of cl ( rY-O Vl r contlIl1ination

Host ch emic als di ssolve more readily in warm Wltl[ e r but this s hou ld never eyce ecl SOoC (120

0 F) The s olu t i on can then be made up to final volume with

(o ld water I t is a useful prac t ice t o mltlke up developers as concentrated stock solutions

These ha ve be t ter ke ep ing qUltllit i es and are easier to s tore A typical developer would hav t he developing agent(s) and sulphite in one solutiun And the ltllkali restraine-s etc in the other Since sodium sulphite is distinctlYltllkalinc in solution the aerial o)(idation of the developing agents Ciln be further inhibited by substi t uting s odium metnbisulphite [or all or part of the sodi um sulphite The met a bsu l phi t e ha a greo1t solubil i ty t han su lphite is In c lficicnt presershyilt ive and is acid in reltlctiou so thJt the developerr are complet c ly inhibited

Of course the alkali content of the other solution must be incre1Scd pr oportionltJtely

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111 order to make the working developer alkAline

BLlCK AND llHITE DEVELOPER FORMULAE

In all the formulae in this booklet the quant1t1es are given in grams g ~ for solids and millilitres (ml) for liquids Development times are approximate bLC it is R simple matter to determine experimentally the development times which sui your particular film stock and which yield the contrast and density tau desi r t- o

The chromoGcnic black llId white films XP-l (llfard) and Vario XI(igfa) have been desirned for the Flexicolor C-41 process (see page 2n 1 Gene ral rurpose Developers

These Jeve(opel ~ Crable 1) do not use the silver halide solvent effect a nd s o are not true fine-grain developers However modern films have such inherently fine rrain that true fine grain developers are less important today than they were a fel years ago

Tnble 1 CellP-ral Purpose Devel opers

No 1 No2 No 3 No4 No 5 So ft Normal Normal Contrast Contr ~lQ NQ PQ ~IQ PQ (DI65) (D61a) (ID62 ) (ID2) (IDn)

~Ie t o 1 6 3 2

Sodl m s ulphit e anh yd 25 90 50 75 7

lI yJ r0111 i n__middot _e _ _ _ b 12 8 v__8_Jn ____________________~~~~ ________~

Sodium cnrbonate anh yd 37 11 60 375 48

Phenid onc 05 C 22 ~~------------------------------------~~~~------------~=

rotnssium bromi de 2 2 2 ~--------------~--------~----~~------~---------

Iknzotri azo le 1 20 10

SodiJJm metabi sulphite 2

Wa ter to 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

Dilution 1+3 l middotq 1+3 1+2 None (5tock + Iater) 1+3 1+7 1+5

Approximate development 10 6-7 3-4 5 5 time at 20deg C 12-14 6-7 9

----------------------------------------------------------~---------------

The soft working developer (No1) is useful for ~ubjects with an extended brightness range recorded on slow contrllsty film such as Pan F The ilormlt11 contrast developers (Nos 2 1nd 3) nre eminently practical developers ~ith wide application especially f Or rol1filO1 sheetfilm and plates Formulae 105 4 and 5 are contrasty developers suitnb1e for ordinary films and pllltes 111d can be us ed wiLhout dilution (or lille films such as pes Ortholith 35mm lith film When uld U1Hlilllted No ( is very similar to D19b and IDl9 X-ray film developers

Cal~oll m1Y be IISpJ ill these formulte and should be added before all other ingredieut~ Use up to 3glitre in hard water areas

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2 Fine Gr~in Developers TI(se we ll established fine grain developers (sec Table 2) are particularly

suitnble for miniature films (J5mm or sm31Ier)

1Llble 2 Fine Grain DevelopE

No 6 Fine Grain MQ D76

No 7 Fine Grain D76d

MQ No 8 Fine Grain PQ

Hetol 2 2

Sodium sulphite anhyd 100 100 100

Hyci r-oqui none 5 5 5

Borax 2 8 3

BorIc acid 8 35

Potas sium bromide

Phenldone 02

Hat~r to 1000 1000 1000

Approximate development time 6-10 12-15 10

Formula No6 represents the standard develope r against hiell all otlle r developers are judged Formula No7 is a buffered version o f No6 and yields morc consistent results but since the pH is slightly 10e1 th e developnie nt time s will be longe r Formula No 8 is a PQ developer with characteristics simillr to No7

All the above formulae can be diluted either 1+1 or 1+3 Lo r olle-shet prCccSStng yielding enhlllced acutancc but developmcnt tillllS should be approxshyimately doubled (1+1) or trebled (1+3)

3 Super Fine Grain Developers

These developers (see table 3) usc colour developing agents which are derivatives of -phenylenediallline the classic fine grain developer p-phcnylshyenediallline irself Iws too lIIany unpleasant charct c ristics to be of any use bull nowadays These colour deve lope rs a n~ S low work j ng and rl yc ill aliltI hydcoqu ino ne hav e been included ill formulae 9 and 10 t o nccelcratc developlIIClIt In [annul No II sodium carbolwte is the accelerntor The lulphite cOllcclltrntion is relatively high to make use of the solv(llt effect Sulphite c annot be ulcd in such high concentrntion in colour develolllIClIt of (OIOllf lTIall-inl1l IS iL inhibits the (01 ollr coup I ing rene t ion

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Table 3 Super fine Grain Developers

No 9 No 10 No 11 FocDl fXIO Kod Dk

-shy--_-------------_ Gcnocllrome 20 6

~~lJc in 20

ydroquinolle 6

Nydochrome (CD 3) 5

Sodillm sulphite anhyrl 100 100 30

Sodium carbonate anhyd 30

Borax 20 4

Boric acid 4

lola ter to 1000 1000 1000

Dilution (Stock + 3ter) 1+7 None None

Jppr(l~irnnte development time at 20 C 12-15 8 20

4 tcutallce or IIiIll D(~finiti(1n Developers ----The middot dZutancemiddot dt2vclopecs arc gencrnlly very dilute and require onl y suffic u~nt ngitation to prevent the [ormatLon of streamers The effect of this is twofold Firrtly the developer becomes exhllIsted in areas of heavy exposure yet remains active in the shadow areas This results in good shadow detail (resulting in an incre1se in effective emulsion speed) yet the highlight areas do not become blocked liP This type of cornp~nsRting development yields reduced macro-contrast but the result is not the same ltIS that acheived by ordinary soft-working developers siOlce tl(~ important highlight und shado bull contrast is good and the gradation of the less important ~id-tone9 is compressed The second effect of the high dilutfonl minimum agitation techniqlle is the forl1l3tion of ~Iackie lines which enhlllce apparent imGgc sharpness at the boundaries between lightly and heavily exposed 1re35 This is due to fresh developer on the lightly exposed side of the boundary diffusing across and acceleratill~ deve l opment in the adjacent heavily exposed emulsion Bromide a product of the developm~nt reaction diffuses in the revcrs direction and retilrds development in the lightly exposed en1l1sion adjacent to the boundary The net effect is an incn~ase in the apparent sharpne~s of the boundary

Developers of this type arc not fine grain developers and it is essential that they be used ith slower film8 (bdoN 150 ISI) which have fine grain emulsionr These sloNer films have a thin emulsion and are n3turally contrasty wih good acutillicc 1middotlith the fast films which normally yield a soft grainy neltative the reduction in macro-contrast produces a dull flat image which cannot b improved by printing on hard parer due to the grain In addition the thick emulflion of these [~ut films docs no t lend itself to the development of Mackie lines

Innlula No 12 (nr Table LI) the oriin~l Llclltance fonuJla can be made Jp in two parts the IlIrtol and sulphite in one solution and the carborlJte in the s e cond solution Forll1lae Nos 14 and 15 can be made up as concentrJted stock solucion s and 3f1in t h (o alkali (sonium or potassium carbonate) is kept as a SCp1ilt e solution Wi t h yenormuJ rio 15 the Pinacryptol Yellow solution shoul not be included in the concentrated stock solution but added just before lIe Pinacryptol Yel101Y is l desensicising dye which is decomposed by sulphite When preparing

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-------- ---------------------------

f o r mulae Nos 14 alld IS as concentrated stock soluti u llS it is aclvisable tu make up the solutions (except the carbonlt solution) in 10 iS0prufyl a lcohul (1 part isopropyl alcohol + 9 parts ltIter) as this helps d issulve thp Jeve lopin~ agents and improves the keeping q ua lities All these forllluiltl ( give tu one stop increase in effective emulsion speed

Formula 10 14 (FXlh) is a modification of iln)thcr (UrJlluln (FXl) where the sodium sulphite concentrat ion is only 5g per litre instemiddotad o[ lt0amp pe r 1 itrc This low sulphite furmula yields very high definition negatives bJt is more critical as to tKposure Development times are as [ornlula 10 15 (FX2)

Table 4 High Definition (Acutance) DeveL~~

No 12 Nu l) No 14 No 15 Beutler Jindisch HIll FX2

Crawl(l C_~w 1 e j

~ie tu 1 5 05 02gt

0ycin 075 I

Catechol (Pyrocatechin) 125

5(ld i urn sulphi~~ anhyd 25 80 10 35

Sodium carbonitf~ J an1d 25 25

Pot3ssium carbonate 7S

Po tas sium iodide 0001 solll 5

Pynacryptol yellow 12000 solli 3 5

----------- -----------------------------------------------------~----1000 1000 1000 100 0

----~---------------Dilution 1+10 25ml stock Nunc None

+l5ml potshyassium hydroxide 10k water to 10001111

[)c vmiddotd pmcnt t i llle 7 -1 0 15 - 20 8- J0 12- 15 at 20c i

5 Speed increasing developer f or push-processin g Thi s fine-grain IQ developcrrlO(iS) gives Ill incrcase in cillulsion speed of

a bou t one stop in normi1 use but further specd illcrenses can be achieved by cKtCnding the development tillle Jlth film slich IS 1115 this dolgt not lead to excessive contra~t or grain This developer may aiso be used [or dillllC 011(gtshy

shot procesfiing for enhanccd ltIcutance Dt 1+1 and Ii-] d llut lun (wilII cxt e nLilJ dcvclopmcnt tillles) giving a hulf 10 Olll stop incrcase in slwecl lhi developer is ~irnilar in 1 11 respects to 11[onl ltllltroll1

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Formula No 16 Fine grain speed increDsine developer (ID68)

Sodium sulphite a~lyd 850g llydroquinone 50g Borax 70g Boric acid 20g Phenidone 013g Potassium bromide LOg ImiddotJaCer to 1000 ml

Dllution Time (1115)

None 6middotmiddot9 1+1 11-16 1+3 22-30

Usc undiluted for the indiclted time to give the following speed increases on 111[5

800llSA (1 stop) 8-) mins l600ASA (2 stops) ll-12mins 3~00ASA (3 stops) 16-18mins

6 nigh Contrast Developers These developers give high contrast negatives lind are bese used on thin

emulsion high contrast film such as pes Ortholith film obtainable in 35mm cassettes from Photo ClwlllicoJ Supplies The first is the classic Caustic-hydroquinone developer and the s(cond is the s cand a -d Iniectious development low ulphitic developer T1e lotter is more delnonding of accurate exposure and development bUI

yields the highcst possible contrast for col our separation work and ha~f-tone dot screening Lith film may also be successfully developed using formula~ Nos 4 and 5 (undiluted) which hove better keeping qllalities once used but yield a blightly lowe contrast

No 17 CauGtic-llydro1uinone High Concrast Developer

SOLUTION A llydroquinone 25g

Potassium mctabisulphite 258 (or Sodium metabisulphite 2l5b ) PotassiUM bromide 25p (or Sodium bromide 2l5g) -I1ter to 1000ml

SOLUTlOCl B Sodillm hydroxide 36g (or Potassium hydroxide 50g) -IGter to lOOOml

Usc eqllJI P1rts A and Il and develop for 2-4 minutes The quantity of alkllli in Solntion B may be safely halved without loss of contrast but devrlopment time should be extended slihtly The two solutions keep indefinitely separately but ke e ping properties nre limited once mixed Use an acid stop bath before fixing to avoid staining

Nlt) 18 Infectious Lith Developer

SOLUTlON A Sodium sulphite anhyd 1

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Parafonnaldehyde 15 Po tassilil metaLisulphite 5 (or Sodium metabisulp lti t e I Jg) Water to 500ml

SOLUTiON Il Sodium sulphite anhyd 60 Tloric acid 15 Ilydroquinone 45 Potassium bromide J Water tJ 1500ml

------------------~~~ Use 1 part Solution A and 3 parts Solution Baud develop [or 2 minutes (Mix well and allow to stand for a few minutes before illuoersing fil m) The tlltO

solltloIls keep indefinitely separately and also keep quite well once mixed Both these high contrast dev elopers should be rl ixed fresh [ o r each film [or

best rf9ults pes Ortholith film is orthochromatic and developmcnt can be [olloved under a red safelight

7 HOlloba lils --TIse are solutions ill which development 1nd fixation t a ke place in the same bath In addition to the convenience of being single operation othlter advantages arc that the process is not dependent on criticll tilllillgt telllperatu(e o r agitJtion lmage contrast cannot be altered by extending or c u rtailing d(vel o pne nt but is built-into the mOllobath formula This can be set when m-Iking up the 1II01l0bath pri llci pally by varying the amount of fixing agent (sodium thios u llhate) includ e d The more fixing agent added the softer the contrast III addition the a moun t or act ivi ty of the developing agent can infl ue nce the contnlst o[ the (esult ill g ne gative

Tab le 5 Monobath formulae No 19 No 20

Socl i-lm sylphite anhyd 50 50

12 12

4

Sodiuln thiosulphate anhyd 70 (55-90) 60 (15-80)

Sod i lm h ydro ~ide=-____________--_4 10

Wat er to 1000 1000

P r oc ltss i ng time 5 mi ns +- mi n 5 llI ins-

+ mi n

i ll( degree of cont ras t produc ed will VIH y f ro on ~ f i 1m ype t o allo thl tmiddot and the qu antity of thiosulpbate requir ed will have to be determined e xpe(imentally

Ifor y o ur favourite film stock If a higher contrast than that given by using the lowest quantity of thiosulphate is required the hydroquinone concentration can be I increa s e d by about 25-30 Iloth these monobnths can be re-llned for up to ten [ill1ls or until the film is no longer cleared by the fixing agent CInLidenta lly a [ew minutes in a1 ordinary negative fixer will restore the [ilm) Films an plocessed for about 5 minutes (less for slow films) and washed Jnd dri e d nortlllly

pTO _ regJ1sect It is always good practice to use n stop bath betwee n the developing and

fixing baths An acid stop b1th not only halts develolIlllt 1lld millilliis s cont3mishynation o[ the fixer but also removes the scum formed Ly ~olle developer s nnd prevents

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st1ining particularly of lith materials after a hydroquinone-cauntic dcvclopcr

Table 6 Stop bath formulac

No 21 No 22 No 2) No 24 Acid Stop Buffered Stop Hardening Hardening

Sto~ Bath Stor Bath 2

Sodium Acctate )1l20 ))

Acetic acid (glaciat)(mt) 25 10 65

Chromium potassium sulphate 30 15

Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000

A few drops of stop hattgt indicator such as that obtainable from Photo Chemical Supplies lllay be added The indicator ch111ges from pale ycllow to blue 19 soon as the 11 rilles above 70 (neutral) Thc hardening baths (2) and 24) are sed after high temperature development Formulae 21 and 22 are also suitable stop baths for print processing

yrxrms

Fixation 15 necessary to remove the undeveloped silver halide from the ernU L ion lIardening agents may bc added to harden the emulsion Hardening is essential for films which have been reversal processed or processed at high temperatures and for bromide papers that arc going to be hot-glazed Typical fixers are shown in Table 7

Table 7 Fixllg [laths

No 25 No 26 No 27 No 28 Standard Buffered Buffered Buffered Acid Hypo Hardening Rapid Ilarden bullng Fix~r Hypo Fixer 7ixer Rapid Fixer

Sod i urn t h io 11 ]_--ptat-=e2-=anhtyd_ _ ~____-=-___________________160 150

(or Sodium thinsulphate cryst) (50) (240 )

Ammonium thiosulphate 175 200

Sodium sulphite anhyd 15 25 15

Sodium metabisulphite 25

Acetic acid glacial IS 10 15

Bodc acid 75 10 75

Potassium alum 15 15

Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000

All are used undiluted for films but may be diluted 1+1 for papers The buffered flxer~ havf a partiClllnrly long lifc and the buffered non-hardening rapid fixer (No 27) is recommended for plastic-coated papers such 1S 11fospeed

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REVERSlL PROCESSING OF Damp_ W FILM

Ileversl processing of black Ilnd white film yields positive transparencies with Il beautiful tonal gradation As with all reversal processes exposure and first development must be very carefully controlled beciluse density variatiolls cannot be compensated (or in printing The process involves the developmellt of Lile negative image (first developer) dissolving away the s i lvcr thus fOnilPU (bleach bath) clering and re-exposure to white light (reversal exposure) and develorshyment of the silver halide thus re-exposed (second development) The film is then fixed and washed in the normal way I t is the firs t deve lope r wh ich de termincs the quality of the final image It is usual to include a small quantity of silver halide solvent to brighten the highlights and sodiulll thiosullilate or sodiulll thiocyanate are usually used for this The subsequent processes are carried on more or less to completion so timing is not as critical as with the first developer In the fol~owiJlg procedure the first developer is retained antI used again [or the second dev e lopment

Rev r rsal processing solutions

No 29 Reversal developer (stock solution)

Netol 3g Sodium sulphite anhyd SOg lIydroquinone l2g Sodium carbonate anhyd 6()g Potassium bromide 4g Water to lOOOml

Dilution (stock + water) 1+1

To the diluted working strength developer add sodiulll thiosulphate at the following rale (gram~ per litre)

PAN F FP4 llPS Sodium thiosulphate anhyd 5 75 5 (a~ Sodium thiosulphat~

cryst) (8) (12) (8) AlternAtively a print deve l oper such as Dromophen may be used diluted 1+1 ith thiooulpilate dded as above

No 30 Blcach (two part stock solutions) SOLUTI ON A

Potassium permanganate 2g Water to SOOml

SOLUTION B Sulphuric acid 10 vv lOOml Water to SOOml These stock solutions will keep indefinitely but deteriorate rapidly when mixed

For use mix equal parts of A and D and discard after each film Potassium dichromate (lOg) may be used in place of the Potassium permanganate in Solution A

No 31 Clearing Bath

Sodium (or Potassium) metabisulphite 25g Water to 1000ml

Fixer ---The bleaching solution softens the emulsion and a hardening fixer must be used

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The hardening fixers given enrl ier laquo(onnube Nos 26 and 28) are ideal

Procedure 1 First developel 12 mins at 20

0 e for all llford films with an inversion every 15 seconds Keep the developer for use in the second development

2 Wnsh 3 mins with frequent changes 3 llicach 5 mins with strong continuous agitation Roarbull lights may be

switched on after two minutes in the bleach 4 I~n s h 2 mins with frequent chnnges 5 Clear 2 mins in the Clearing bath 6 Iash 2 mins with changes 7 Reversal exposure Re-expose ench cnd of the spiral for 2 mins at 12-18 inches

from a 100 watt bulb This is best done underwater in a clear gls9 bowl standing on a sheet of white paper Rotate the bulb or the spiral during re-exposure to ensure even illumination

8 Second developer Develop for 6-8 mins at 20 0 C in the developer solution retained from the first development Development time is not critical but should go to completion

9 Rin s e 10 Fix Fix in acid htrdening fixer for 10 mins (formula No 2cent ) or

4 mins (formula No 28) It Final 5h Wash for 30 mins and dryas usual

Modifying the Processed Negative Th e silver imJge obtained after development and fixation may be either l r censhy

sified or r educ ed TIlis is to compensate (or errors in exposure or dlvelopment or both

INTE~(UFICTION

The following for muLt has been select e d [rom the many published because i t is simple effective etsily controlled and yields a permanently enhllnced negative The basic chemicals are reasollably safe unlike the mercury and uranium intensifiers

No 32 Chromium Intensifier

STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium dichromate 12 5g lJnter to 200 ml

STOCK SO LUTION II Hydrochloric acid 10 vv (36 ww) 30ml ( o r I1ydrochloric acid 10 1 ww) (L Iml) (or Hydrochloric acid cone) (]ml) WJter to 200ml For use mi~ 1 part Solution A with 3 parts water and add 1 part rolution n

The negative should be properly fixed and well washed Old negatives should be sO kcd in water for a few minutes The negative is immersed in the intensifier [or 2-3 minutes until the image is (ully bleached (it turns a yellowy-brown colour) It is then washed well until the yellow stain is removed The intensified image is then re-developed after exposure to daylight (or a light bulb 1 minute each side at 18 inches) in l nOli-solvent type developer This may be a print developer or general purpose necative developer such as formtJl No3 or any universal j developer An advantage of thi s intensifier is that the whole proces8 may be repe a ted several times with an increase in intensification each time as the image

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is built up

~EDUCTrON

There are three classes of reducers which reduce the amount o[ silver in the negative in different ways

The subtraltive reducers remove silver from all parts o[ the illlagc (shadows and highlights) at about the salTle rate 50 that the contrast 15 incrcaBed This is uscful for Jver-euroxposed negatives which tend to be flat

The peoporti)lal reducers remove silver in proportion to the density so that the contrast grildient is maintained This type of reducer is suitable for those negatives which are too dense for easy printing through over-exposure ~ombined

with over-development The uper-proportional reducersattack the IllDvy silver depositll more than

[he lightly exposed parts leading to a reduction ill contrast and density Dense contrasty negltives are usually the result of over-development

No 33 Farmers Reducer (Subtractive)

STOCK SOLUTION A Sodium thiosulphate anhyd 32g (or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (SOg) Water to 500ml

STOCK SOLUTION B Potassium ferricyanide 109 Water to 100ml Immediately before use mix 15 p3rts A with 15 parts w(lter and ~dd 1 pa[t B

The process of reduction should be watched carefully and may be stoppcd at nny time by flooding wi th wn ter The ac t i vi ty 0 [ the reducer may be n 1te [cd by va ry ing the qunutity of Soltltion II added [ncrensing t he [crricyanidc increa ses the activity and vice versa The stock solutions keep indefinitely hut the working solution hu 3

short life

No 34 Permanganate - Persulphate Reducer (Proportional)

STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium permanganate 1 solution lZ 5ml Sulphuric acid 10 wlw 65ml Water to 500ml

STOCK SOLUTLON II Ammonium persulphate 25g Water to 1000mi Distilled water should be used to make up these solutions for use take one

part A two ports distilled water and two parts B A slower acting mixture is I part A 4 parts water and 1 part II and this may be easier to control A[ter reduction the action con be halted and the brown stain removed by immersing the negative in a 1-2 solution of sodium (or potnssiul1l) metabisulphite The negative should he thoroughly waMhed before being dried

No 35 Pelslliphate Reducer (Super-proportional) Ammonium persulphate 125g Sulphuric acid lOr ww 5m1 Distilled water to 500101

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The ne)a t i ve shou 1d be fu lly wn shed The leduc t ion mus t be wa tC1ed close ly as the rate varies ~idely with different emulsions nnd with some modern high speed ~mulsions it iR not effective ]t all to 12-157 solution of sodium Ilulphite anhyd can be Ilseu as ] s top bath Imd the negat ive is fi na lly given a good wash

BampW Print Processes [1) NI_I2EV~1QI2yRS

Print developers arc generally fairly contrasty compared to negative developers and of course it ig not necclisary or desirable to use fine grain or acutance techniqupound for prints The colour tone of the image is the main variable in print developers but the colour obtained will depend largely on the type of print paper (eg bromide chlorobromide or chloride)

Table 8 Standard Print Developers

No 36 No 37 No 38 No 39 D163 ID62 ID20 New

PQ Univ NQ Paper Winchester

~middotc to 1 22 3 35

Sodium sulphite anhyd 75 50 50 35

-lL(~ro(l~1 i WJlle 17 12 12 86

Socli11Tl -----shy

carbollate lt1nilyd 65 60 60 63

lhellidolle 05

Potassium bromide 28 2 4 l9

I3cn7otriazole 1 15-25 20 37

Wettinr agent 10 10 10 10

Wnter to 1000 1000 1000 1000

Dilution (stock + water) 1+3 1+3 1+3 1+2 Calgon may be added to all the above at the rate of 2g per litre If the ueveloper is uRed at less dilution development iR more rlpid The

benzotriClzole in these formulilc irnproves the brightness of highlights by reduc i ng fog and also shifts the colour of the illlage towards black or blue-black The New middotIinchester formula (No 39) is a universal paper delTeloper giving good black to nc s and is the basis of many commercially available print developers

Table 9 Warm-tone Print DClTelopers

No +O ~Jo 41

~Lltf01 I i nonc _________--25 ---8_ ___

Sodium Dulphite anhyd 60 60

Sad i IIll carboIlHe anhyd 90 90

~ycin 25

Potassium oronlidc 2

~ater to 1000 1000

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Dilution (Stock + water) 1+3 1+2 Time 2-3 mins 1-2~ mins

Formula No 41 has a warmer tone tllan No 40 but both arc best used on warm-tone papers

STQ- [lATHS FOR PR_INT~

The 1I0n-hilnlenlng stop blths given carlier (Nos 21 and 22) arc suitable f0 r prints as is a 47 solution oE sodium or potassium mctabisulphite (I~Oplitre) good economical stop bilth can be made up by adding 1 part stop batl (as above) to two parts old fixer and mixing up a fresh fixing bath When the stop batll shows exhaustion the stop bath ia discarded and the old fixer converted to the ncw st op bath This double use of fixing solution Lcally does prolong the life of the fl xer bath as a large part of the fixation takes place in the stop bath and the diluti on ensures that no staining occurs

PRINi FIXERS Any of the fixer formulae given earlier for negativcs will provide fix e rs

suitatle for papers (formulae 25-28) The rapid fixers have a much grentcr cJptc ity than the hypo filter s and formula 27 is especially recommended for plastic-coatcd pap~rs Prints on normal paper wh i ch a r c t o be hot-glazed should be fixed in 1

hardening fixer (formulae 26 or 28) Formula 25 is obviously the cheapest to ma ke up but the pll should be monitored and more metabisulphite added to restOt-e thc acidity when required All may be used diluted 1+1 It is advisable not to U 5C the some solution for fixing both films and pape rs even if the same formula is used but to keep film filter and paper fixer i n s eparate bottles

t~ID F9H PAPER PInNTsect The fibre base of normal printing pl pe rs retains acid chemicals from the fj xing

bath which are difficult to remove by -a s h ing alone If after a brief rine 11C

print is i~nersed in a 2-5 solution o f s od ium carbonate anhyd for 2-] minutes the subsequent nonnl wash ensures that all the hypo and hYPolilver camplexes a t c removed This alkaline bath should be used whenever any subsequent trcatmenl of the print such as toning is to be carried out

LYPO ELI~IN~TOB 11C following solution (formula No 42) serves to oxidise the thiosulphate t o

~ulphate which is then easily washed ou t o f the paper

~~_~po Elimin_ator

Hydrogen peroltide solution 3 (10 volume) 125ml or Hydrogen peroxide solution 6 (20 volume) 63mU Ammonia solution 0B80sg 10ml Hater to 1000ml immerse the prints in the above solution after a normill W8lh in running W (l ~ er

for about 5 minutes followed by a fu cthc r Hash of about 10 minute This hyposhyelimnator is made up of volatile compOIw nts so that there is_ no risk of elininllor salts remaining in the p1per-base after drying

PRINT TONING Prints may be toned a variety of colours and depending on subject can yielel very

pleasing results All prints must be tlloroughly washed prior to toning and old prints

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~lloliid be soaked ~n water for a few minute s to soften the emulsion

1) Sepia Toning Th follow(ng method yields perm1nlnt prints with a good brown tone In fact

prints treated in lhis way have greater permanence than untreated prints and the lmiddotLlwd is USLd ill 3rchival processinl The print is first bleached ill a ferri shyqnidcbroHiide bleach until the d3ri~est partH of the image tire a raint straw LU lour 1 t is lilen placed in the toner b3th 1111lt1 the sepia image quickly reappears

Nu (d FerricyanidcDromi de Bleach

Potassium [erricyanide 40g Potassium bromide 251 Jater to 1000mi Tllis stock solution is used undiluted and keeps well if stored in the dark or

ll a dnk bottle It may be re-used until exhausted h[ter bleaching the print 1~ washed well and trGnsferred to tbe following solution

Uu 44 Sepia Toning BGth -Thiolre1 109

Potassium bromide 40g Sodiul1i hydroxide 3-6g WJter to 1000mi The qu~n[ity of sodium hydroxide can be adjusted between the above limits to

yield the desired tone colour This toning bath is preferable to the traditional suJiul11 sulphide hath because of the unpiensant smell and properties of sodium sulphide solutions Thiourea and sod i um sulphide should not be used or stored in lilt dGrkroom or near sensitised materials

bJ lllie Toner This process does not re qruire a bleach stage but the print should be thoroughly

- s hed a[te1 fixation The process intell5ifies the image slightly so prints to bpshytOiled blue should be mnde a little lighter than they would otherwise be

Nu 45 Dlue Toning Bath

SOLUTION A

Potassium ferricyanide Ig Sulphuric acid 10 ww 30ml Wnter to 500ml

SUIUTION 13

Alliinonilim ferric citrate (green) Ig

Sulphuric acid 10 ww 30ml Water to 5001111 Mi elt[uGI parts hand B immediately before use The wet print is immersed

ulltil the desired tone is reached and then washed Excessive wnsh ing will ble a ch lliit the blue colour and just sufficient wash to remove the yellow tain should be lven This bleaching is largely eliminated if the print is lshed in water conshy[lining a l ittle acetic acid (51111 or less per litre)

c) Red TOiler Th~TtO~ing is il traditional red tOller using copper sulphate hglin no

b I each is llluircd

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No 46 Red TOllin~ Bath

SOLUTION A Cupric s~lphate (511 deg) 12 5g

2Sodium citrate 500g (or Potassium citrate) (55g) Water to SCOml

SOLUTION B Potassium ferricyanide 109 Sodium citrate 50 g (or Potassium citrate) (SSg) Water to SCOml Use equal volumes of II and B mixed just before use The image colour changes

through warm black then sepia to rea 2nd t he process can be halted at any stage by flushing with water The print is th~n wa s hed and dried normally

PRINT nEDUCERS Print reducers are generally used Eor the local reduction of dense parts of

iarge prints for generally brightening dense flat prints or for removing fiilvcr completely from unwanted areas Farmers Reducer (formula No 33) is the most commonly used print reducer and shoul d Df t sed s ufficiently diluted to allow control of the reduction proc ess Use scr 1p dn ts to de t e rmine the appropriate conditions ~len using Farmers Reducer wash the pr in t frequently in running water or permanent yellow staining may occur Farmers Reduc e r used very dilute is ideal for brightening dense flat prints It is a s ub t ractive reducer and gives bright highshylights a nd increased contrast

~len heavy deposits of silver have 0 igt e remov ed completely such as that cause1 by pinholes in line nega t i ves Fa nna r s Reduce r is not su i tab Ie because of the possibility of staining The followin g formula (No 47) is an iodine re ducer which i9 very effect i ve at removing dense silver

No 47 Iodine Reduce r

Potas sium iodide 1Sg Iodine crystals 05g Water to lOOml This reducer is applied to the mOl s t lot ~et) print with a swab or brush and

the resulting brown Btain is easily r emove d in a 15 solution of sodium thiosulphate Illlhyd (or 25 sodium thiosulphate cryst ) after a rinse in water The print should then be thoroughly rinsed

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Colour Processing Besides offering real economy brew-it-yourself colour processing is v~ry

satisfying and can yield results superior to those offered by ln3ny commercial proshycfSSinl~ houses All that is required ilre careful working methods and atttntion to dltlails Tlte Icrwrill instruction relating to monochrome proc(ssin~ should be r~d in conjunction with thcse notes on colour processing It should be emphasised that the formulae given in this section are not those of the film manufacturers who do not publish their formulae but have been worked out to yield results comparable with the manufacturers recommended processing

Time and Temperature Cololl~ ma-terials are not as flexible as black and white materials with regard

to development conditions since wide deviation from the recommended development can yield shifts in colour balrnce ohich lQay be impossible to correct in printing With reversal materials in particular exposure must be accurate and the time and temperature of the first development is crucial as thi largely determines the quality of the ftnal transparency In the C(j process the processing temperature is rather high (3a

oC) bllt this must be maintained at least for the first dtvelopment There is

slightly more leeway ~Iith the other st~ges but these should b~ kept within the limite shown The sallie applies with colour development of negative materials and again the processing tenrperature of the C41 procefiS is high (also JaoC) The times given in the formulae include 10-15 seconds to uHo~ for draining the tank

H~king up the Solutions As wi th all the - formulae in this bookl e t the chemicals should be dissolved in

tire order given Some of the colour dev e lo p ing agents while extremely solub i I wa te r tend to separn te out in the a 1 k a 1 ine J eve loper sol ut ions Ita aov isab le to dissolve the colour developing agen t to gether with the hydroxylamine (hydro shycldoride or sulphnte) where p r e sent se pa r a te ly i n part of th e total volume of water alld add this slowly 0 th e rerna mJer o f the solution some time before use rile hydroxylamine acts as an antioxidant and is required because the sulphite conshyclntrltion hCls eO be low Hydroxylamine is rapidly decomposed in alkaline solutions ill the pr se nce of sequestering agents of the EDTA type so Cnlgon should be used i n h~rd water ~~ r e s rather than EDTA

V~QCESliING G9J~QI1lLill=VERSAL FILMs_U0R COLOUR SLIDES) There are at present two princiPlll systems for colour reversal film prGcessing

(excluding Kodachrome) The first is the ~g fachrome 41 process covering all Agfa r-tJVersal fi 1m (except Igfachrotnc [(IOOS Profe ssional - proce Sl E6) olhether sold process paid or not Thepound are few if any other makes o f [i Tm available in Britain ohich use this process The second ir the Kodak Ektachrome E6 process hich covers IllOSt of the rCIllining colour n~versal films There are a few filns Idlich ltIre still made for outdated process es sLlch as ORWO f i l ms ohich are proc e s sed by an old Igf~ process Rnd some specillised Ko d ak films suc h as Ektachrome In f rared Film find Photomicrography Color Film 248J which are processed by the old E-4 process There may still be a [ew films from independent manufacturers designed for the old E ~ process

Kodak Kod~lchlome films are sold process paid and user processing is not feasible

Keversal Exposures - Reversal film mUfit be given a fogging exposure to light (Where chemical fegging is not used) after the first development Because the emulsion is very much less sensitive at this stage than normal film this exposure mtlst be rather intense It

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is best to remove the film from the spinl and SCC-SDW it through plain wter below a Photo flood lamp Ilowever a wet delicate film is difficult to reload into the spi ra 1 (bes t done under lola ter) and it is cas icr to leave the film in thc 5 pi ra 1 nlld extend the exposure time With clear spira ls thc exrosure time should be at lea~t

doubled and with the translucent nylon spira l s the exposure should be increased 5-10 fold When the film is not removed for the exposure place the spiral in a white 001011 of water (or a clear glass bowl on J wl ite surface) and place the lamp above it During the exposure of each end of the s pir a l the lamp or bowl should be moved about so that the exposure is more even Watc r and cl~ctricity dont mix so care is needed and a hot photoflood lamp will burst if s plashed Dont skimp on th e reversal exposhysure - it is easy to underexpose but dif f ic ul t to overexpose For the Ektachrome E-6 p r-ocess a reversa l bath which chemi c3 1y fogs tile film making the reversal exposure unnecessary i s available from Pb c to Chemical Supplies

The Agfachrome 41 Proce ss Suitablc for all Agfa Reversal poundll ns (except Agfachrorne RIOOS Professional

available in 120 size and sheet film only)

formul ~ e - Agfachrome 41 No 48 First Developer

Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g middot1e to 1 3g Sodium sulphite anhyd SOg Hydroquinone 6g Sodium carbonate anhyd 40g Potassium thiocyanate 25g Potassium bromide 2g otassium iodide 0 1 Solution 6ml wate to 1000111

No 49 Stop Bath

Ac etic acid glac iol 101 Sodium acetate (3H 0) lO g

2Water to 10001111

No 50 Colour Developer PART I

Sodium sulphit e anhyd 3 5g Hydroxylamine hydrochloride I t Potassium bromide 19 Colour Developing Agent see below Ethylenediamine (50 vv Soln) 16ml (or 2-phenylethylamine) (3ml) -later to 300ml

PART BI Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g S~dium carbonate anhyd 62g Water to 500ml

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c) lour iPVf loping age nts [0[ Part lI

Colour Dev e loper 1 (sulphate) 28g or Colour l)eve l o pe r I (chloIide) ( CIH) 22g or Cenochrollc 2 5g or Dtoxych rome 3 2g

lOOt usc add ParL II slowly to Part D with tirring and make up to a total volume o f 10U0Il1I

No 51 [leach ~-----Po tas s ium-[e rr i CY[lnidc 80g

Potassium bromide 30g Sodium acetate (J1l 0) 50g2lor ic Jeid 5g Potnssiwa nll11 30g Water to 10001111

Ngt 52 Fixcr ---S-oJI~-tTiosu I ph a te anhyd l25g

(or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (200g) Sodiul1l s ulphi te lnhyd lag Imiddotlater to 1000ml

Th pit of this fixer is approximately neutral Do not use an acid fixer because it Jill blcnch th e dyes

Nu 53 Stnbiliser - --- We t ti~g agelt - Im1

Forlllaide hyde 0 5ml I-Jte r to IOOOml

~ (lCeslng Procedure lIrfachrome 41

At 20 0 C (minutes) At 24degC (minutes )

1 First Developer 18 - zr-----shy lJ-l~ (z00-O 50C) (2l 0 -02SoC)

2 Rin sc ~ 3 St op bath 4 3 4 1[151 10 7 S Reve r sni Exposure See be l~w 6 Colour developer 14 (20 0 -0SoC) 11 (z4 0 02SoC) 7 - 1 5 h 20 14 8 Ill eac ll 9 I-[lsh 5 4 lll Fix 5 4 ll Wash 10 7 12 Stabil iser 1 1 1] Dry (30 D

e) mox

One minute each side with film r emo ved from spiral 2 minuteR each end rf clear sl c rlll lid 5-10 minutes ench end of ttanslucent nylon spirill frolll a No2 Photoflood a l I lie t re () f le t)

Thp t Cll peratllre during the Lwo developme nt stages should be maintained within til limits shown For other stages tlte t e lllperature may range from 17-20lC or 21 - 2llC The third wash (Htole n iu raLh e r long and it is important that it is llt lL shorted In soft watcr ilHilS this lung wallh nwy c ause the clUulsion to slocll Su un int e l-mediate bilth of 5 minutes immediately J(tcr the colour developer can be given to prevent excessive swelling This is a 2 solution of either sodium

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sulphate or magnesium sulphate (Glaubers salts or Epsom Salts) If the intermediate bath is used the third wash may be shortened by 5 minutes In the two developer baths agitation should be continuous for the first 30 seconds followed by two invershysions every half minute for the rest of the period

As usual it is the developer solutio 1~ which deteriorate first The remalnlng solutions (stop hath bleach and fixer ) have double the capacity of tIle two developers Ea ch litre of developer should process 6-8 films but the development timcs should be extended by 30 seconds at 20degC (or 20 5cco~ds at 24 o

C) after the first two films anQ after each subsequent two films hi applies to both the first and colour deve lo pers

rne Ektachrome E-6 Pro ess 1 am indebted to Mr Derek Wa tkl 9 r0~ permission to reproduce this formula

wh i ch first appe1red in the March 198 1 i sgt lc of the magazine SLR Camera (Haymnket Publi t hing Ltd 38-42 Hampton Road TCd ingcon Middlcsex)

There are a lot of films from man n~rUl facturers sold under a wide variety of brand names which are compatible with the E-6 process Even Agfa make an E-6 compatible film (Agfachrome RIOOS Professional)

FormuL ae - E-6 i-lo-54---first Deve 1upe r

Sodium 6exametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g Sodium sulphite anhyd J9g Potassium carbonate anhyd 14g Sodium bicarbonate 12g Phen i done O 6g Itydroluinone 6g Sodium bromide 22g Sodium thiocyanate Ig Sodium hydroxide 33g Pot~asium iodide (01 50ln) 45ml Water to 1000m~ pH 9 6-005

No 5~ Stop Bath 1 ------S0dium acetate anhyd 30g

(or Sodium acetate 320) (50g) Acetic acid glacial 6ml Water to 1000m~ pit 55-02

No 56 Colour Develoger Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g tri-50dium orthophosphate 1220 36g Sodium hydroxide 3g Sodium sul~lite anhyd 4 5g 3gtdium bromide 065g Potassium iodide (01 Soln) 30ml Sodium thiocyanate 1 3g Citrazinic acid 1 25g CD-3 l1g ~oter to 1000mi + pH 1165-005

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S LOp lath 2 Same as Stop lath 1 but once used do no t interchange them

No 57 ll l e ach lotassiulil (erricyanide 80g Potassium bromide 20g Ji-So JiullI hydrogen orthophosphattnnhyd 12g (or di-Sodium hydrogen olthophosphnte

1211 2deg) (JOg) Acetic acid glacial 5ml Hater to IOOOrot plt 55-02

No 58 Fixe r - - Sndi-u-thiosulphate Mlhyo 125g

(or SodiulTl thiosulpilte cryst ) (200g) SodiuJJ sulphite anhyd 5g So dium me tabisulphite O5g Water to lOOOlllt 11 72-02

~Jc tt ing JgCllt lmL

L r to lOOOml

Time ~pe ratute

l First development 6r J8-U57 - shygt Stop iJath 1 2 33-JoC J Ih 2 3J-J90C 4 Reversal Exposure Two minutes each side with (ilm removed

froro spiral 5 minutes each side of clear spiral ano 10 minutes each side of nylon spiral with No 2 PhotofLoud at

(Or HeveJs31 JlJth) (ObtainJhle 12 inches frolll Photo Chical Supplies) 2 JJ-J90C

5 Col o ur u(ve [o[JllICnt G JSlOC 6 St o p Bath 2 2 JJ-l)degC 7 1-1 2 ])-J9()C g 11 [e middoth 5 JJ-l9C l) Rins e ~ 3J-390C [0 fix 5 3J-390C II Wnsh 6 33-J90C I ~ S tid il s c 1 3J-390C n Dry (Fillll cllt~Jrs on drying) r uTES ) As wilh all revlrsnl processes the [irut developer largely delermines the ehnrilct(tmiddotistic~ o[ the final translnrency Jntl the rcconlllltnJeu time anJ temp~rature

hlHJ1J be Iuhlrcu to b) AgitJtion in 11 ba ths (except the optional reversal bnth and the stabiliser

- - - - - - - ------------

wllich should not be agitated) is continuous for the first 15 seconds followed by two

inversions of the tank each subsequent half minute With the reversal bath and stnbiliRer an initial inversion to ensure uniform distribution is all that is required cl The conditioner bth in the offici)l process is lwl required in the pLOceJllre given hele as this useR ferricyllnide bleach rather than all EUTA hl(ach d) The two Rtop hth re of identical compositioll bllt should not be illtcrchlIircl due tu dnmn~illg carry-over contomination e) The caplcity of the solutiolls is 10 filll1ll pr litre (36 exposure - 35 or 120 roll film) bnt the tillle in the first developer must be extencled hy 15 second~ after the first two films and after each subsequent two films (by 20 seconds fOl the last two films) f) The made-up solutions should be scored in dark bottles at room temperature not in the refrigerator The first developer will keep for two months unused or for four weeks once used The colomiddoti developer will keep for 3 months unused or 2 lIIo11~hs partly used nd all the remaining solutions will keep for 6 months ur longer Although the first developer contains many ingredients it is not expensi ve to moke up Thus it is worthwhile retaining the remaining solutions to be used ith a ((esh ly made fi rs t deve loper if the fu 11 capac i ty canno t be used in the four we ek life 0f the original first developer g) Drying temperature should not exceed 60

0 C and all EktachrOllle films only clclr

when nearly dry For information on process control and fault finding in both Agfachrome 41 and

Ektachrome E-6 the reader is referred to The Focal Guide to Colour Film Proces~ing by Derek IJAtkins (published by the Focal Press norough Green SevEnolt)ks Kent TNlS 8PB) This excellent book also gives 11 the background information you may require Also in the book is a substitute E-4 process (as well an a low cost Ln~ temperature simplified E-4 process) for those films using this system This book also covers colour negative film processing

PROCESSING COLOUR NEGATIVE FILMS (PLUS XP-l AND VARIa XL BL~CK A~~lJTE FIL~ ~~__________~_ ____~______M~)__ __

As with colour reversal film the two major manufacturers of ~olour fil~s A~ [a

and Kodak each have tlieir own fi lms and processing systemy [or cololJr negative~ Again the trend seems to be towards a unified compatible system based on Kodaks C-lfl prccens

Processing negative film is very much eaGier tlan reversal processing for two reasons Firstly there are fewer steps in the processing sequence with no revcr~al EXpOSlln required and secondly there ill a little more latitude with tlte pro cessing since most faults can be corrected later at the print ing sta ge HOI_e ver cons iL e nt good resutts depend on consistent processing Attention to detail ~ile proce8s i ng a film can save a lot of time later on

Agfacolor N Negative Process ---T-tiis-process is in tended for all II fa co lour nega t i ve film (CNS CNS2 ann 80S Pr~fe9sionol) excluding AgCacoluur CNS400 negative film This ltter is designed to be processed in Agfacol o r Peo ceMs 70 chemicals and is compatible witl l Kodaks Flexicolor C41 process as is Agf a s chromogenic 131ack and ~hite film Vor l XL

The Agfacolor N process is slightly unusual in that the devclopmpnt is 11101-11(

to continue in the lowlgtr layers of the e mulsion during an intermedi1 t e bath wll icll immediately follows the colour developer

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Pu rmulnc - Agfucolour N i u 59- Colur- ll(vIoI~er SULUTION A

Sodium hexnmetaphosphate (Calgon) 2g PutnsSilJln carl)ooatc atlhyd 75p Potassium bromide 25p Wat e r Lo 500ml

~()LUTroN Il

lIydroxylamine hydrochloride 19 (or Hydroxylamine sulphate) 0 2g) Sodium sulphite anhyd 35g Colour Dcvcloppr 1 (Sulph~te) 28g (or Colour Developer 1 (chlorideraquo C22g) (or Cenocilrome) (25g) (0 t Droxych rome) (J2g) ) t e r to SOOml

I l d B tlJ A with stirring before use

Nu 60 Intermediate Bath -- -~lgn~sin sulpil1te--===- JOg

Mixed (or used) Colour Deve lope r 501n 30ml 1000011

No 61 Bleach --S-(Tll~eXaeLaphospilate (Cnlgon) 5g

Potassiulll fcrricY1nide 42g Potassium brolllidp 12g 10[ltl8siu dihydrogen orthophosphate 15g di-Potassium hydrogcn ortilophosplwte

nll Jil yd Sg Water to 1000111

Nl 62 Fixer -------sz-dG----Umiddotios ul phn te nnhyd 125g

(01 Socii um thiosulphntc cryst) (200g) SodiulIl sulphitc anhyd 109 Wnter to 1000ml

ltc~ing Procedure Agfacolollr N Time (mins) Telpernture degc-S----shy

1 Colour developer 20-02 2 Intermediate bath 4 2005 J -IDsh 15 (lllinilllllm)-20 15-20 4 IHench 6 2005 5 Hash 6 15-20 6 FLx 6 18-20 7 -Ilsh 10 15-20 fl ~~ett lllg agent bath 15-20 N)lI~S

Agit1tilln in niL stDges is continuous (or the fi1st minute followed by o ue j version of Lhc LIll( (very hoi ( minute thcrcnfter

llevcl)plIlcnt 11I3Y be varied betccn 7 - 9 minutes Increase ueve10pment to 9 llItes Lo incrcasc contrast and reduC(~ the time to 7 minutes (or softer results

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The orange mask is formed in the bleach bath and the recommended time and temperature for this stage should be followed as the density of the mask increases with time

All the solutions including the co l our developer solutions (separately) shoilid keep for at least 4 months Once mixed the colour developer (and the intermediate bath) will only Inst a f ew weeks

The capacity is 6 - S films (135- 36 o C 120) per litre but the development ttne shoul d be incr eased with each film or pair of films to compensate for developer e xha ustion The c a pa c ity of the co lou r d vetoper s may be e xtended by mixing onl y

al f of so lu tions I a n d B and proceSS in f( 4 i ilms in e ach h a lf In this ca s e prolong the development time by one mi nute a f ter eacll film

Flexi color C-41 Tlis process was developed by Kod lt1 ilt [or the mach i ne pro ces~ing of their nc~

colour negative films Kodacolor II and Ve ricolor II The majorit y of colour films from independent manufacturers are now made compatible with the C-~l process In addition there are the two chromogenic bl ack and white films lifords XPI and Ag Eal s Vario XL whi ch were designed fo r C- 41 processing l gfas fast colour nega t i ve film CNS400 should also be proce sed i n C- 41 chemicals

Because C-41 was designed for use i n au t omated commercial laboratories the processing t emperature is rather h i gh (IOO or 3So

C) As with the ~ktachrome E-6 precess these high temperatures bring abo ut the a s sociated problems of short development times and DE maintaining t hL t empe ra ture betwe en the prescribed limit~ Tha t t hes e pro b lems are easi l y ove rc ome i s J emon s trat ed by the many thousa nds of amac e urs who s ucce ss f ully process t hei L own pol and Vari o XL monochrome films in

oC-4 chemicals at 3S C

The following formulae represent a l ow cosi substitute procedure using a traditional ferricyanide bleach

ihe substi t ute process is reproduc d fr om The Focalguide to Colour Film Proc es sing by Derek Wat ki ns with k i nd p2r ssion from the Focal Press

Formu11e C-4l

No 63 Colour Developer Sodium hexarroetaph()sphate (Calgon) 2g Po tassium carbonate anhyd 38g Sodium sulphite anhyd 5g Potassium iodide 01 Soln 2ml Potassium bromide 1 5g lIydroxamine hydrochloride 2g CD-4 5g Wlter to 1000ml

No 64 Stop Bath Ae tic acid glacial 20011 Sodium acet1te 311 0 25g

2Water to 1000ml

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------ ----------------

~

No 65 Bleach Potassium nitrate 2SB Potassium ferricyanide 30g Potassium bromide 12g Boric acid 5g Sodium tetraborate (Borax) 19 Water to 1000ml

No 66 Fixer Sodium thioulphate anhyd 125g (or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (ZOOg) Sodium metabisulphite 20g Water to LOOOtnl

No 53 Stabiliser Wetting a ~r~ nt 1m1 Formaldehyde 40 511 )1 ~ater to lOOOm1

f ocessinG Procedure e-4l (with [erricY~lnid( bleach)

Time Temperature degc l Colour development 31- 38~~--

2 Stop bath 35-40 J Wash 35-40 4 Bleach 35-40 5 ~ash 35-40 6 Fix 35-40 7 ~ash 35-40 8 Stabiliser 35 -40 9 Dry

Agitation in the developer is continuous for the first half minute followed by one inversion of the tank each quarter minute thereafter In the remaining solution s the agitation may be reduced t o t lJO in ver sions every half minute after tilE init i a l )0 sec onds cont inuous agit a tio n e ach bath

TIll capacity of the so lut ions is a pplC))limately twelve films per litre if the dev eloper is made up as two 500ml port iuns dn d six films devel oped in eacll portion The development time should be extended by minute after the f irst two films and by middot a further i minute aft er t he seco nd 1lt1 fi ms A comb i ned b1each f ix bath may be u~cd in this procss b t t o[ cours Lilis calllu t be a f e rr i c Yll1ido ball ed bleach A sllitable formula can be found in t h e Br i i sh J our nal of Photography Annual

PIWCESSING COLOUR PRINTS For copyrigllt reasons we arc unabl e t o re produce the substi t ute fo rmulae for

colour print processing The f onnulae and pr ocedure s are quit e straight~orward and lIIay be found in the British Journal of Photography Annual Photocopies of the relevan t pnu es may be obtained for a nominal sum from the publishers This applies to earlic~ editions of the book and to the current edition after stocks are sold out (u s ually April or Hay) The address to 0 i s

Tlte Ed i tor Ilritish Journal of Photography Annmiddot qL Henry Greenwood ( Co Ltu 28 Creat James Street London WeI Telephone 01-404 4202

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APPENDIX I Chemical Names Seeals- Appendix 2 for Colour Developing Adurol Amidol Amidosulphonic acid Ammonium alum Ammonium hydroxide l2-B(nzenediol 14-Benzenediol Bor1cic acid Borax Calgon Chlorchydroquinone Chrcmlt alum Copper sulphate Copper chloride l2-Diaminoethane 24- Diaminophenol hydrochloride Digol l2-Dihydroxybenzene l4-Dihydroxybenzene 26-Dihydroxyisonicotinic acid Elo Ethy l enediaminetetraacetic acid and sa l ts Ethyl~ne glycol Ferri~ ammonium citrate Formalin p-Hydroxyphenyl glycine Iron perch loride Iron trichloride Kcdalk p-HtLhylaminophenol sulphate Nethyl p1raaminophenol sulphate middotIonoch 10 rhyd rOluinone 1- Pheny 1- 3-pyrazo lidone Potasnium alum Potassium bichromate Potassium bisulphite Potassium chrome alum Propan-2-01 Pyrocatechin (Pyrocatechol) Pyrogall ic acid Quino Sodium bisulphite Sodium hydrosulphite Thiocarbamide I 2 3-Trihydroxybenzene

and Synonyms Agent)

Chloroquinol 24-Diaminophenol hydrochloride Sulphamic acid Aluminium ammonium sulphate Aoononia solution Catechol (Pyrocatechol Pyrocatechin) Hydroquinone Boric acid Sodium tetraborate Sodium hexametaphosphate Chloroquinol (Adurol) Chromium potassium sulphate Cupric sulphate Cupric chloride Ethylenediamine Amidol Diethylene glycol Catechol Hydroquinone Citrazinic acid Hetol EDTA acid and salts Ethanediol Ammonium ferric citrate Formaldehyde solution Glycin Ferric chloride Ferric chloride Sodium metaborate Hetol Hetol Chloroquinol Phenidone Aluminium potnssium sulphate Potassium dichromate Potassium metabisulphite Chromium potassium sulphate Isopropyl alcohol (Isopropanol) Catechol Pyroglillol Ilydroquinone Sodium metabisulphite Sodium dithionite Thiourea Pyrogallol

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Jl)[l~NDIX 2

There appears to be considerable confusion surrounding the various colour developing agents This is probably due to the fact that these complex compounds helve all been given a different trade name by each manufacturer or distributor L1Ch compound may even have more than one chemical name depending on the chemical nOlllcnclature system used The following is a list of the chemical names and synonyms of the common colour developing agents All of them are derivatives of para-phenylenediamine the classic fine grain black and white developer and they sllare in varying degrees the unpleasant characteristics of this material They should be handled with care and skin contact or inhalation of dust should be avoided llecause these compounds are similar in structure and mode of action they arc interchangeable to some extent the differences being plincipally differcncfs ill activity and solubility Differences in solubility can cause slight colour cilmges but this is really important only with reversal films since with colour 1I~~ative films and colour papers colour casts can usually be corrected by filtration in printing The relative quantities re qui r ed ani adjustments to development times or exposure will have to be determined by experiment The names underlined are those used by Photo Chemical Supplies

Colour Developer I (Sulphate) - Ac t i vo 1 7 (Jejlt1Sltmi--shy= Uiethyl-p-phenylencdiamine sulphate =NN-Diethyl-l4-pbenylenerliamlne sulphate

C lO

II 16

NZ

H2

S04

Holht - 26232

Colour Developer 1 (Chloride) shy middotCOiKodak)

Die til y1- p-pheny lenedl alnine hydroch lorid e = NN-Diethyl-l4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride

MolWt = 20070

lt~ur [tgt velrer CD 2 (Kod~dd Activol 2 (Johnsons) [olochrome (M amp ll) NN-Diethyl-2-methyl-l4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride 4-Alllino-NN-diethyl-m-toluidine hydroch lo r ide

~ol Wt ~ 214 i3

Colour Developer 3 ~-CD3(Kod ak)

Activol 3 (Johnsons) ilyJoch rome (M amp ll) N-E thy 1- 3 -me thy 1- N- (f -me thylsul phonamidoe thy 1) -p-phenylenediamine sesqu isul pha te

monohydrate - Am lllO - N - e thy 1-N - (i me thanesu llhonalnidoe thy 1) -m- to 1uid inc s e s qu is u1pha t e

monohydrate

HolJt 43652

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Colour Develo~er 4 CD4 (Kodik)

= N-Ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyi-2-methyl-l4-phenylenediamine sulphate

~lolWt c 29235CllH18N20112S04

Droxychrome (M amp B) Activol 8 (Johnsons) Colaur Developcr 32 (Merck) T32 (Orwo) N-Ethyl-N-2-hydroxyethyl)-l4-phenylenediamine sulphate monohydrate

Wt 29634CIOH16N20middot1l2S04middotJI20 tiO

Ac60 (Agfa) Colour Developer 60 (Merck) N-Butyl-N-(4-sulphobutyl)-1 4-pheny l~ neciiamine

4-(N-Butyl-N-(4- s u phobutyl)amino)2 t ~ l i _e

Cl4 i 24 N203S HoliVt 30042

Gcnochrome (M amp B) - Acti~ol 1 (Johnsons)

S 28 OM) NN-Diethyl-l4-phenylcnediamine 9ulphit 2 Diethyl-p-phenylencdiamin~ sulphite

Mol ot t 23734

The bhse is ident i cal to Colour Develope r Sulpha t e and Hydrochloride)

APPENDIX 3 Anhydrous and lIydrncd Forms of Sal ts Many of the chemicals commonly used in photographic processing arc availllhlc

either in anhydrous forms or in one or more states of hydration If these oiffc l-ent forms are used in the ratio of their me l e u t ar weights then the amount of active ingredient is constant For example s od i um carbonate is available as the anhydrous powder (Molecular weight 105 99) and as tle decahydrate (Na C0 10I1 0 molecular2 3 2weight 21l6l4) The ratio of their molecular weights is 1270 so for every gram of anhydrous sodium carbonate required 270 grams of the decahydrate would have to be used It is important to remember thill point whe) compa r ing prices of chemicals because a hydrated crystalline form may appear cheaper weight for weight but be actually more expensive because of the add it ional quantity required

The following is a list of the commonly used chemicals which are available 1n different degrees of hydration showing their molecular weights and the ratios in which they should be used Those underlined are the forms which are supplied by Photo Chemical Supplies and are the most usual most economic or most stable form of the chemical concerned

Cupric chloride CUCI =13445 ~20=17048 Use 1127Z Cupric sulphate CuS0 =1596l _+511 deg=2[1)68 Use 1 1 564 2Ferric chloride FeC13c1622l +611 deg=27030 Use 11672Magnesium sulphate ~lgS04120=1J8 39 Z20=24647 Use 1 1 78

Potassium carbonate ~2C03=1J821 +1~1l20=l65_23 Use 1119

di-Potassium hydrogen ~211P04=174l8 +3H 0=22822 Usc 1 1 312orthophosphate

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-- --

~5 rJ Jiunt acct~te Cl COONa = 8203 Ue 1166~~2~= 13(~p~_3o d ium uisul phate NaIlS0 =12006 ~middotZO=lJ8 03 Use 1115

4~2SlJ=105 99 +10il20~2l6 14 Use 1270

)laquo ( ium d i hyd rogp n orthophosphate +211 0=15601 Use 1130

--2 -~---

d l-Slt)(JiJnl hydroren orlhophosphate Na

211P0

4=14196 +21122= 58~l~ Use 1 1 25 252

~ c liJgtn sulphlte +]011 0=32219 lise 1217~a23 =1t-Q~ 2~- dium suiphite i2 S03= 1~6 04 +711 deg=25215 Use 1200

2So diulIl tliiocYlOate N3SCN=8107 +2HZ2l2JQ Use 114-1 ( Ilst stored as 20 solutions)

S dilllll thiosu1phalc i02~22)=15sect1J +51120~24l1l Use 1157

Stannous chloride 21129=22563 Use 1119

l li-SodiUlll orthophosphate - thp mhydrous and crystalline forms not interChangeable due to alkalinity of the crystalline form whi~~ contains applox 2~~ sodium hydroxide

1 i IEND I X LI ~oJiuhl versus Potilssium Salts -- -- - r111( lIajority of phot~g-l--aphic--rroccs s ing soluti~~s sodiulU salts lIIay be

S dltituted [or pntasraquoiullI s 1lts n sodium salts are genentlly diEaper cmiddotleciall) since legs of tlte godiuHl salt is tequired to giV E the same molecular middotmiddot iuivalent In the Clse of tlte anhydrous carbonates and sulphites the sodium lts an 1sJ deliquescent than the potassium salls and 1re therefor easier to sL ore alld hnllJle The only advantage of the potassiLlln salts is their greater s o luui lily Ih e n highly concentrated solutions are made up lleCRuse of the slightly hi her nlkaLinity of the potnssiulO salts SOllie care in controtiing the pH is needed 1-111 11 substituting sodiulll [or potassium salts in buffer sy~te1ls For this reuson L1 uSllal buffer snIts nre not given here The (ollowing is a list of the ratios in which sorne of the CCgtlnlllon sodium nnd potassium sollts should be lIsed to give the I IiU (ecular equiv11cnts

Piltassiurn bromide Sod iUln bromide 100865 PutassiulTI cIrbonnte nnhyd Sodium carbonate Ilnhyd 100765 lJtlssium l)l1tS tUIlI

citr3LIO 0112deg)

hydroxide Sodium citrate (211

2deg)

SodiulII hyel ox ide 100905 100710

l u tass ium l1letabisulphite SodiullI metabislliphite 100 855 f o tl3S iunl Icrslllphilte Sodillm persulphate 100 880 Potassium sulphite anhyd Sodium sulphite anhyd 100 795

ArPENDIX 5 Wei~lts and Measures There are OIany old books which contain phot o graphic formulae 11 lot of which

al e still v11id todilY In Brilain thcse old formulae were Ilsuillly given in avoidupois ulli t rud the following tnbles 0I1Y be uficd to convert these formulae to the metric sf tem Avoi rdupJis Wli~ilts ~~~d TfT~r---- 16 ounces (oz) 7000 grnins (grs) f153 6gra1ll8 (g)

1 Juncc (llZ) 16 tJrll1ls (drm) 4375 grains (grs) 2835 grams (g) dram (drill) 2734 grHins (grs) 177 grams (g)

(1543 grains (grs) 10 gL1n1 (g) )

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Liquid Heaures (Ilritish alld Netd c )

1 quart 2 pints (pL) = 40 fluid oUllces (Floz) 1 136 1 it re (I) pint 20 fluid ounces (Fl nz) 568 millilitres (m1) fluid ounc~ (Floz)= B fluid drams (or d r c hills) 28lllml fluid drachm 60 minims 355ml

(1 minilll = 1 drop)

Temperature conv e rsion Fahrnheit to Celsius (Centigrade) (xoF - 32) x S = yOC

lt) Celsiu9 to Fahrenheit (yU C x 9) + 32 = xOF

5

APPlNlllX 6 Refrences and Funher Reading The following ia a short 1 ist uf publi c ations which readers will find

useful (or further informatiun 1 Jacobson C1 and Jacoblun R E (1976) Developing 18th Edit ion

Focal Press (see below) 2 Jacobson Cl a nd Hannheim LA (1975) Elllarging 22nd Edition Futal Press J Jacobson RE Ray SF Attridge GG and Axford NR (1978) Hanual of

Photography 7th Edition Focal Press I bull Langfo rd H J (1980) Advanced Photogl-aphy 4th Fdition Focal Press S Hason LFA_ ( 1975) Photographic Processing Chemistry 2nd Editioll Focil Press 6 Wat k ins D (19 78) The Focalguide to Coluur Film Processing Focal Press 7 Ilritish Journal of Photography Annual 1982 Henry Greenwood [ Co_ Ltd 28 Great

James Stn ~ t London WCl

The Focal Press Butterworth [ Co (Pllblishers) Ltd Ilorough Green Sevenoaks Kent TN15 flPH

Books 1 2 and] are all standard refere n c e w rks on photographic processing Ilook 4 is a ve r y useftl soutce of inforlUBtion on all aspe cts of photography but particularly on tone and colour reproduc t ion on sensitised materials The bouk by LFA_ Hasun (S) is es~ential [or those wishing to devise formulations of their own especially co loul formulations but the reader shoulJ have some chemical knowshyledge Book No 6 explains the principles o[ colour film processing and describegt th use of a variety of processing kits as well as providing Bubltitute formulae [or brew-it-yourself enthusiasts

The British Juurnal of Photography Annual (n is the traditiollal source of formulae fo r those wishing to mix up their own solut iOlls The formulae cover all aspects of both black and white and colour proc e ssing

NOTE The purpo se of this booklet is to stilllul te interest in the compounding of

photographi c processing solutiuns by tho se ph o t ographers wh o s e ek a greater undershystanding of the medium The ruatedal ill this buoklet is presented in good faith but because results are d e pe ndent on so many factors outside our control we cannot accept l iability for any processing [aults or inju~y to petsolls or property that might ari9 howsoever callsed Becaugte o f the subject ive nature of the medium it is the r e spons ibility of the user to Elac e rtain for himself the suitability of any [ormula or process in relation to hi8 mat e r ials e quipment and objectives Any suggestions from I a ders whi c h could be incorporated into foture editions o[ lhis booklet will be welcome _

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II c knuw l edgcmcnts

Til e author wOlld l ike to thank the f11 owing f o r pc n nisRiOll to us e m1terial for inclusion in this book let

Kod a k te for details of thfir formuln p (morw c hrome) ltlnd for addi t ional h e lpflll info rmati o n

IHo rd Ltd for permis~i on to reproduce their pllb lish e d formula e

Agfa- Ge v a ert Ltd for informat io n o n their p rod u c ts and pro c eRRinr

The Fo c al P If) 9S who publish a wiel e r ang e oC b oks u n plHtogl middot ~PY for permisAion t o US Ilel(cted m1terial [rom SOllI e of their puhlicltions (R ( e Appendix ()

~1r )( rek Watkins for pe rmissio n t o r e pr ud u c ( his slIbstitute 1-6 proc 1ing prn ee- dur( whi c h was first puhlished in the maga zine SLH Camer~

~h G W Crawley fditor of the Bri tish Journal of Photography for prmis9ion lltl rfprodllcE SOIll( of his FX sprifs -f d(vclop(rs

Th E ahv( prsons or organisnion9 (middot 1nnot Iccept 1ny liabil i t y arisin from the nprodnct inn of their lIIal([ial in Ihi hooklet

Writtfn by R C Potts ~fSc and publish e d hy PHOTO CHEMICAL SUPPliES 21 LODGE CLOSE

COWL EY MIDDLE SEX

UBB 2ES - 34 shy

No responsibility accepted for any formula or information contained in this document This is a scan of the original document

Use chemicals and formulae at your own risk Intended for personal and educational use only

Page 6: PCS Darkroom Formulary

BampW Film Processing

S_Oill2QlITIOJLQLJ3LACJL~1lD WHITE NEGATIVE DEVELOPERS

Deve lopers generally h1ve the following components

a) Developing agent(s) b) PrcRerv~tive

c) Alkali d) Restrainer

There may be other additions such as sequestering agents organic antifoggants and wetting agents

The Developing Agents The most commonly used developing agents are ~etol hydroquinone and Pheridone

There are many compounds which act as developers but most are now only of histoicaL interest as various combinations of the above three compounds can create almost any type of developer There are a [ew developing agentS in commercial usc which have special properties such as grc)t solubility which permits the formulation of highly concentrated developers These developing agents are of little interest to the 1I111teur who makes up his own developers and certainly oEfer no advantages Tl ~

[orl1lulae in tllis booklet are mainly tho~e using metol hydroquinone and Phenidona fetol and Phenidone have similar properties in that they are fast working

developers yielding 1010 contrast images lIydroquinone is a slow contrasty developer TIley arc seldom used a ione however but as metolhydroquinone (MQ) or Phenidone hycicoquinone (PQ) combinations Tllese mixtures show superadditivity that i the activity of the mixture is greater than the sum of the activities of the developers when lIsed separately lIytlroquinone is used on its own in high contrast developers where its action is Jccelerated by the use of caustic alkalis (eg sooium hydroxide) TIle properties of a developer are determined by its overall composition rather than by the choice of develoring Jgent alone Most developing agents including the three mentioned Jbove arc only active in alkaline sollJtions The pH and the nature oE the alkali are of prime importltJtlce in determining the properties of the working developer

The Preservltive The function of the preservative is co protect the developer from aerial

oxidation Tile compound almost univerRally used is sodium sulphite although potassium sulphite and the corresponding metabisulphites may also be used The sJlphite has other [Inctions in the developer and an importRnt one of these is its action as a silver halide solvent Thi6 effect is made use of in fine-grain developers where the sulphite reduces the actual grJin size by dissolving some of the silver halide A concentration of Jround IOOglitre is required for this to be significant

In some colour developers where the sulphite concentration is J1W other antioxidJnts SUCII as hydroxylamine are used as preservatives

The Alkali ---- The a 1ka 1i is somet imes re [erred to as th~ acce lera tor because mos t deve lopers arc only efficient in alk1line solutions The three commonly used types of alkali arc a) tile c1uHtic alkalis (sodium and potassium hydroxide) b) the carbonates Bnd c) the mild alknlis and alkaline buffers

The callstic alkalis give rise to high eneq~y developers usually with poor keeping qualicies The carbonates are less aggressive in their nction and are very

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widely us(d The mild alkalis such as bor-ax (sodium tetraborate) Kod1lk (sodium P1o t aborate) (lnu the alkaline buffer mixtures are extensively used in mooern fineshygr ain developers

The Restrainer The most commonly used restrainer is potassiulII bromide Tile effect of uromicle

is to reuuce fog formation (the development of unexposed parts of the emulsion) and to slow down the rnte of development Potassium iodioe has a similar nction but much lower concentrations must be used (approximately one thousandth of the quantity Df bromide) Too much restrainer results in a lowering of the image contrast 3nd should be avoided

Other Conponents Sequestering agents are added to developers tu overcome problems caused by

impurltles in the water used to make up developers (sec page 3) The mos t commonly used compounds are the cmnplex phosphates notably sodiulll hexa me tnphosphate (Calgon) and ethylenedinninetetraacetic acid (E DTA) nnd its derivatives Calgon is ellenp and very effective at sequcstel ing calcium ano magne s ium ions The disadvantages are firstly that it is not very effective ltlgaillst other mct~1l ions and secondly the complex phosphates break down in alkaline solutions so are nsuitabll for use in concentrated stock developers The di s advantJges of EDTA a nd related compounds are firstly cost Jnd secondly they can accelerate ltleri u l ox i dation of the developer in certain circu~st ances

Some developers require aoditional restr(Jiners in the form of organic anti shypoundaggants This is partic ul a rl y true of Phenid one 1nd its derivative s ltlnd some ~o l o ur deve l opers The mo s t common l y used is benzotriazole but 6-nitroben zimishydazole which is about 100 times more potent is also encountered

Host modern develop2cs contain a wetting agent to en s ure the event wetti[~ ) f the film and the el imination of air bubbles The ltlmount used sltoulo not e xceed

Iproximaeiy 0 5g per Litre othelwise fODming Iwy Cltlus e p r oblems

~~k l ng up Solutions The chemicals should be dissolved in about two thirds of the fillal volume

of wat e r sh loin IN TilE ORDER IN WHICH THEY APPEAR IN TilE FORNULA a nd then the snl ution made up to the f i nal volume with water It is i mpo rtUlt that eAch c it mi cal add ed is completely di ssolved before the neKt is introduccd

Hixing vessels and ut ensi l s sho uld be of glass or plastic nd shoulo be tEZ erved for photographic use I-lhen mAking up a series of so lutions fo1 Any pit t i c ulltl r process it is good practice to make lip the soluti olls in the O[oer in lch t hey lITe to be us ad a s t his eu ces tit e ffects of cl ( rY-O Vl r contlIl1ination

Host ch emic als di ssolve more readily in warm Wltl[ e r but this s hou ld never eyce ecl SOoC (120

0 F) The s olu t i on can then be made up to final volume with

(o ld water I t is a useful prac t ice t o mltlke up developers as concentrated stock solutions

These ha ve be t ter ke ep ing qUltllit i es and are easier to s tore A typical developer would hav t he developing agent(s) and sulphite in one solutiun And the ltllkali restraine-s etc in the other Since sodium sulphite is distinctlYltllkalinc in solution the aerial o)(idation of the developing agents Ciln be further inhibited by substi t uting s odium metnbisulphite [or all or part of the sodi um sulphite The met a bsu l phi t e ha a greo1t solubil i ty t han su lphite is In c lficicnt presershyilt ive and is acid in reltlctiou so thJt the developerr are complet c ly inhibited

Of course the alkali content of the other solution must be incre1Scd pr oportionltJtely

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111 order to make the working developer alkAline

BLlCK AND llHITE DEVELOPER FORMULAE

In all the formulae in this booklet the quant1t1es are given in grams g ~ for solids and millilitres (ml) for liquids Development times are approximate bLC it is R simple matter to determine experimentally the development times which sui your particular film stock and which yield the contrast and density tau desi r t- o

The chromoGcnic black llId white films XP-l (llfard) and Vario XI(igfa) have been desirned for the Flexicolor C-41 process (see page 2n 1 Gene ral rurpose Developers

These Jeve(opel ~ Crable 1) do not use the silver halide solvent effect a nd s o are not true fine-grain developers However modern films have such inherently fine rrain that true fine grain developers are less important today than they were a fel years ago

Tnble 1 CellP-ral Purpose Devel opers

No 1 No2 No 3 No4 No 5 So ft Normal Normal Contrast Contr ~lQ NQ PQ ~IQ PQ (DI65) (D61a) (ID62 ) (ID2) (IDn)

~Ie t o 1 6 3 2

Sodl m s ulphit e anh yd 25 90 50 75 7

lI yJ r0111 i n__middot _e _ _ _ b 12 8 v__8_Jn ____________________~~~~ ________~

Sodium cnrbonate anh yd 37 11 60 375 48

Phenid onc 05 C 22 ~~------------------------------------~~~~------------~=

rotnssium bromi de 2 2 2 ~--------------~--------~----~~------~---------

Iknzotri azo le 1 20 10

SodiJJm metabi sulphite 2

Wa ter to 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

Dilution 1+3 l middotq 1+3 1+2 None (5tock + Iater) 1+3 1+7 1+5

Approximate development 10 6-7 3-4 5 5 time at 20deg C 12-14 6-7 9

----------------------------------------------------------~---------------

The soft working developer (No1) is useful for ~ubjects with an extended brightness range recorded on slow contrllsty film such as Pan F The ilormlt11 contrast developers (Nos 2 1nd 3) nre eminently practical developers ~ith wide application especially f Or rol1filO1 sheetfilm and plates Formulae 105 4 and 5 are contrasty developers suitnb1e for ordinary films and pllltes 111d can be us ed wiLhout dilution (or lille films such as pes Ortholith 35mm lith film When uld U1Hlilllted No ( is very similar to D19b and IDl9 X-ray film developers

Cal~oll m1Y be IISpJ ill these formulte and should be added before all other ingredieut~ Use up to 3glitre in hard water areas

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2 Fine Gr~in Developers TI(se we ll established fine grain developers (sec Table 2) are particularly

suitnble for miniature films (J5mm or sm31Ier)

1Llble 2 Fine Grain DevelopE

No 6 Fine Grain MQ D76

No 7 Fine Grain D76d

MQ No 8 Fine Grain PQ

Hetol 2 2

Sodium sulphite anhyd 100 100 100

Hyci r-oqui none 5 5 5

Borax 2 8 3

BorIc acid 8 35

Potas sium bromide

Phenldone 02

Hat~r to 1000 1000 1000

Approximate development time 6-10 12-15 10

Formula No6 represents the standard develope r against hiell all otlle r developers are judged Formula No7 is a buffered version o f No6 and yields morc consistent results but since the pH is slightly 10e1 th e developnie nt time s will be longe r Formula No 8 is a PQ developer with characteristics simillr to No7

All the above formulae can be diluted either 1+1 or 1+3 Lo r olle-shet prCccSStng yielding enhlllced acutancc but developmcnt tillllS should be approxshyimately doubled (1+1) or trebled (1+3)

3 Super Fine Grain Developers

These developers (see table 3) usc colour developing agents which are derivatives of -phenylenediallline the classic fine grain developer p-phcnylshyenediallline irself Iws too lIIany unpleasant charct c ristics to be of any use bull nowadays These colour deve lope rs a n~ S low work j ng and rl yc ill aliltI hydcoqu ino ne hav e been included ill formulae 9 and 10 t o nccelcratc developlIIClIt In [annul No II sodium carbolwte is the accelerntor The lulphite cOllcclltrntion is relatively high to make use of the solv(llt effect Sulphite c annot be ulcd in such high concentrntion in colour develolllIClIt of (OIOllf lTIall-inl1l IS iL inhibits the (01 ollr coup I ing rene t ion

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Table 3 Super fine Grain Developers

No 9 No 10 No 11 FocDl fXIO Kod Dk

-shy--_-------------_ Gcnocllrome 20 6

~~lJc in 20

ydroquinolle 6

Nydochrome (CD 3) 5

Sodillm sulphite anhyrl 100 100 30

Sodium carbonate anhyd 30

Borax 20 4

Boric acid 4

lola ter to 1000 1000 1000

Dilution (Stock + 3ter) 1+7 None None

Jppr(l~irnnte development time at 20 C 12-15 8 20

4 tcutallce or IIiIll D(~finiti(1n Developers ----The middot dZutancemiddot dt2vclopecs arc gencrnlly very dilute and require onl y suffic u~nt ngitation to prevent the [ormatLon of streamers The effect of this is twofold Firrtly the developer becomes exhllIsted in areas of heavy exposure yet remains active in the shadow areas This results in good shadow detail (resulting in an incre1se in effective emulsion speed) yet the highlight areas do not become blocked liP This type of cornp~nsRting development yields reduced macro-contrast but the result is not the same ltIS that acheived by ordinary soft-working developers siOlce tl(~ important highlight und shado bull contrast is good and the gradation of the less important ~id-tone9 is compressed The second effect of the high dilutfonl minimum agitation techniqlle is the forl1l3tion of ~Iackie lines which enhlllce apparent imGgc sharpness at the boundaries between lightly and heavily exposed 1re35 This is due to fresh developer on the lightly exposed side of the boundary diffusing across and acceleratill~ deve l opment in the adjacent heavily exposed emulsion Bromide a product of the developm~nt reaction diffuses in the revcrs direction and retilrds development in the lightly exposed en1l1sion adjacent to the boundary The net effect is an incn~ase in the apparent sharpne~s of the boundary

Developers of this type arc not fine grain developers and it is essential that they be used ith slower film8 (bdoN 150 ISI) which have fine grain emulsionr These sloNer films have a thin emulsion and are n3turally contrasty wih good acutillicc 1middotlith the fast films which normally yield a soft grainy neltative the reduction in macro-contrast produces a dull flat image which cannot b improved by printing on hard parer due to the grain In addition the thick emulflion of these [~ut films docs no t lend itself to the development of Mackie lines

Innlula No 12 (nr Table LI) the oriin~l Llclltance fonuJla can be made Jp in two parts the IlIrtol and sulphite in one solution and the carborlJte in the s e cond solution Forll1lae Nos 14 and 15 can be made up as concentrJted stock solucion s and 3f1in t h (o alkali (sonium or potassium carbonate) is kept as a SCp1ilt e solution Wi t h yenormuJ rio 15 the Pinacryptol Yellow solution shoul not be included in the concentrated stock solution but added just before lIe Pinacryptol Yel101Y is l desensicising dye which is decomposed by sulphite When preparing

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-------- ---------------------------

f o r mulae Nos 14 alld IS as concentrated stock soluti u llS it is aclvisable tu make up the solutions (except the carbonlt solution) in 10 iS0prufyl a lcohul (1 part isopropyl alcohol + 9 parts ltIter) as this helps d issulve thp Jeve lopin~ agents and improves the keeping q ua lities All these forllluiltl ( give tu one stop increase in effective emulsion speed

Formula 10 14 (FXlh) is a modification of iln)thcr (UrJlluln (FXl) where the sodium sulphite concentrat ion is only 5g per litre instemiddotad o[ lt0amp pe r 1 itrc This low sulphite furmula yields very high definition negatives bJt is more critical as to tKposure Development times are as [ornlula 10 15 (FX2)

Table 4 High Definition (Acutance) DeveL~~

No 12 Nu l) No 14 No 15 Beutler Jindisch HIll FX2

Crawl(l C_~w 1 e j

~ie tu 1 5 05 02gt

0ycin 075 I

Catechol (Pyrocatechin) 125

5(ld i urn sulphi~~ anhyd 25 80 10 35

Sodium carbonitf~ J an1d 25 25

Pot3ssium carbonate 7S

Po tas sium iodide 0001 solll 5

Pynacryptol yellow 12000 solli 3 5

----------- -----------------------------------------------------~----1000 1000 1000 100 0

----~---------------Dilution 1+10 25ml stock Nunc None

+l5ml potshyassium hydroxide 10k water to 10001111

[)c vmiddotd pmcnt t i llle 7 -1 0 15 - 20 8- J0 12- 15 at 20c i

5 Speed increasing developer f or push-processin g Thi s fine-grain IQ developcrrlO(iS) gives Ill incrcase in cillulsion speed of

a bou t one stop in normi1 use but further specd illcrenses can be achieved by cKtCnding the development tillle Jlth film slich IS 1115 this dolgt not lead to excessive contra~t or grain This developer may aiso be used [or dillllC 011(gtshy

shot procesfiing for enhanccd ltIcutance Dt 1+1 and Ii-] d llut lun (wilII cxt e nLilJ dcvclopmcnt tillles) giving a hulf 10 Olll stop incrcase in slwecl lhi developer is ~irnilar in 1 11 respects to 11[onl ltllltroll1

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Formula No 16 Fine grain speed increDsine developer (ID68)

Sodium sulphite a~lyd 850g llydroquinone 50g Borax 70g Boric acid 20g Phenidone 013g Potassium bromide LOg ImiddotJaCer to 1000 ml

Dllution Time (1115)

None 6middotmiddot9 1+1 11-16 1+3 22-30

Usc undiluted for the indiclted time to give the following speed increases on 111[5

800llSA (1 stop) 8-) mins l600ASA (2 stops) ll-12mins 3~00ASA (3 stops) 16-18mins

6 nigh Contrast Developers These developers give high contrast negatives lind are bese used on thin

emulsion high contrast film such as pes Ortholith film obtainable in 35mm cassettes from Photo ClwlllicoJ Supplies The first is the classic Caustic-hydroquinone developer and the s(cond is the s cand a -d Iniectious development low ulphitic developer T1e lotter is more delnonding of accurate exposure and development bUI

yields the highcst possible contrast for col our separation work and ha~f-tone dot screening Lith film may also be successfully developed using formula~ Nos 4 and 5 (undiluted) which hove better keeping qllalities once used but yield a blightly lowe contrast

No 17 CauGtic-llydro1uinone High Concrast Developer

SOLUTION A llydroquinone 25g

Potassium mctabisulphite 258 (or Sodium metabisulphite 2l5b ) PotassiUM bromide 25p (or Sodium bromide 2l5g) -I1ter to 1000ml

SOLUTlOCl B Sodillm hydroxide 36g (or Potassium hydroxide 50g) -IGter to lOOOml

Usc eqllJI P1rts A and Il and develop for 2-4 minutes The quantity of alkllli in Solntion B may be safely halved without loss of contrast but devrlopment time should be extended slihtly The two solutions keep indefinitely separately but ke e ping properties nre limited once mixed Use an acid stop bath before fixing to avoid staining

Nlt) 18 Infectious Lith Developer

SOLUTlON A Sodium sulphite anhyd 1

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Parafonnaldehyde 15 Po tassilil metaLisulphite 5 (or Sodium metabisulp lti t e I Jg) Water to 500ml

SOLUTiON Il Sodium sulphite anhyd 60 Tloric acid 15 Ilydroquinone 45 Potassium bromide J Water tJ 1500ml

------------------~~~ Use 1 part Solution A and 3 parts Solution Baud develop [or 2 minutes (Mix well and allow to stand for a few minutes before illuoersing fil m) The tlltO

solltloIls keep indefinitely separately and also keep quite well once mixed Both these high contrast dev elopers should be rl ixed fresh [ o r each film [or

best rf9ults pes Ortholith film is orthochromatic and developmcnt can be [olloved under a red safelight

7 HOlloba lils --TIse are solutions ill which development 1nd fixation t a ke place in the same bath In addition to the convenience of being single operation othlter advantages arc that the process is not dependent on criticll tilllillgt telllperatu(e o r agitJtion lmage contrast cannot be altered by extending or c u rtailing d(vel o pne nt but is built-into the mOllobath formula This can be set when m-Iking up the 1II01l0bath pri llci pally by varying the amount of fixing agent (sodium thios u llhate) includ e d The more fixing agent added the softer the contrast III addition the a moun t or act ivi ty of the developing agent can infl ue nce the contnlst o[ the (esult ill g ne gative

Tab le 5 Monobath formulae No 19 No 20

Socl i-lm sylphite anhyd 50 50

12 12

4

Sodiuln thiosulphate anhyd 70 (55-90) 60 (15-80)

Sod i lm h ydro ~ide=-____________--_4 10

Wat er to 1000 1000

P r oc ltss i ng time 5 mi ns +- mi n 5 llI ins-

+ mi n

i ll( degree of cont ras t produc ed will VIH y f ro on ~ f i 1m ype t o allo thl tmiddot and the qu antity of thiosulpbate requir ed will have to be determined e xpe(imentally

Ifor y o ur favourite film stock If a higher contrast than that given by using the lowest quantity of thiosulphate is required the hydroquinone concentration can be I increa s e d by about 25-30 Iloth these monobnths can be re-llned for up to ten [ill1ls or until the film is no longer cleared by the fixing agent CInLidenta lly a [ew minutes in a1 ordinary negative fixer will restore the [ilm) Films an plocessed for about 5 minutes (less for slow films) and washed Jnd dri e d nortlllly

pTO _ regJ1sect It is always good practice to use n stop bath betwee n the developing and

fixing baths An acid stop b1th not only halts develolIlllt 1lld millilliis s cont3mishynation o[ the fixer but also removes the scum formed Ly ~olle developer s nnd prevents

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st1ining particularly of lith materials after a hydroquinone-cauntic dcvclopcr

Table 6 Stop bath formulac

No 21 No 22 No 2) No 24 Acid Stop Buffered Stop Hardening Hardening

Sto~ Bath Stor Bath 2

Sodium Acctate )1l20 ))

Acetic acid (glaciat)(mt) 25 10 65

Chromium potassium sulphate 30 15

Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000

A few drops of stop hattgt indicator such as that obtainable from Photo Chemical Supplies lllay be added The indicator ch111ges from pale ycllow to blue 19 soon as the 11 rilles above 70 (neutral) Thc hardening baths (2) and 24) are sed after high temperature development Formulae 21 and 22 are also suitable stop baths for print processing

yrxrms

Fixation 15 necessary to remove the undeveloped silver halide from the ernU L ion lIardening agents may bc added to harden the emulsion Hardening is essential for films which have been reversal processed or processed at high temperatures and for bromide papers that arc going to be hot-glazed Typical fixers are shown in Table 7

Table 7 Fixllg [laths

No 25 No 26 No 27 No 28 Standard Buffered Buffered Buffered Acid Hypo Hardening Rapid Ilarden bullng Fix~r Hypo Fixer 7ixer Rapid Fixer

Sod i urn t h io 11 ]_--ptat-=e2-=anhtyd_ _ ~____-=-___________________160 150

(or Sodium thinsulphate cryst) (50) (240 )

Ammonium thiosulphate 175 200

Sodium sulphite anhyd 15 25 15

Sodium metabisulphite 25

Acetic acid glacial IS 10 15

Bodc acid 75 10 75

Potassium alum 15 15

Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000

All are used undiluted for films but may be diluted 1+1 for papers The buffered flxer~ havf a partiClllnrly long lifc and the buffered non-hardening rapid fixer (No 27) is recommended for plastic-coated papers such 1S 11fospeed

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REVERSlL PROCESSING OF Damp_ W FILM

Ileversl processing of black Ilnd white film yields positive transparencies with Il beautiful tonal gradation As with all reversal processes exposure and first development must be very carefully controlled beciluse density variatiolls cannot be compensated (or in printing The process involves the developmellt of Lile negative image (first developer) dissolving away the s i lvcr thus fOnilPU (bleach bath) clering and re-exposure to white light (reversal exposure) and develorshyment of the silver halide thus re-exposed (second development) The film is then fixed and washed in the normal way I t is the firs t deve lope r wh ich de termincs the quality of the final image It is usual to include a small quantity of silver halide solvent to brighten the highlights and sodiulll thiosullilate or sodiulll thiocyanate are usually used for this The subsequent processes are carried on more or less to completion so timing is not as critical as with the first developer In the fol~owiJlg procedure the first developer is retained antI used again [or the second dev e lopment

Rev r rsal processing solutions

No 29 Reversal developer (stock solution)

Netol 3g Sodium sulphite anhyd SOg lIydroquinone l2g Sodium carbonate anhyd 6()g Potassium bromide 4g Water to lOOOml

Dilution (stock + water) 1+1

To the diluted working strength developer add sodiulll thiosulphate at the following rale (gram~ per litre)

PAN F FP4 llPS Sodium thiosulphate anhyd 5 75 5 (a~ Sodium thiosulphat~

cryst) (8) (12) (8) AlternAtively a print deve l oper such as Dromophen may be used diluted 1+1 ith thiooulpilate dded as above

No 30 Blcach (two part stock solutions) SOLUTI ON A

Potassium permanganate 2g Water to SOOml

SOLUTION B Sulphuric acid 10 vv lOOml Water to SOOml These stock solutions will keep indefinitely but deteriorate rapidly when mixed

For use mix equal parts of A and D and discard after each film Potassium dichromate (lOg) may be used in place of the Potassium permanganate in Solution A

No 31 Clearing Bath

Sodium (or Potassium) metabisulphite 25g Water to 1000ml

Fixer ---The bleaching solution softens the emulsion and a hardening fixer must be used

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The hardening fixers given enrl ier laquo(onnube Nos 26 and 28) are ideal

Procedure 1 First developel 12 mins at 20

0 e for all llford films with an inversion every 15 seconds Keep the developer for use in the second development

2 Wnsh 3 mins with frequent changes 3 llicach 5 mins with strong continuous agitation Roarbull lights may be

switched on after two minutes in the bleach 4 I~n s h 2 mins with frequent chnnges 5 Clear 2 mins in the Clearing bath 6 Iash 2 mins with changes 7 Reversal exposure Re-expose ench cnd of the spiral for 2 mins at 12-18 inches

from a 100 watt bulb This is best done underwater in a clear gls9 bowl standing on a sheet of white paper Rotate the bulb or the spiral during re-exposure to ensure even illumination

8 Second developer Develop for 6-8 mins at 20 0 C in the developer solution retained from the first development Development time is not critical but should go to completion

9 Rin s e 10 Fix Fix in acid htrdening fixer for 10 mins (formula No 2cent ) or

4 mins (formula No 28) It Final 5h Wash for 30 mins and dryas usual

Modifying the Processed Negative Th e silver imJge obtained after development and fixation may be either l r censhy

sified or r educ ed TIlis is to compensate (or errors in exposure or dlvelopment or both

INTE~(UFICTION

The following for muLt has been select e d [rom the many published because i t is simple effective etsily controlled and yields a permanently enhllnced negative The basic chemicals are reasollably safe unlike the mercury and uranium intensifiers

No 32 Chromium Intensifier

STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium dichromate 12 5g lJnter to 200 ml

STOCK SO LUTION II Hydrochloric acid 10 vv (36 ww) 30ml ( o r I1ydrochloric acid 10 1 ww) (L Iml) (or Hydrochloric acid cone) (]ml) WJter to 200ml For use mi~ 1 part Solution A with 3 parts water and add 1 part rolution n

The negative should be properly fixed and well washed Old negatives should be sO kcd in water for a few minutes The negative is immersed in the intensifier [or 2-3 minutes until the image is (ully bleached (it turns a yellowy-brown colour) It is then washed well until the yellow stain is removed The intensified image is then re-developed after exposure to daylight (or a light bulb 1 minute each side at 18 inches) in l nOli-solvent type developer This may be a print developer or general purpose necative developer such as formtJl No3 or any universal j developer An advantage of thi s intensifier is that the whole proces8 may be repe a ted several times with an increase in intensification each time as the image

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is built up

~EDUCTrON

There are three classes of reducers which reduce the amount o[ silver in the negative in different ways

The subtraltive reducers remove silver from all parts o[ the illlagc (shadows and highlights) at about the salTle rate 50 that the contrast 15 incrcaBed This is uscful for Jver-euroxposed negatives which tend to be flat

The peoporti)lal reducers remove silver in proportion to the density so that the contrast grildient is maintained This type of reducer is suitable for those negatives which are too dense for easy printing through over-exposure ~ombined

with over-development The uper-proportional reducersattack the IllDvy silver depositll more than

[he lightly exposed parts leading to a reduction ill contrast and density Dense contrasty negltives are usually the result of over-development

No 33 Farmers Reducer (Subtractive)

STOCK SOLUTION A Sodium thiosulphate anhyd 32g (or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (SOg) Water to 500ml

STOCK SOLUTION B Potassium ferricyanide 109 Water to 100ml Immediately before use mix 15 p3rts A with 15 parts w(lter and ~dd 1 pa[t B

The process of reduction should be watched carefully and may be stoppcd at nny time by flooding wi th wn ter The ac t i vi ty 0 [ the reducer may be n 1te [cd by va ry ing the qunutity of Soltltion II added [ncrensing t he [crricyanidc increa ses the activity and vice versa The stock solutions keep indefinitely hut the working solution hu 3

short life

No 34 Permanganate - Persulphate Reducer (Proportional)

STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium permanganate 1 solution lZ 5ml Sulphuric acid 10 wlw 65ml Water to 500ml

STOCK SOLUTLON II Ammonium persulphate 25g Water to 1000mi Distilled water should be used to make up these solutions for use take one

part A two ports distilled water and two parts B A slower acting mixture is I part A 4 parts water and 1 part II and this may be easier to control A[ter reduction the action con be halted and the brown stain removed by immersing the negative in a 1-2 solution of sodium (or potnssiul1l) metabisulphite The negative should he thoroughly waMhed before being dried

No 35 Pelslliphate Reducer (Super-proportional) Ammonium persulphate 125g Sulphuric acid lOr ww 5m1 Distilled water to 500101

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The ne)a t i ve shou 1d be fu lly wn shed The leduc t ion mus t be wa tC1ed close ly as the rate varies ~idely with different emulsions nnd with some modern high speed ~mulsions it iR not effective ]t all to 12-157 solution of sodium Ilulphite anhyd can be Ilseu as ] s top bath Imd the negat ive is fi na lly given a good wash

BampW Print Processes [1) NI_I2EV~1QI2yRS

Print developers arc generally fairly contrasty compared to negative developers and of course it ig not necclisary or desirable to use fine grain or acutance techniqupound for prints The colour tone of the image is the main variable in print developers but the colour obtained will depend largely on the type of print paper (eg bromide chlorobromide or chloride)

Table 8 Standard Print Developers

No 36 No 37 No 38 No 39 D163 ID62 ID20 New

PQ Univ NQ Paper Winchester

~middotc to 1 22 3 35

Sodium sulphite anhyd 75 50 50 35

-lL(~ro(l~1 i WJlle 17 12 12 86

Socli11Tl -----shy

carbollate lt1nilyd 65 60 60 63

lhellidolle 05

Potassium bromide 28 2 4 l9

I3cn7otriazole 1 15-25 20 37

Wettinr agent 10 10 10 10

Wnter to 1000 1000 1000 1000

Dilution (stock + water) 1+3 1+3 1+3 1+2 Calgon may be added to all the above at the rate of 2g per litre If the ueveloper is uRed at less dilution development iR more rlpid The

benzotriClzole in these formulilc irnproves the brightness of highlights by reduc i ng fog and also shifts the colour of the illlage towards black or blue-black The New middotIinchester formula (No 39) is a universal paper delTeloper giving good black to nc s and is the basis of many commercially available print developers

Table 9 Warm-tone Print DClTelopers

No +O ~Jo 41

~Lltf01 I i nonc _________--25 ---8_ ___

Sodium Dulphite anhyd 60 60

Sad i IIll carboIlHe anhyd 90 90

~ycin 25

Potassium oronlidc 2

~ater to 1000 1000

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Dilution (Stock + water) 1+3 1+2 Time 2-3 mins 1-2~ mins

Formula No 41 has a warmer tone tllan No 40 but both arc best used on warm-tone papers

STQ- [lATHS FOR PR_INT~

The 1I0n-hilnlenlng stop blths given carlier (Nos 21 and 22) arc suitable f0 r prints as is a 47 solution oE sodium or potassium mctabisulphite (I~Oplitre) good economical stop bilth can be made up by adding 1 part stop batl (as above) to two parts old fixer and mixing up a fresh fixing bath When the stop batll shows exhaustion the stop bath ia discarded and the old fixer converted to the ncw st op bath This double use of fixing solution Lcally does prolong the life of the fl xer bath as a large part of the fixation takes place in the stop bath and the diluti on ensures that no staining occurs

PRINi FIXERS Any of the fixer formulae given earlier for negativcs will provide fix e rs

suitatle for papers (formulae 25-28) The rapid fixers have a much grentcr cJptc ity than the hypo filter s and formula 27 is especially recommended for plastic-coatcd pap~rs Prints on normal paper wh i ch a r c t o be hot-glazed should be fixed in 1

hardening fixer (formulae 26 or 28) Formula 25 is obviously the cheapest to ma ke up but the pll should be monitored and more metabisulphite added to restOt-e thc acidity when required All may be used diluted 1+1 It is advisable not to U 5C the some solution for fixing both films and pape rs even if the same formula is used but to keep film filter and paper fixer i n s eparate bottles

t~ID F9H PAPER PInNTsect The fibre base of normal printing pl pe rs retains acid chemicals from the fj xing

bath which are difficult to remove by -a s h ing alone If after a brief rine 11C

print is i~nersed in a 2-5 solution o f s od ium carbonate anhyd for 2-] minutes the subsequent nonnl wash ensures that all the hypo and hYPolilver camplexes a t c removed This alkaline bath should be used whenever any subsequent trcatmenl of the print such as toning is to be carried out

LYPO ELI~IN~TOB 11C following solution (formula No 42) serves to oxidise the thiosulphate t o

~ulphate which is then easily washed ou t o f the paper

~~_~po Elimin_ator

Hydrogen peroltide solution 3 (10 volume) 125ml or Hydrogen peroxide solution 6 (20 volume) 63mU Ammonia solution 0B80sg 10ml Hater to 1000ml immerse the prints in the above solution after a normill W8lh in running W (l ~ er

for about 5 minutes followed by a fu cthc r Hash of about 10 minute This hyposhyelimnator is made up of volatile compOIw nts so that there is_ no risk of elininllor salts remaining in the p1per-base after drying

PRINT TONING Prints may be toned a variety of colours and depending on subject can yielel very

pleasing results All prints must be tlloroughly washed prior to toning and old prints

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~lloliid be soaked ~n water for a few minute s to soften the emulsion

1) Sepia Toning Th follow(ng method yields perm1nlnt prints with a good brown tone In fact

prints treated in lhis way have greater permanence than untreated prints and the lmiddotLlwd is USLd ill 3rchival processinl The print is first bleached ill a ferri shyqnidcbroHiide bleach until the d3ri~est partH of the image tire a raint straw LU lour 1 t is lilen placed in the toner b3th 1111lt1 the sepia image quickly reappears

Nu (d FerricyanidcDromi de Bleach

Potassium [erricyanide 40g Potassium bromide 251 Jater to 1000mi Tllis stock solution is used undiluted and keeps well if stored in the dark or

ll a dnk bottle It may be re-used until exhausted h[ter bleaching the print 1~ washed well and trGnsferred to tbe following solution

Uu 44 Sepia Toning BGth -Thiolre1 109

Potassium bromide 40g Sodiul1i hydroxide 3-6g WJter to 1000mi The qu~n[ity of sodium hydroxide can be adjusted between the above limits to

yield the desired tone colour This toning bath is preferable to the traditional suJiul11 sulphide hath because of the unpiensant smell and properties of sodium sulphide solutions Thiourea and sod i um sulphide should not be used or stored in lilt dGrkroom or near sensitised materials

bJ lllie Toner This process does not re qruire a bleach stage but the print should be thoroughly

- s hed a[te1 fixation The process intell5ifies the image slightly so prints to bpshytOiled blue should be mnde a little lighter than they would otherwise be

Nu 45 Dlue Toning Bath

SOLUTION A

Potassium ferricyanide Ig Sulphuric acid 10 ww 30ml Wnter to 500ml

SUIUTION 13

Alliinonilim ferric citrate (green) Ig

Sulphuric acid 10 ww 30ml Water to 5001111 Mi elt[uGI parts hand B immediately before use The wet print is immersed

ulltil the desired tone is reached and then washed Excessive wnsh ing will ble a ch lliit the blue colour and just sufficient wash to remove the yellow tain should be lven This bleaching is largely eliminated if the print is lshed in water conshy[lining a l ittle acetic acid (51111 or less per litre)

c) Red TOiler Th~TtO~ing is il traditional red tOller using copper sulphate hglin no

b I each is llluircd

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No 46 Red TOllin~ Bath

SOLUTION A Cupric s~lphate (511 deg) 12 5g

2Sodium citrate 500g (or Potassium citrate) (55g) Water to SCOml

SOLUTION B Potassium ferricyanide 109 Sodium citrate 50 g (or Potassium citrate) (SSg) Water to SCOml Use equal volumes of II and B mixed just before use The image colour changes

through warm black then sepia to rea 2nd t he process can be halted at any stage by flushing with water The print is th~n wa s hed and dried normally

PRINT nEDUCERS Print reducers are generally used Eor the local reduction of dense parts of

iarge prints for generally brightening dense flat prints or for removing fiilvcr completely from unwanted areas Farmers Reducer (formula No 33) is the most commonly used print reducer and shoul d Df t sed s ufficiently diluted to allow control of the reduction proc ess Use scr 1p dn ts to de t e rmine the appropriate conditions ~len using Farmers Reducer wash the pr in t frequently in running water or permanent yellow staining may occur Farmers Reduc e r used very dilute is ideal for brightening dense flat prints It is a s ub t ractive reducer and gives bright highshylights a nd increased contrast

~len heavy deposits of silver have 0 igt e remov ed completely such as that cause1 by pinholes in line nega t i ves Fa nna r s Reduce r is not su i tab Ie because of the possibility of staining The followin g formula (No 47) is an iodine re ducer which i9 very effect i ve at removing dense silver

No 47 Iodine Reduce r

Potas sium iodide 1Sg Iodine crystals 05g Water to lOOml This reducer is applied to the mOl s t lot ~et) print with a swab or brush and

the resulting brown Btain is easily r emove d in a 15 solution of sodium thiosulphate Illlhyd (or 25 sodium thiosulphate cryst ) after a rinse in water The print should then be thoroughly rinsed

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Colour Processing Besides offering real economy brew-it-yourself colour processing is v~ry

satisfying and can yield results superior to those offered by ln3ny commercial proshycfSSinl~ houses All that is required ilre careful working methods and atttntion to dltlails Tlte Icrwrill instruction relating to monochrome proc(ssin~ should be r~d in conjunction with thcse notes on colour processing It should be emphasised that the formulae given in this section are not those of the film manufacturers who do not publish their formulae but have been worked out to yield results comparable with the manufacturers recommended processing

Time and Temperature Cololl~ ma-terials are not as flexible as black and white materials with regard

to development conditions since wide deviation from the recommended development can yield shifts in colour balrnce ohich lQay be impossible to correct in printing With reversal materials in particular exposure must be accurate and the time and temperature of the first development is crucial as thi largely determines the quality of the ftnal transparency In the C(j process the processing temperature is rather high (3a

oC) bllt this must be maintained at least for the first dtvelopment There is

slightly more leeway ~Iith the other st~ges but these should b~ kept within the limite shown The sallie applies with colour development of negative materials and again the processing tenrperature of the C41 procefiS is high (also JaoC) The times given in the formulae include 10-15 seconds to uHo~ for draining the tank

H~king up the Solutions As wi th all the - formulae in this bookl e t the chemicals should be dissolved in

tire order given Some of the colour dev e lo p ing agents while extremely solub i I wa te r tend to separn te out in the a 1 k a 1 ine J eve loper sol ut ions Ita aov isab le to dissolve the colour developing agen t to gether with the hydroxylamine (hydro shycldoride or sulphnte) where p r e sent se pa r a te ly i n part of th e total volume of water alld add this slowly 0 th e rerna mJer o f the solution some time before use rile hydroxylamine acts as an antioxidant and is required because the sulphite conshyclntrltion hCls eO be low Hydroxylamine is rapidly decomposed in alkaline solutions ill the pr se nce of sequestering agents of the EDTA type so Cnlgon should be used i n h~rd water ~~ r e s rather than EDTA

V~QCESliING G9J~QI1lLill=VERSAL FILMs_U0R COLOUR SLIDES) There are at present two princiPlll systems for colour reversal film prGcessing

(excluding Kodachrome) The first is the ~g fachrome 41 process covering all Agfa r-tJVersal fi 1m (except Igfachrotnc [(IOOS Profe ssional - proce Sl E6) olhether sold process paid or not Thepound are few if any other makes o f [i Tm available in Britain ohich use this process The second ir the Kodak Ektachrome E6 process hich covers IllOSt of the rCIllining colour n~versal films There are a few filns Idlich ltIre still made for outdated process es sLlch as ORWO f i l ms ohich are proc e s sed by an old Igf~ process Rnd some specillised Ko d ak films suc h as Ektachrome In f rared Film find Photomicrography Color Film 248J which are processed by the old E-4 process There may still be a [ew films from independent manufacturers designed for the old E ~ process

Kodak Kod~lchlome films are sold process paid and user processing is not feasible

Keversal Exposures - Reversal film mUfit be given a fogging exposure to light (Where chemical fegging is not used) after the first development Because the emulsion is very much less sensitive at this stage than normal film this exposure mtlst be rather intense It

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is best to remove the film from the spinl and SCC-SDW it through plain wter below a Photo flood lamp Ilowever a wet delicate film is difficult to reload into the spi ra 1 (bes t done under lola ter) and it is cas icr to leave the film in thc 5 pi ra 1 nlld extend the exposure time With clear spira ls thc exrosure time should be at lea~t

doubled and with the translucent nylon spira l s the exposure should be increased 5-10 fold When the film is not removed for the exposure place the spiral in a white 001011 of water (or a clear glass bowl on J wl ite surface) and place the lamp above it During the exposure of each end of the s pir a l the lamp or bowl should be moved about so that the exposure is more even Watc r and cl~ctricity dont mix so care is needed and a hot photoflood lamp will burst if s plashed Dont skimp on th e reversal exposhysure - it is easy to underexpose but dif f ic ul t to overexpose For the Ektachrome E-6 p r-ocess a reversa l bath which chemi c3 1y fogs tile film making the reversal exposure unnecessary i s available from Pb c to Chemical Supplies

The Agfachrome 41 Proce ss Suitablc for all Agfa Reversal poundll ns (except Agfachrorne RIOOS Professional

available in 120 size and sheet film only)

formul ~ e - Agfachrome 41 No 48 First Developer

Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g middot1e to 1 3g Sodium sulphite anhyd SOg Hydroquinone 6g Sodium carbonate anhyd 40g Potassium thiocyanate 25g Potassium bromide 2g otassium iodide 0 1 Solution 6ml wate to 1000111

No 49 Stop Bath

Ac etic acid glac iol 101 Sodium acetate (3H 0) lO g

2Water to 10001111

No 50 Colour Developer PART I

Sodium sulphit e anhyd 3 5g Hydroxylamine hydrochloride I t Potassium bromide 19 Colour Developing Agent see below Ethylenediamine (50 vv Soln) 16ml (or 2-phenylethylamine) (3ml) -later to 300ml

PART BI Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g S~dium carbonate anhyd 62g Water to 500ml

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c) lour iPVf loping age nts [0[ Part lI

Colour Dev e loper 1 (sulphate) 28g or Colour l)eve l o pe r I (chloIide) ( CIH) 22g or Cenochrollc 2 5g or Dtoxych rome 3 2g

lOOt usc add ParL II slowly to Part D with tirring and make up to a total volume o f 10U0Il1I

No 51 [leach ~-----Po tas s ium-[e rr i CY[lnidc 80g

Potassium bromide 30g Sodium acetate (J1l 0) 50g2lor ic Jeid 5g Potnssiwa nll11 30g Water to 10001111

Ngt 52 Fixcr ---S-oJI~-tTiosu I ph a te anhyd l25g

(or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (200g) Sodiul1l s ulphi te lnhyd lag Imiddotlater to 1000ml

Th pit of this fixer is approximately neutral Do not use an acid fixer because it Jill blcnch th e dyes

Nu 53 Stnbiliser - --- We t ti~g agelt - Im1

Forlllaide hyde 0 5ml I-Jte r to IOOOml

~ (lCeslng Procedure lIrfachrome 41

At 20 0 C (minutes) At 24degC (minutes )

1 First Developer 18 - zr-----shy lJ-l~ (z00-O 50C) (2l 0 -02SoC)

2 Rin sc ~ 3 St op bath 4 3 4 1[151 10 7 S Reve r sni Exposure See be l~w 6 Colour developer 14 (20 0 -0SoC) 11 (z4 0 02SoC) 7 - 1 5 h 20 14 8 Ill eac ll 9 I-[lsh 5 4 lll Fix 5 4 ll Wash 10 7 12 Stabil iser 1 1 1] Dry (30 D

e) mox

One minute each side with film r emo ved from spiral 2 minuteR each end rf clear sl c rlll lid 5-10 minutes ench end of ttanslucent nylon spirill frolll a No2 Photoflood a l I lie t re () f le t)

Thp t Cll peratllre during the Lwo developme nt stages should be maintained within til limits shown For other stages tlte t e lllperature may range from 17-20lC or 21 - 2llC The third wash (Htole n iu raLh e r long and it is important that it is llt lL shorted In soft watcr ilHilS this lung wallh nwy c ause the clUulsion to slocll Su un int e l-mediate bilth of 5 minutes immediately J(tcr the colour developer can be given to prevent excessive swelling This is a 2 solution of either sodium

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sulphate or magnesium sulphate (Glaubers salts or Epsom Salts) If the intermediate bath is used the third wash may be shortened by 5 minutes In the two developer baths agitation should be continuous for the first 30 seconds followed by two invershysions every half minute for the rest of the period

As usual it is the developer solutio 1~ which deteriorate first The remalnlng solutions (stop hath bleach and fixer ) have double the capacity of tIle two developers Ea ch litre of developer should process 6-8 films but the development timcs should be extended by 30 seconds at 20degC (or 20 5cco~ds at 24 o

C) after the first two films anQ after each subsequent two films hi applies to both the first and colour deve lo pers

rne Ektachrome E-6 Pro ess 1 am indebted to Mr Derek Wa tkl 9 r0~ permission to reproduce this formula

wh i ch first appe1red in the March 198 1 i sgt lc of the magazine SLR Camera (Haymnket Publi t hing Ltd 38-42 Hampton Road TCd ingcon Middlcsex)

There are a lot of films from man n~rUl facturers sold under a wide variety of brand names which are compatible with the E-6 process Even Agfa make an E-6 compatible film (Agfachrome RIOOS Professional)

FormuL ae - E-6 i-lo-54---first Deve 1upe r

Sodium 6exametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g Sodium sulphite anhyd J9g Potassium carbonate anhyd 14g Sodium bicarbonate 12g Phen i done O 6g Itydroluinone 6g Sodium bromide 22g Sodium thiocyanate Ig Sodium hydroxide 33g Pot~asium iodide (01 50ln) 45ml Water to 1000m~ pH 9 6-005

No 5~ Stop Bath 1 ------S0dium acetate anhyd 30g

(or Sodium acetate 320) (50g) Acetic acid glacial 6ml Water to 1000m~ pit 55-02

No 56 Colour Develoger Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g tri-50dium orthophosphate 1220 36g Sodium hydroxide 3g Sodium sul~lite anhyd 4 5g 3gtdium bromide 065g Potassium iodide (01 Soln) 30ml Sodium thiocyanate 1 3g Citrazinic acid 1 25g CD-3 l1g ~oter to 1000mi + pH 1165-005

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S LOp lath 2 Same as Stop lath 1 but once used do no t interchange them

No 57 ll l e ach lotassiulil (erricyanide 80g Potassium bromide 20g Ji-So JiullI hydrogen orthophosphattnnhyd 12g (or di-Sodium hydrogen olthophosphnte

1211 2deg) (JOg) Acetic acid glacial 5ml Hater to IOOOrot plt 55-02

No 58 Fixe r - - Sndi-u-thiosulphate Mlhyo 125g

(or SodiulTl thiosulpilte cryst ) (200g) SodiuJJ sulphite anhyd 5g So dium me tabisulphite O5g Water to lOOOlllt 11 72-02

~Jc tt ing JgCllt lmL

L r to lOOOml

Time ~pe ratute

l First development 6r J8-U57 - shygt Stop iJath 1 2 33-JoC J Ih 2 3J-J90C 4 Reversal Exposure Two minutes each side with (ilm removed

froro spiral 5 minutes each side of clear spiral ano 10 minutes each side of nylon spiral with No 2 PhotofLoud at

(Or HeveJs31 JlJth) (ObtainJhle 12 inches frolll Photo Chical Supplies) 2 JJ-J90C

5 Col o ur u(ve [o[JllICnt G JSlOC 6 St o p Bath 2 2 JJ-l)degC 7 1-1 2 ])-J9()C g 11 [e middoth 5 JJ-l9C l) Rins e ~ 3J-390C [0 fix 5 3J-390C II Wnsh 6 33-J90C I ~ S tid il s c 1 3J-390C n Dry (Fillll cllt~Jrs on drying) r uTES ) As wilh all revlrsnl processes the [irut developer largely delermines the ehnrilct(tmiddotistic~ o[ the final translnrency Jntl the rcconlllltnJeu time anJ temp~rature

hlHJ1J be Iuhlrcu to b) AgitJtion in 11 ba ths (except the optional reversal bnth and the stabiliser

- - - - - - - ------------

wllich should not be agitated) is continuous for the first 15 seconds followed by two

inversions of the tank each subsequent half minute With the reversal bath and stnbiliRer an initial inversion to ensure uniform distribution is all that is required cl The conditioner bth in the offici)l process is lwl required in the pLOceJllre given hele as this useR ferricyllnide bleach rather than all EUTA hl(ach d) The two Rtop hth re of identical compositioll bllt should not be illtcrchlIircl due tu dnmn~illg carry-over contomination e) The caplcity of the solutiolls is 10 filll1ll pr litre (36 exposure - 35 or 120 roll film) bnt the tillle in the first developer must be extencled hy 15 second~ after the first two films and after each subsequent two films (by 20 seconds fOl the last two films) f) The made-up solutions should be scored in dark bottles at room temperature not in the refrigerator The first developer will keep for two months unused or for four weeks once used The colomiddoti developer will keep for 3 months unused or 2 lIIo11~hs partly used nd all the remaining solutions will keep for 6 months ur longer Although the first developer contains many ingredients it is not expensi ve to moke up Thus it is worthwhile retaining the remaining solutions to be used ith a ((esh ly made fi rs t deve loper if the fu 11 capac i ty canno t be used in the four we ek life 0f the original first developer g) Drying temperature should not exceed 60

0 C and all EktachrOllle films only clclr

when nearly dry For information on process control and fault finding in both Agfachrome 41 and

Ektachrome E-6 the reader is referred to The Focal Guide to Colour Film Proces~ing by Derek IJAtkins (published by the Focal Press norough Green SevEnolt)ks Kent TNlS 8PB) This excellent book also gives 11 the background information you may require Also in the book is a substitute E-4 process (as well an a low cost Ln~ temperature simplified E-4 process) for those films using this system This book also covers colour negative film processing

PROCESSING COLOUR NEGATIVE FILMS (PLUS XP-l AND VARIa XL BL~CK A~~lJTE FIL~ ~~__________~_ ____~______M~)__ __

As with colour reversal film the two major manufacturers of ~olour fil~s A~ [a

and Kodak each have tlieir own fi lms and processing systemy [or cololJr negative~ Again the trend seems to be towards a unified compatible system based on Kodaks C-lfl prccens

Processing negative film is very much eaGier tlan reversal processing for two reasons Firstly there are fewer steps in the processing sequence with no revcr~al EXpOSlln required and secondly there ill a little more latitude with tlte pro cessing since most faults can be corrected later at the print ing sta ge HOI_e ver cons iL e nt good resutts depend on consistent processing Attention to detail ~ile proce8s i ng a film can save a lot of time later on

Agfacolor N Negative Process ---T-tiis-process is in tended for all II fa co lour nega t i ve film (CNS CNS2 ann 80S Pr~fe9sionol) excluding AgCacoluur CNS400 negative film This ltter is designed to be processed in Agfacol o r Peo ceMs 70 chemicals and is compatible witl l Kodaks Flexicolor C41 process as is Agf a s chromogenic 131ack and ~hite film Vor l XL

The Agfacolor N process is slightly unusual in that the devclopmpnt is 11101-11(

to continue in the lowlgtr layers of the e mulsion during an intermedi1 t e bath wll icll immediately follows the colour developer

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Pu rmulnc - Agfucolour N i u 59- Colur- ll(vIoI~er SULUTION A

Sodium hexnmetaphosphate (Calgon) 2g PutnsSilJln carl)ooatc atlhyd 75p Potassium bromide 25p Wat e r Lo 500ml

~()LUTroN Il

lIydroxylamine hydrochloride 19 (or Hydroxylamine sulphate) 0 2g) Sodium sulphite anhyd 35g Colour Dcvcloppr 1 (Sulph~te) 28g (or Colour Developer 1 (chlorideraquo C22g) (or Cenocilrome) (25g) (0 t Droxych rome) (J2g) ) t e r to SOOml

I l d B tlJ A with stirring before use

Nu 60 Intermediate Bath -- -~lgn~sin sulpil1te--===- JOg

Mixed (or used) Colour Deve lope r 501n 30ml 1000011

No 61 Bleach --S-(Tll~eXaeLaphospilate (Cnlgon) 5g

Potassiulll fcrricY1nide 42g Potassium brolllidp 12g 10[ltl8siu dihydrogen orthophosphate 15g di-Potassium hydrogcn ortilophosplwte

nll Jil yd Sg Water to 1000111

Nl 62 Fixer -------sz-dG----Umiddotios ul phn te nnhyd 125g

(01 Socii um thiosulphntc cryst) (200g) SodiulIl sulphitc anhyd 109 Wnter to 1000ml

ltc~ing Procedure Agfacolollr N Time (mins) Telpernture degc-S----shy

1 Colour developer 20-02 2 Intermediate bath 4 2005 J -IDsh 15 (lllinilllllm)-20 15-20 4 IHench 6 2005 5 Hash 6 15-20 6 FLx 6 18-20 7 -Ilsh 10 15-20 fl ~~ett lllg agent bath 15-20 N)lI~S

Agit1tilln in niL stDges is continuous (or the fi1st minute followed by o ue j version of Lhc LIll( (very hoi ( minute thcrcnfter

llevcl)plIlcnt 11I3Y be varied betccn 7 - 9 minutes Increase ueve10pment to 9 llItes Lo incrcasc contrast and reduC(~ the time to 7 minutes (or softer results

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The orange mask is formed in the bleach bath and the recommended time and temperature for this stage should be followed as the density of the mask increases with time

All the solutions including the co l our developer solutions (separately) shoilid keep for at least 4 months Once mixed the colour developer (and the intermediate bath) will only Inst a f ew weeks

The capacity is 6 - S films (135- 36 o C 120) per litre but the development ttne shoul d be incr eased with each film or pair of films to compensate for developer e xha ustion The c a pa c ity of the co lou r d vetoper s may be e xtended by mixing onl y

al f of so lu tions I a n d B and proceSS in f( 4 i ilms in e ach h a lf In this ca s e prolong the development time by one mi nute a f ter eacll film

Flexi color C-41 Tlis process was developed by Kod lt1 ilt [or the mach i ne pro ces~ing of their nc~

colour negative films Kodacolor II and Ve ricolor II The majorit y of colour films from independent manufacturers are now made compatible with the C-~l process In addition there are the two chromogenic bl ack and white films lifords XPI and Ag Eal s Vario XL whi ch were designed fo r C- 41 processing l gfas fast colour nega t i ve film CNS400 should also be proce sed i n C- 41 chemicals

Because C-41 was designed for use i n au t omated commercial laboratories the processing t emperature is rather h i gh (IOO or 3So

C) As with the ~ktachrome E-6 precess these high temperatures bring abo ut the a s sociated problems of short development times and DE maintaining t hL t empe ra ture betwe en the prescribed limit~ Tha t t hes e pro b lems are easi l y ove rc ome i s J emon s trat ed by the many thousa nds of amac e urs who s ucce ss f ully process t hei L own pol and Vari o XL monochrome films in

oC-4 chemicals at 3S C

The following formulae represent a l ow cosi substitute procedure using a traditional ferricyanide bleach

ihe substi t ute process is reproduc d fr om The Focalguide to Colour Film Proc es sing by Derek Wat ki ns with k i nd p2r ssion from the Focal Press

Formu11e C-4l

No 63 Colour Developer Sodium hexarroetaph()sphate (Calgon) 2g Po tassium carbonate anhyd 38g Sodium sulphite anhyd 5g Potassium iodide 01 Soln 2ml Potassium bromide 1 5g lIydroxamine hydrochloride 2g CD-4 5g Wlter to 1000ml

No 64 Stop Bath Ae tic acid glacial 20011 Sodium acet1te 311 0 25g

2Water to 1000ml

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------ ----------------

~

No 65 Bleach Potassium nitrate 2SB Potassium ferricyanide 30g Potassium bromide 12g Boric acid 5g Sodium tetraborate (Borax) 19 Water to 1000ml

No 66 Fixer Sodium thioulphate anhyd 125g (or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (ZOOg) Sodium metabisulphite 20g Water to LOOOtnl

No 53 Stabiliser Wetting a ~r~ nt 1m1 Formaldehyde 40 511 )1 ~ater to lOOOm1

f ocessinG Procedure e-4l (with [erricY~lnid( bleach)

Time Temperature degc l Colour development 31- 38~~--

2 Stop bath 35-40 J Wash 35-40 4 Bleach 35-40 5 ~ash 35-40 6 Fix 35-40 7 ~ash 35-40 8 Stabiliser 35 -40 9 Dry

Agitation in the developer is continuous for the first half minute followed by one inversion of the tank each quarter minute thereafter In the remaining solution s the agitation may be reduced t o t lJO in ver sions every half minute after tilE init i a l )0 sec onds cont inuous agit a tio n e ach bath

TIll capacity of the so lut ions is a pplC))limately twelve films per litre if the dev eloper is made up as two 500ml port iuns dn d six films devel oped in eacll portion The development time should be extended by minute after the f irst two films and by middot a further i minute aft er t he seco nd 1lt1 fi ms A comb i ned b1each f ix bath may be u~cd in this procss b t t o[ cours Lilis calllu t be a f e rr i c Yll1ido ball ed bleach A sllitable formula can be found in t h e Br i i sh J our nal of Photography Annual

PIWCESSING COLOUR PRINTS For copyrigllt reasons we arc unabl e t o re produce the substi t ute fo rmulae for

colour print processing The f onnulae and pr ocedure s are quit e straight~orward and lIIay be found in the British Journal of Photography Annual Photocopies of the relevan t pnu es may be obtained for a nominal sum from the publishers This applies to earlic~ editions of the book and to the current edition after stocks are sold out (u s ually April or Hay) The address to 0 i s

Tlte Ed i tor Ilritish Journal of Photography Annmiddot qL Henry Greenwood ( Co Ltu 28 Creat James Street London WeI Telephone 01-404 4202

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APPENDIX I Chemical Names Seeals- Appendix 2 for Colour Developing Adurol Amidol Amidosulphonic acid Ammonium alum Ammonium hydroxide l2-B(nzenediol 14-Benzenediol Bor1cic acid Borax Calgon Chlorchydroquinone Chrcmlt alum Copper sulphate Copper chloride l2-Diaminoethane 24- Diaminophenol hydrochloride Digol l2-Dihydroxybenzene l4-Dihydroxybenzene 26-Dihydroxyisonicotinic acid Elo Ethy l enediaminetetraacetic acid and sa l ts Ethyl~ne glycol Ferri~ ammonium citrate Formalin p-Hydroxyphenyl glycine Iron perch loride Iron trichloride Kcdalk p-HtLhylaminophenol sulphate Nethyl p1raaminophenol sulphate middotIonoch 10 rhyd rOluinone 1- Pheny 1- 3-pyrazo lidone Potasnium alum Potassium bichromate Potassium bisulphite Potassium chrome alum Propan-2-01 Pyrocatechin (Pyrocatechol) Pyrogall ic acid Quino Sodium bisulphite Sodium hydrosulphite Thiocarbamide I 2 3-Trihydroxybenzene

and Synonyms Agent)

Chloroquinol 24-Diaminophenol hydrochloride Sulphamic acid Aluminium ammonium sulphate Aoononia solution Catechol (Pyrocatechol Pyrocatechin) Hydroquinone Boric acid Sodium tetraborate Sodium hexametaphosphate Chloroquinol (Adurol) Chromium potassium sulphate Cupric sulphate Cupric chloride Ethylenediamine Amidol Diethylene glycol Catechol Hydroquinone Citrazinic acid Hetol EDTA acid and salts Ethanediol Ammonium ferric citrate Formaldehyde solution Glycin Ferric chloride Ferric chloride Sodium metaborate Hetol Hetol Chloroquinol Phenidone Aluminium potnssium sulphate Potassium dichromate Potassium metabisulphite Chromium potassium sulphate Isopropyl alcohol (Isopropanol) Catechol Pyroglillol Ilydroquinone Sodium metabisulphite Sodium dithionite Thiourea Pyrogallol

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Jl)[l~NDIX 2

There appears to be considerable confusion surrounding the various colour developing agents This is probably due to the fact that these complex compounds helve all been given a different trade name by each manufacturer or distributor L1Ch compound may even have more than one chemical name depending on the chemical nOlllcnclature system used The following is a list of the chemical names and synonyms of the common colour developing agents All of them are derivatives of para-phenylenediamine the classic fine grain black and white developer and they sllare in varying degrees the unpleasant characteristics of this material They should be handled with care and skin contact or inhalation of dust should be avoided llecause these compounds are similar in structure and mode of action they arc interchangeable to some extent the differences being plincipally differcncfs ill activity and solubility Differences in solubility can cause slight colour cilmges but this is really important only with reversal films since with colour 1I~~ative films and colour papers colour casts can usually be corrected by filtration in printing The relative quantities re qui r ed ani adjustments to development times or exposure will have to be determined by experiment The names underlined are those used by Photo Chemical Supplies

Colour Developer I (Sulphate) - Ac t i vo 1 7 (Jejlt1Sltmi--shy= Uiethyl-p-phenylencdiamine sulphate =NN-Diethyl-l4-pbenylenerliamlne sulphate

C lO

II 16

NZ

H2

S04

Holht - 26232

Colour Developer 1 (Chloride) shy middotCOiKodak)

Die til y1- p-pheny lenedl alnine hydroch lorid e = NN-Diethyl-l4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride

MolWt = 20070

lt~ur [tgt velrer CD 2 (Kod~dd Activol 2 (Johnsons) [olochrome (M amp ll) NN-Diethyl-2-methyl-l4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride 4-Alllino-NN-diethyl-m-toluidine hydroch lo r ide

~ol Wt ~ 214 i3

Colour Developer 3 ~-CD3(Kod ak)

Activol 3 (Johnsons) ilyJoch rome (M amp ll) N-E thy 1- 3 -me thy 1- N- (f -me thylsul phonamidoe thy 1) -p-phenylenediamine sesqu isul pha te

monohydrate - Am lllO - N - e thy 1-N - (i me thanesu llhonalnidoe thy 1) -m- to 1uid inc s e s qu is u1pha t e

monohydrate

HolJt 43652

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Colour Develo~er 4 CD4 (Kodik)

= N-Ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyi-2-methyl-l4-phenylenediamine sulphate

~lolWt c 29235CllH18N20112S04

Droxychrome (M amp B) Activol 8 (Johnsons) Colaur Developcr 32 (Merck) T32 (Orwo) N-Ethyl-N-2-hydroxyethyl)-l4-phenylenediamine sulphate monohydrate

Wt 29634CIOH16N20middot1l2S04middotJI20 tiO

Ac60 (Agfa) Colour Developer 60 (Merck) N-Butyl-N-(4-sulphobutyl)-1 4-pheny l~ neciiamine

4-(N-Butyl-N-(4- s u phobutyl)amino)2 t ~ l i _e

Cl4 i 24 N203S HoliVt 30042

Gcnochrome (M amp B) - Acti~ol 1 (Johnsons)

S 28 OM) NN-Diethyl-l4-phenylcnediamine 9ulphit 2 Diethyl-p-phenylencdiamin~ sulphite

Mol ot t 23734

The bhse is ident i cal to Colour Develope r Sulpha t e and Hydrochloride)

APPENDIX 3 Anhydrous and lIydrncd Forms of Sal ts Many of the chemicals commonly used in photographic processing arc availllhlc

either in anhydrous forms or in one or more states of hydration If these oiffc l-ent forms are used in the ratio of their me l e u t ar weights then the amount of active ingredient is constant For example s od i um carbonate is available as the anhydrous powder (Molecular weight 105 99) and as tle decahydrate (Na C0 10I1 0 molecular2 3 2weight 21l6l4) The ratio of their molecular weights is 1270 so for every gram of anhydrous sodium carbonate required 270 grams of the decahydrate would have to be used It is important to remember thill point whe) compa r ing prices of chemicals because a hydrated crystalline form may appear cheaper weight for weight but be actually more expensive because of the add it ional quantity required

The following is a list of the commonly used chemicals which are available 1n different degrees of hydration showing their molecular weights and the ratios in which they should be used Those underlined are the forms which are supplied by Photo Chemical Supplies and are the most usual most economic or most stable form of the chemical concerned

Cupric chloride CUCI =13445 ~20=17048 Use 1127Z Cupric sulphate CuS0 =1596l _+511 deg=2[1)68 Use 1 1 564 2Ferric chloride FeC13c1622l +611 deg=27030 Use 11672Magnesium sulphate ~lgS04120=1J8 39 Z20=24647 Use 1 1 78

Potassium carbonate ~2C03=1J821 +1~1l20=l65_23 Use 1119

di-Potassium hydrogen ~211P04=174l8 +3H 0=22822 Usc 1 1 312orthophosphate

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-- --

~5 rJ Jiunt acct~te Cl COONa = 8203 Ue 1166~~2~= 13(~p~_3o d ium uisul phate NaIlS0 =12006 ~middotZO=lJ8 03 Use 1115

4~2SlJ=105 99 +10il20~2l6 14 Use 1270

)laquo ( ium d i hyd rogp n orthophosphate +211 0=15601 Use 1130

--2 -~---

d l-Slt)(JiJnl hydroren orlhophosphate Na

211P0

4=14196 +21122= 58~l~ Use 1 1 25 252

~ c liJgtn sulphlte +]011 0=32219 lise 1217~a23 =1t-Q~ 2~- dium suiphite i2 S03= 1~6 04 +711 deg=25215 Use 1200

2So diulIl tliiocYlOate N3SCN=8107 +2HZ2l2JQ Use 114-1 ( Ilst stored as 20 solutions)

S dilllll thiosu1phalc i02~22)=15sect1J +51120~24l1l Use 1157

Stannous chloride 21129=22563 Use 1119

l li-SodiUlll orthophosphate - thp mhydrous and crystalline forms not interChangeable due to alkalinity of the crystalline form whi~~ contains applox 2~~ sodium hydroxide

1 i IEND I X LI ~oJiuhl versus Potilssium Salts -- -- - r111( lIajority of phot~g-l--aphic--rroccs s ing soluti~~s sodiulU salts lIIay be

S dltituted [or pntasraquoiullI s 1lts n sodium salts are genentlly diEaper cmiddotleciall) since legs of tlte godiuHl salt is tequired to giV E the same molecular middotmiddot iuivalent In the Clse of tlte anhydrous carbonates and sulphites the sodium lts an 1sJ deliquescent than the potassium salls and 1re therefor easier to sL ore alld hnllJle The only advantage of the potassiLlln salts is their greater s o luui lily Ih e n highly concentrated solutions are made up lleCRuse of the slightly hi her nlkaLinity of the potnssiulO salts SOllie care in controtiing the pH is needed 1-111 11 substituting sodiulll [or potassium salts in buffer sy~te1ls For this reuson L1 uSllal buffer snIts nre not given here The (ollowing is a list of the ratios in which sorne of the CCgtlnlllon sodium nnd potassium sollts should be lIsed to give the I IiU (ecular equiv11cnts

Piltassiurn bromide Sod iUln bromide 100865 PutassiulTI cIrbonnte nnhyd Sodium carbonate Ilnhyd 100765 lJtlssium l)l1tS tUIlI

citr3LIO 0112deg)

hydroxide Sodium citrate (211

2deg)

SodiulII hyel ox ide 100905 100710

l u tass ium l1letabisulphite SodiullI metabislliphite 100 855 f o tl3S iunl Icrslllphilte Sodillm persulphate 100 880 Potassium sulphite anhyd Sodium sulphite anhyd 100 795

ArPENDIX 5 Wei~lts and Measures There are OIany old books which contain phot o graphic formulae 11 lot of which

al e still v11id todilY In Brilain thcse old formulae were Ilsuillly given in avoidupois ulli t rud the following tnbles 0I1Y be uficd to convert these formulae to the metric sf tem Avoi rdupJis Wli~ilts ~~~d TfT~r---- 16 ounces (oz) 7000 grnins (grs) f153 6gra1ll8 (g)

1 Juncc (llZ) 16 tJrll1ls (drm) 4375 grains (grs) 2835 grams (g) dram (drill) 2734 grHins (grs) 177 grams (g)

(1543 grains (grs) 10 gL1n1 (g) )

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Liquid Heaures (Ilritish alld Netd c )

1 quart 2 pints (pL) = 40 fluid oUllces (Floz) 1 136 1 it re (I) pint 20 fluid ounces (Fl nz) 568 millilitres (m1) fluid ounc~ (Floz)= B fluid drams (or d r c hills) 28lllml fluid drachm 60 minims 355ml

(1 minilll = 1 drop)

Temperature conv e rsion Fahrnheit to Celsius (Centigrade) (xoF - 32) x S = yOC

lt) Celsiu9 to Fahrenheit (yU C x 9) + 32 = xOF

5

APPlNlllX 6 Refrences and Funher Reading The following ia a short 1 ist uf publi c ations which readers will find

useful (or further informatiun 1 Jacobson C1 and Jacoblun R E (1976) Developing 18th Edit ion

Focal Press (see below) 2 Jacobson Cl a nd Hannheim LA (1975) Elllarging 22nd Edition Futal Press J Jacobson RE Ray SF Attridge GG and Axford NR (1978) Hanual of

Photography 7th Edition Focal Press I bull Langfo rd H J (1980) Advanced Photogl-aphy 4th Fdition Focal Press S Hason LFA_ ( 1975) Photographic Processing Chemistry 2nd Editioll Focil Press 6 Wat k ins D (19 78) The Focalguide to Coluur Film Processing Focal Press 7 Ilritish Journal of Photography Annual 1982 Henry Greenwood [ Co_ Ltd 28 Great

James Stn ~ t London WCl

The Focal Press Butterworth [ Co (Pllblishers) Ltd Ilorough Green Sevenoaks Kent TN15 flPH

Books 1 2 and] are all standard refere n c e w rks on photographic processing Ilook 4 is a ve r y useftl soutce of inforlUBtion on all aspe cts of photography but particularly on tone and colour reproduc t ion on sensitised materials The bouk by LFA_ Hasun (S) is es~ential [or those wishing to devise formulations of their own especially co loul formulations but the reader shoulJ have some chemical knowshyledge Book No 6 explains the principles o[ colour film processing and describegt th use of a variety of processing kits as well as providing Bubltitute formulae [or brew-it-yourself enthusiasts

The British Juurnal of Photography Annual (n is the traditiollal source of formulae fo r those wishing to mix up their own solut iOlls The formulae cover all aspects of both black and white and colour proc e ssing

NOTE The purpo se of this booklet is to stilllul te interest in the compounding of

photographi c processing solutiuns by tho se ph o t ographers wh o s e ek a greater undershystanding of the medium The ruatedal ill this buoklet is presented in good faith but because results are d e pe ndent on so many factors outside our control we cannot accept l iability for any processing [aults or inju~y to petsolls or property that might ari9 howsoever callsed Becaugte o f the subject ive nature of the medium it is the r e spons ibility of the user to Elac e rtain for himself the suitability of any [ormula or process in relation to hi8 mat e r ials e quipment and objectives Any suggestions from I a ders whi c h could be incorporated into foture editions o[ lhis booklet will be welcome _

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II c knuw l edgcmcnts

Til e author wOlld l ike to thank the f11 owing f o r pc n nisRiOll to us e m1terial for inclusion in this book let

Kod a k te for details of thfir formuln p (morw c hrome) ltlnd for addi t ional h e lpflll info rmati o n

IHo rd Ltd for permis~i on to reproduce their pllb lish e d formula e

Agfa- Ge v a ert Ltd for informat io n o n their p rod u c ts and pro c eRRinr

The Fo c al P If) 9S who publish a wiel e r ang e oC b oks u n plHtogl middot ~PY for permisAion t o US Ilel(cted m1terial [rom SOllI e of their puhlicltions (R ( e Appendix ()

~1r )( rek Watkins for pe rmissio n t o r e pr ud u c ( his slIbstitute 1-6 proc 1ing prn ee- dur( whi c h was first puhlished in the maga zine SLH Camer~

~h G W Crawley fditor of the Bri tish Journal of Photography for prmis9ion lltl rfprodllcE SOIll( of his FX sprifs -f d(vclop(rs

Th E ahv( prsons or organisnion9 (middot 1nnot Iccept 1ny liabil i t y arisin from the nprodnct inn of their lIIal([ial in Ihi hooklet

Writtfn by R C Potts ~fSc and publish e d hy PHOTO CHEMICAL SUPPliES 21 LODGE CLOSE

COWL EY MIDDLE SEX

UBB 2ES - 34 shy

No responsibility accepted for any formula or information contained in this document This is a scan of the original document

Use chemicals and formulae at your own risk Intended for personal and educational use only

Page 7: PCS Darkroom Formulary

widely us(d The mild alkalis such as bor-ax (sodium tetraborate) Kod1lk (sodium P1o t aborate) (lnu the alkaline buffer mixtures are extensively used in mooern fineshygr ain developers

The Restrainer The most commonly used restrainer is potassiulII bromide Tile effect of uromicle

is to reuuce fog formation (the development of unexposed parts of the emulsion) and to slow down the rnte of development Potassium iodioe has a similar nction but much lower concentrations must be used (approximately one thousandth of the quantity Df bromide) Too much restrainer results in a lowering of the image contrast 3nd should be avoided

Other Conponents Sequestering agents are added to developers tu overcome problems caused by

impurltles in the water used to make up developers (sec page 3) The mos t commonly used compounds are the cmnplex phosphates notably sodiulll hexa me tnphosphate (Calgon) and ethylenedinninetetraacetic acid (E DTA) nnd its derivatives Calgon is ellenp and very effective at sequcstel ing calcium ano magne s ium ions The disadvantages are firstly that it is not very effective ltlgaillst other mct~1l ions and secondly the complex phosphates break down in alkaline solutions so are nsuitabll for use in concentrated stock developers The di s advantJges of EDTA a nd related compounds are firstly cost Jnd secondly they can accelerate ltleri u l ox i dation of the developer in certain circu~st ances

Some developers require aoditional restr(Jiners in the form of organic anti shypoundaggants This is partic ul a rl y true of Phenid one 1nd its derivative s ltlnd some ~o l o ur deve l opers The mo s t common l y used is benzotriazole but 6-nitroben zimishydazole which is about 100 times more potent is also encountered

Host modern develop2cs contain a wetting agent to en s ure the event wetti[~ ) f the film and the el imination of air bubbles The ltlmount used sltoulo not e xceed

Iproximaeiy 0 5g per Litre othelwise fODming Iwy Cltlus e p r oblems

~~k l ng up Solutions The chemicals should be dissolved in about two thirds of the fillal volume

of wat e r sh loin IN TilE ORDER IN WHICH THEY APPEAR IN TilE FORNULA a nd then the snl ution made up to the f i nal volume with water It is i mpo rtUlt that eAch c it mi cal add ed is completely di ssolved before the neKt is introduccd

Hixing vessels and ut ensi l s sho uld be of glass or plastic nd shoulo be tEZ erved for photographic use I-lhen mAking up a series of so lutions fo1 Any pit t i c ulltl r process it is good practice to make lip the soluti olls in the O[oer in lch t hey lITe to be us ad a s t his eu ces tit e ffects of cl ( rY-O Vl r contlIl1ination

Host ch emic als di ssolve more readily in warm Wltl[ e r but this s hou ld never eyce ecl SOoC (120

0 F) The s olu t i on can then be made up to final volume with

(o ld water I t is a useful prac t ice t o mltlke up developers as concentrated stock solutions

These ha ve be t ter ke ep ing qUltllit i es and are easier to s tore A typical developer would hav t he developing agent(s) and sulphite in one solutiun And the ltllkali restraine-s etc in the other Since sodium sulphite is distinctlYltllkalinc in solution the aerial o)(idation of the developing agents Ciln be further inhibited by substi t uting s odium metnbisulphite [or all or part of the sodi um sulphite The met a bsu l phi t e ha a greo1t solubil i ty t han su lphite is In c lficicnt presershyilt ive and is acid in reltlctiou so thJt the developerr are complet c ly inhibited

Of course the alkali content of the other solution must be incre1Scd pr oportionltJtely

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111 order to make the working developer alkAline

BLlCK AND llHITE DEVELOPER FORMULAE

In all the formulae in this booklet the quant1t1es are given in grams g ~ for solids and millilitres (ml) for liquids Development times are approximate bLC it is R simple matter to determine experimentally the development times which sui your particular film stock and which yield the contrast and density tau desi r t- o

The chromoGcnic black llId white films XP-l (llfard) and Vario XI(igfa) have been desirned for the Flexicolor C-41 process (see page 2n 1 Gene ral rurpose Developers

These Jeve(opel ~ Crable 1) do not use the silver halide solvent effect a nd s o are not true fine-grain developers However modern films have such inherently fine rrain that true fine grain developers are less important today than they were a fel years ago

Tnble 1 CellP-ral Purpose Devel opers

No 1 No2 No 3 No4 No 5 So ft Normal Normal Contrast Contr ~lQ NQ PQ ~IQ PQ (DI65) (D61a) (ID62 ) (ID2) (IDn)

~Ie t o 1 6 3 2

Sodl m s ulphit e anh yd 25 90 50 75 7

lI yJ r0111 i n__middot _e _ _ _ b 12 8 v__8_Jn ____________________~~~~ ________~

Sodium cnrbonate anh yd 37 11 60 375 48

Phenid onc 05 C 22 ~~------------------------------------~~~~------------~=

rotnssium bromi de 2 2 2 ~--------------~--------~----~~------~---------

Iknzotri azo le 1 20 10

SodiJJm metabi sulphite 2

Wa ter to 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

Dilution 1+3 l middotq 1+3 1+2 None (5tock + Iater) 1+3 1+7 1+5

Approximate development 10 6-7 3-4 5 5 time at 20deg C 12-14 6-7 9

----------------------------------------------------------~---------------

The soft working developer (No1) is useful for ~ubjects with an extended brightness range recorded on slow contrllsty film such as Pan F The ilormlt11 contrast developers (Nos 2 1nd 3) nre eminently practical developers ~ith wide application especially f Or rol1filO1 sheetfilm and plates Formulae 105 4 and 5 are contrasty developers suitnb1e for ordinary films and pllltes 111d can be us ed wiLhout dilution (or lille films such as pes Ortholith 35mm lith film When uld U1Hlilllted No ( is very similar to D19b and IDl9 X-ray film developers

Cal~oll m1Y be IISpJ ill these formulte and should be added before all other ingredieut~ Use up to 3glitre in hard water areas

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2 Fine Gr~in Developers TI(se we ll established fine grain developers (sec Table 2) are particularly

suitnble for miniature films (J5mm or sm31Ier)

1Llble 2 Fine Grain DevelopE

No 6 Fine Grain MQ D76

No 7 Fine Grain D76d

MQ No 8 Fine Grain PQ

Hetol 2 2

Sodium sulphite anhyd 100 100 100

Hyci r-oqui none 5 5 5

Borax 2 8 3

BorIc acid 8 35

Potas sium bromide

Phenldone 02

Hat~r to 1000 1000 1000

Approximate development time 6-10 12-15 10

Formula No6 represents the standard develope r against hiell all otlle r developers are judged Formula No7 is a buffered version o f No6 and yields morc consistent results but since the pH is slightly 10e1 th e developnie nt time s will be longe r Formula No 8 is a PQ developer with characteristics simillr to No7

All the above formulae can be diluted either 1+1 or 1+3 Lo r olle-shet prCccSStng yielding enhlllced acutancc but developmcnt tillllS should be approxshyimately doubled (1+1) or trebled (1+3)

3 Super Fine Grain Developers

These developers (see table 3) usc colour developing agents which are derivatives of -phenylenediallline the classic fine grain developer p-phcnylshyenediallline irself Iws too lIIany unpleasant charct c ristics to be of any use bull nowadays These colour deve lope rs a n~ S low work j ng and rl yc ill aliltI hydcoqu ino ne hav e been included ill formulae 9 and 10 t o nccelcratc developlIIClIt In [annul No II sodium carbolwte is the accelerntor The lulphite cOllcclltrntion is relatively high to make use of the solv(llt effect Sulphite c annot be ulcd in such high concentrntion in colour develolllIClIt of (OIOllf lTIall-inl1l IS iL inhibits the (01 ollr coup I ing rene t ion

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Table 3 Super fine Grain Developers

No 9 No 10 No 11 FocDl fXIO Kod Dk

-shy--_-------------_ Gcnocllrome 20 6

~~lJc in 20

ydroquinolle 6

Nydochrome (CD 3) 5

Sodillm sulphite anhyrl 100 100 30

Sodium carbonate anhyd 30

Borax 20 4

Boric acid 4

lola ter to 1000 1000 1000

Dilution (Stock + 3ter) 1+7 None None

Jppr(l~irnnte development time at 20 C 12-15 8 20

4 tcutallce or IIiIll D(~finiti(1n Developers ----The middot dZutancemiddot dt2vclopecs arc gencrnlly very dilute and require onl y suffic u~nt ngitation to prevent the [ormatLon of streamers The effect of this is twofold Firrtly the developer becomes exhllIsted in areas of heavy exposure yet remains active in the shadow areas This results in good shadow detail (resulting in an incre1se in effective emulsion speed) yet the highlight areas do not become blocked liP This type of cornp~nsRting development yields reduced macro-contrast but the result is not the same ltIS that acheived by ordinary soft-working developers siOlce tl(~ important highlight und shado bull contrast is good and the gradation of the less important ~id-tone9 is compressed The second effect of the high dilutfonl minimum agitation techniqlle is the forl1l3tion of ~Iackie lines which enhlllce apparent imGgc sharpness at the boundaries between lightly and heavily exposed 1re35 This is due to fresh developer on the lightly exposed side of the boundary diffusing across and acceleratill~ deve l opment in the adjacent heavily exposed emulsion Bromide a product of the developm~nt reaction diffuses in the revcrs direction and retilrds development in the lightly exposed en1l1sion adjacent to the boundary The net effect is an incn~ase in the apparent sharpne~s of the boundary

Developers of this type arc not fine grain developers and it is essential that they be used ith slower film8 (bdoN 150 ISI) which have fine grain emulsionr These sloNer films have a thin emulsion and are n3turally contrasty wih good acutillicc 1middotlith the fast films which normally yield a soft grainy neltative the reduction in macro-contrast produces a dull flat image which cannot b improved by printing on hard parer due to the grain In addition the thick emulflion of these [~ut films docs no t lend itself to the development of Mackie lines

Innlula No 12 (nr Table LI) the oriin~l Llclltance fonuJla can be made Jp in two parts the IlIrtol and sulphite in one solution and the carborlJte in the s e cond solution Forll1lae Nos 14 and 15 can be made up as concentrJted stock solucion s and 3f1in t h (o alkali (sonium or potassium carbonate) is kept as a SCp1ilt e solution Wi t h yenormuJ rio 15 the Pinacryptol Yellow solution shoul not be included in the concentrated stock solution but added just before lIe Pinacryptol Yel101Y is l desensicising dye which is decomposed by sulphite When preparing

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-------- ---------------------------

f o r mulae Nos 14 alld IS as concentrated stock soluti u llS it is aclvisable tu make up the solutions (except the carbonlt solution) in 10 iS0prufyl a lcohul (1 part isopropyl alcohol + 9 parts ltIter) as this helps d issulve thp Jeve lopin~ agents and improves the keeping q ua lities All these forllluiltl ( give tu one stop increase in effective emulsion speed

Formula 10 14 (FXlh) is a modification of iln)thcr (UrJlluln (FXl) where the sodium sulphite concentrat ion is only 5g per litre instemiddotad o[ lt0amp pe r 1 itrc This low sulphite furmula yields very high definition negatives bJt is more critical as to tKposure Development times are as [ornlula 10 15 (FX2)

Table 4 High Definition (Acutance) DeveL~~

No 12 Nu l) No 14 No 15 Beutler Jindisch HIll FX2

Crawl(l C_~w 1 e j

~ie tu 1 5 05 02gt

0ycin 075 I

Catechol (Pyrocatechin) 125

5(ld i urn sulphi~~ anhyd 25 80 10 35

Sodium carbonitf~ J an1d 25 25

Pot3ssium carbonate 7S

Po tas sium iodide 0001 solll 5

Pynacryptol yellow 12000 solli 3 5

----------- -----------------------------------------------------~----1000 1000 1000 100 0

----~---------------Dilution 1+10 25ml stock Nunc None

+l5ml potshyassium hydroxide 10k water to 10001111

[)c vmiddotd pmcnt t i llle 7 -1 0 15 - 20 8- J0 12- 15 at 20c i

5 Speed increasing developer f or push-processin g Thi s fine-grain IQ developcrrlO(iS) gives Ill incrcase in cillulsion speed of

a bou t one stop in normi1 use but further specd illcrenses can be achieved by cKtCnding the development tillle Jlth film slich IS 1115 this dolgt not lead to excessive contra~t or grain This developer may aiso be used [or dillllC 011(gtshy

shot procesfiing for enhanccd ltIcutance Dt 1+1 and Ii-] d llut lun (wilII cxt e nLilJ dcvclopmcnt tillles) giving a hulf 10 Olll stop incrcase in slwecl lhi developer is ~irnilar in 1 11 respects to 11[onl ltllltroll1

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Formula No 16 Fine grain speed increDsine developer (ID68)

Sodium sulphite a~lyd 850g llydroquinone 50g Borax 70g Boric acid 20g Phenidone 013g Potassium bromide LOg ImiddotJaCer to 1000 ml

Dllution Time (1115)

None 6middotmiddot9 1+1 11-16 1+3 22-30

Usc undiluted for the indiclted time to give the following speed increases on 111[5

800llSA (1 stop) 8-) mins l600ASA (2 stops) ll-12mins 3~00ASA (3 stops) 16-18mins

6 nigh Contrast Developers These developers give high contrast negatives lind are bese used on thin

emulsion high contrast film such as pes Ortholith film obtainable in 35mm cassettes from Photo ClwlllicoJ Supplies The first is the classic Caustic-hydroquinone developer and the s(cond is the s cand a -d Iniectious development low ulphitic developer T1e lotter is more delnonding of accurate exposure and development bUI

yields the highcst possible contrast for col our separation work and ha~f-tone dot screening Lith film may also be successfully developed using formula~ Nos 4 and 5 (undiluted) which hove better keeping qllalities once used but yield a blightly lowe contrast

No 17 CauGtic-llydro1uinone High Concrast Developer

SOLUTION A llydroquinone 25g

Potassium mctabisulphite 258 (or Sodium metabisulphite 2l5b ) PotassiUM bromide 25p (or Sodium bromide 2l5g) -I1ter to 1000ml

SOLUTlOCl B Sodillm hydroxide 36g (or Potassium hydroxide 50g) -IGter to lOOOml

Usc eqllJI P1rts A and Il and develop for 2-4 minutes The quantity of alkllli in Solntion B may be safely halved without loss of contrast but devrlopment time should be extended slihtly The two solutions keep indefinitely separately but ke e ping properties nre limited once mixed Use an acid stop bath before fixing to avoid staining

Nlt) 18 Infectious Lith Developer

SOLUTlON A Sodium sulphite anhyd 1

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Parafonnaldehyde 15 Po tassilil metaLisulphite 5 (or Sodium metabisulp lti t e I Jg) Water to 500ml

SOLUTiON Il Sodium sulphite anhyd 60 Tloric acid 15 Ilydroquinone 45 Potassium bromide J Water tJ 1500ml

------------------~~~ Use 1 part Solution A and 3 parts Solution Baud develop [or 2 minutes (Mix well and allow to stand for a few minutes before illuoersing fil m) The tlltO

solltloIls keep indefinitely separately and also keep quite well once mixed Both these high contrast dev elopers should be rl ixed fresh [ o r each film [or

best rf9ults pes Ortholith film is orthochromatic and developmcnt can be [olloved under a red safelight

7 HOlloba lils --TIse are solutions ill which development 1nd fixation t a ke place in the same bath In addition to the convenience of being single operation othlter advantages arc that the process is not dependent on criticll tilllillgt telllperatu(e o r agitJtion lmage contrast cannot be altered by extending or c u rtailing d(vel o pne nt but is built-into the mOllobath formula This can be set when m-Iking up the 1II01l0bath pri llci pally by varying the amount of fixing agent (sodium thios u llhate) includ e d The more fixing agent added the softer the contrast III addition the a moun t or act ivi ty of the developing agent can infl ue nce the contnlst o[ the (esult ill g ne gative

Tab le 5 Monobath formulae No 19 No 20

Socl i-lm sylphite anhyd 50 50

12 12

4

Sodiuln thiosulphate anhyd 70 (55-90) 60 (15-80)

Sod i lm h ydro ~ide=-____________--_4 10

Wat er to 1000 1000

P r oc ltss i ng time 5 mi ns +- mi n 5 llI ins-

+ mi n

i ll( degree of cont ras t produc ed will VIH y f ro on ~ f i 1m ype t o allo thl tmiddot and the qu antity of thiosulpbate requir ed will have to be determined e xpe(imentally

Ifor y o ur favourite film stock If a higher contrast than that given by using the lowest quantity of thiosulphate is required the hydroquinone concentration can be I increa s e d by about 25-30 Iloth these monobnths can be re-llned for up to ten [ill1ls or until the film is no longer cleared by the fixing agent CInLidenta lly a [ew minutes in a1 ordinary negative fixer will restore the [ilm) Films an plocessed for about 5 minutes (less for slow films) and washed Jnd dri e d nortlllly

pTO _ regJ1sect It is always good practice to use n stop bath betwee n the developing and

fixing baths An acid stop b1th not only halts develolIlllt 1lld millilliis s cont3mishynation o[ the fixer but also removes the scum formed Ly ~olle developer s nnd prevents

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st1ining particularly of lith materials after a hydroquinone-cauntic dcvclopcr

Table 6 Stop bath formulac

No 21 No 22 No 2) No 24 Acid Stop Buffered Stop Hardening Hardening

Sto~ Bath Stor Bath 2

Sodium Acctate )1l20 ))

Acetic acid (glaciat)(mt) 25 10 65

Chromium potassium sulphate 30 15

Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000

A few drops of stop hattgt indicator such as that obtainable from Photo Chemical Supplies lllay be added The indicator ch111ges from pale ycllow to blue 19 soon as the 11 rilles above 70 (neutral) Thc hardening baths (2) and 24) are sed after high temperature development Formulae 21 and 22 are also suitable stop baths for print processing

yrxrms

Fixation 15 necessary to remove the undeveloped silver halide from the ernU L ion lIardening agents may bc added to harden the emulsion Hardening is essential for films which have been reversal processed or processed at high temperatures and for bromide papers that arc going to be hot-glazed Typical fixers are shown in Table 7

Table 7 Fixllg [laths

No 25 No 26 No 27 No 28 Standard Buffered Buffered Buffered Acid Hypo Hardening Rapid Ilarden bullng Fix~r Hypo Fixer 7ixer Rapid Fixer

Sod i urn t h io 11 ]_--ptat-=e2-=anhtyd_ _ ~____-=-___________________160 150

(or Sodium thinsulphate cryst) (50) (240 )

Ammonium thiosulphate 175 200

Sodium sulphite anhyd 15 25 15

Sodium metabisulphite 25

Acetic acid glacial IS 10 15

Bodc acid 75 10 75

Potassium alum 15 15

Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000

All are used undiluted for films but may be diluted 1+1 for papers The buffered flxer~ havf a partiClllnrly long lifc and the buffered non-hardening rapid fixer (No 27) is recommended for plastic-coated papers such 1S 11fospeed

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REVERSlL PROCESSING OF Damp_ W FILM

Ileversl processing of black Ilnd white film yields positive transparencies with Il beautiful tonal gradation As with all reversal processes exposure and first development must be very carefully controlled beciluse density variatiolls cannot be compensated (or in printing The process involves the developmellt of Lile negative image (first developer) dissolving away the s i lvcr thus fOnilPU (bleach bath) clering and re-exposure to white light (reversal exposure) and develorshyment of the silver halide thus re-exposed (second development) The film is then fixed and washed in the normal way I t is the firs t deve lope r wh ich de termincs the quality of the final image It is usual to include a small quantity of silver halide solvent to brighten the highlights and sodiulll thiosullilate or sodiulll thiocyanate are usually used for this The subsequent processes are carried on more or less to completion so timing is not as critical as with the first developer In the fol~owiJlg procedure the first developer is retained antI used again [or the second dev e lopment

Rev r rsal processing solutions

No 29 Reversal developer (stock solution)

Netol 3g Sodium sulphite anhyd SOg lIydroquinone l2g Sodium carbonate anhyd 6()g Potassium bromide 4g Water to lOOOml

Dilution (stock + water) 1+1

To the diluted working strength developer add sodiulll thiosulphate at the following rale (gram~ per litre)

PAN F FP4 llPS Sodium thiosulphate anhyd 5 75 5 (a~ Sodium thiosulphat~

cryst) (8) (12) (8) AlternAtively a print deve l oper such as Dromophen may be used diluted 1+1 ith thiooulpilate dded as above

No 30 Blcach (two part stock solutions) SOLUTI ON A

Potassium permanganate 2g Water to SOOml

SOLUTION B Sulphuric acid 10 vv lOOml Water to SOOml These stock solutions will keep indefinitely but deteriorate rapidly when mixed

For use mix equal parts of A and D and discard after each film Potassium dichromate (lOg) may be used in place of the Potassium permanganate in Solution A

No 31 Clearing Bath

Sodium (or Potassium) metabisulphite 25g Water to 1000ml

Fixer ---The bleaching solution softens the emulsion and a hardening fixer must be used

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The hardening fixers given enrl ier laquo(onnube Nos 26 and 28) are ideal

Procedure 1 First developel 12 mins at 20

0 e for all llford films with an inversion every 15 seconds Keep the developer for use in the second development

2 Wnsh 3 mins with frequent changes 3 llicach 5 mins with strong continuous agitation Roarbull lights may be

switched on after two minutes in the bleach 4 I~n s h 2 mins with frequent chnnges 5 Clear 2 mins in the Clearing bath 6 Iash 2 mins with changes 7 Reversal exposure Re-expose ench cnd of the spiral for 2 mins at 12-18 inches

from a 100 watt bulb This is best done underwater in a clear gls9 bowl standing on a sheet of white paper Rotate the bulb or the spiral during re-exposure to ensure even illumination

8 Second developer Develop for 6-8 mins at 20 0 C in the developer solution retained from the first development Development time is not critical but should go to completion

9 Rin s e 10 Fix Fix in acid htrdening fixer for 10 mins (formula No 2cent ) or

4 mins (formula No 28) It Final 5h Wash for 30 mins and dryas usual

Modifying the Processed Negative Th e silver imJge obtained after development and fixation may be either l r censhy

sified or r educ ed TIlis is to compensate (or errors in exposure or dlvelopment or both

INTE~(UFICTION

The following for muLt has been select e d [rom the many published because i t is simple effective etsily controlled and yields a permanently enhllnced negative The basic chemicals are reasollably safe unlike the mercury and uranium intensifiers

No 32 Chromium Intensifier

STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium dichromate 12 5g lJnter to 200 ml

STOCK SO LUTION II Hydrochloric acid 10 vv (36 ww) 30ml ( o r I1ydrochloric acid 10 1 ww) (L Iml) (or Hydrochloric acid cone) (]ml) WJter to 200ml For use mi~ 1 part Solution A with 3 parts water and add 1 part rolution n

The negative should be properly fixed and well washed Old negatives should be sO kcd in water for a few minutes The negative is immersed in the intensifier [or 2-3 minutes until the image is (ully bleached (it turns a yellowy-brown colour) It is then washed well until the yellow stain is removed The intensified image is then re-developed after exposure to daylight (or a light bulb 1 minute each side at 18 inches) in l nOli-solvent type developer This may be a print developer or general purpose necative developer such as formtJl No3 or any universal j developer An advantage of thi s intensifier is that the whole proces8 may be repe a ted several times with an increase in intensification each time as the image

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is built up

~EDUCTrON

There are three classes of reducers which reduce the amount o[ silver in the negative in different ways

The subtraltive reducers remove silver from all parts o[ the illlagc (shadows and highlights) at about the salTle rate 50 that the contrast 15 incrcaBed This is uscful for Jver-euroxposed negatives which tend to be flat

The peoporti)lal reducers remove silver in proportion to the density so that the contrast grildient is maintained This type of reducer is suitable for those negatives which are too dense for easy printing through over-exposure ~ombined

with over-development The uper-proportional reducersattack the IllDvy silver depositll more than

[he lightly exposed parts leading to a reduction ill contrast and density Dense contrasty negltives are usually the result of over-development

No 33 Farmers Reducer (Subtractive)

STOCK SOLUTION A Sodium thiosulphate anhyd 32g (or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (SOg) Water to 500ml

STOCK SOLUTION B Potassium ferricyanide 109 Water to 100ml Immediately before use mix 15 p3rts A with 15 parts w(lter and ~dd 1 pa[t B

The process of reduction should be watched carefully and may be stoppcd at nny time by flooding wi th wn ter The ac t i vi ty 0 [ the reducer may be n 1te [cd by va ry ing the qunutity of Soltltion II added [ncrensing t he [crricyanidc increa ses the activity and vice versa The stock solutions keep indefinitely hut the working solution hu 3

short life

No 34 Permanganate - Persulphate Reducer (Proportional)

STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium permanganate 1 solution lZ 5ml Sulphuric acid 10 wlw 65ml Water to 500ml

STOCK SOLUTLON II Ammonium persulphate 25g Water to 1000mi Distilled water should be used to make up these solutions for use take one

part A two ports distilled water and two parts B A slower acting mixture is I part A 4 parts water and 1 part II and this may be easier to control A[ter reduction the action con be halted and the brown stain removed by immersing the negative in a 1-2 solution of sodium (or potnssiul1l) metabisulphite The negative should he thoroughly waMhed before being dried

No 35 Pelslliphate Reducer (Super-proportional) Ammonium persulphate 125g Sulphuric acid lOr ww 5m1 Distilled water to 500101

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The ne)a t i ve shou 1d be fu lly wn shed The leduc t ion mus t be wa tC1ed close ly as the rate varies ~idely with different emulsions nnd with some modern high speed ~mulsions it iR not effective ]t all to 12-157 solution of sodium Ilulphite anhyd can be Ilseu as ] s top bath Imd the negat ive is fi na lly given a good wash

BampW Print Processes [1) NI_I2EV~1QI2yRS

Print developers arc generally fairly contrasty compared to negative developers and of course it ig not necclisary or desirable to use fine grain or acutance techniqupound for prints The colour tone of the image is the main variable in print developers but the colour obtained will depend largely on the type of print paper (eg bromide chlorobromide or chloride)

Table 8 Standard Print Developers

No 36 No 37 No 38 No 39 D163 ID62 ID20 New

PQ Univ NQ Paper Winchester

~middotc to 1 22 3 35

Sodium sulphite anhyd 75 50 50 35

-lL(~ro(l~1 i WJlle 17 12 12 86

Socli11Tl -----shy

carbollate lt1nilyd 65 60 60 63

lhellidolle 05

Potassium bromide 28 2 4 l9

I3cn7otriazole 1 15-25 20 37

Wettinr agent 10 10 10 10

Wnter to 1000 1000 1000 1000

Dilution (stock + water) 1+3 1+3 1+3 1+2 Calgon may be added to all the above at the rate of 2g per litre If the ueveloper is uRed at less dilution development iR more rlpid The

benzotriClzole in these formulilc irnproves the brightness of highlights by reduc i ng fog and also shifts the colour of the illlage towards black or blue-black The New middotIinchester formula (No 39) is a universal paper delTeloper giving good black to nc s and is the basis of many commercially available print developers

Table 9 Warm-tone Print DClTelopers

No +O ~Jo 41

~Lltf01 I i nonc _________--25 ---8_ ___

Sodium Dulphite anhyd 60 60

Sad i IIll carboIlHe anhyd 90 90

~ycin 25

Potassium oronlidc 2

~ater to 1000 1000

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Dilution (Stock + water) 1+3 1+2 Time 2-3 mins 1-2~ mins

Formula No 41 has a warmer tone tllan No 40 but both arc best used on warm-tone papers

STQ- [lATHS FOR PR_INT~

The 1I0n-hilnlenlng stop blths given carlier (Nos 21 and 22) arc suitable f0 r prints as is a 47 solution oE sodium or potassium mctabisulphite (I~Oplitre) good economical stop bilth can be made up by adding 1 part stop batl (as above) to two parts old fixer and mixing up a fresh fixing bath When the stop batll shows exhaustion the stop bath ia discarded and the old fixer converted to the ncw st op bath This double use of fixing solution Lcally does prolong the life of the fl xer bath as a large part of the fixation takes place in the stop bath and the diluti on ensures that no staining occurs

PRINi FIXERS Any of the fixer formulae given earlier for negativcs will provide fix e rs

suitatle for papers (formulae 25-28) The rapid fixers have a much grentcr cJptc ity than the hypo filter s and formula 27 is especially recommended for plastic-coatcd pap~rs Prints on normal paper wh i ch a r c t o be hot-glazed should be fixed in 1

hardening fixer (formulae 26 or 28) Formula 25 is obviously the cheapest to ma ke up but the pll should be monitored and more metabisulphite added to restOt-e thc acidity when required All may be used diluted 1+1 It is advisable not to U 5C the some solution for fixing both films and pape rs even if the same formula is used but to keep film filter and paper fixer i n s eparate bottles

t~ID F9H PAPER PInNTsect The fibre base of normal printing pl pe rs retains acid chemicals from the fj xing

bath which are difficult to remove by -a s h ing alone If after a brief rine 11C

print is i~nersed in a 2-5 solution o f s od ium carbonate anhyd for 2-] minutes the subsequent nonnl wash ensures that all the hypo and hYPolilver camplexes a t c removed This alkaline bath should be used whenever any subsequent trcatmenl of the print such as toning is to be carried out

LYPO ELI~IN~TOB 11C following solution (formula No 42) serves to oxidise the thiosulphate t o

~ulphate which is then easily washed ou t o f the paper

~~_~po Elimin_ator

Hydrogen peroltide solution 3 (10 volume) 125ml or Hydrogen peroxide solution 6 (20 volume) 63mU Ammonia solution 0B80sg 10ml Hater to 1000ml immerse the prints in the above solution after a normill W8lh in running W (l ~ er

for about 5 minutes followed by a fu cthc r Hash of about 10 minute This hyposhyelimnator is made up of volatile compOIw nts so that there is_ no risk of elininllor salts remaining in the p1per-base after drying

PRINT TONING Prints may be toned a variety of colours and depending on subject can yielel very

pleasing results All prints must be tlloroughly washed prior to toning and old prints

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~lloliid be soaked ~n water for a few minute s to soften the emulsion

1) Sepia Toning Th follow(ng method yields perm1nlnt prints with a good brown tone In fact

prints treated in lhis way have greater permanence than untreated prints and the lmiddotLlwd is USLd ill 3rchival processinl The print is first bleached ill a ferri shyqnidcbroHiide bleach until the d3ri~est partH of the image tire a raint straw LU lour 1 t is lilen placed in the toner b3th 1111lt1 the sepia image quickly reappears

Nu (d FerricyanidcDromi de Bleach

Potassium [erricyanide 40g Potassium bromide 251 Jater to 1000mi Tllis stock solution is used undiluted and keeps well if stored in the dark or

ll a dnk bottle It may be re-used until exhausted h[ter bleaching the print 1~ washed well and trGnsferred to tbe following solution

Uu 44 Sepia Toning BGth -Thiolre1 109

Potassium bromide 40g Sodiul1i hydroxide 3-6g WJter to 1000mi The qu~n[ity of sodium hydroxide can be adjusted between the above limits to

yield the desired tone colour This toning bath is preferable to the traditional suJiul11 sulphide hath because of the unpiensant smell and properties of sodium sulphide solutions Thiourea and sod i um sulphide should not be used or stored in lilt dGrkroom or near sensitised materials

bJ lllie Toner This process does not re qruire a bleach stage but the print should be thoroughly

- s hed a[te1 fixation The process intell5ifies the image slightly so prints to bpshytOiled blue should be mnde a little lighter than they would otherwise be

Nu 45 Dlue Toning Bath

SOLUTION A

Potassium ferricyanide Ig Sulphuric acid 10 ww 30ml Wnter to 500ml

SUIUTION 13

Alliinonilim ferric citrate (green) Ig

Sulphuric acid 10 ww 30ml Water to 5001111 Mi elt[uGI parts hand B immediately before use The wet print is immersed

ulltil the desired tone is reached and then washed Excessive wnsh ing will ble a ch lliit the blue colour and just sufficient wash to remove the yellow tain should be lven This bleaching is largely eliminated if the print is lshed in water conshy[lining a l ittle acetic acid (51111 or less per litre)

c) Red TOiler Th~TtO~ing is il traditional red tOller using copper sulphate hglin no

b I each is llluircd

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No 46 Red TOllin~ Bath

SOLUTION A Cupric s~lphate (511 deg) 12 5g

2Sodium citrate 500g (or Potassium citrate) (55g) Water to SCOml

SOLUTION B Potassium ferricyanide 109 Sodium citrate 50 g (or Potassium citrate) (SSg) Water to SCOml Use equal volumes of II and B mixed just before use The image colour changes

through warm black then sepia to rea 2nd t he process can be halted at any stage by flushing with water The print is th~n wa s hed and dried normally

PRINT nEDUCERS Print reducers are generally used Eor the local reduction of dense parts of

iarge prints for generally brightening dense flat prints or for removing fiilvcr completely from unwanted areas Farmers Reducer (formula No 33) is the most commonly used print reducer and shoul d Df t sed s ufficiently diluted to allow control of the reduction proc ess Use scr 1p dn ts to de t e rmine the appropriate conditions ~len using Farmers Reducer wash the pr in t frequently in running water or permanent yellow staining may occur Farmers Reduc e r used very dilute is ideal for brightening dense flat prints It is a s ub t ractive reducer and gives bright highshylights a nd increased contrast

~len heavy deposits of silver have 0 igt e remov ed completely such as that cause1 by pinholes in line nega t i ves Fa nna r s Reduce r is not su i tab Ie because of the possibility of staining The followin g formula (No 47) is an iodine re ducer which i9 very effect i ve at removing dense silver

No 47 Iodine Reduce r

Potas sium iodide 1Sg Iodine crystals 05g Water to lOOml This reducer is applied to the mOl s t lot ~et) print with a swab or brush and

the resulting brown Btain is easily r emove d in a 15 solution of sodium thiosulphate Illlhyd (or 25 sodium thiosulphate cryst ) after a rinse in water The print should then be thoroughly rinsed

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Colour Processing Besides offering real economy brew-it-yourself colour processing is v~ry

satisfying and can yield results superior to those offered by ln3ny commercial proshycfSSinl~ houses All that is required ilre careful working methods and atttntion to dltlails Tlte Icrwrill instruction relating to monochrome proc(ssin~ should be r~d in conjunction with thcse notes on colour processing It should be emphasised that the formulae given in this section are not those of the film manufacturers who do not publish their formulae but have been worked out to yield results comparable with the manufacturers recommended processing

Time and Temperature Cololl~ ma-terials are not as flexible as black and white materials with regard

to development conditions since wide deviation from the recommended development can yield shifts in colour balrnce ohich lQay be impossible to correct in printing With reversal materials in particular exposure must be accurate and the time and temperature of the first development is crucial as thi largely determines the quality of the ftnal transparency In the C(j process the processing temperature is rather high (3a

oC) bllt this must be maintained at least for the first dtvelopment There is

slightly more leeway ~Iith the other st~ges but these should b~ kept within the limite shown The sallie applies with colour development of negative materials and again the processing tenrperature of the C41 procefiS is high (also JaoC) The times given in the formulae include 10-15 seconds to uHo~ for draining the tank

H~king up the Solutions As wi th all the - formulae in this bookl e t the chemicals should be dissolved in

tire order given Some of the colour dev e lo p ing agents while extremely solub i I wa te r tend to separn te out in the a 1 k a 1 ine J eve loper sol ut ions Ita aov isab le to dissolve the colour developing agen t to gether with the hydroxylamine (hydro shycldoride or sulphnte) where p r e sent se pa r a te ly i n part of th e total volume of water alld add this slowly 0 th e rerna mJer o f the solution some time before use rile hydroxylamine acts as an antioxidant and is required because the sulphite conshyclntrltion hCls eO be low Hydroxylamine is rapidly decomposed in alkaline solutions ill the pr se nce of sequestering agents of the EDTA type so Cnlgon should be used i n h~rd water ~~ r e s rather than EDTA

V~QCESliING G9J~QI1lLill=VERSAL FILMs_U0R COLOUR SLIDES) There are at present two princiPlll systems for colour reversal film prGcessing

(excluding Kodachrome) The first is the ~g fachrome 41 process covering all Agfa r-tJVersal fi 1m (except Igfachrotnc [(IOOS Profe ssional - proce Sl E6) olhether sold process paid or not Thepound are few if any other makes o f [i Tm available in Britain ohich use this process The second ir the Kodak Ektachrome E6 process hich covers IllOSt of the rCIllining colour n~versal films There are a few filns Idlich ltIre still made for outdated process es sLlch as ORWO f i l ms ohich are proc e s sed by an old Igf~ process Rnd some specillised Ko d ak films suc h as Ektachrome In f rared Film find Photomicrography Color Film 248J which are processed by the old E-4 process There may still be a [ew films from independent manufacturers designed for the old E ~ process

Kodak Kod~lchlome films are sold process paid and user processing is not feasible

Keversal Exposures - Reversal film mUfit be given a fogging exposure to light (Where chemical fegging is not used) after the first development Because the emulsion is very much less sensitive at this stage than normal film this exposure mtlst be rather intense It

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is best to remove the film from the spinl and SCC-SDW it through plain wter below a Photo flood lamp Ilowever a wet delicate film is difficult to reload into the spi ra 1 (bes t done under lola ter) and it is cas icr to leave the film in thc 5 pi ra 1 nlld extend the exposure time With clear spira ls thc exrosure time should be at lea~t

doubled and with the translucent nylon spira l s the exposure should be increased 5-10 fold When the film is not removed for the exposure place the spiral in a white 001011 of water (or a clear glass bowl on J wl ite surface) and place the lamp above it During the exposure of each end of the s pir a l the lamp or bowl should be moved about so that the exposure is more even Watc r and cl~ctricity dont mix so care is needed and a hot photoflood lamp will burst if s plashed Dont skimp on th e reversal exposhysure - it is easy to underexpose but dif f ic ul t to overexpose For the Ektachrome E-6 p r-ocess a reversa l bath which chemi c3 1y fogs tile film making the reversal exposure unnecessary i s available from Pb c to Chemical Supplies

The Agfachrome 41 Proce ss Suitablc for all Agfa Reversal poundll ns (except Agfachrorne RIOOS Professional

available in 120 size and sheet film only)

formul ~ e - Agfachrome 41 No 48 First Developer

Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g middot1e to 1 3g Sodium sulphite anhyd SOg Hydroquinone 6g Sodium carbonate anhyd 40g Potassium thiocyanate 25g Potassium bromide 2g otassium iodide 0 1 Solution 6ml wate to 1000111

No 49 Stop Bath

Ac etic acid glac iol 101 Sodium acetate (3H 0) lO g

2Water to 10001111

No 50 Colour Developer PART I

Sodium sulphit e anhyd 3 5g Hydroxylamine hydrochloride I t Potassium bromide 19 Colour Developing Agent see below Ethylenediamine (50 vv Soln) 16ml (or 2-phenylethylamine) (3ml) -later to 300ml

PART BI Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g S~dium carbonate anhyd 62g Water to 500ml

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c) lour iPVf loping age nts [0[ Part lI

Colour Dev e loper 1 (sulphate) 28g or Colour l)eve l o pe r I (chloIide) ( CIH) 22g or Cenochrollc 2 5g or Dtoxych rome 3 2g

lOOt usc add ParL II slowly to Part D with tirring and make up to a total volume o f 10U0Il1I

No 51 [leach ~-----Po tas s ium-[e rr i CY[lnidc 80g

Potassium bromide 30g Sodium acetate (J1l 0) 50g2lor ic Jeid 5g Potnssiwa nll11 30g Water to 10001111

Ngt 52 Fixcr ---S-oJI~-tTiosu I ph a te anhyd l25g

(or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (200g) Sodiul1l s ulphi te lnhyd lag Imiddotlater to 1000ml

Th pit of this fixer is approximately neutral Do not use an acid fixer because it Jill blcnch th e dyes

Nu 53 Stnbiliser - --- We t ti~g agelt - Im1

Forlllaide hyde 0 5ml I-Jte r to IOOOml

~ (lCeslng Procedure lIrfachrome 41

At 20 0 C (minutes) At 24degC (minutes )

1 First Developer 18 - zr-----shy lJ-l~ (z00-O 50C) (2l 0 -02SoC)

2 Rin sc ~ 3 St op bath 4 3 4 1[151 10 7 S Reve r sni Exposure See be l~w 6 Colour developer 14 (20 0 -0SoC) 11 (z4 0 02SoC) 7 - 1 5 h 20 14 8 Ill eac ll 9 I-[lsh 5 4 lll Fix 5 4 ll Wash 10 7 12 Stabil iser 1 1 1] Dry (30 D

e) mox

One minute each side with film r emo ved from spiral 2 minuteR each end rf clear sl c rlll lid 5-10 minutes ench end of ttanslucent nylon spirill frolll a No2 Photoflood a l I lie t re () f le t)

Thp t Cll peratllre during the Lwo developme nt stages should be maintained within til limits shown For other stages tlte t e lllperature may range from 17-20lC or 21 - 2llC The third wash (Htole n iu raLh e r long and it is important that it is llt lL shorted In soft watcr ilHilS this lung wallh nwy c ause the clUulsion to slocll Su un int e l-mediate bilth of 5 minutes immediately J(tcr the colour developer can be given to prevent excessive swelling This is a 2 solution of either sodium

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sulphate or magnesium sulphate (Glaubers salts or Epsom Salts) If the intermediate bath is used the third wash may be shortened by 5 minutes In the two developer baths agitation should be continuous for the first 30 seconds followed by two invershysions every half minute for the rest of the period

As usual it is the developer solutio 1~ which deteriorate first The remalnlng solutions (stop hath bleach and fixer ) have double the capacity of tIle two developers Ea ch litre of developer should process 6-8 films but the development timcs should be extended by 30 seconds at 20degC (or 20 5cco~ds at 24 o

C) after the first two films anQ after each subsequent two films hi applies to both the first and colour deve lo pers

rne Ektachrome E-6 Pro ess 1 am indebted to Mr Derek Wa tkl 9 r0~ permission to reproduce this formula

wh i ch first appe1red in the March 198 1 i sgt lc of the magazine SLR Camera (Haymnket Publi t hing Ltd 38-42 Hampton Road TCd ingcon Middlcsex)

There are a lot of films from man n~rUl facturers sold under a wide variety of brand names which are compatible with the E-6 process Even Agfa make an E-6 compatible film (Agfachrome RIOOS Professional)

FormuL ae - E-6 i-lo-54---first Deve 1upe r

Sodium 6exametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g Sodium sulphite anhyd J9g Potassium carbonate anhyd 14g Sodium bicarbonate 12g Phen i done O 6g Itydroluinone 6g Sodium bromide 22g Sodium thiocyanate Ig Sodium hydroxide 33g Pot~asium iodide (01 50ln) 45ml Water to 1000m~ pH 9 6-005

No 5~ Stop Bath 1 ------S0dium acetate anhyd 30g

(or Sodium acetate 320) (50g) Acetic acid glacial 6ml Water to 1000m~ pit 55-02

No 56 Colour Develoger Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g tri-50dium orthophosphate 1220 36g Sodium hydroxide 3g Sodium sul~lite anhyd 4 5g 3gtdium bromide 065g Potassium iodide (01 Soln) 30ml Sodium thiocyanate 1 3g Citrazinic acid 1 25g CD-3 l1g ~oter to 1000mi + pH 1165-005

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S LOp lath 2 Same as Stop lath 1 but once used do no t interchange them

No 57 ll l e ach lotassiulil (erricyanide 80g Potassium bromide 20g Ji-So JiullI hydrogen orthophosphattnnhyd 12g (or di-Sodium hydrogen olthophosphnte

1211 2deg) (JOg) Acetic acid glacial 5ml Hater to IOOOrot plt 55-02

No 58 Fixe r - - Sndi-u-thiosulphate Mlhyo 125g

(or SodiulTl thiosulpilte cryst ) (200g) SodiuJJ sulphite anhyd 5g So dium me tabisulphite O5g Water to lOOOlllt 11 72-02

~Jc tt ing JgCllt lmL

L r to lOOOml

Time ~pe ratute

l First development 6r J8-U57 - shygt Stop iJath 1 2 33-JoC J Ih 2 3J-J90C 4 Reversal Exposure Two minutes each side with (ilm removed

froro spiral 5 minutes each side of clear spiral ano 10 minutes each side of nylon spiral with No 2 PhotofLoud at

(Or HeveJs31 JlJth) (ObtainJhle 12 inches frolll Photo Chical Supplies) 2 JJ-J90C

5 Col o ur u(ve [o[JllICnt G JSlOC 6 St o p Bath 2 2 JJ-l)degC 7 1-1 2 ])-J9()C g 11 [e middoth 5 JJ-l9C l) Rins e ~ 3J-390C [0 fix 5 3J-390C II Wnsh 6 33-J90C I ~ S tid il s c 1 3J-390C n Dry (Fillll cllt~Jrs on drying) r uTES ) As wilh all revlrsnl processes the [irut developer largely delermines the ehnrilct(tmiddotistic~ o[ the final translnrency Jntl the rcconlllltnJeu time anJ temp~rature

hlHJ1J be Iuhlrcu to b) AgitJtion in 11 ba ths (except the optional reversal bnth and the stabiliser

- - - - - - - ------------

wllich should not be agitated) is continuous for the first 15 seconds followed by two

inversions of the tank each subsequent half minute With the reversal bath and stnbiliRer an initial inversion to ensure uniform distribution is all that is required cl The conditioner bth in the offici)l process is lwl required in the pLOceJllre given hele as this useR ferricyllnide bleach rather than all EUTA hl(ach d) The two Rtop hth re of identical compositioll bllt should not be illtcrchlIircl due tu dnmn~illg carry-over contomination e) The caplcity of the solutiolls is 10 filll1ll pr litre (36 exposure - 35 or 120 roll film) bnt the tillle in the first developer must be extencled hy 15 second~ after the first two films and after each subsequent two films (by 20 seconds fOl the last two films) f) The made-up solutions should be scored in dark bottles at room temperature not in the refrigerator The first developer will keep for two months unused or for four weeks once used The colomiddoti developer will keep for 3 months unused or 2 lIIo11~hs partly used nd all the remaining solutions will keep for 6 months ur longer Although the first developer contains many ingredients it is not expensi ve to moke up Thus it is worthwhile retaining the remaining solutions to be used ith a ((esh ly made fi rs t deve loper if the fu 11 capac i ty canno t be used in the four we ek life 0f the original first developer g) Drying temperature should not exceed 60

0 C and all EktachrOllle films only clclr

when nearly dry For information on process control and fault finding in both Agfachrome 41 and

Ektachrome E-6 the reader is referred to The Focal Guide to Colour Film Proces~ing by Derek IJAtkins (published by the Focal Press norough Green SevEnolt)ks Kent TNlS 8PB) This excellent book also gives 11 the background information you may require Also in the book is a substitute E-4 process (as well an a low cost Ln~ temperature simplified E-4 process) for those films using this system This book also covers colour negative film processing

PROCESSING COLOUR NEGATIVE FILMS (PLUS XP-l AND VARIa XL BL~CK A~~lJTE FIL~ ~~__________~_ ____~______M~)__ __

As with colour reversal film the two major manufacturers of ~olour fil~s A~ [a

and Kodak each have tlieir own fi lms and processing systemy [or cololJr negative~ Again the trend seems to be towards a unified compatible system based on Kodaks C-lfl prccens

Processing negative film is very much eaGier tlan reversal processing for two reasons Firstly there are fewer steps in the processing sequence with no revcr~al EXpOSlln required and secondly there ill a little more latitude with tlte pro cessing since most faults can be corrected later at the print ing sta ge HOI_e ver cons iL e nt good resutts depend on consistent processing Attention to detail ~ile proce8s i ng a film can save a lot of time later on

Agfacolor N Negative Process ---T-tiis-process is in tended for all II fa co lour nega t i ve film (CNS CNS2 ann 80S Pr~fe9sionol) excluding AgCacoluur CNS400 negative film This ltter is designed to be processed in Agfacol o r Peo ceMs 70 chemicals and is compatible witl l Kodaks Flexicolor C41 process as is Agf a s chromogenic 131ack and ~hite film Vor l XL

The Agfacolor N process is slightly unusual in that the devclopmpnt is 11101-11(

to continue in the lowlgtr layers of the e mulsion during an intermedi1 t e bath wll icll immediately follows the colour developer

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Pu rmulnc - Agfucolour N i u 59- Colur- ll(vIoI~er SULUTION A

Sodium hexnmetaphosphate (Calgon) 2g PutnsSilJln carl)ooatc atlhyd 75p Potassium bromide 25p Wat e r Lo 500ml

~()LUTroN Il

lIydroxylamine hydrochloride 19 (or Hydroxylamine sulphate) 0 2g) Sodium sulphite anhyd 35g Colour Dcvcloppr 1 (Sulph~te) 28g (or Colour Developer 1 (chlorideraquo C22g) (or Cenocilrome) (25g) (0 t Droxych rome) (J2g) ) t e r to SOOml

I l d B tlJ A with stirring before use

Nu 60 Intermediate Bath -- -~lgn~sin sulpil1te--===- JOg

Mixed (or used) Colour Deve lope r 501n 30ml 1000011

No 61 Bleach --S-(Tll~eXaeLaphospilate (Cnlgon) 5g

Potassiulll fcrricY1nide 42g Potassium brolllidp 12g 10[ltl8siu dihydrogen orthophosphate 15g di-Potassium hydrogcn ortilophosplwte

nll Jil yd Sg Water to 1000111

Nl 62 Fixer -------sz-dG----Umiddotios ul phn te nnhyd 125g

(01 Socii um thiosulphntc cryst) (200g) SodiulIl sulphitc anhyd 109 Wnter to 1000ml

ltc~ing Procedure Agfacolollr N Time (mins) Telpernture degc-S----shy

1 Colour developer 20-02 2 Intermediate bath 4 2005 J -IDsh 15 (lllinilllllm)-20 15-20 4 IHench 6 2005 5 Hash 6 15-20 6 FLx 6 18-20 7 -Ilsh 10 15-20 fl ~~ett lllg agent bath 15-20 N)lI~S

Agit1tilln in niL stDges is continuous (or the fi1st minute followed by o ue j version of Lhc LIll( (very hoi ( minute thcrcnfter

llevcl)plIlcnt 11I3Y be varied betccn 7 - 9 minutes Increase ueve10pment to 9 llItes Lo incrcasc contrast and reduC(~ the time to 7 minutes (or softer results

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The orange mask is formed in the bleach bath and the recommended time and temperature for this stage should be followed as the density of the mask increases with time

All the solutions including the co l our developer solutions (separately) shoilid keep for at least 4 months Once mixed the colour developer (and the intermediate bath) will only Inst a f ew weeks

The capacity is 6 - S films (135- 36 o C 120) per litre but the development ttne shoul d be incr eased with each film or pair of films to compensate for developer e xha ustion The c a pa c ity of the co lou r d vetoper s may be e xtended by mixing onl y

al f of so lu tions I a n d B and proceSS in f( 4 i ilms in e ach h a lf In this ca s e prolong the development time by one mi nute a f ter eacll film

Flexi color C-41 Tlis process was developed by Kod lt1 ilt [or the mach i ne pro ces~ing of their nc~

colour negative films Kodacolor II and Ve ricolor II The majorit y of colour films from independent manufacturers are now made compatible with the C-~l process In addition there are the two chromogenic bl ack and white films lifords XPI and Ag Eal s Vario XL whi ch were designed fo r C- 41 processing l gfas fast colour nega t i ve film CNS400 should also be proce sed i n C- 41 chemicals

Because C-41 was designed for use i n au t omated commercial laboratories the processing t emperature is rather h i gh (IOO or 3So

C) As with the ~ktachrome E-6 precess these high temperatures bring abo ut the a s sociated problems of short development times and DE maintaining t hL t empe ra ture betwe en the prescribed limit~ Tha t t hes e pro b lems are easi l y ove rc ome i s J emon s trat ed by the many thousa nds of amac e urs who s ucce ss f ully process t hei L own pol and Vari o XL monochrome films in

oC-4 chemicals at 3S C

The following formulae represent a l ow cosi substitute procedure using a traditional ferricyanide bleach

ihe substi t ute process is reproduc d fr om The Focalguide to Colour Film Proc es sing by Derek Wat ki ns with k i nd p2r ssion from the Focal Press

Formu11e C-4l

No 63 Colour Developer Sodium hexarroetaph()sphate (Calgon) 2g Po tassium carbonate anhyd 38g Sodium sulphite anhyd 5g Potassium iodide 01 Soln 2ml Potassium bromide 1 5g lIydroxamine hydrochloride 2g CD-4 5g Wlter to 1000ml

No 64 Stop Bath Ae tic acid glacial 20011 Sodium acet1te 311 0 25g

2Water to 1000ml

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------ ----------------

~

No 65 Bleach Potassium nitrate 2SB Potassium ferricyanide 30g Potassium bromide 12g Boric acid 5g Sodium tetraborate (Borax) 19 Water to 1000ml

No 66 Fixer Sodium thioulphate anhyd 125g (or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (ZOOg) Sodium metabisulphite 20g Water to LOOOtnl

No 53 Stabiliser Wetting a ~r~ nt 1m1 Formaldehyde 40 511 )1 ~ater to lOOOm1

f ocessinG Procedure e-4l (with [erricY~lnid( bleach)

Time Temperature degc l Colour development 31- 38~~--

2 Stop bath 35-40 J Wash 35-40 4 Bleach 35-40 5 ~ash 35-40 6 Fix 35-40 7 ~ash 35-40 8 Stabiliser 35 -40 9 Dry

Agitation in the developer is continuous for the first half minute followed by one inversion of the tank each quarter minute thereafter In the remaining solution s the agitation may be reduced t o t lJO in ver sions every half minute after tilE init i a l )0 sec onds cont inuous agit a tio n e ach bath

TIll capacity of the so lut ions is a pplC))limately twelve films per litre if the dev eloper is made up as two 500ml port iuns dn d six films devel oped in eacll portion The development time should be extended by minute after the f irst two films and by middot a further i minute aft er t he seco nd 1lt1 fi ms A comb i ned b1each f ix bath may be u~cd in this procss b t t o[ cours Lilis calllu t be a f e rr i c Yll1ido ball ed bleach A sllitable formula can be found in t h e Br i i sh J our nal of Photography Annual

PIWCESSING COLOUR PRINTS For copyrigllt reasons we arc unabl e t o re produce the substi t ute fo rmulae for

colour print processing The f onnulae and pr ocedure s are quit e straight~orward and lIIay be found in the British Journal of Photography Annual Photocopies of the relevan t pnu es may be obtained for a nominal sum from the publishers This applies to earlic~ editions of the book and to the current edition after stocks are sold out (u s ually April or Hay) The address to 0 i s

Tlte Ed i tor Ilritish Journal of Photography Annmiddot qL Henry Greenwood ( Co Ltu 28 Creat James Street London WeI Telephone 01-404 4202

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APPENDIX I Chemical Names Seeals- Appendix 2 for Colour Developing Adurol Amidol Amidosulphonic acid Ammonium alum Ammonium hydroxide l2-B(nzenediol 14-Benzenediol Bor1cic acid Borax Calgon Chlorchydroquinone Chrcmlt alum Copper sulphate Copper chloride l2-Diaminoethane 24- Diaminophenol hydrochloride Digol l2-Dihydroxybenzene l4-Dihydroxybenzene 26-Dihydroxyisonicotinic acid Elo Ethy l enediaminetetraacetic acid and sa l ts Ethyl~ne glycol Ferri~ ammonium citrate Formalin p-Hydroxyphenyl glycine Iron perch loride Iron trichloride Kcdalk p-HtLhylaminophenol sulphate Nethyl p1raaminophenol sulphate middotIonoch 10 rhyd rOluinone 1- Pheny 1- 3-pyrazo lidone Potasnium alum Potassium bichromate Potassium bisulphite Potassium chrome alum Propan-2-01 Pyrocatechin (Pyrocatechol) Pyrogall ic acid Quino Sodium bisulphite Sodium hydrosulphite Thiocarbamide I 2 3-Trihydroxybenzene

and Synonyms Agent)

Chloroquinol 24-Diaminophenol hydrochloride Sulphamic acid Aluminium ammonium sulphate Aoononia solution Catechol (Pyrocatechol Pyrocatechin) Hydroquinone Boric acid Sodium tetraborate Sodium hexametaphosphate Chloroquinol (Adurol) Chromium potassium sulphate Cupric sulphate Cupric chloride Ethylenediamine Amidol Diethylene glycol Catechol Hydroquinone Citrazinic acid Hetol EDTA acid and salts Ethanediol Ammonium ferric citrate Formaldehyde solution Glycin Ferric chloride Ferric chloride Sodium metaborate Hetol Hetol Chloroquinol Phenidone Aluminium potnssium sulphate Potassium dichromate Potassium metabisulphite Chromium potassium sulphate Isopropyl alcohol (Isopropanol) Catechol Pyroglillol Ilydroquinone Sodium metabisulphite Sodium dithionite Thiourea Pyrogallol

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Jl)[l~NDIX 2

There appears to be considerable confusion surrounding the various colour developing agents This is probably due to the fact that these complex compounds helve all been given a different trade name by each manufacturer or distributor L1Ch compound may even have more than one chemical name depending on the chemical nOlllcnclature system used The following is a list of the chemical names and synonyms of the common colour developing agents All of them are derivatives of para-phenylenediamine the classic fine grain black and white developer and they sllare in varying degrees the unpleasant characteristics of this material They should be handled with care and skin contact or inhalation of dust should be avoided llecause these compounds are similar in structure and mode of action they arc interchangeable to some extent the differences being plincipally differcncfs ill activity and solubility Differences in solubility can cause slight colour cilmges but this is really important only with reversal films since with colour 1I~~ative films and colour papers colour casts can usually be corrected by filtration in printing The relative quantities re qui r ed ani adjustments to development times or exposure will have to be determined by experiment The names underlined are those used by Photo Chemical Supplies

Colour Developer I (Sulphate) - Ac t i vo 1 7 (Jejlt1Sltmi--shy= Uiethyl-p-phenylencdiamine sulphate =NN-Diethyl-l4-pbenylenerliamlne sulphate

C lO

II 16

NZ

H2

S04

Holht - 26232

Colour Developer 1 (Chloride) shy middotCOiKodak)

Die til y1- p-pheny lenedl alnine hydroch lorid e = NN-Diethyl-l4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride

MolWt = 20070

lt~ur [tgt velrer CD 2 (Kod~dd Activol 2 (Johnsons) [olochrome (M amp ll) NN-Diethyl-2-methyl-l4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride 4-Alllino-NN-diethyl-m-toluidine hydroch lo r ide

~ol Wt ~ 214 i3

Colour Developer 3 ~-CD3(Kod ak)

Activol 3 (Johnsons) ilyJoch rome (M amp ll) N-E thy 1- 3 -me thy 1- N- (f -me thylsul phonamidoe thy 1) -p-phenylenediamine sesqu isul pha te

monohydrate - Am lllO - N - e thy 1-N - (i me thanesu llhonalnidoe thy 1) -m- to 1uid inc s e s qu is u1pha t e

monohydrate

HolJt 43652

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Colour Develo~er 4 CD4 (Kodik)

= N-Ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyi-2-methyl-l4-phenylenediamine sulphate

~lolWt c 29235CllH18N20112S04

Droxychrome (M amp B) Activol 8 (Johnsons) Colaur Developcr 32 (Merck) T32 (Orwo) N-Ethyl-N-2-hydroxyethyl)-l4-phenylenediamine sulphate monohydrate

Wt 29634CIOH16N20middot1l2S04middotJI20 tiO

Ac60 (Agfa) Colour Developer 60 (Merck) N-Butyl-N-(4-sulphobutyl)-1 4-pheny l~ neciiamine

4-(N-Butyl-N-(4- s u phobutyl)amino)2 t ~ l i _e

Cl4 i 24 N203S HoliVt 30042

Gcnochrome (M amp B) - Acti~ol 1 (Johnsons)

S 28 OM) NN-Diethyl-l4-phenylcnediamine 9ulphit 2 Diethyl-p-phenylencdiamin~ sulphite

Mol ot t 23734

The bhse is ident i cal to Colour Develope r Sulpha t e and Hydrochloride)

APPENDIX 3 Anhydrous and lIydrncd Forms of Sal ts Many of the chemicals commonly used in photographic processing arc availllhlc

either in anhydrous forms or in one or more states of hydration If these oiffc l-ent forms are used in the ratio of their me l e u t ar weights then the amount of active ingredient is constant For example s od i um carbonate is available as the anhydrous powder (Molecular weight 105 99) and as tle decahydrate (Na C0 10I1 0 molecular2 3 2weight 21l6l4) The ratio of their molecular weights is 1270 so for every gram of anhydrous sodium carbonate required 270 grams of the decahydrate would have to be used It is important to remember thill point whe) compa r ing prices of chemicals because a hydrated crystalline form may appear cheaper weight for weight but be actually more expensive because of the add it ional quantity required

The following is a list of the commonly used chemicals which are available 1n different degrees of hydration showing their molecular weights and the ratios in which they should be used Those underlined are the forms which are supplied by Photo Chemical Supplies and are the most usual most economic or most stable form of the chemical concerned

Cupric chloride CUCI =13445 ~20=17048 Use 1127Z Cupric sulphate CuS0 =1596l _+511 deg=2[1)68 Use 1 1 564 2Ferric chloride FeC13c1622l +611 deg=27030 Use 11672Magnesium sulphate ~lgS04120=1J8 39 Z20=24647 Use 1 1 78

Potassium carbonate ~2C03=1J821 +1~1l20=l65_23 Use 1119

di-Potassium hydrogen ~211P04=174l8 +3H 0=22822 Usc 1 1 312orthophosphate

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-- --

~5 rJ Jiunt acct~te Cl COONa = 8203 Ue 1166~~2~= 13(~p~_3o d ium uisul phate NaIlS0 =12006 ~middotZO=lJ8 03 Use 1115

4~2SlJ=105 99 +10il20~2l6 14 Use 1270

)laquo ( ium d i hyd rogp n orthophosphate +211 0=15601 Use 1130

--2 -~---

d l-Slt)(JiJnl hydroren orlhophosphate Na

211P0

4=14196 +21122= 58~l~ Use 1 1 25 252

~ c liJgtn sulphlte +]011 0=32219 lise 1217~a23 =1t-Q~ 2~- dium suiphite i2 S03= 1~6 04 +711 deg=25215 Use 1200

2So diulIl tliiocYlOate N3SCN=8107 +2HZ2l2JQ Use 114-1 ( Ilst stored as 20 solutions)

S dilllll thiosu1phalc i02~22)=15sect1J +51120~24l1l Use 1157

Stannous chloride 21129=22563 Use 1119

l li-SodiUlll orthophosphate - thp mhydrous and crystalline forms not interChangeable due to alkalinity of the crystalline form whi~~ contains applox 2~~ sodium hydroxide

1 i IEND I X LI ~oJiuhl versus Potilssium Salts -- -- - r111( lIajority of phot~g-l--aphic--rroccs s ing soluti~~s sodiulU salts lIIay be

S dltituted [or pntasraquoiullI s 1lts n sodium salts are genentlly diEaper cmiddotleciall) since legs of tlte godiuHl salt is tequired to giV E the same molecular middotmiddot iuivalent In the Clse of tlte anhydrous carbonates and sulphites the sodium lts an 1sJ deliquescent than the potassium salls and 1re therefor easier to sL ore alld hnllJle The only advantage of the potassiLlln salts is their greater s o luui lily Ih e n highly concentrated solutions are made up lleCRuse of the slightly hi her nlkaLinity of the potnssiulO salts SOllie care in controtiing the pH is needed 1-111 11 substituting sodiulll [or potassium salts in buffer sy~te1ls For this reuson L1 uSllal buffer snIts nre not given here The (ollowing is a list of the ratios in which sorne of the CCgtlnlllon sodium nnd potassium sollts should be lIsed to give the I IiU (ecular equiv11cnts

Piltassiurn bromide Sod iUln bromide 100865 PutassiulTI cIrbonnte nnhyd Sodium carbonate Ilnhyd 100765 lJtlssium l)l1tS tUIlI

citr3LIO 0112deg)

hydroxide Sodium citrate (211

2deg)

SodiulII hyel ox ide 100905 100710

l u tass ium l1letabisulphite SodiullI metabislliphite 100 855 f o tl3S iunl Icrslllphilte Sodillm persulphate 100 880 Potassium sulphite anhyd Sodium sulphite anhyd 100 795

ArPENDIX 5 Wei~lts and Measures There are OIany old books which contain phot o graphic formulae 11 lot of which

al e still v11id todilY In Brilain thcse old formulae were Ilsuillly given in avoidupois ulli t rud the following tnbles 0I1Y be uficd to convert these formulae to the metric sf tem Avoi rdupJis Wli~ilts ~~~d TfT~r---- 16 ounces (oz) 7000 grnins (grs) f153 6gra1ll8 (g)

1 Juncc (llZ) 16 tJrll1ls (drm) 4375 grains (grs) 2835 grams (g) dram (drill) 2734 grHins (grs) 177 grams (g)

(1543 grains (grs) 10 gL1n1 (g) )

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Liquid Heaures (Ilritish alld Netd c )

1 quart 2 pints (pL) = 40 fluid oUllces (Floz) 1 136 1 it re (I) pint 20 fluid ounces (Fl nz) 568 millilitres (m1) fluid ounc~ (Floz)= B fluid drams (or d r c hills) 28lllml fluid drachm 60 minims 355ml

(1 minilll = 1 drop)

Temperature conv e rsion Fahrnheit to Celsius (Centigrade) (xoF - 32) x S = yOC

lt) Celsiu9 to Fahrenheit (yU C x 9) + 32 = xOF

5

APPlNlllX 6 Refrences and Funher Reading The following ia a short 1 ist uf publi c ations which readers will find

useful (or further informatiun 1 Jacobson C1 and Jacoblun R E (1976) Developing 18th Edit ion

Focal Press (see below) 2 Jacobson Cl a nd Hannheim LA (1975) Elllarging 22nd Edition Futal Press J Jacobson RE Ray SF Attridge GG and Axford NR (1978) Hanual of

Photography 7th Edition Focal Press I bull Langfo rd H J (1980) Advanced Photogl-aphy 4th Fdition Focal Press S Hason LFA_ ( 1975) Photographic Processing Chemistry 2nd Editioll Focil Press 6 Wat k ins D (19 78) The Focalguide to Coluur Film Processing Focal Press 7 Ilritish Journal of Photography Annual 1982 Henry Greenwood [ Co_ Ltd 28 Great

James Stn ~ t London WCl

The Focal Press Butterworth [ Co (Pllblishers) Ltd Ilorough Green Sevenoaks Kent TN15 flPH

Books 1 2 and] are all standard refere n c e w rks on photographic processing Ilook 4 is a ve r y useftl soutce of inforlUBtion on all aspe cts of photography but particularly on tone and colour reproduc t ion on sensitised materials The bouk by LFA_ Hasun (S) is es~ential [or those wishing to devise formulations of their own especially co loul formulations but the reader shoulJ have some chemical knowshyledge Book No 6 explains the principles o[ colour film processing and describegt th use of a variety of processing kits as well as providing Bubltitute formulae [or brew-it-yourself enthusiasts

The British Juurnal of Photography Annual (n is the traditiollal source of formulae fo r those wishing to mix up their own solut iOlls The formulae cover all aspects of both black and white and colour proc e ssing

NOTE The purpo se of this booklet is to stilllul te interest in the compounding of

photographi c processing solutiuns by tho se ph o t ographers wh o s e ek a greater undershystanding of the medium The ruatedal ill this buoklet is presented in good faith but because results are d e pe ndent on so many factors outside our control we cannot accept l iability for any processing [aults or inju~y to petsolls or property that might ari9 howsoever callsed Becaugte o f the subject ive nature of the medium it is the r e spons ibility of the user to Elac e rtain for himself the suitability of any [ormula or process in relation to hi8 mat e r ials e quipment and objectives Any suggestions from I a ders whi c h could be incorporated into foture editions o[ lhis booklet will be welcome _

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II c knuw l edgcmcnts

Til e author wOlld l ike to thank the f11 owing f o r pc n nisRiOll to us e m1terial for inclusion in this book let

Kod a k te for details of thfir formuln p (morw c hrome) ltlnd for addi t ional h e lpflll info rmati o n

IHo rd Ltd for permis~i on to reproduce their pllb lish e d formula e

Agfa- Ge v a ert Ltd for informat io n o n their p rod u c ts and pro c eRRinr

The Fo c al P If) 9S who publish a wiel e r ang e oC b oks u n plHtogl middot ~PY for permisAion t o US Ilel(cted m1terial [rom SOllI e of their puhlicltions (R ( e Appendix ()

~1r )( rek Watkins for pe rmissio n t o r e pr ud u c ( his slIbstitute 1-6 proc 1ing prn ee- dur( whi c h was first puhlished in the maga zine SLH Camer~

~h G W Crawley fditor of the Bri tish Journal of Photography for prmis9ion lltl rfprodllcE SOIll( of his FX sprifs -f d(vclop(rs

Th E ahv( prsons or organisnion9 (middot 1nnot Iccept 1ny liabil i t y arisin from the nprodnct inn of their lIIal([ial in Ihi hooklet

Writtfn by R C Potts ~fSc and publish e d hy PHOTO CHEMICAL SUPPliES 21 LODGE CLOSE

COWL EY MIDDLE SEX

UBB 2ES - 34 shy

No responsibility accepted for any formula or information contained in this document This is a scan of the original document

Use chemicals and formulae at your own risk Intended for personal and educational use only

Page 8: PCS Darkroom Formulary

111 order to make the working developer alkAline

BLlCK AND llHITE DEVELOPER FORMULAE

In all the formulae in this booklet the quant1t1es are given in grams g ~ for solids and millilitres (ml) for liquids Development times are approximate bLC it is R simple matter to determine experimentally the development times which sui your particular film stock and which yield the contrast and density tau desi r t- o

The chromoGcnic black llId white films XP-l (llfard) and Vario XI(igfa) have been desirned for the Flexicolor C-41 process (see page 2n 1 Gene ral rurpose Developers

These Jeve(opel ~ Crable 1) do not use the silver halide solvent effect a nd s o are not true fine-grain developers However modern films have such inherently fine rrain that true fine grain developers are less important today than they were a fel years ago

Tnble 1 CellP-ral Purpose Devel opers

No 1 No2 No 3 No4 No 5 So ft Normal Normal Contrast Contr ~lQ NQ PQ ~IQ PQ (DI65) (D61a) (ID62 ) (ID2) (IDn)

~Ie t o 1 6 3 2

Sodl m s ulphit e anh yd 25 90 50 75 7

lI yJ r0111 i n__middot _e _ _ _ b 12 8 v__8_Jn ____________________~~~~ ________~

Sodium cnrbonate anh yd 37 11 60 375 48

Phenid onc 05 C 22 ~~------------------------------------~~~~------------~=

rotnssium bromi de 2 2 2 ~--------------~--------~----~~------~---------

Iknzotri azo le 1 20 10

SodiJJm metabi sulphite 2

Wa ter to 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

Dilution 1+3 l middotq 1+3 1+2 None (5tock + Iater) 1+3 1+7 1+5

Approximate development 10 6-7 3-4 5 5 time at 20deg C 12-14 6-7 9

----------------------------------------------------------~---------------

The soft working developer (No1) is useful for ~ubjects with an extended brightness range recorded on slow contrllsty film such as Pan F The ilormlt11 contrast developers (Nos 2 1nd 3) nre eminently practical developers ~ith wide application especially f Or rol1filO1 sheetfilm and plates Formulae 105 4 and 5 are contrasty developers suitnb1e for ordinary films and pllltes 111d can be us ed wiLhout dilution (or lille films such as pes Ortholith 35mm lith film When uld U1Hlilllted No ( is very similar to D19b and IDl9 X-ray film developers

Cal~oll m1Y be IISpJ ill these formulte and should be added before all other ingredieut~ Use up to 3glitre in hard water areas

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2 Fine Gr~in Developers TI(se we ll established fine grain developers (sec Table 2) are particularly

suitnble for miniature films (J5mm or sm31Ier)

1Llble 2 Fine Grain DevelopE

No 6 Fine Grain MQ D76

No 7 Fine Grain D76d

MQ No 8 Fine Grain PQ

Hetol 2 2

Sodium sulphite anhyd 100 100 100

Hyci r-oqui none 5 5 5

Borax 2 8 3

BorIc acid 8 35

Potas sium bromide

Phenldone 02

Hat~r to 1000 1000 1000

Approximate development time 6-10 12-15 10

Formula No6 represents the standard develope r against hiell all otlle r developers are judged Formula No7 is a buffered version o f No6 and yields morc consistent results but since the pH is slightly 10e1 th e developnie nt time s will be longe r Formula No 8 is a PQ developer with characteristics simillr to No7

All the above formulae can be diluted either 1+1 or 1+3 Lo r olle-shet prCccSStng yielding enhlllced acutancc but developmcnt tillllS should be approxshyimately doubled (1+1) or trebled (1+3)

3 Super Fine Grain Developers

These developers (see table 3) usc colour developing agents which are derivatives of -phenylenediallline the classic fine grain developer p-phcnylshyenediallline irself Iws too lIIany unpleasant charct c ristics to be of any use bull nowadays These colour deve lope rs a n~ S low work j ng and rl yc ill aliltI hydcoqu ino ne hav e been included ill formulae 9 and 10 t o nccelcratc developlIIClIt In [annul No II sodium carbolwte is the accelerntor The lulphite cOllcclltrntion is relatively high to make use of the solv(llt effect Sulphite c annot be ulcd in such high concentrntion in colour develolllIClIt of (OIOllf lTIall-inl1l IS iL inhibits the (01 ollr coup I ing rene t ion

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Table 3 Super fine Grain Developers

No 9 No 10 No 11 FocDl fXIO Kod Dk

-shy--_-------------_ Gcnocllrome 20 6

~~lJc in 20

ydroquinolle 6

Nydochrome (CD 3) 5

Sodillm sulphite anhyrl 100 100 30

Sodium carbonate anhyd 30

Borax 20 4

Boric acid 4

lola ter to 1000 1000 1000

Dilution (Stock + 3ter) 1+7 None None

Jppr(l~irnnte development time at 20 C 12-15 8 20

4 tcutallce or IIiIll D(~finiti(1n Developers ----The middot dZutancemiddot dt2vclopecs arc gencrnlly very dilute and require onl y suffic u~nt ngitation to prevent the [ormatLon of streamers The effect of this is twofold Firrtly the developer becomes exhllIsted in areas of heavy exposure yet remains active in the shadow areas This results in good shadow detail (resulting in an incre1se in effective emulsion speed) yet the highlight areas do not become blocked liP This type of cornp~nsRting development yields reduced macro-contrast but the result is not the same ltIS that acheived by ordinary soft-working developers siOlce tl(~ important highlight und shado bull contrast is good and the gradation of the less important ~id-tone9 is compressed The second effect of the high dilutfonl minimum agitation techniqlle is the forl1l3tion of ~Iackie lines which enhlllce apparent imGgc sharpness at the boundaries between lightly and heavily exposed 1re35 This is due to fresh developer on the lightly exposed side of the boundary diffusing across and acceleratill~ deve l opment in the adjacent heavily exposed emulsion Bromide a product of the developm~nt reaction diffuses in the revcrs direction and retilrds development in the lightly exposed en1l1sion adjacent to the boundary The net effect is an incn~ase in the apparent sharpne~s of the boundary

Developers of this type arc not fine grain developers and it is essential that they be used ith slower film8 (bdoN 150 ISI) which have fine grain emulsionr These sloNer films have a thin emulsion and are n3turally contrasty wih good acutillicc 1middotlith the fast films which normally yield a soft grainy neltative the reduction in macro-contrast produces a dull flat image which cannot b improved by printing on hard parer due to the grain In addition the thick emulflion of these [~ut films docs no t lend itself to the development of Mackie lines

Innlula No 12 (nr Table LI) the oriin~l Llclltance fonuJla can be made Jp in two parts the IlIrtol and sulphite in one solution and the carborlJte in the s e cond solution Forll1lae Nos 14 and 15 can be made up as concentrJted stock solucion s and 3f1in t h (o alkali (sonium or potassium carbonate) is kept as a SCp1ilt e solution Wi t h yenormuJ rio 15 the Pinacryptol Yellow solution shoul not be included in the concentrated stock solution but added just before lIe Pinacryptol Yel101Y is l desensicising dye which is decomposed by sulphite When preparing

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-------- ---------------------------

f o r mulae Nos 14 alld IS as concentrated stock soluti u llS it is aclvisable tu make up the solutions (except the carbonlt solution) in 10 iS0prufyl a lcohul (1 part isopropyl alcohol + 9 parts ltIter) as this helps d issulve thp Jeve lopin~ agents and improves the keeping q ua lities All these forllluiltl ( give tu one stop increase in effective emulsion speed

Formula 10 14 (FXlh) is a modification of iln)thcr (UrJlluln (FXl) where the sodium sulphite concentrat ion is only 5g per litre instemiddotad o[ lt0amp pe r 1 itrc This low sulphite furmula yields very high definition negatives bJt is more critical as to tKposure Development times are as [ornlula 10 15 (FX2)

Table 4 High Definition (Acutance) DeveL~~

No 12 Nu l) No 14 No 15 Beutler Jindisch HIll FX2

Crawl(l C_~w 1 e j

~ie tu 1 5 05 02gt

0ycin 075 I

Catechol (Pyrocatechin) 125

5(ld i urn sulphi~~ anhyd 25 80 10 35

Sodium carbonitf~ J an1d 25 25

Pot3ssium carbonate 7S

Po tas sium iodide 0001 solll 5

Pynacryptol yellow 12000 solli 3 5

----------- -----------------------------------------------------~----1000 1000 1000 100 0

----~---------------Dilution 1+10 25ml stock Nunc None

+l5ml potshyassium hydroxide 10k water to 10001111

[)c vmiddotd pmcnt t i llle 7 -1 0 15 - 20 8- J0 12- 15 at 20c i

5 Speed increasing developer f or push-processin g Thi s fine-grain IQ developcrrlO(iS) gives Ill incrcase in cillulsion speed of

a bou t one stop in normi1 use but further specd illcrenses can be achieved by cKtCnding the development tillle Jlth film slich IS 1115 this dolgt not lead to excessive contra~t or grain This developer may aiso be used [or dillllC 011(gtshy

shot procesfiing for enhanccd ltIcutance Dt 1+1 and Ii-] d llut lun (wilII cxt e nLilJ dcvclopmcnt tillles) giving a hulf 10 Olll stop incrcase in slwecl lhi developer is ~irnilar in 1 11 respects to 11[onl ltllltroll1

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Formula No 16 Fine grain speed increDsine developer (ID68)

Sodium sulphite a~lyd 850g llydroquinone 50g Borax 70g Boric acid 20g Phenidone 013g Potassium bromide LOg ImiddotJaCer to 1000 ml

Dllution Time (1115)

None 6middotmiddot9 1+1 11-16 1+3 22-30

Usc undiluted for the indiclted time to give the following speed increases on 111[5

800llSA (1 stop) 8-) mins l600ASA (2 stops) ll-12mins 3~00ASA (3 stops) 16-18mins

6 nigh Contrast Developers These developers give high contrast negatives lind are bese used on thin

emulsion high contrast film such as pes Ortholith film obtainable in 35mm cassettes from Photo ClwlllicoJ Supplies The first is the classic Caustic-hydroquinone developer and the s(cond is the s cand a -d Iniectious development low ulphitic developer T1e lotter is more delnonding of accurate exposure and development bUI

yields the highcst possible contrast for col our separation work and ha~f-tone dot screening Lith film may also be successfully developed using formula~ Nos 4 and 5 (undiluted) which hove better keeping qllalities once used but yield a blightly lowe contrast

No 17 CauGtic-llydro1uinone High Concrast Developer

SOLUTION A llydroquinone 25g

Potassium mctabisulphite 258 (or Sodium metabisulphite 2l5b ) PotassiUM bromide 25p (or Sodium bromide 2l5g) -I1ter to 1000ml

SOLUTlOCl B Sodillm hydroxide 36g (or Potassium hydroxide 50g) -IGter to lOOOml

Usc eqllJI P1rts A and Il and develop for 2-4 minutes The quantity of alkllli in Solntion B may be safely halved without loss of contrast but devrlopment time should be extended slihtly The two solutions keep indefinitely separately but ke e ping properties nre limited once mixed Use an acid stop bath before fixing to avoid staining

Nlt) 18 Infectious Lith Developer

SOLUTlON A Sodium sulphite anhyd 1

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Parafonnaldehyde 15 Po tassilil metaLisulphite 5 (or Sodium metabisulp lti t e I Jg) Water to 500ml

SOLUTiON Il Sodium sulphite anhyd 60 Tloric acid 15 Ilydroquinone 45 Potassium bromide J Water tJ 1500ml

------------------~~~ Use 1 part Solution A and 3 parts Solution Baud develop [or 2 minutes (Mix well and allow to stand for a few minutes before illuoersing fil m) The tlltO

solltloIls keep indefinitely separately and also keep quite well once mixed Both these high contrast dev elopers should be rl ixed fresh [ o r each film [or

best rf9ults pes Ortholith film is orthochromatic and developmcnt can be [olloved under a red safelight

7 HOlloba lils --TIse are solutions ill which development 1nd fixation t a ke place in the same bath In addition to the convenience of being single operation othlter advantages arc that the process is not dependent on criticll tilllillgt telllperatu(e o r agitJtion lmage contrast cannot be altered by extending or c u rtailing d(vel o pne nt but is built-into the mOllobath formula This can be set when m-Iking up the 1II01l0bath pri llci pally by varying the amount of fixing agent (sodium thios u llhate) includ e d The more fixing agent added the softer the contrast III addition the a moun t or act ivi ty of the developing agent can infl ue nce the contnlst o[ the (esult ill g ne gative

Tab le 5 Monobath formulae No 19 No 20

Socl i-lm sylphite anhyd 50 50

12 12

4

Sodiuln thiosulphate anhyd 70 (55-90) 60 (15-80)

Sod i lm h ydro ~ide=-____________--_4 10

Wat er to 1000 1000

P r oc ltss i ng time 5 mi ns +- mi n 5 llI ins-

+ mi n

i ll( degree of cont ras t produc ed will VIH y f ro on ~ f i 1m ype t o allo thl tmiddot and the qu antity of thiosulpbate requir ed will have to be determined e xpe(imentally

Ifor y o ur favourite film stock If a higher contrast than that given by using the lowest quantity of thiosulphate is required the hydroquinone concentration can be I increa s e d by about 25-30 Iloth these monobnths can be re-llned for up to ten [ill1ls or until the film is no longer cleared by the fixing agent CInLidenta lly a [ew minutes in a1 ordinary negative fixer will restore the [ilm) Films an plocessed for about 5 minutes (less for slow films) and washed Jnd dri e d nortlllly

pTO _ regJ1sect It is always good practice to use n stop bath betwee n the developing and

fixing baths An acid stop b1th not only halts develolIlllt 1lld millilliis s cont3mishynation o[ the fixer but also removes the scum formed Ly ~olle developer s nnd prevents

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st1ining particularly of lith materials after a hydroquinone-cauntic dcvclopcr

Table 6 Stop bath formulac

No 21 No 22 No 2) No 24 Acid Stop Buffered Stop Hardening Hardening

Sto~ Bath Stor Bath 2

Sodium Acctate )1l20 ))

Acetic acid (glaciat)(mt) 25 10 65

Chromium potassium sulphate 30 15

Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000

A few drops of stop hattgt indicator such as that obtainable from Photo Chemical Supplies lllay be added The indicator ch111ges from pale ycllow to blue 19 soon as the 11 rilles above 70 (neutral) Thc hardening baths (2) and 24) are sed after high temperature development Formulae 21 and 22 are also suitable stop baths for print processing

yrxrms

Fixation 15 necessary to remove the undeveloped silver halide from the ernU L ion lIardening agents may bc added to harden the emulsion Hardening is essential for films which have been reversal processed or processed at high temperatures and for bromide papers that arc going to be hot-glazed Typical fixers are shown in Table 7

Table 7 Fixllg [laths

No 25 No 26 No 27 No 28 Standard Buffered Buffered Buffered Acid Hypo Hardening Rapid Ilarden bullng Fix~r Hypo Fixer 7ixer Rapid Fixer

Sod i urn t h io 11 ]_--ptat-=e2-=anhtyd_ _ ~____-=-___________________160 150

(or Sodium thinsulphate cryst) (50) (240 )

Ammonium thiosulphate 175 200

Sodium sulphite anhyd 15 25 15

Sodium metabisulphite 25

Acetic acid glacial IS 10 15

Bodc acid 75 10 75

Potassium alum 15 15

Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000

All are used undiluted for films but may be diluted 1+1 for papers The buffered flxer~ havf a partiClllnrly long lifc and the buffered non-hardening rapid fixer (No 27) is recommended for plastic-coated papers such 1S 11fospeed

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REVERSlL PROCESSING OF Damp_ W FILM

Ileversl processing of black Ilnd white film yields positive transparencies with Il beautiful tonal gradation As with all reversal processes exposure and first development must be very carefully controlled beciluse density variatiolls cannot be compensated (or in printing The process involves the developmellt of Lile negative image (first developer) dissolving away the s i lvcr thus fOnilPU (bleach bath) clering and re-exposure to white light (reversal exposure) and develorshyment of the silver halide thus re-exposed (second development) The film is then fixed and washed in the normal way I t is the firs t deve lope r wh ich de termincs the quality of the final image It is usual to include a small quantity of silver halide solvent to brighten the highlights and sodiulll thiosullilate or sodiulll thiocyanate are usually used for this The subsequent processes are carried on more or less to completion so timing is not as critical as with the first developer In the fol~owiJlg procedure the first developer is retained antI used again [or the second dev e lopment

Rev r rsal processing solutions

No 29 Reversal developer (stock solution)

Netol 3g Sodium sulphite anhyd SOg lIydroquinone l2g Sodium carbonate anhyd 6()g Potassium bromide 4g Water to lOOOml

Dilution (stock + water) 1+1

To the diluted working strength developer add sodiulll thiosulphate at the following rale (gram~ per litre)

PAN F FP4 llPS Sodium thiosulphate anhyd 5 75 5 (a~ Sodium thiosulphat~

cryst) (8) (12) (8) AlternAtively a print deve l oper such as Dromophen may be used diluted 1+1 ith thiooulpilate dded as above

No 30 Blcach (two part stock solutions) SOLUTI ON A

Potassium permanganate 2g Water to SOOml

SOLUTION B Sulphuric acid 10 vv lOOml Water to SOOml These stock solutions will keep indefinitely but deteriorate rapidly when mixed

For use mix equal parts of A and D and discard after each film Potassium dichromate (lOg) may be used in place of the Potassium permanganate in Solution A

No 31 Clearing Bath

Sodium (or Potassium) metabisulphite 25g Water to 1000ml

Fixer ---The bleaching solution softens the emulsion and a hardening fixer must be used

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The hardening fixers given enrl ier laquo(onnube Nos 26 and 28) are ideal

Procedure 1 First developel 12 mins at 20

0 e for all llford films with an inversion every 15 seconds Keep the developer for use in the second development

2 Wnsh 3 mins with frequent changes 3 llicach 5 mins with strong continuous agitation Roarbull lights may be

switched on after two minutes in the bleach 4 I~n s h 2 mins with frequent chnnges 5 Clear 2 mins in the Clearing bath 6 Iash 2 mins with changes 7 Reversal exposure Re-expose ench cnd of the spiral for 2 mins at 12-18 inches

from a 100 watt bulb This is best done underwater in a clear gls9 bowl standing on a sheet of white paper Rotate the bulb or the spiral during re-exposure to ensure even illumination

8 Second developer Develop for 6-8 mins at 20 0 C in the developer solution retained from the first development Development time is not critical but should go to completion

9 Rin s e 10 Fix Fix in acid htrdening fixer for 10 mins (formula No 2cent ) or

4 mins (formula No 28) It Final 5h Wash for 30 mins and dryas usual

Modifying the Processed Negative Th e silver imJge obtained after development and fixation may be either l r censhy

sified or r educ ed TIlis is to compensate (or errors in exposure or dlvelopment or both

INTE~(UFICTION

The following for muLt has been select e d [rom the many published because i t is simple effective etsily controlled and yields a permanently enhllnced negative The basic chemicals are reasollably safe unlike the mercury and uranium intensifiers

No 32 Chromium Intensifier

STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium dichromate 12 5g lJnter to 200 ml

STOCK SO LUTION II Hydrochloric acid 10 vv (36 ww) 30ml ( o r I1ydrochloric acid 10 1 ww) (L Iml) (or Hydrochloric acid cone) (]ml) WJter to 200ml For use mi~ 1 part Solution A with 3 parts water and add 1 part rolution n

The negative should be properly fixed and well washed Old negatives should be sO kcd in water for a few minutes The negative is immersed in the intensifier [or 2-3 minutes until the image is (ully bleached (it turns a yellowy-brown colour) It is then washed well until the yellow stain is removed The intensified image is then re-developed after exposure to daylight (or a light bulb 1 minute each side at 18 inches) in l nOli-solvent type developer This may be a print developer or general purpose necative developer such as formtJl No3 or any universal j developer An advantage of thi s intensifier is that the whole proces8 may be repe a ted several times with an increase in intensification each time as the image

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is built up

~EDUCTrON

There are three classes of reducers which reduce the amount o[ silver in the negative in different ways

The subtraltive reducers remove silver from all parts o[ the illlagc (shadows and highlights) at about the salTle rate 50 that the contrast 15 incrcaBed This is uscful for Jver-euroxposed negatives which tend to be flat

The peoporti)lal reducers remove silver in proportion to the density so that the contrast grildient is maintained This type of reducer is suitable for those negatives which are too dense for easy printing through over-exposure ~ombined

with over-development The uper-proportional reducersattack the IllDvy silver depositll more than

[he lightly exposed parts leading to a reduction ill contrast and density Dense contrasty negltives are usually the result of over-development

No 33 Farmers Reducer (Subtractive)

STOCK SOLUTION A Sodium thiosulphate anhyd 32g (or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (SOg) Water to 500ml

STOCK SOLUTION B Potassium ferricyanide 109 Water to 100ml Immediately before use mix 15 p3rts A with 15 parts w(lter and ~dd 1 pa[t B

The process of reduction should be watched carefully and may be stoppcd at nny time by flooding wi th wn ter The ac t i vi ty 0 [ the reducer may be n 1te [cd by va ry ing the qunutity of Soltltion II added [ncrensing t he [crricyanidc increa ses the activity and vice versa The stock solutions keep indefinitely hut the working solution hu 3

short life

No 34 Permanganate - Persulphate Reducer (Proportional)

STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium permanganate 1 solution lZ 5ml Sulphuric acid 10 wlw 65ml Water to 500ml

STOCK SOLUTLON II Ammonium persulphate 25g Water to 1000mi Distilled water should be used to make up these solutions for use take one

part A two ports distilled water and two parts B A slower acting mixture is I part A 4 parts water and 1 part II and this may be easier to control A[ter reduction the action con be halted and the brown stain removed by immersing the negative in a 1-2 solution of sodium (or potnssiul1l) metabisulphite The negative should he thoroughly waMhed before being dried

No 35 Pelslliphate Reducer (Super-proportional) Ammonium persulphate 125g Sulphuric acid lOr ww 5m1 Distilled water to 500101

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The ne)a t i ve shou 1d be fu lly wn shed The leduc t ion mus t be wa tC1ed close ly as the rate varies ~idely with different emulsions nnd with some modern high speed ~mulsions it iR not effective ]t all to 12-157 solution of sodium Ilulphite anhyd can be Ilseu as ] s top bath Imd the negat ive is fi na lly given a good wash

BampW Print Processes [1) NI_I2EV~1QI2yRS

Print developers arc generally fairly contrasty compared to negative developers and of course it ig not necclisary or desirable to use fine grain or acutance techniqupound for prints The colour tone of the image is the main variable in print developers but the colour obtained will depend largely on the type of print paper (eg bromide chlorobromide or chloride)

Table 8 Standard Print Developers

No 36 No 37 No 38 No 39 D163 ID62 ID20 New

PQ Univ NQ Paper Winchester

~middotc to 1 22 3 35

Sodium sulphite anhyd 75 50 50 35

-lL(~ro(l~1 i WJlle 17 12 12 86

Socli11Tl -----shy

carbollate lt1nilyd 65 60 60 63

lhellidolle 05

Potassium bromide 28 2 4 l9

I3cn7otriazole 1 15-25 20 37

Wettinr agent 10 10 10 10

Wnter to 1000 1000 1000 1000

Dilution (stock + water) 1+3 1+3 1+3 1+2 Calgon may be added to all the above at the rate of 2g per litre If the ueveloper is uRed at less dilution development iR more rlpid The

benzotriClzole in these formulilc irnproves the brightness of highlights by reduc i ng fog and also shifts the colour of the illlage towards black or blue-black The New middotIinchester formula (No 39) is a universal paper delTeloper giving good black to nc s and is the basis of many commercially available print developers

Table 9 Warm-tone Print DClTelopers

No +O ~Jo 41

~Lltf01 I i nonc _________--25 ---8_ ___

Sodium Dulphite anhyd 60 60

Sad i IIll carboIlHe anhyd 90 90

~ycin 25

Potassium oronlidc 2

~ater to 1000 1000

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Dilution (Stock + water) 1+3 1+2 Time 2-3 mins 1-2~ mins

Formula No 41 has a warmer tone tllan No 40 but both arc best used on warm-tone papers

STQ- [lATHS FOR PR_INT~

The 1I0n-hilnlenlng stop blths given carlier (Nos 21 and 22) arc suitable f0 r prints as is a 47 solution oE sodium or potassium mctabisulphite (I~Oplitre) good economical stop bilth can be made up by adding 1 part stop batl (as above) to two parts old fixer and mixing up a fresh fixing bath When the stop batll shows exhaustion the stop bath ia discarded and the old fixer converted to the ncw st op bath This double use of fixing solution Lcally does prolong the life of the fl xer bath as a large part of the fixation takes place in the stop bath and the diluti on ensures that no staining occurs

PRINi FIXERS Any of the fixer formulae given earlier for negativcs will provide fix e rs

suitatle for papers (formulae 25-28) The rapid fixers have a much grentcr cJptc ity than the hypo filter s and formula 27 is especially recommended for plastic-coatcd pap~rs Prints on normal paper wh i ch a r c t o be hot-glazed should be fixed in 1

hardening fixer (formulae 26 or 28) Formula 25 is obviously the cheapest to ma ke up but the pll should be monitored and more metabisulphite added to restOt-e thc acidity when required All may be used diluted 1+1 It is advisable not to U 5C the some solution for fixing both films and pape rs even if the same formula is used but to keep film filter and paper fixer i n s eparate bottles

t~ID F9H PAPER PInNTsect The fibre base of normal printing pl pe rs retains acid chemicals from the fj xing

bath which are difficult to remove by -a s h ing alone If after a brief rine 11C

print is i~nersed in a 2-5 solution o f s od ium carbonate anhyd for 2-] minutes the subsequent nonnl wash ensures that all the hypo and hYPolilver camplexes a t c removed This alkaline bath should be used whenever any subsequent trcatmenl of the print such as toning is to be carried out

LYPO ELI~IN~TOB 11C following solution (formula No 42) serves to oxidise the thiosulphate t o

~ulphate which is then easily washed ou t o f the paper

~~_~po Elimin_ator

Hydrogen peroltide solution 3 (10 volume) 125ml or Hydrogen peroxide solution 6 (20 volume) 63mU Ammonia solution 0B80sg 10ml Hater to 1000ml immerse the prints in the above solution after a normill W8lh in running W (l ~ er

for about 5 minutes followed by a fu cthc r Hash of about 10 minute This hyposhyelimnator is made up of volatile compOIw nts so that there is_ no risk of elininllor salts remaining in the p1per-base after drying

PRINT TONING Prints may be toned a variety of colours and depending on subject can yielel very

pleasing results All prints must be tlloroughly washed prior to toning and old prints

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~lloliid be soaked ~n water for a few minute s to soften the emulsion

1) Sepia Toning Th follow(ng method yields perm1nlnt prints with a good brown tone In fact

prints treated in lhis way have greater permanence than untreated prints and the lmiddotLlwd is USLd ill 3rchival processinl The print is first bleached ill a ferri shyqnidcbroHiide bleach until the d3ri~est partH of the image tire a raint straw LU lour 1 t is lilen placed in the toner b3th 1111lt1 the sepia image quickly reappears

Nu (d FerricyanidcDromi de Bleach

Potassium [erricyanide 40g Potassium bromide 251 Jater to 1000mi Tllis stock solution is used undiluted and keeps well if stored in the dark or

ll a dnk bottle It may be re-used until exhausted h[ter bleaching the print 1~ washed well and trGnsferred to tbe following solution

Uu 44 Sepia Toning BGth -Thiolre1 109

Potassium bromide 40g Sodiul1i hydroxide 3-6g WJter to 1000mi The qu~n[ity of sodium hydroxide can be adjusted between the above limits to

yield the desired tone colour This toning bath is preferable to the traditional suJiul11 sulphide hath because of the unpiensant smell and properties of sodium sulphide solutions Thiourea and sod i um sulphide should not be used or stored in lilt dGrkroom or near sensitised materials

bJ lllie Toner This process does not re qruire a bleach stage but the print should be thoroughly

- s hed a[te1 fixation The process intell5ifies the image slightly so prints to bpshytOiled blue should be mnde a little lighter than they would otherwise be

Nu 45 Dlue Toning Bath

SOLUTION A

Potassium ferricyanide Ig Sulphuric acid 10 ww 30ml Wnter to 500ml

SUIUTION 13

Alliinonilim ferric citrate (green) Ig

Sulphuric acid 10 ww 30ml Water to 5001111 Mi elt[uGI parts hand B immediately before use The wet print is immersed

ulltil the desired tone is reached and then washed Excessive wnsh ing will ble a ch lliit the blue colour and just sufficient wash to remove the yellow tain should be lven This bleaching is largely eliminated if the print is lshed in water conshy[lining a l ittle acetic acid (51111 or less per litre)

c) Red TOiler Th~TtO~ing is il traditional red tOller using copper sulphate hglin no

b I each is llluircd

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No 46 Red TOllin~ Bath

SOLUTION A Cupric s~lphate (511 deg) 12 5g

2Sodium citrate 500g (or Potassium citrate) (55g) Water to SCOml

SOLUTION B Potassium ferricyanide 109 Sodium citrate 50 g (or Potassium citrate) (SSg) Water to SCOml Use equal volumes of II and B mixed just before use The image colour changes

through warm black then sepia to rea 2nd t he process can be halted at any stage by flushing with water The print is th~n wa s hed and dried normally

PRINT nEDUCERS Print reducers are generally used Eor the local reduction of dense parts of

iarge prints for generally brightening dense flat prints or for removing fiilvcr completely from unwanted areas Farmers Reducer (formula No 33) is the most commonly used print reducer and shoul d Df t sed s ufficiently diluted to allow control of the reduction proc ess Use scr 1p dn ts to de t e rmine the appropriate conditions ~len using Farmers Reducer wash the pr in t frequently in running water or permanent yellow staining may occur Farmers Reduc e r used very dilute is ideal for brightening dense flat prints It is a s ub t ractive reducer and gives bright highshylights a nd increased contrast

~len heavy deposits of silver have 0 igt e remov ed completely such as that cause1 by pinholes in line nega t i ves Fa nna r s Reduce r is not su i tab Ie because of the possibility of staining The followin g formula (No 47) is an iodine re ducer which i9 very effect i ve at removing dense silver

No 47 Iodine Reduce r

Potas sium iodide 1Sg Iodine crystals 05g Water to lOOml This reducer is applied to the mOl s t lot ~et) print with a swab or brush and

the resulting brown Btain is easily r emove d in a 15 solution of sodium thiosulphate Illlhyd (or 25 sodium thiosulphate cryst ) after a rinse in water The print should then be thoroughly rinsed

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Colour Processing Besides offering real economy brew-it-yourself colour processing is v~ry

satisfying and can yield results superior to those offered by ln3ny commercial proshycfSSinl~ houses All that is required ilre careful working methods and atttntion to dltlails Tlte Icrwrill instruction relating to monochrome proc(ssin~ should be r~d in conjunction with thcse notes on colour processing It should be emphasised that the formulae given in this section are not those of the film manufacturers who do not publish their formulae but have been worked out to yield results comparable with the manufacturers recommended processing

Time and Temperature Cololl~ ma-terials are not as flexible as black and white materials with regard

to development conditions since wide deviation from the recommended development can yield shifts in colour balrnce ohich lQay be impossible to correct in printing With reversal materials in particular exposure must be accurate and the time and temperature of the first development is crucial as thi largely determines the quality of the ftnal transparency In the C(j process the processing temperature is rather high (3a

oC) bllt this must be maintained at least for the first dtvelopment There is

slightly more leeway ~Iith the other st~ges but these should b~ kept within the limite shown The sallie applies with colour development of negative materials and again the processing tenrperature of the C41 procefiS is high (also JaoC) The times given in the formulae include 10-15 seconds to uHo~ for draining the tank

H~king up the Solutions As wi th all the - formulae in this bookl e t the chemicals should be dissolved in

tire order given Some of the colour dev e lo p ing agents while extremely solub i I wa te r tend to separn te out in the a 1 k a 1 ine J eve loper sol ut ions Ita aov isab le to dissolve the colour developing agen t to gether with the hydroxylamine (hydro shycldoride or sulphnte) where p r e sent se pa r a te ly i n part of th e total volume of water alld add this slowly 0 th e rerna mJer o f the solution some time before use rile hydroxylamine acts as an antioxidant and is required because the sulphite conshyclntrltion hCls eO be low Hydroxylamine is rapidly decomposed in alkaline solutions ill the pr se nce of sequestering agents of the EDTA type so Cnlgon should be used i n h~rd water ~~ r e s rather than EDTA

V~QCESliING G9J~QI1lLill=VERSAL FILMs_U0R COLOUR SLIDES) There are at present two princiPlll systems for colour reversal film prGcessing

(excluding Kodachrome) The first is the ~g fachrome 41 process covering all Agfa r-tJVersal fi 1m (except Igfachrotnc [(IOOS Profe ssional - proce Sl E6) olhether sold process paid or not Thepound are few if any other makes o f [i Tm available in Britain ohich use this process The second ir the Kodak Ektachrome E6 process hich covers IllOSt of the rCIllining colour n~versal films There are a few filns Idlich ltIre still made for outdated process es sLlch as ORWO f i l ms ohich are proc e s sed by an old Igf~ process Rnd some specillised Ko d ak films suc h as Ektachrome In f rared Film find Photomicrography Color Film 248J which are processed by the old E-4 process There may still be a [ew films from independent manufacturers designed for the old E ~ process

Kodak Kod~lchlome films are sold process paid and user processing is not feasible

Keversal Exposures - Reversal film mUfit be given a fogging exposure to light (Where chemical fegging is not used) after the first development Because the emulsion is very much less sensitive at this stage than normal film this exposure mtlst be rather intense It

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is best to remove the film from the spinl and SCC-SDW it through plain wter below a Photo flood lamp Ilowever a wet delicate film is difficult to reload into the spi ra 1 (bes t done under lola ter) and it is cas icr to leave the film in thc 5 pi ra 1 nlld extend the exposure time With clear spira ls thc exrosure time should be at lea~t

doubled and with the translucent nylon spira l s the exposure should be increased 5-10 fold When the film is not removed for the exposure place the spiral in a white 001011 of water (or a clear glass bowl on J wl ite surface) and place the lamp above it During the exposure of each end of the s pir a l the lamp or bowl should be moved about so that the exposure is more even Watc r and cl~ctricity dont mix so care is needed and a hot photoflood lamp will burst if s plashed Dont skimp on th e reversal exposhysure - it is easy to underexpose but dif f ic ul t to overexpose For the Ektachrome E-6 p r-ocess a reversa l bath which chemi c3 1y fogs tile film making the reversal exposure unnecessary i s available from Pb c to Chemical Supplies

The Agfachrome 41 Proce ss Suitablc for all Agfa Reversal poundll ns (except Agfachrorne RIOOS Professional

available in 120 size and sheet film only)

formul ~ e - Agfachrome 41 No 48 First Developer

Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g middot1e to 1 3g Sodium sulphite anhyd SOg Hydroquinone 6g Sodium carbonate anhyd 40g Potassium thiocyanate 25g Potassium bromide 2g otassium iodide 0 1 Solution 6ml wate to 1000111

No 49 Stop Bath

Ac etic acid glac iol 101 Sodium acetate (3H 0) lO g

2Water to 10001111

No 50 Colour Developer PART I

Sodium sulphit e anhyd 3 5g Hydroxylamine hydrochloride I t Potassium bromide 19 Colour Developing Agent see below Ethylenediamine (50 vv Soln) 16ml (or 2-phenylethylamine) (3ml) -later to 300ml

PART BI Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g S~dium carbonate anhyd 62g Water to 500ml

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c) lour iPVf loping age nts [0[ Part lI

Colour Dev e loper 1 (sulphate) 28g or Colour l)eve l o pe r I (chloIide) ( CIH) 22g or Cenochrollc 2 5g or Dtoxych rome 3 2g

lOOt usc add ParL II slowly to Part D with tirring and make up to a total volume o f 10U0Il1I

No 51 [leach ~-----Po tas s ium-[e rr i CY[lnidc 80g

Potassium bromide 30g Sodium acetate (J1l 0) 50g2lor ic Jeid 5g Potnssiwa nll11 30g Water to 10001111

Ngt 52 Fixcr ---S-oJI~-tTiosu I ph a te anhyd l25g

(or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (200g) Sodiul1l s ulphi te lnhyd lag Imiddotlater to 1000ml

Th pit of this fixer is approximately neutral Do not use an acid fixer because it Jill blcnch th e dyes

Nu 53 Stnbiliser - --- We t ti~g agelt - Im1

Forlllaide hyde 0 5ml I-Jte r to IOOOml

~ (lCeslng Procedure lIrfachrome 41

At 20 0 C (minutes) At 24degC (minutes )

1 First Developer 18 - zr-----shy lJ-l~ (z00-O 50C) (2l 0 -02SoC)

2 Rin sc ~ 3 St op bath 4 3 4 1[151 10 7 S Reve r sni Exposure See be l~w 6 Colour developer 14 (20 0 -0SoC) 11 (z4 0 02SoC) 7 - 1 5 h 20 14 8 Ill eac ll 9 I-[lsh 5 4 lll Fix 5 4 ll Wash 10 7 12 Stabil iser 1 1 1] Dry (30 D

e) mox

One minute each side with film r emo ved from spiral 2 minuteR each end rf clear sl c rlll lid 5-10 minutes ench end of ttanslucent nylon spirill frolll a No2 Photoflood a l I lie t re () f le t)

Thp t Cll peratllre during the Lwo developme nt stages should be maintained within til limits shown For other stages tlte t e lllperature may range from 17-20lC or 21 - 2llC The third wash (Htole n iu raLh e r long and it is important that it is llt lL shorted In soft watcr ilHilS this lung wallh nwy c ause the clUulsion to slocll Su un int e l-mediate bilth of 5 minutes immediately J(tcr the colour developer can be given to prevent excessive swelling This is a 2 solution of either sodium

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sulphate or magnesium sulphate (Glaubers salts or Epsom Salts) If the intermediate bath is used the third wash may be shortened by 5 minutes In the two developer baths agitation should be continuous for the first 30 seconds followed by two invershysions every half minute for the rest of the period

As usual it is the developer solutio 1~ which deteriorate first The remalnlng solutions (stop hath bleach and fixer ) have double the capacity of tIle two developers Ea ch litre of developer should process 6-8 films but the development timcs should be extended by 30 seconds at 20degC (or 20 5cco~ds at 24 o

C) after the first two films anQ after each subsequent two films hi applies to both the first and colour deve lo pers

rne Ektachrome E-6 Pro ess 1 am indebted to Mr Derek Wa tkl 9 r0~ permission to reproduce this formula

wh i ch first appe1red in the March 198 1 i sgt lc of the magazine SLR Camera (Haymnket Publi t hing Ltd 38-42 Hampton Road TCd ingcon Middlcsex)

There are a lot of films from man n~rUl facturers sold under a wide variety of brand names which are compatible with the E-6 process Even Agfa make an E-6 compatible film (Agfachrome RIOOS Professional)

FormuL ae - E-6 i-lo-54---first Deve 1upe r

Sodium 6exametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g Sodium sulphite anhyd J9g Potassium carbonate anhyd 14g Sodium bicarbonate 12g Phen i done O 6g Itydroluinone 6g Sodium bromide 22g Sodium thiocyanate Ig Sodium hydroxide 33g Pot~asium iodide (01 50ln) 45ml Water to 1000m~ pH 9 6-005

No 5~ Stop Bath 1 ------S0dium acetate anhyd 30g

(or Sodium acetate 320) (50g) Acetic acid glacial 6ml Water to 1000m~ pit 55-02

No 56 Colour Develoger Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g tri-50dium orthophosphate 1220 36g Sodium hydroxide 3g Sodium sul~lite anhyd 4 5g 3gtdium bromide 065g Potassium iodide (01 Soln) 30ml Sodium thiocyanate 1 3g Citrazinic acid 1 25g CD-3 l1g ~oter to 1000mi + pH 1165-005

bull 23 shy

S LOp lath 2 Same as Stop lath 1 but once used do no t interchange them

No 57 ll l e ach lotassiulil (erricyanide 80g Potassium bromide 20g Ji-So JiullI hydrogen orthophosphattnnhyd 12g (or di-Sodium hydrogen olthophosphnte

1211 2deg) (JOg) Acetic acid glacial 5ml Hater to IOOOrot plt 55-02

No 58 Fixe r - - Sndi-u-thiosulphate Mlhyo 125g

(or SodiulTl thiosulpilte cryst ) (200g) SodiuJJ sulphite anhyd 5g So dium me tabisulphite O5g Water to lOOOlllt 11 72-02

~Jc tt ing JgCllt lmL

L r to lOOOml

Time ~pe ratute

l First development 6r J8-U57 - shygt Stop iJath 1 2 33-JoC J Ih 2 3J-J90C 4 Reversal Exposure Two minutes each side with (ilm removed

froro spiral 5 minutes each side of clear spiral ano 10 minutes each side of nylon spiral with No 2 PhotofLoud at

(Or HeveJs31 JlJth) (ObtainJhle 12 inches frolll Photo Chical Supplies) 2 JJ-J90C

5 Col o ur u(ve [o[JllICnt G JSlOC 6 St o p Bath 2 2 JJ-l)degC 7 1-1 2 ])-J9()C g 11 [e middoth 5 JJ-l9C l) Rins e ~ 3J-390C [0 fix 5 3J-390C II Wnsh 6 33-J90C I ~ S tid il s c 1 3J-390C n Dry (Fillll cllt~Jrs on drying) r uTES ) As wilh all revlrsnl processes the [irut developer largely delermines the ehnrilct(tmiddotistic~ o[ the final translnrency Jntl the rcconlllltnJeu time anJ temp~rature

hlHJ1J be Iuhlrcu to b) AgitJtion in 11 ba ths (except the optional reversal bnth and the stabiliser

- - - - - - - ------------

wllich should not be agitated) is continuous for the first 15 seconds followed by two

inversions of the tank each subsequent half minute With the reversal bath and stnbiliRer an initial inversion to ensure uniform distribution is all that is required cl The conditioner bth in the offici)l process is lwl required in the pLOceJllre given hele as this useR ferricyllnide bleach rather than all EUTA hl(ach d) The two Rtop hth re of identical compositioll bllt should not be illtcrchlIircl due tu dnmn~illg carry-over contomination e) The caplcity of the solutiolls is 10 filll1ll pr litre (36 exposure - 35 or 120 roll film) bnt the tillle in the first developer must be extencled hy 15 second~ after the first two films and after each subsequent two films (by 20 seconds fOl the last two films) f) The made-up solutions should be scored in dark bottles at room temperature not in the refrigerator The first developer will keep for two months unused or for four weeks once used The colomiddoti developer will keep for 3 months unused or 2 lIIo11~hs partly used nd all the remaining solutions will keep for 6 months ur longer Although the first developer contains many ingredients it is not expensi ve to moke up Thus it is worthwhile retaining the remaining solutions to be used ith a ((esh ly made fi rs t deve loper if the fu 11 capac i ty canno t be used in the four we ek life 0f the original first developer g) Drying temperature should not exceed 60

0 C and all EktachrOllle films only clclr

when nearly dry For information on process control and fault finding in both Agfachrome 41 and

Ektachrome E-6 the reader is referred to The Focal Guide to Colour Film Proces~ing by Derek IJAtkins (published by the Focal Press norough Green SevEnolt)ks Kent TNlS 8PB) This excellent book also gives 11 the background information you may require Also in the book is a substitute E-4 process (as well an a low cost Ln~ temperature simplified E-4 process) for those films using this system This book also covers colour negative film processing

PROCESSING COLOUR NEGATIVE FILMS (PLUS XP-l AND VARIa XL BL~CK A~~lJTE FIL~ ~~__________~_ ____~______M~)__ __

As with colour reversal film the two major manufacturers of ~olour fil~s A~ [a

and Kodak each have tlieir own fi lms and processing systemy [or cololJr negative~ Again the trend seems to be towards a unified compatible system based on Kodaks C-lfl prccens

Processing negative film is very much eaGier tlan reversal processing for two reasons Firstly there are fewer steps in the processing sequence with no revcr~al EXpOSlln required and secondly there ill a little more latitude with tlte pro cessing since most faults can be corrected later at the print ing sta ge HOI_e ver cons iL e nt good resutts depend on consistent processing Attention to detail ~ile proce8s i ng a film can save a lot of time later on

Agfacolor N Negative Process ---T-tiis-process is in tended for all II fa co lour nega t i ve film (CNS CNS2 ann 80S Pr~fe9sionol) excluding AgCacoluur CNS400 negative film This ltter is designed to be processed in Agfacol o r Peo ceMs 70 chemicals and is compatible witl l Kodaks Flexicolor C41 process as is Agf a s chromogenic 131ack and ~hite film Vor l XL

The Agfacolor N process is slightly unusual in that the devclopmpnt is 11101-11(

to continue in the lowlgtr layers of the e mulsion during an intermedi1 t e bath wll icll immediately follows the colour developer

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Pu rmulnc - Agfucolour N i u 59- Colur- ll(vIoI~er SULUTION A

Sodium hexnmetaphosphate (Calgon) 2g PutnsSilJln carl)ooatc atlhyd 75p Potassium bromide 25p Wat e r Lo 500ml

~()LUTroN Il

lIydroxylamine hydrochloride 19 (or Hydroxylamine sulphate) 0 2g) Sodium sulphite anhyd 35g Colour Dcvcloppr 1 (Sulph~te) 28g (or Colour Developer 1 (chlorideraquo C22g) (or Cenocilrome) (25g) (0 t Droxych rome) (J2g) ) t e r to SOOml

I l d B tlJ A with stirring before use

Nu 60 Intermediate Bath -- -~lgn~sin sulpil1te--===- JOg

Mixed (or used) Colour Deve lope r 501n 30ml 1000011

No 61 Bleach --S-(Tll~eXaeLaphospilate (Cnlgon) 5g

Potassiulll fcrricY1nide 42g Potassium brolllidp 12g 10[ltl8siu dihydrogen orthophosphate 15g di-Potassium hydrogcn ortilophosplwte

nll Jil yd Sg Water to 1000111

Nl 62 Fixer -------sz-dG----Umiddotios ul phn te nnhyd 125g

(01 Socii um thiosulphntc cryst) (200g) SodiulIl sulphitc anhyd 109 Wnter to 1000ml

ltc~ing Procedure Agfacolollr N Time (mins) Telpernture degc-S----shy

1 Colour developer 20-02 2 Intermediate bath 4 2005 J -IDsh 15 (lllinilllllm)-20 15-20 4 IHench 6 2005 5 Hash 6 15-20 6 FLx 6 18-20 7 -Ilsh 10 15-20 fl ~~ett lllg agent bath 15-20 N)lI~S

Agit1tilln in niL stDges is continuous (or the fi1st minute followed by o ue j version of Lhc LIll( (very hoi ( minute thcrcnfter

llevcl)plIlcnt 11I3Y be varied betccn 7 - 9 minutes Increase ueve10pment to 9 llItes Lo incrcasc contrast and reduC(~ the time to 7 minutes (or softer results

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The orange mask is formed in the bleach bath and the recommended time and temperature for this stage should be followed as the density of the mask increases with time

All the solutions including the co l our developer solutions (separately) shoilid keep for at least 4 months Once mixed the colour developer (and the intermediate bath) will only Inst a f ew weeks

The capacity is 6 - S films (135- 36 o C 120) per litre but the development ttne shoul d be incr eased with each film or pair of films to compensate for developer e xha ustion The c a pa c ity of the co lou r d vetoper s may be e xtended by mixing onl y

al f of so lu tions I a n d B and proceSS in f( 4 i ilms in e ach h a lf In this ca s e prolong the development time by one mi nute a f ter eacll film

Flexi color C-41 Tlis process was developed by Kod lt1 ilt [or the mach i ne pro ces~ing of their nc~

colour negative films Kodacolor II and Ve ricolor II The majorit y of colour films from independent manufacturers are now made compatible with the C-~l process In addition there are the two chromogenic bl ack and white films lifords XPI and Ag Eal s Vario XL whi ch were designed fo r C- 41 processing l gfas fast colour nega t i ve film CNS400 should also be proce sed i n C- 41 chemicals

Because C-41 was designed for use i n au t omated commercial laboratories the processing t emperature is rather h i gh (IOO or 3So

C) As with the ~ktachrome E-6 precess these high temperatures bring abo ut the a s sociated problems of short development times and DE maintaining t hL t empe ra ture betwe en the prescribed limit~ Tha t t hes e pro b lems are easi l y ove rc ome i s J emon s trat ed by the many thousa nds of amac e urs who s ucce ss f ully process t hei L own pol and Vari o XL monochrome films in

oC-4 chemicals at 3S C

The following formulae represent a l ow cosi substitute procedure using a traditional ferricyanide bleach

ihe substi t ute process is reproduc d fr om The Focalguide to Colour Film Proc es sing by Derek Wat ki ns with k i nd p2r ssion from the Focal Press

Formu11e C-4l

No 63 Colour Developer Sodium hexarroetaph()sphate (Calgon) 2g Po tassium carbonate anhyd 38g Sodium sulphite anhyd 5g Potassium iodide 01 Soln 2ml Potassium bromide 1 5g lIydroxamine hydrochloride 2g CD-4 5g Wlter to 1000ml

No 64 Stop Bath Ae tic acid glacial 20011 Sodium acet1te 311 0 25g

2Water to 1000ml

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------ ----------------

~

No 65 Bleach Potassium nitrate 2SB Potassium ferricyanide 30g Potassium bromide 12g Boric acid 5g Sodium tetraborate (Borax) 19 Water to 1000ml

No 66 Fixer Sodium thioulphate anhyd 125g (or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (ZOOg) Sodium metabisulphite 20g Water to LOOOtnl

No 53 Stabiliser Wetting a ~r~ nt 1m1 Formaldehyde 40 511 )1 ~ater to lOOOm1

f ocessinG Procedure e-4l (with [erricY~lnid( bleach)

Time Temperature degc l Colour development 31- 38~~--

2 Stop bath 35-40 J Wash 35-40 4 Bleach 35-40 5 ~ash 35-40 6 Fix 35-40 7 ~ash 35-40 8 Stabiliser 35 -40 9 Dry

Agitation in the developer is continuous for the first half minute followed by one inversion of the tank each quarter minute thereafter In the remaining solution s the agitation may be reduced t o t lJO in ver sions every half minute after tilE init i a l )0 sec onds cont inuous agit a tio n e ach bath

TIll capacity of the so lut ions is a pplC))limately twelve films per litre if the dev eloper is made up as two 500ml port iuns dn d six films devel oped in eacll portion The development time should be extended by minute after the f irst two films and by middot a further i minute aft er t he seco nd 1lt1 fi ms A comb i ned b1each f ix bath may be u~cd in this procss b t t o[ cours Lilis calllu t be a f e rr i c Yll1ido ball ed bleach A sllitable formula can be found in t h e Br i i sh J our nal of Photography Annual

PIWCESSING COLOUR PRINTS For copyrigllt reasons we arc unabl e t o re produce the substi t ute fo rmulae for

colour print processing The f onnulae and pr ocedure s are quit e straight~orward and lIIay be found in the British Journal of Photography Annual Photocopies of the relevan t pnu es may be obtained for a nominal sum from the publishers This applies to earlic~ editions of the book and to the current edition after stocks are sold out (u s ually April or Hay) The address to 0 i s

Tlte Ed i tor Ilritish Journal of Photography Annmiddot qL Henry Greenwood ( Co Ltu 28 Creat James Street London WeI Telephone 01-404 4202

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APPENDIX I Chemical Names Seeals- Appendix 2 for Colour Developing Adurol Amidol Amidosulphonic acid Ammonium alum Ammonium hydroxide l2-B(nzenediol 14-Benzenediol Bor1cic acid Borax Calgon Chlorchydroquinone Chrcmlt alum Copper sulphate Copper chloride l2-Diaminoethane 24- Diaminophenol hydrochloride Digol l2-Dihydroxybenzene l4-Dihydroxybenzene 26-Dihydroxyisonicotinic acid Elo Ethy l enediaminetetraacetic acid and sa l ts Ethyl~ne glycol Ferri~ ammonium citrate Formalin p-Hydroxyphenyl glycine Iron perch loride Iron trichloride Kcdalk p-HtLhylaminophenol sulphate Nethyl p1raaminophenol sulphate middotIonoch 10 rhyd rOluinone 1- Pheny 1- 3-pyrazo lidone Potasnium alum Potassium bichromate Potassium bisulphite Potassium chrome alum Propan-2-01 Pyrocatechin (Pyrocatechol) Pyrogall ic acid Quino Sodium bisulphite Sodium hydrosulphite Thiocarbamide I 2 3-Trihydroxybenzene

and Synonyms Agent)

Chloroquinol 24-Diaminophenol hydrochloride Sulphamic acid Aluminium ammonium sulphate Aoononia solution Catechol (Pyrocatechol Pyrocatechin) Hydroquinone Boric acid Sodium tetraborate Sodium hexametaphosphate Chloroquinol (Adurol) Chromium potassium sulphate Cupric sulphate Cupric chloride Ethylenediamine Amidol Diethylene glycol Catechol Hydroquinone Citrazinic acid Hetol EDTA acid and salts Ethanediol Ammonium ferric citrate Formaldehyde solution Glycin Ferric chloride Ferric chloride Sodium metaborate Hetol Hetol Chloroquinol Phenidone Aluminium potnssium sulphate Potassium dichromate Potassium metabisulphite Chromium potassium sulphate Isopropyl alcohol (Isopropanol) Catechol Pyroglillol Ilydroquinone Sodium metabisulphite Sodium dithionite Thiourea Pyrogallol

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Jl)[l~NDIX 2

There appears to be considerable confusion surrounding the various colour developing agents This is probably due to the fact that these complex compounds helve all been given a different trade name by each manufacturer or distributor L1Ch compound may even have more than one chemical name depending on the chemical nOlllcnclature system used The following is a list of the chemical names and synonyms of the common colour developing agents All of them are derivatives of para-phenylenediamine the classic fine grain black and white developer and they sllare in varying degrees the unpleasant characteristics of this material They should be handled with care and skin contact or inhalation of dust should be avoided llecause these compounds are similar in structure and mode of action they arc interchangeable to some extent the differences being plincipally differcncfs ill activity and solubility Differences in solubility can cause slight colour cilmges but this is really important only with reversal films since with colour 1I~~ative films and colour papers colour casts can usually be corrected by filtration in printing The relative quantities re qui r ed ani adjustments to development times or exposure will have to be determined by experiment The names underlined are those used by Photo Chemical Supplies

Colour Developer I (Sulphate) - Ac t i vo 1 7 (Jejlt1Sltmi--shy= Uiethyl-p-phenylencdiamine sulphate =NN-Diethyl-l4-pbenylenerliamlne sulphate

C lO

II 16

NZ

H2

S04

Holht - 26232

Colour Developer 1 (Chloride) shy middotCOiKodak)

Die til y1- p-pheny lenedl alnine hydroch lorid e = NN-Diethyl-l4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride

MolWt = 20070

lt~ur [tgt velrer CD 2 (Kod~dd Activol 2 (Johnsons) [olochrome (M amp ll) NN-Diethyl-2-methyl-l4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride 4-Alllino-NN-diethyl-m-toluidine hydroch lo r ide

~ol Wt ~ 214 i3

Colour Developer 3 ~-CD3(Kod ak)

Activol 3 (Johnsons) ilyJoch rome (M amp ll) N-E thy 1- 3 -me thy 1- N- (f -me thylsul phonamidoe thy 1) -p-phenylenediamine sesqu isul pha te

monohydrate - Am lllO - N - e thy 1-N - (i me thanesu llhonalnidoe thy 1) -m- to 1uid inc s e s qu is u1pha t e

monohydrate

HolJt 43652

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Colour Develo~er 4 CD4 (Kodik)

= N-Ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyi-2-methyl-l4-phenylenediamine sulphate

~lolWt c 29235CllH18N20112S04

Droxychrome (M amp B) Activol 8 (Johnsons) Colaur Developcr 32 (Merck) T32 (Orwo) N-Ethyl-N-2-hydroxyethyl)-l4-phenylenediamine sulphate monohydrate

Wt 29634CIOH16N20middot1l2S04middotJI20 tiO

Ac60 (Agfa) Colour Developer 60 (Merck) N-Butyl-N-(4-sulphobutyl)-1 4-pheny l~ neciiamine

4-(N-Butyl-N-(4- s u phobutyl)amino)2 t ~ l i _e

Cl4 i 24 N203S HoliVt 30042

Gcnochrome (M amp B) - Acti~ol 1 (Johnsons)

S 28 OM) NN-Diethyl-l4-phenylcnediamine 9ulphit 2 Diethyl-p-phenylencdiamin~ sulphite

Mol ot t 23734

The bhse is ident i cal to Colour Develope r Sulpha t e and Hydrochloride)

APPENDIX 3 Anhydrous and lIydrncd Forms of Sal ts Many of the chemicals commonly used in photographic processing arc availllhlc

either in anhydrous forms or in one or more states of hydration If these oiffc l-ent forms are used in the ratio of their me l e u t ar weights then the amount of active ingredient is constant For example s od i um carbonate is available as the anhydrous powder (Molecular weight 105 99) and as tle decahydrate (Na C0 10I1 0 molecular2 3 2weight 21l6l4) The ratio of their molecular weights is 1270 so for every gram of anhydrous sodium carbonate required 270 grams of the decahydrate would have to be used It is important to remember thill point whe) compa r ing prices of chemicals because a hydrated crystalline form may appear cheaper weight for weight but be actually more expensive because of the add it ional quantity required

The following is a list of the commonly used chemicals which are available 1n different degrees of hydration showing their molecular weights and the ratios in which they should be used Those underlined are the forms which are supplied by Photo Chemical Supplies and are the most usual most economic or most stable form of the chemical concerned

Cupric chloride CUCI =13445 ~20=17048 Use 1127Z Cupric sulphate CuS0 =1596l _+511 deg=2[1)68 Use 1 1 564 2Ferric chloride FeC13c1622l +611 deg=27030 Use 11672Magnesium sulphate ~lgS04120=1J8 39 Z20=24647 Use 1 1 78

Potassium carbonate ~2C03=1J821 +1~1l20=l65_23 Use 1119

di-Potassium hydrogen ~211P04=174l8 +3H 0=22822 Usc 1 1 312orthophosphate

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-- --

~5 rJ Jiunt acct~te Cl COONa = 8203 Ue 1166~~2~= 13(~p~_3o d ium uisul phate NaIlS0 =12006 ~middotZO=lJ8 03 Use 1115

4~2SlJ=105 99 +10il20~2l6 14 Use 1270

)laquo ( ium d i hyd rogp n orthophosphate +211 0=15601 Use 1130

--2 -~---

d l-Slt)(JiJnl hydroren orlhophosphate Na

211P0

4=14196 +21122= 58~l~ Use 1 1 25 252

~ c liJgtn sulphlte +]011 0=32219 lise 1217~a23 =1t-Q~ 2~- dium suiphite i2 S03= 1~6 04 +711 deg=25215 Use 1200

2So diulIl tliiocYlOate N3SCN=8107 +2HZ2l2JQ Use 114-1 ( Ilst stored as 20 solutions)

S dilllll thiosu1phalc i02~22)=15sect1J +51120~24l1l Use 1157

Stannous chloride 21129=22563 Use 1119

l li-SodiUlll orthophosphate - thp mhydrous and crystalline forms not interChangeable due to alkalinity of the crystalline form whi~~ contains applox 2~~ sodium hydroxide

1 i IEND I X LI ~oJiuhl versus Potilssium Salts -- -- - r111( lIajority of phot~g-l--aphic--rroccs s ing soluti~~s sodiulU salts lIIay be

S dltituted [or pntasraquoiullI s 1lts n sodium salts are genentlly diEaper cmiddotleciall) since legs of tlte godiuHl salt is tequired to giV E the same molecular middotmiddot iuivalent In the Clse of tlte anhydrous carbonates and sulphites the sodium lts an 1sJ deliquescent than the potassium salls and 1re therefor easier to sL ore alld hnllJle The only advantage of the potassiLlln salts is their greater s o luui lily Ih e n highly concentrated solutions are made up lleCRuse of the slightly hi her nlkaLinity of the potnssiulO salts SOllie care in controtiing the pH is needed 1-111 11 substituting sodiulll [or potassium salts in buffer sy~te1ls For this reuson L1 uSllal buffer snIts nre not given here The (ollowing is a list of the ratios in which sorne of the CCgtlnlllon sodium nnd potassium sollts should be lIsed to give the I IiU (ecular equiv11cnts

Piltassiurn bromide Sod iUln bromide 100865 PutassiulTI cIrbonnte nnhyd Sodium carbonate Ilnhyd 100765 lJtlssium l)l1tS tUIlI

citr3LIO 0112deg)

hydroxide Sodium citrate (211

2deg)

SodiulII hyel ox ide 100905 100710

l u tass ium l1letabisulphite SodiullI metabislliphite 100 855 f o tl3S iunl Icrslllphilte Sodillm persulphate 100 880 Potassium sulphite anhyd Sodium sulphite anhyd 100 795

ArPENDIX 5 Wei~lts and Measures There are OIany old books which contain phot o graphic formulae 11 lot of which

al e still v11id todilY In Brilain thcse old formulae were Ilsuillly given in avoidupois ulli t rud the following tnbles 0I1Y be uficd to convert these formulae to the metric sf tem Avoi rdupJis Wli~ilts ~~~d TfT~r---- 16 ounces (oz) 7000 grnins (grs) f153 6gra1ll8 (g)

1 Juncc (llZ) 16 tJrll1ls (drm) 4375 grains (grs) 2835 grams (g) dram (drill) 2734 grHins (grs) 177 grams (g)

(1543 grains (grs) 10 gL1n1 (g) )

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Liquid Heaures (Ilritish alld Netd c )

1 quart 2 pints (pL) = 40 fluid oUllces (Floz) 1 136 1 it re (I) pint 20 fluid ounces (Fl nz) 568 millilitres (m1) fluid ounc~ (Floz)= B fluid drams (or d r c hills) 28lllml fluid drachm 60 minims 355ml

(1 minilll = 1 drop)

Temperature conv e rsion Fahrnheit to Celsius (Centigrade) (xoF - 32) x S = yOC

lt) Celsiu9 to Fahrenheit (yU C x 9) + 32 = xOF

5

APPlNlllX 6 Refrences and Funher Reading The following ia a short 1 ist uf publi c ations which readers will find

useful (or further informatiun 1 Jacobson C1 and Jacoblun R E (1976) Developing 18th Edit ion

Focal Press (see below) 2 Jacobson Cl a nd Hannheim LA (1975) Elllarging 22nd Edition Futal Press J Jacobson RE Ray SF Attridge GG and Axford NR (1978) Hanual of

Photography 7th Edition Focal Press I bull Langfo rd H J (1980) Advanced Photogl-aphy 4th Fdition Focal Press S Hason LFA_ ( 1975) Photographic Processing Chemistry 2nd Editioll Focil Press 6 Wat k ins D (19 78) The Focalguide to Coluur Film Processing Focal Press 7 Ilritish Journal of Photography Annual 1982 Henry Greenwood [ Co_ Ltd 28 Great

James Stn ~ t London WCl

The Focal Press Butterworth [ Co (Pllblishers) Ltd Ilorough Green Sevenoaks Kent TN15 flPH

Books 1 2 and] are all standard refere n c e w rks on photographic processing Ilook 4 is a ve r y useftl soutce of inforlUBtion on all aspe cts of photography but particularly on tone and colour reproduc t ion on sensitised materials The bouk by LFA_ Hasun (S) is es~ential [or those wishing to devise formulations of their own especially co loul formulations but the reader shoulJ have some chemical knowshyledge Book No 6 explains the principles o[ colour film processing and describegt th use of a variety of processing kits as well as providing Bubltitute formulae [or brew-it-yourself enthusiasts

The British Juurnal of Photography Annual (n is the traditiollal source of formulae fo r those wishing to mix up their own solut iOlls The formulae cover all aspects of both black and white and colour proc e ssing

NOTE The purpo se of this booklet is to stilllul te interest in the compounding of

photographi c processing solutiuns by tho se ph o t ographers wh o s e ek a greater undershystanding of the medium The ruatedal ill this buoklet is presented in good faith but because results are d e pe ndent on so many factors outside our control we cannot accept l iability for any processing [aults or inju~y to petsolls or property that might ari9 howsoever callsed Becaugte o f the subject ive nature of the medium it is the r e spons ibility of the user to Elac e rtain for himself the suitability of any [ormula or process in relation to hi8 mat e r ials e quipment and objectives Any suggestions from I a ders whi c h could be incorporated into foture editions o[ lhis booklet will be welcome _

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II c knuw l edgcmcnts

Til e author wOlld l ike to thank the f11 owing f o r pc n nisRiOll to us e m1terial for inclusion in this book let

Kod a k te for details of thfir formuln p (morw c hrome) ltlnd for addi t ional h e lpflll info rmati o n

IHo rd Ltd for permis~i on to reproduce their pllb lish e d formula e

Agfa- Ge v a ert Ltd for informat io n o n their p rod u c ts and pro c eRRinr

The Fo c al P If) 9S who publish a wiel e r ang e oC b oks u n plHtogl middot ~PY for permisAion t o US Ilel(cted m1terial [rom SOllI e of their puhlicltions (R ( e Appendix ()

~1r )( rek Watkins for pe rmissio n t o r e pr ud u c ( his slIbstitute 1-6 proc 1ing prn ee- dur( whi c h was first puhlished in the maga zine SLH Camer~

~h G W Crawley fditor of the Bri tish Journal of Photography for prmis9ion lltl rfprodllcE SOIll( of his FX sprifs -f d(vclop(rs

Th E ahv( prsons or organisnion9 (middot 1nnot Iccept 1ny liabil i t y arisin from the nprodnct inn of their lIIal([ial in Ihi hooklet

Writtfn by R C Potts ~fSc and publish e d hy PHOTO CHEMICAL SUPPliES 21 LODGE CLOSE

COWL EY MIDDLE SEX

UBB 2ES - 34 shy

No responsibility accepted for any formula or information contained in this document This is a scan of the original document

Use chemicals and formulae at your own risk Intended for personal and educational use only

Page 9: PCS Darkroom Formulary

2 Fine Gr~in Developers TI(se we ll established fine grain developers (sec Table 2) are particularly

suitnble for miniature films (J5mm or sm31Ier)

1Llble 2 Fine Grain DevelopE

No 6 Fine Grain MQ D76

No 7 Fine Grain D76d

MQ No 8 Fine Grain PQ

Hetol 2 2

Sodium sulphite anhyd 100 100 100

Hyci r-oqui none 5 5 5

Borax 2 8 3

BorIc acid 8 35

Potas sium bromide

Phenldone 02

Hat~r to 1000 1000 1000

Approximate development time 6-10 12-15 10

Formula No6 represents the standard develope r against hiell all otlle r developers are judged Formula No7 is a buffered version o f No6 and yields morc consistent results but since the pH is slightly 10e1 th e developnie nt time s will be longe r Formula No 8 is a PQ developer with characteristics simillr to No7

All the above formulae can be diluted either 1+1 or 1+3 Lo r olle-shet prCccSStng yielding enhlllced acutancc but developmcnt tillllS should be approxshyimately doubled (1+1) or trebled (1+3)

3 Super Fine Grain Developers

These developers (see table 3) usc colour developing agents which are derivatives of -phenylenediallline the classic fine grain developer p-phcnylshyenediallline irself Iws too lIIany unpleasant charct c ristics to be of any use bull nowadays These colour deve lope rs a n~ S low work j ng and rl yc ill aliltI hydcoqu ino ne hav e been included ill formulae 9 and 10 t o nccelcratc developlIIClIt In [annul No II sodium carbolwte is the accelerntor The lulphite cOllcclltrntion is relatively high to make use of the solv(llt effect Sulphite c annot be ulcd in such high concentrntion in colour develolllIClIt of (OIOllf lTIall-inl1l IS iL inhibits the (01 ollr coup I ing rene t ion

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Table 3 Super fine Grain Developers

No 9 No 10 No 11 FocDl fXIO Kod Dk

-shy--_-------------_ Gcnocllrome 20 6

~~lJc in 20

ydroquinolle 6

Nydochrome (CD 3) 5

Sodillm sulphite anhyrl 100 100 30

Sodium carbonate anhyd 30

Borax 20 4

Boric acid 4

lola ter to 1000 1000 1000

Dilution (Stock + 3ter) 1+7 None None

Jppr(l~irnnte development time at 20 C 12-15 8 20

4 tcutallce or IIiIll D(~finiti(1n Developers ----The middot dZutancemiddot dt2vclopecs arc gencrnlly very dilute and require onl y suffic u~nt ngitation to prevent the [ormatLon of streamers The effect of this is twofold Firrtly the developer becomes exhllIsted in areas of heavy exposure yet remains active in the shadow areas This results in good shadow detail (resulting in an incre1se in effective emulsion speed) yet the highlight areas do not become blocked liP This type of cornp~nsRting development yields reduced macro-contrast but the result is not the same ltIS that acheived by ordinary soft-working developers siOlce tl(~ important highlight und shado bull contrast is good and the gradation of the less important ~id-tone9 is compressed The second effect of the high dilutfonl minimum agitation techniqlle is the forl1l3tion of ~Iackie lines which enhlllce apparent imGgc sharpness at the boundaries between lightly and heavily exposed 1re35 This is due to fresh developer on the lightly exposed side of the boundary diffusing across and acceleratill~ deve l opment in the adjacent heavily exposed emulsion Bromide a product of the developm~nt reaction diffuses in the revcrs direction and retilrds development in the lightly exposed en1l1sion adjacent to the boundary The net effect is an incn~ase in the apparent sharpne~s of the boundary

Developers of this type arc not fine grain developers and it is essential that they be used ith slower film8 (bdoN 150 ISI) which have fine grain emulsionr These sloNer films have a thin emulsion and are n3turally contrasty wih good acutillicc 1middotlith the fast films which normally yield a soft grainy neltative the reduction in macro-contrast produces a dull flat image which cannot b improved by printing on hard parer due to the grain In addition the thick emulflion of these [~ut films docs no t lend itself to the development of Mackie lines

Innlula No 12 (nr Table LI) the oriin~l Llclltance fonuJla can be made Jp in two parts the IlIrtol and sulphite in one solution and the carborlJte in the s e cond solution Forll1lae Nos 14 and 15 can be made up as concentrJted stock solucion s and 3f1in t h (o alkali (sonium or potassium carbonate) is kept as a SCp1ilt e solution Wi t h yenormuJ rio 15 the Pinacryptol Yellow solution shoul not be included in the concentrated stock solution but added just before lIe Pinacryptol Yel101Y is l desensicising dye which is decomposed by sulphite When preparing

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-------- ---------------------------

f o r mulae Nos 14 alld IS as concentrated stock soluti u llS it is aclvisable tu make up the solutions (except the carbonlt solution) in 10 iS0prufyl a lcohul (1 part isopropyl alcohol + 9 parts ltIter) as this helps d issulve thp Jeve lopin~ agents and improves the keeping q ua lities All these forllluiltl ( give tu one stop increase in effective emulsion speed

Formula 10 14 (FXlh) is a modification of iln)thcr (UrJlluln (FXl) where the sodium sulphite concentrat ion is only 5g per litre instemiddotad o[ lt0amp pe r 1 itrc This low sulphite furmula yields very high definition negatives bJt is more critical as to tKposure Development times are as [ornlula 10 15 (FX2)

Table 4 High Definition (Acutance) DeveL~~

No 12 Nu l) No 14 No 15 Beutler Jindisch HIll FX2

Crawl(l C_~w 1 e j

~ie tu 1 5 05 02gt

0ycin 075 I

Catechol (Pyrocatechin) 125

5(ld i urn sulphi~~ anhyd 25 80 10 35

Sodium carbonitf~ J an1d 25 25

Pot3ssium carbonate 7S

Po tas sium iodide 0001 solll 5

Pynacryptol yellow 12000 solli 3 5

----------- -----------------------------------------------------~----1000 1000 1000 100 0

----~---------------Dilution 1+10 25ml stock Nunc None

+l5ml potshyassium hydroxide 10k water to 10001111

[)c vmiddotd pmcnt t i llle 7 -1 0 15 - 20 8- J0 12- 15 at 20c i

5 Speed increasing developer f or push-processin g Thi s fine-grain IQ developcrrlO(iS) gives Ill incrcase in cillulsion speed of

a bou t one stop in normi1 use but further specd illcrenses can be achieved by cKtCnding the development tillle Jlth film slich IS 1115 this dolgt not lead to excessive contra~t or grain This developer may aiso be used [or dillllC 011(gtshy

shot procesfiing for enhanccd ltIcutance Dt 1+1 and Ii-] d llut lun (wilII cxt e nLilJ dcvclopmcnt tillles) giving a hulf 10 Olll stop incrcase in slwecl lhi developer is ~irnilar in 1 11 respects to 11[onl ltllltroll1

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Formula No 16 Fine grain speed increDsine developer (ID68)

Sodium sulphite a~lyd 850g llydroquinone 50g Borax 70g Boric acid 20g Phenidone 013g Potassium bromide LOg ImiddotJaCer to 1000 ml

Dllution Time (1115)

None 6middotmiddot9 1+1 11-16 1+3 22-30

Usc undiluted for the indiclted time to give the following speed increases on 111[5

800llSA (1 stop) 8-) mins l600ASA (2 stops) ll-12mins 3~00ASA (3 stops) 16-18mins

6 nigh Contrast Developers These developers give high contrast negatives lind are bese used on thin

emulsion high contrast film such as pes Ortholith film obtainable in 35mm cassettes from Photo ClwlllicoJ Supplies The first is the classic Caustic-hydroquinone developer and the s(cond is the s cand a -d Iniectious development low ulphitic developer T1e lotter is more delnonding of accurate exposure and development bUI

yields the highcst possible contrast for col our separation work and ha~f-tone dot screening Lith film may also be successfully developed using formula~ Nos 4 and 5 (undiluted) which hove better keeping qllalities once used but yield a blightly lowe contrast

No 17 CauGtic-llydro1uinone High Concrast Developer

SOLUTION A llydroquinone 25g

Potassium mctabisulphite 258 (or Sodium metabisulphite 2l5b ) PotassiUM bromide 25p (or Sodium bromide 2l5g) -I1ter to 1000ml

SOLUTlOCl B Sodillm hydroxide 36g (or Potassium hydroxide 50g) -IGter to lOOOml

Usc eqllJI P1rts A and Il and develop for 2-4 minutes The quantity of alkllli in Solntion B may be safely halved without loss of contrast but devrlopment time should be extended slihtly The two solutions keep indefinitely separately but ke e ping properties nre limited once mixed Use an acid stop bath before fixing to avoid staining

Nlt) 18 Infectious Lith Developer

SOLUTlON A Sodium sulphite anhyd 1

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Parafonnaldehyde 15 Po tassilil metaLisulphite 5 (or Sodium metabisulp lti t e I Jg) Water to 500ml

SOLUTiON Il Sodium sulphite anhyd 60 Tloric acid 15 Ilydroquinone 45 Potassium bromide J Water tJ 1500ml

------------------~~~ Use 1 part Solution A and 3 parts Solution Baud develop [or 2 minutes (Mix well and allow to stand for a few minutes before illuoersing fil m) The tlltO

solltloIls keep indefinitely separately and also keep quite well once mixed Both these high contrast dev elopers should be rl ixed fresh [ o r each film [or

best rf9ults pes Ortholith film is orthochromatic and developmcnt can be [olloved under a red safelight

7 HOlloba lils --TIse are solutions ill which development 1nd fixation t a ke place in the same bath In addition to the convenience of being single operation othlter advantages arc that the process is not dependent on criticll tilllillgt telllperatu(e o r agitJtion lmage contrast cannot be altered by extending or c u rtailing d(vel o pne nt but is built-into the mOllobath formula This can be set when m-Iking up the 1II01l0bath pri llci pally by varying the amount of fixing agent (sodium thios u llhate) includ e d The more fixing agent added the softer the contrast III addition the a moun t or act ivi ty of the developing agent can infl ue nce the contnlst o[ the (esult ill g ne gative

Tab le 5 Monobath formulae No 19 No 20

Socl i-lm sylphite anhyd 50 50

12 12

4

Sodiuln thiosulphate anhyd 70 (55-90) 60 (15-80)

Sod i lm h ydro ~ide=-____________--_4 10

Wat er to 1000 1000

P r oc ltss i ng time 5 mi ns +- mi n 5 llI ins-

+ mi n

i ll( degree of cont ras t produc ed will VIH y f ro on ~ f i 1m ype t o allo thl tmiddot and the qu antity of thiosulpbate requir ed will have to be determined e xpe(imentally

Ifor y o ur favourite film stock If a higher contrast than that given by using the lowest quantity of thiosulphate is required the hydroquinone concentration can be I increa s e d by about 25-30 Iloth these monobnths can be re-llned for up to ten [ill1ls or until the film is no longer cleared by the fixing agent CInLidenta lly a [ew minutes in a1 ordinary negative fixer will restore the [ilm) Films an plocessed for about 5 minutes (less for slow films) and washed Jnd dri e d nortlllly

pTO _ regJ1sect It is always good practice to use n stop bath betwee n the developing and

fixing baths An acid stop b1th not only halts develolIlllt 1lld millilliis s cont3mishynation o[ the fixer but also removes the scum formed Ly ~olle developer s nnd prevents

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st1ining particularly of lith materials after a hydroquinone-cauntic dcvclopcr

Table 6 Stop bath formulac

No 21 No 22 No 2) No 24 Acid Stop Buffered Stop Hardening Hardening

Sto~ Bath Stor Bath 2

Sodium Acctate )1l20 ))

Acetic acid (glaciat)(mt) 25 10 65

Chromium potassium sulphate 30 15

Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000

A few drops of stop hattgt indicator such as that obtainable from Photo Chemical Supplies lllay be added The indicator ch111ges from pale ycllow to blue 19 soon as the 11 rilles above 70 (neutral) Thc hardening baths (2) and 24) are sed after high temperature development Formulae 21 and 22 are also suitable stop baths for print processing

yrxrms

Fixation 15 necessary to remove the undeveloped silver halide from the ernU L ion lIardening agents may bc added to harden the emulsion Hardening is essential for films which have been reversal processed or processed at high temperatures and for bromide papers that arc going to be hot-glazed Typical fixers are shown in Table 7

Table 7 Fixllg [laths

No 25 No 26 No 27 No 28 Standard Buffered Buffered Buffered Acid Hypo Hardening Rapid Ilarden bullng Fix~r Hypo Fixer 7ixer Rapid Fixer

Sod i urn t h io 11 ]_--ptat-=e2-=anhtyd_ _ ~____-=-___________________160 150

(or Sodium thinsulphate cryst) (50) (240 )

Ammonium thiosulphate 175 200

Sodium sulphite anhyd 15 25 15

Sodium metabisulphite 25

Acetic acid glacial IS 10 15

Bodc acid 75 10 75

Potassium alum 15 15

Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000

All are used undiluted for films but may be diluted 1+1 for papers The buffered flxer~ havf a partiClllnrly long lifc and the buffered non-hardening rapid fixer (No 27) is recommended for plastic-coated papers such 1S 11fospeed

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REVERSlL PROCESSING OF Damp_ W FILM

Ileversl processing of black Ilnd white film yields positive transparencies with Il beautiful tonal gradation As with all reversal processes exposure and first development must be very carefully controlled beciluse density variatiolls cannot be compensated (or in printing The process involves the developmellt of Lile negative image (first developer) dissolving away the s i lvcr thus fOnilPU (bleach bath) clering and re-exposure to white light (reversal exposure) and develorshyment of the silver halide thus re-exposed (second development) The film is then fixed and washed in the normal way I t is the firs t deve lope r wh ich de termincs the quality of the final image It is usual to include a small quantity of silver halide solvent to brighten the highlights and sodiulll thiosullilate or sodiulll thiocyanate are usually used for this The subsequent processes are carried on more or less to completion so timing is not as critical as with the first developer In the fol~owiJlg procedure the first developer is retained antI used again [or the second dev e lopment

Rev r rsal processing solutions

No 29 Reversal developer (stock solution)

Netol 3g Sodium sulphite anhyd SOg lIydroquinone l2g Sodium carbonate anhyd 6()g Potassium bromide 4g Water to lOOOml

Dilution (stock + water) 1+1

To the diluted working strength developer add sodiulll thiosulphate at the following rale (gram~ per litre)

PAN F FP4 llPS Sodium thiosulphate anhyd 5 75 5 (a~ Sodium thiosulphat~

cryst) (8) (12) (8) AlternAtively a print deve l oper such as Dromophen may be used diluted 1+1 ith thiooulpilate dded as above

No 30 Blcach (two part stock solutions) SOLUTI ON A

Potassium permanganate 2g Water to SOOml

SOLUTION B Sulphuric acid 10 vv lOOml Water to SOOml These stock solutions will keep indefinitely but deteriorate rapidly when mixed

For use mix equal parts of A and D and discard after each film Potassium dichromate (lOg) may be used in place of the Potassium permanganate in Solution A

No 31 Clearing Bath

Sodium (or Potassium) metabisulphite 25g Water to 1000ml

Fixer ---The bleaching solution softens the emulsion and a hardening fixer must be used

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The hardening fixers given enrl ier laquo(onnube Nos 26 and 28) are ideal

Procedure 1 First developel 12 mins at 20

0 e for all llford films with an inversion every 15 seconds Keep the developer for use in the second development

2 Wnsh 3 mins with frequent changes 3 llicach 5 mins with strong continuous agitation Roarbull lights may be

switched on after two minutes in the bleach 4 I~n s h 2 mins with frequent chnnges 5 Clear 2 mins in the Clearing bath 6 Iash 2 mins with changes 7 Reversal exposure Re-expose ench cnd of the spiral for 2 mins at 12-18 inches

from a 100 watt bulb This is best done underwater in a clear gls9 bowl standing on a sheet of white paper Rotate the bulb or the spiral during re-exposure to ensure even illumination

8 Second developer Develop for 6-8 mins at 20 0 C in the developer solution retained from the first development Development time is not critical but should go to completion

9 Rin s e 10 Fix Fix in acid htrdening fixer for 10 mins (formula No 2cent ) or

4 mins (formula No 28) It Final 5h Wash for 30 mins and dryas usual

Modifying the Processed Negative Th e silver imJge obtained after development and fixation may be either l r censhy

sified or r educ ed TIlis is to compensate (or errors in exposure or dlvelopment or both

INTE~(UFICTION

The following for muLt has been select e d [rom the many published because i t is simple effective etsily controlled and yields a permanently enhllnced negative The basic chemicals are reasollably safe unlike the mercury and uranium intensifiers

No 32 Chromium Intensifier

STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium dichromate 12 5g lJnter to 200 ml

STOCK SO LUTION II Hydrochloric acid 10 vv (36 ww) 30ml ( o r I1ydrochloric acid 10 1 ww) (L Iml) (or Hydrochloric acid cone) (]ml) WJter to 200ml For use mi~ 1 part Solution A with 3 parts water and add 1 part rolution n

The negative should be properly fixed and well washed Old negatives should be sO kcd in water for a few minutes The negative is immersed in the intensifier [or 2-3 minutes until the image is (ully bleached (it turns a yellowy-brown colour) It is then washed well until the yellow stain is removed The intensified image is then re-developed after exposure to daylight (or a light bulb 1 minute each side at 18 inches) in l nOli-solvent type developer This may be a print developer or general purpose necative developer such as formtJl No3 or any universal j developer An advantage of thi s intensifier is that the whole proces8 may be repe a ted several times with an increase in intensification each time as the image

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is built up

~EDUCTrON

There are three classes of reducers which reduce the amount o[ silver in the negative in different ways

The subtraltive reducers remove silver from all parts o[ the illlagc (shadows and highlights) at about the salTle rate 50 that the contrast 15 incrcaBed This is uscful for Jver-euroxposed negatives which tend to be flat

The peoporti)lal reducers remove silver in proportion to the density so that the contrast grildient is maintained This type of reducer is suitable for those negatives which are too dense for easy printing through over-exposure ~ombined

with over-development The uper-proportional reducersattack the IllDvy silver depositll more than

[he lightly exposed parts leading to a reduction ill contrast and density Dense contrasty negltives are usually the result of over-development

No 33 Farmers Reducer (Subtractive)

STOCK SOLUTION A Sodium thiosulphate anhyd 32g (or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (SOg) Water to 500ml

STOCK SOLUTION B Potassium ferricyanide 109 Water to 100ml Immediately before use mix 15 p3rts A with 15 parts w(lter and ~dd 1 pa[t B

The process of reduction should be watched carefully and may be stoppcd at nny time by flooding wi th wn ter The ac t i vi ty 0 [ the reducer may be n 1te [cd by va ry ing the qunutity of Soltltion II added [ncrensing t he [crricyanidc increa ses the activity and vice versa The stock solutions keep indefinitely hut the working solution hu 3

short life

No 34 Permanganate - Persulphate Reducer (Proportional)

STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium permanganate 1 solution lZ 5ml Sulphuric acid 10 wlw 65ml Water to 500ml

STOCK SOLUTLON II Ammonium persulphate 25g Water to 1000mi Distilled water should be used to make up these solutions for use take one

part A two ports distilled water and two parts B A slower acting mixture is I part A 4 parts water and 1 part II and this may be easier to control A[ter reduction the action con be halted and the brown stain removed by immersing the negative in a 1-2 solution of sodium (or potnssiul1l) metabisulphite The negative should he thoroughly waMhed before being dried

No 35 Pelslliphate Reducer (Super-proportional) Ammonium persulphate 125g Sulphuric acid lOr ww 5m1 Distilled water to 500101

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The ne)a t i ve shou 1d be fu lly wn shed The leduc t ion mus t be wa tC1ed close ly as the rate varies ~idely with different emulsions nnd with some modern high speed ~mulsions it iR not effective ]t all to 12-157 solution of sodium Ilulphite anhyd can be Ilseu as ] s top bath Imd the negat ive is fi na lly given a good wash

BampW Print Processes [1) NI_I2EV~1QI2yRS

Print developers arc generally fairly contrasty compared to negative developers and of course it ig not necclisary or desirable to use fine grain or acutance techniqupound for prints The colour tone of the image is the main variable in print developers but the colour obtained will depend largely on the type of print paper (eg bromide chlorobromide or chloride)

Table 8 Standard Print Developers

No 36 No 37 No 38 No 39 D163 ID62 ID20 New

PQ Univ NQ Paper Winchester

~middotc to 1 22 3 35

Sodium sulphite anhyd 75 50 50 35

-lL(~ro(l~1 i WJlle 17 12 12 86

Socli11Tl -----shy

carbollate lt1nilyd 65 60 60 63

lhellidolle 05

Potassium bromide 28 2 4 l9

I3cn7otriazole 1 15-25 20 37

Wettinr agent 10 10 10 10

Wnter to 1000 1000 1000 1000

Dilution (stock + water) 1+3 1+3 1+3 1+2 Calgon may be added to all the above at the rate of 2g per litre If the ueveloper is uRed at less dilution development iR more rlpid The

benzotriClzole in these formulilc irnproves the brightness of highlights by reduc i ng fog and also shifts the colour of the illlage towards black or blue-black The New middotIinchester formula (No 39) is a universal paper delTeloper giving good black to nc s and is the basis of many commercially available print developers

Table 9 Warm-tone Print DClTelopers

No +O ~Jo 41

~Lltf01 I i nonc _________--25 ---8_ ___

Sodium Dulphite anhyd 60 60

Sad i IIll carboIlHe anhyd 90 90

~ycin 25

Potassium oronlidc 2

~ater to 1000 1000

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Dilution (Stock + water) 1+3 1+2 Time 2-3 mins 1-2~ mins

Formula No 41 has a warmer tone tllan No 40 but both arc best used on warm-tone papers

STQ- [lATHS FOR PR_INT~

The 1I0n-hilnlenlng stop blths given carlier (Nos 21 and 22) arc suitable f0 r prints as is a 47 solution oE sodium or potassium mctabisulphite (I~Oplitre) good economical stop bilth can be made up by adding 1 part stop batl (as above) to two parts old fixer and mixing up a fresh fixing bath When the stop batll shows exhaustion the stop bath ia discarded and the old fixer converted to the ncw st op bath This double use of fixing solution Lcally does prolong the life of the fl xer bath as a large part of the fixation takes place in the stop bath and the diluti on ensures that no staining occurs

PRINi FIXERS Any of the fixer formulae given earlier for negativcs will provide fix e rs

suitatle for papers (formulae 25-28) The rapid fixers have a much grentcr cJptc ity than the hypo filter s and formula 27 is especially recommended for plastic-coatcd pap~rs Prints on normal paper wh i ch a r c t o be hot-glazed should be fixed in 1

hardening fixer (formulae 26 or 28) Formula 25 is obviously the cheapest to ma ke up but the pll should be monitored and more metabisulphite added to restOt-e thc acidity when required All may be used diluted 1+1 It is advisable not to U 5C the some solution for fixing both films and pape rs even if the same formula is used but to keep film filter and paper fixer i n s eparate bottles

t~ID F9H PAPER PInNTsect The fibre base of normal printing pl pe rs retains acid chemicals from the fj xing

bath which are difficult to remove by -a s h ing alone If after a brief rine 11C

print is i~nersed in a 2-5 solution o f s od ium carbonate anhyd for 2-] minutes the subsequent nonnl wash ensures that all the hypo and hYPolilver camplexes a t c removed This alkaline bath should be used whenever any subsequent trcatmenl of the print such as toning is to be carried out

LYPO ELI~IN~TOB 11C following solution (formula No 42) serves to oxidise the thiosulphate t o

~ulphate which is then easily washed ou t o f the paper

~~_~po Elimin_ator

Hydrogen peroltide solution 3 (10 volume) 125ml or Hydrogen peroxide solution 6 (20 volume) 63mU Ammonia solution 0B80sg 10ml Hater to 1000ml immerse the prints in the above solution after a normill W8lh in running W (l ~ er

for about 5 minutes followed by a fu cthc r Hash of about 10 minute This hyposhyelimnator is made up of volatile compOIw nts so that there is_ no risk of elininllor salts remaining in the p1per-base after drying

PRINT TONING Prints may be toned a variety of colours and depending on subject can yielel very

pleasing results All prints must be tlloroughly washed prior to toning and old prints

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~lloliid be soaked ~n water for a few minute s to soften the emulsion

1) Sepia Toning Th follow(ng method yields perm1nlnt prints with a good brown tone In fact

prints treated in lhis way have greater permanence than untreated prints and the lmiddotLlwd is USLd ill 3rchival processinl The print is first bleached ill a ferri shyqnidcbroHiide bleach until the d3ri~est partH of the image tire a raint straw LU lour 1 t is lilen placed in the toner b3th 1111lt1 the sepia image quickly reappears

Nu (d FerricyanidcDromi de Bleach

Potassium [erricyanide 40g Potassium bromide 251 Jater to 1000mi Tllis stock solution is used undiluted and keeps well if stored in the dark or

ll a dnk bottle It may be re-used until exhausted h[ter bleaching the print 1~ washed well and trGnsferred to tbe following solution

Uu 44 Sepia Toning BGth -Thiolre1 109

Potassium bromide 40g Sodiul1i hydroxide 3-6g WJter to 1000mi The qu~n[ity of sodium hydroxide can be adjusted between the above limits to

yield the desired tone colour This toning bath is preferable to the traditional suJiul11 sulphide hath because of the unpiensant smell and properties of sodium sulphide solutions Thiourea and sod i um sulphide should not be used or stored in lilt dGrkroom or near sensitised materials

bJ lllie Toner This process does not re qruire a bleach stage but the print should be thoroughly

- s hed a[te1 fixation The process intell5ifies the image slightly so prints to bpshytOiled blue should be mnde a little lighter than they would otherwise be

Nu 45 Dlue Toning Bath

SOLUTION A

Potassium ferricyanide Ig Sulphuric acid 10 ww 30ml Wnter to 500ml

SUIUTION 13

Alliinonilim ferric citrate (green) Ig

Sulphuric acid 10 ww 30ml Water to 5001111 Mi elt[uGI parts hand B immediately before use The wet print is immersed

ulltil the desired tone is reached and then washed Excessive wnsh ing will ble a ch lliit the blue colour and just sufficient wash to remove the yellow tain should be lven This bleaching is largely eliminated if the print is lshed in water conshy[lining a l ittle acetic acid (51111 or less per litre)

c) Red TOiler Th~TtO~ing is il traditional red tOller using copper sulphate hglin no

b I each is llluircd

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No 46 Red TOllin~ Bath

SOLUTION A Cupric s~lphate (511 deg) 12 5g

2Sodium citrate 500g (or Potassium citrate) (55g) Water to SCOml

SOLUTION B Potassium ferricyanide 109 Sodium citrate 50 g (or Potassium citrate) (SSg) Water to SCOml Use equal volumes of II and B mixed just before use The image colour changes

through warm black then sepia to rea 2nd t he process can be halted at any stage by flushing with water The print is th~n wa s hed and dried normally

PRINT nEDUCERS Print reducers are generally used Eor the local reduction of dense parts of

iarge prints for generally brightening dense flat prints or for removing fiilvcr completely from unwanted areas Farmers Reducer (formula No 33) is the most commonly used print reducer and shoul d Df t sed s ufficiently diluted to allow control of the reduction proc ess Use scr 1p dn ts to de t e rmine the appropriate conditions ~len using Farmers Reducer wash the pr in t frequently in running water or permanent yellow staining may occur Farmers Reduc e r used very dilute is ideal for brightening dense flat prints It is a s ub t ractive reducer and gives bright highshylights a nd increased contrast

~len heavy deposits of silver have 0 igt e remov ed completely such as that cause1 by pinholes in line nega t i ves Fa nna r s Reduce r is not su i tab Ie because of the possibility of staining The followin g formula (No 47) is an iodine re ducer which i9 very effect i ve at removing dense silver

No 47 Iodine Reduce r

Potas sium iodide 1Sg Iodine crystals 05g Water to lOOml This reducer is applied to the mOl s t lot ~et) print with a swab or brush and

the resulting brown Btain is easily r emove d in a 15 solution of sodium thiosulphate Illlhyd (or 25 sodium thiosulphate cryst ) after a rinse in water The print should then be thoroughly rinsed

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Colour Processing Besides offering real economy brew-it-yourself colour processing is v~ry

satisfying and can yield results superior to those offered by ln3ny commercial proshycfSSinl~ houses All that is required ilre careful working methods and atttntion to dltlails Tlte Icrwrill instruction relating to monochrome proc(ssin~ should be r~d in conjunction with thcse notes on colour processing It should be emphasised that the formulae given in this section are not those of the film manufacturers who do not publish their formulae but have been worked out to yield results comparable with the manufacturers recommended processing

Time and Temperature Cololl~ ma-terials are not as flexible as black and white materials with regard

to development conditions since wide deviation from the recommended development can yield shifts in colour balrnce ohich lQay be impossible to correct in printing With reversal materials in particular exposure must be accurate and the time and temperature of the first development is crucial as thi largely determines the quality of the ftnal transparency In the C(j process the processing temperature is rather high (3a

oC) bllt this must be maintained at least for the first dtvelopment There is

slightly more leeway ~Iith the other st~ges but these should b~ kept within the limite shown The sallie applies with colour development of negative materials and again the processing tenrperature of the C41 procefiS is high (also JaoC) The times given in the formulae include 10-15 seconds to uHo~ for draining the tank

H~king up the Solutions As wi th all the - formulae in this bookl e t the chemicals should be dissolved in

tire order given Some of the colour dev e lo p ing agents while extremely solub i I wa te r tend to separn te out in the a 1 k a 1 ine J eve loper sol ut ions Ita aov isab le to dissolve the colour developing agen t to gether with the hydroxylamine (hydro shycldoride or sulphnte) where p r e sent se pa r a te ly i n part of th e total volume of water alld add this slowly 0 th e rerna mJer o f the solution some time before use rile hydroxylamine acts as an antioxidant and is required because the sulphite conshyclntrltion hCls eO be low Hydroxylamine is rapidly decomposed in alkaline solutions ill the pr se nce of sequestering agents of the EDTA type so Cnlgon should be used i n h~rd water ~~ r e s rather than EDTA

V~QCESliING G9J~QI1lLill=VERSAL FILMs_U0R COLOUR SLIDES) There are at present two princiPlll systems for colour reversal film prGcessing

(excluding Kodachrome) The first is the ~g fachrome 41 process covering all Agfa r-tJVersal fi 1m (except Igfachrotnc [(IOOS Profe ssional - proce Sl E6) olhether sold process paid or not Thepound are few if any other makes o f [i Tm available in Britain ohich use this process The second ir the Kodak Ektachrome E6 process hich covers IllOSt of the rCIllining colour n~versal films There are a few filns Idlich ltIre still made for outdated process es sLlch as ORWO f i l ms ohich are proc e s sed by an old Igf~ process Rnd some specillised Ko d ak films suc h as Ektachrome In f rared Film find Photomicrography Color Film 248J which are processed by the old E-4 process There may still be a [ew films from independent manufacturers designed for the old E ~ process

Kodak Kod~lchlome films are sold process paid and user processing is not feasible

Keversal Exposures - Reversal film mUfit be given a fogging exposure to light (Where chemical fegging is not used) after the first development Because the emulsion is very much less sensitive at this stage than normal film this exposure mtlst be rather intense It

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is best to remove the film from the spinl and SCC-SDW it through plain wter below a Photo flood lamp Ilowever a wet delicate film is difficult to reload into the spi ra 1 (bes t done under lola ter) and it is cas icr to leave the film in thc 5 pi ra 1 nlld extend the exposure time With clear spira ls thc exrosure time should be at lea~t

doubled and with the translucent nylon spira l s the exposure should be increased 5-10 fold When the film is not removed for the exposure place the spiral in a white 001011 of water (or a clear glass bowl on J wl ite surface) and place the lamp above it During the exposure of each end of the s pir a l the lamp or bowl should be moved about so that the exposure is more even Watc r and cl~ctricity dont mix so care is needed and a hot photoflood lamp will burst if s plashed Dont skimp on th e reversal exposhysure - it is easy to underexpose but dif f ic ul t to overexpose For the Ektachrome E-6 p r-ocess a reversa l bath which chemi c3 1y fogs tile film making the reversal exposure unnecessary i s available from Pb c to Chemical Supplies

The Agfachrome 41 Proce ss Suitablc for all Agfa Reversal poundll ns (except Agfachrorne RIOOS Professional

available in 120 size and sheet film only)

formul ~ e - Agfachrome 41 No 48 First Developer

Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g middot1e to 1 3g Sodium sulphite anhyd SOg Hydroquinone 6g Sodium carbonate anhyd 40g Potassium thiocyanate 25g Potassium bromide 2g otassium iodide 0 1 Solution 6ml wate to 1000111

No 49 Stop Bath

Ac etic acid glac iol 101 Sodium acetate (3H 0) lO g

2Water to 10001111

No 50 Colour Developer PART I

Sodium sulphit e anhyd 3 5g Hydroxylamine hydrochloride I t Potassium bromide 19 Colour Developing Agent see below Ethylenediamine (50 vv Soln) 16ml (or 2-phenylethylamine) (3ml) -later to 300ml

PART BI Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g S~dium carbonate anhyd 62g Water to 500ml

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c) lour iPVf loping age nts [0[ Part lI

Colour Dev e loper 1 (sulphate) 28g or Colour l)eve l o pe r I (chloIide) ( CIH) 22g or Cenochrollc 2 5g or Dtoxych rome 3 2g

lOOt usc add ParL II slowly to Part D with tirring and make up to a total volume o f 10U0Il1I

No 51 [leach ~-----Po tas s ium-[e rr i CY[lnidc 80g

Potassium bromide 30g Sodium acetate (J1l 0) 50g2lor ic Jeid 5g Potnssiwa nll11 30g Water to 10001111

Ngt 52 Fixcr ---S-oJI~-tTiosu I ph a te anhyd l25g

(or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (200g) Sodiul1l s ulphi te lnhyd lag Imiddotlater to 1000ml

Th pit of this fixer is approximately neutral Do not use an acid fixer because it Jill blcnch th e dyes

Nu 53 Stnbiliser - --- We t ti~g agelt - Im1

Forlllaide hyde 0 5ml I-Jte r to IOOOml

~ (lCeslng Procedure lIrfachrome 41

At 20 0 C (minutes) At 24degC (minutes )

1 First Developer 18 - zr-----shy lJ-l~ (z00-O 50C) (2l 0 -02SoC)

2 Rin sc ~ 3 St op bath 4 3 4 1[151 10 7 S Reve r sni Exposure See be l~w 6 Colour developer 14 (20 0 -0SoC) 11 (z4 0 02SoC) 7 - 1 5 h 20 14 8 Ill eac ll 9 I-[lsh 5 4 lll Fix 5 4 ll Wash 10 7 12 Stabil iser 1 1 1] Dry (30 D

e) mox

One minute each side with film r emo ved from spiral 2 minuteR each end rf clear sl c rlll lid 5-10 minutes ench end of ttanslucent nylon spirill frolll a No2 Photoflood a l I lie t re () f le t)

Thp t Cll peratllre during the Lwo developme nt stages should be maintained within til limits shown For other stages tlte t e lllperature may range from 17-20lC or 21 - 2llC The third wash (Htole n iu raLh e r long and it is important that it is llt lL shorted In soft watcr ilHilS this lung wallh nwy c ause the clUulsion to slocll Su un int e l-mediate bilth of 5 minutes immediately J(tcr the colour developer can be given to prevent excessive swelling This is a 2 solution of either sodium

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sulphate or magnesium sulphate (Glaubers salts or Epsom Salts) If the intermediate bath is used the third wash may be shortened by 5 minutes In the two developer baths agitation should be continuous for the first 30 seconds followed by two invershysions every half minute for the rest of the period

As usual it is the developer solutio 1~ which deteriorate first The remalnlng solutions (stop hath bleach and fixer ) have double the capacity of tIle two developers Ea ch litre of developer should process 6-8 films but the development timcs should be extended by 30 seconds at 20degC (or 20 5cco~ds at 24 o

C) after the first two films anQ after each subsequent two films hi applies to both the first and colour deve lo pers

rne Ektachrome E-6 Pro ess 1 am indebted to Mr Derek Wa tkl 9 r0~ permission to reproduce this formula

wh i ch first appe1red in the March 198 1 i sgt lc of the magazine SLR Camera (Haymnket Publi t hing Ltd 38-42 Hampton Road TCd ingcon Middlcsex)

There are a lot of films from man n~rUl facturers sold under a wide variety of brand names which are compatible with the E-6 process Even Agfa make an E-6 compatible film (Agfachrome RIOOS Professional)

FormuL ae - E-6 i-lo-54---first Deve 1upe r

Sodium 6exametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g Sodium sulphite anhyd J9g Potassium carbonate anhyd 14g Sodium bicarbonate 12g Phen i done O 6g Itydroluinone 6g Sodium bromide 22g Sodium thiocyanate Ig Sodium hydroxide 33g Pot~asium iodide (01 50ln) 45ml Water to 1000m~ pH 9 6-005

No 5~ Stop Bath 1 ------S0dium acetate anhyd 30g

(or Sodium acetate 320) (50g) Acetic acid glacial 6ml Water to 1000m~ pit 55-02

No 56 Colour Develoger Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g tri-50dium orthophosphate 1220 36g Sodium hydroxide 3g Sodium sul~lite anhyd 4 5g 3gtdium bromide 065g Potassium iodide (01 Soln) 30ml Sodium thiocyanate 1 3g Citrazinic acid 1 25g CD-3 l1g ~oter to 1000mi + pH 1165-005

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S LOp lath 2 Same as Stop lath 1 but once used do no t interchange them

No 57 ll l e ach lotassiulil (erricyanide 80g Potassium bromide 20g Ji-So JiullI hydrogen orthophosphattnnhyd 12g (or di-Sodium hydrogen olthophosphnte

1211 2deg) (JOg) Acetic acid glacial 5ml Hater to IOOOrot plt 55-02

No 58 Fixe r - - Sndi-u-thiosulphate Mlhyo 125g

(or SodiulTl thiosulpilte cryst ) (200g) SodiuJJ sulphite anhyd 5g So dium me tabisulphite O5g Water to lOOOlllt 11 72-02

~Jc tt ing JgCllt lmL

L r to lOOOml

Time ~pe ratute

l First development 6r J8-U57 - shygt Stop iJath 1 2 33-JoC J Ih 2 3J-J90C 4 Reversal Exposure Two minutes each side with (ilm removed

froro spiral 5 minutes each side of clear spiral ano 10 minutes each side of nylon spiral with No 2 PhotofLoud at

(Or HeveJs31 JlJth) (ObtainJhle 12 inches frolll Photo Chical Supplies) 2 JJ-J90C

5 Col o ur u(ve [o[JllICnt G JSlOC 6 St o p Bath 2 2 JJ-l)degC 7 1-1 2 ])-J9()C g 11 [e middoth 5 JJ-l9C l) Rins e ~ 3J-390C [0 fix 5 3J-390C II Wnsh 6 33-J90C I ~ S tid il s c 1 3J-390C n Dry (Fillll cllt~Jrs on drying) r uTES ) As wilh all revlrsnl processes the [irut developer largely delermines the ehnrilct(tmiddotistic~ o[ the final translnrency Jntl the rcconlllltnJeu time anJ temp~rature

hlHJ1J be Iuhlrcu to b) AgitJtion in 11 ba ths (except the optional reversal bnth and the stabiliser

- - - - - - - ------------

wllich should not be agitated) is continuous for the first 15 seconds followed by two

inversions of the tank each subsequent half minute With the reversal bath and stnbiliRer an initial inversion to ensure uniform distribution is all that is required cl The conditioner bth in the offici)l process is lwl required in the pLOceJllre given hele as this useR ferricyllnide bleach rather than all EUTA hl(ach d) The two Rtop hth re of identical compositioll bllt should not be illtcrchlIircl due tu dnmn~illg carry-over contomination e) The caplcity of the solutiolls is 10 filll1ll pr litre (36 exposure - 35 or 120 roll film) bnt the tillle in the first developer must be extencled hy 15 second~ after the first two films and after each subsequent two films (by 20 seconds fOl the last two films) f) The made-up solutions should be scored in dark bottles at room temperature not in the refrigerator The first developer will keep for two months unused or for four weeks once used The colomiddoti developer will keep for 3 months unused or 2 lIIo11~hs partly used nd all the remaining solutions will keep for 6 months ur longer Although the first developer contains many ingredients it is not expensi ve to moke up Thus it is worthwhile retaining the remaining solutions to be used ith a ((esh ly made fi rs t deve loper if the fu 11 capac i ty canno t be used in the four we ek life 0f the original first developer g) Drying temperature should not exceed 60

0 C and all EktachrOllle films only clclr

when nearly dry For information on process control and fault finding in both Agfachrome 41 and

Ektachrome E-6 the reader is referred to The Focal Guide to Colour Film Proces~ing by Derek IJAtkins (published by the Focal Press norough Green SevEnolt)ks Kent TNlS 8PB) This excellent book also gives 11 the background information you may require Also in the book is a substitute E-4 process (as well an a low cost Ln~ temperature simplified E-4 process) for those films using this system This book also covers colour negative film processing

PROCESSING COLOUR NEGATIVE FILMS (PLUS XP-l AND VARIa XL BL~CK A~~lJTE FIL~ ~~__________~_ ____~______M~)__ __

As with colour reversal film the two major manufacturers of ~olour fil~s A~ [a

and Kodak each have tlieir own fi lms and processing systemy [or cololJr negative~ Again the trend seems to be towards a unified compatible system based on Kodaks C-lfl prccens

Processing negative film is very much eaGier tlan reversal processing for two reasons Firstly there are fewer steps in the processing sequence with no revcr~al EXpOSlln required and secondly there ill a little more latitude with tlte pro cessing since most faults can be corrected later at the print ing sta ge HOI_e ver cons iL e nt good resutts depend on consistent processing Attention to detail ~ile proce8s i ng a film can save a lot of time later on

Agfacolor N Negative Process ---T-tiis-process is in tended for all II fa co lour nega t i ve film (CNS CNS2 ann 80S Pr~fe9sionol) excluding AgCacoluur CNS400 negative film This ltter is designed to be processed in Agfacol o r Peo ceMs 70 chemicals and is compatible witl l Kodaks Flexicolor C41 process as is Agf a s chromogenic 131ack and ~hite film Vor l XL

The Agfacolor N process is slightly unusual in that the devclopmpnt is 11101-11(

to continue in the lowlgtr layers of the e mulsion during an intermedi1 t e bath wll icll immediately follows the colour developer

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Pu rmulnc - Agfucolour N i u 59- Colur- ll(vIoI~er SULUTION A

Sodium hexnmetaphosphate (Calgon) 2g PutnsSilJln carl)ooatc atlhyd 75p Potassium bromide 25p Wat e r Lo 500ml

~()LUTroN Il

lIydroxylamine hydrochloride 19 (or Hydroxylamine sulphate) 0 2g) Sodium sulphite anhyd 35g Colour Dcvcloppr 1 (Sulph~te) 28g (or Colour Developer 1 (chlorideraquo C22g) (or Cenocilrome) (25g) (0 t Droxych rome) (J2g) ) t e r to SOOml

I l d B tlJ A with stirring before use

Nu 60 Intermediate Bath -- -~lgn~sin sulpil1te--===- JOg

Mixed (or used) Colour Deve lope r 501n 30ml 1000011

No 61 Bleach --S-(Tll~eXaeLaphospilate (Cnlgon) 5g

Potassiulll fcrricY1nide 42g Potassium brolllidp 12g 10[ltl8siu dihydrogen orthophosphate 15g di-Potassium hydrogcn ortilophosplwte

nll Jil yd Sg Water to 1000111

Nl 62 Fixer -------sz-dG----Umiddotios ul phn te nnhyd 125g

(01 Socii um thiosulphntc cryst) (200g) SodiulIl sulphitc anhyd 109 Wnter to 1000ml

ltc~ing Procedure Agfacolollr N Time (mins) Telpernture degc-S----shy

1 Colour developer 20-02 2 Intermediate bath 4 2005 J -IDsh 15 (lllinilllllm)-20 15-20 4 IHench 6 2005 5 Hash 6 15-20 6 FLx 6 18-20 7 -Ilsh 10 15-20 fl ~~ett lllg agent bath 15-20 N)lI~S

Agit1tilln in niL stDges is continuous (or the fi1st minute followed by o ue j version of Lhc LIll( (very hoi ( minute thcrcnfter

llevcl)plIlcnt 11I3Y be varied betccn 7 - 9 minutes Increase ueve10pment to 9 llItes Lo incrcasc contrast and reduC(~ the time to 7 minutes (or softer results

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The orange mask is formed in the bleach bath and the recommended time and temperature for this stage should be followed as the density of the mask increases with time

All the solutions including the co l our developer solutions (separately) shoilid keep for at least 4 months Once mixed the colour developer (and the intermediate bath) will only Inst a f ew weeks

The capacity is 6 - S films (135- 36 o C 120) per litre but the development ttne shoul d be incr eased with each film or pair of films to compensate for developer e xha ustion The c a pa c ity of the co lou r d vetoper s may be e xtended by mixing onl y

al f of so lu tions I a n d B and proceSS in f( 4 i ilms in e ach h a lf In this ca s e prolong the development time by one mi nute a f ter eacll film

Flexi color C-41 Tlis process was developed by Kod lt1 ilt [or the mach i ne pro ces~ing of their nc~

colour negative films Kodacolor II and Ve ricolor II The majorit y of colour films from independent manufacturers are now made compatible with the C-~l process In addition there are the two chromogenic bl ack and white films lifords XPI and Ag Eal s Vario XL whi ch were designed fo r C- 41 processing l gfas fast colour nega t i ve film CNS400 should also be proce sed i n C- 41 chemicals

Because C-41 was designed for use i n au t omated commercial laboratories the processing t emperature is rather h i gh (IOO or 3So

C) As with the ~ktachrome E-6 precess these high temperatures bring abo ut the a s sociated problems of short development times and DE maintaining t hL t empe ra ture betwe en the prescribed limit~ Tha t t hes e pro b lems are easi l y ove rc ome i s J emon s trat ed by the many thousa nds of amac e urs who s ucce ss f ully process t hei L own pol and Vari o XL monochrome films in

oC-4 chemicals at 3S C

The following formulae represent a l ow cosi substitute procedure using a traditional ferricyanide bleach

ihe substi t ute process is reproduc d fr om The Focalguide to Colour Film Proc es sing by Derek Wat ki ns with k i nd p2r ssion from the Focal Press

Formu11e C-4l

No 63 Colour Developer Sodium hexarroetaph()sphate (Calgon) 2g Po tassium carbonate anhyd 38g Sodium sulphite anhyd 5g Potassium iodide 01 Soln 2ml Potassium bromide 1 5g lIydroxamine hydrochloride 2g CD-4 5g Wlter to 1000ml

No 64 Stop Bath Ae tic acid glacial 20011 Sodium acet1te 311 0 25g

2Water to 1000ml

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------ ----------------

~

No 65 Bleach Potassium nitrate 2SB Potassium ferricyanide 30g Potassium bromide 12g Boric acid 5g Sodium tetraborate (Borax) 19 Water to 1000ml

No 66 Fixer Sodium thioulphate anhyd 125g (or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (ZOOg) Sodium metabisulphite 20g Water to LOOOtnl

No 53 Stabiliser Wetting a ~r~ nt 1m1 Formaldehyde 40 511 )1 ~ater to lOOOm1

f ocessinG Procedure e-4l (with [erricY~lnid( bleach)

Time Temperature degc l Colour development 31- 38~~--

2 Stop bath 35-40 J Wash 35-40 4 Bleach 35-40 5 ~ash 35-40 6 Fix 35-40 7 ~ash 35-40 8 Stabiliser 35 -40 9 Dry

Agitation in the developer is continuous for the first half minute followed by one inversion of the tank each quarter minute thereafter In the remaining solution s the agitation may be reduced t o t lJO in ver sions every half minute after tilE init i a l )0 sec onds cont inuous agit a tio n e ach bath

TIll capacity of the so lut ions is a pplC))limately twelve films per litre if the dev eloper is made up as two 500ml port iuns dn d six films devel oped in eacll portion The development time should be extended by minute after the f irst two films and by middot a further i minute aft er t he seco nd 1lt1 fi ms A comb i ned b1each f ix bath may be u~cd in this procss b t t o[ cours Lilis calllu t be a f e rr i c Yll1ido ball ed bleach A sllitable formula can be found in t h e Br i i sh J our nal of Photography Annual

PIWCESSING COLOUR PRINTS For copyrigllt reasons we arc unabl e t o re produce the substi t ute fo rmulae for

colour print processing The f onnulae and pr ocedure s are quit e straight~orward and lIIay be found in the British Journal of Photography Annual Photocopies of the relevan t pnu es may be obtained for a nominal sum from the publishers This applies to earlic~ editions of the book and to the current edition after stocks are sold out (u s ually April or Hay) The address to 0 i s

Tlte Ed i tor Ilritish Journal of Photography Annmiddot qL Henry Greenwood ( Co Ltu 28 Creat James Street London WeI Telephone 01-404 4202

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APPENDIX I Chemical Names Seeals- Appendix 2 for Colour Developing Adurol Amidol Amidosulphonic acid Ammonium alum Ammonium hydroxide l2-B(nzenediol 14-Benzenediol Bor1cic acid Borax Calgon Chlorchydroquinone Chrcmlt alum Copper sulphate Copper chloride l2-Diaminoethane 24- Diaminophenol hydrochloride Digol l2-Dihydroxybenzene l4-Dihydroxybenzene 26-Dihydroxyisonicotinic acid Elo Ethy l enediaminetetraacetic acid and sa l ts Ethyl~ne glycol Ferri~ ammonium citrate Formalin p-Hydroxyphenyl glycine Iron perch loride Iron trichloride Kcdalk p-HtLhylaminophenol sulphate Nethyl p1raaminophenol sulphate middotIonoch 10 rhyd rOluinone 1- Pheny 1- 3-pyrazo lidone Potasnium alum Potassium bichromate Potassium bisulphite Potassium chrome alum Propan-2-01 Pyrocatechin (Pyrocatechol) Pyrogall ic acid Quino Sodium bisulphite Sodium hydrosulphite Thiocarbamide I 2 3-Trihydroxybenzene

and Synonyms Agent)

Chloroquinol 24-Diaminophenol hydrochloride Sulphamic acid Aluminium ammonium sulphate Aoononia solution Catechol (Pyrocatechol Pyrocatechin) Hydroquinone Boric acid Sodium tetraborate Sodium hexametaphosphate Chloroquinol (Adurol) Chromium potassium sulphate Cupric sulphate Cupric chloride Ethylenediamine Amidol Diethylene glycol Catechol Hydroquinone Citrazinic acid Hetol EDTA acid and salts Ethanediol Ammonium ferric citrate Formaldehyde solution Glycin Ferric chloride Ferric chloride Sodium metaborate Hetol Hetol Chloroquinol Phenidone Aluminium potnssium sulphate Potassium dichromate Potassium metabisulphite Chromium potassium sulphate Isopropyl alcohol (Isopropanol) Catechol Pyroglillol Ilydroquinone Sodium metabisulphite Sodium dithionite Thiourea Pyrogallol

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Jl)[l~NDIX 2

There appears to be considerable confusion surrounding the various colour developing agents This is probably due to the fact that these complex compounds helve all been given a different trade name by each manufacturer or distributor L1Ch compound may even have more than one chemical name depending on the chemical nOlllcnclature system used The following is a list of the chemical names and synonyms of the common colour developing agents All of them are derivatives of para-phenylenediamine the classic fine grain black and white developer and they sllare in varying degrees the unpleasant characteristics of this material They should be handled with care and skin contact or inhalation of dust should be avoided llecause these compounds are similar in structure and mode of action they arc interchangeable to some extent the differences being plincipally differcncfs ill activity and solubility Differences in solubility can cause slight colour cilmges but this is really important only with reversal films since with colour 1I~~ative films and colour papers colour casts can usually be corrected by filtration in printing The relative quantities re qui r ed ani adjustments to development times or exposure will have to be determined by experiment The names underlined are those used by Photo Chemical Supplies

Colour Developer I (Sulphate) - Ac t i vo 1 7 (Jejlt1Sltmi--shy= Uiethyl-p-phenylencdiamine sulphate =NN-Diethyl-l4-pbenylenerliamlne sulphate

C lO

II 16

NZ

H2

S04

Holht - 26232

Colour Developer 1 (Chloride) shy middotCOiKodak)

Die til y1- p-pheny lenedl alnine hydroch lorid e = NN-Diethyl-l4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride

MolWt = 20070

lt~ur [tgt velrer CD 2 (Kod~dd Activol 2 (Johnsons) [olochrome (M amp ll) NN-Diethyl-2-methyl-l4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride 4-Alllino-NN-diethyl-m-toluidine hydroch lo r ide

~ol Wt ~ 214 i3

Colour Developer 3 ~-CD3(Kod ak)

Activol 3 (Johnsons) ilyJoch rome (M amp ll) N-E thy 1- 3 -me thy 1- N- (f -me thylsul phonamidoe thy 1) -p-phenylenediamine sesqu isul pha te

monohydrate - Am lllO - N - e thy 1-N - (i me thanesu llhonalnidoe thy 1) -m- to 1uid inc s e s qu is u1pha t e

monohydrate

HolJt 43652

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Colour Develo~er 4 CD4 (Kodik)

= N-Ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyi-2-methyl-l4-phenylenediamine sulphate

~lolWt c 29235CllH18N20112S04

Droxychrome (M amp B) Activol 8 (Johnsons) Colaur Developcr 32 (Merck) T32 (Orwo) N-Ethyl-N-2-hydroxyethyl)-l4-phenylenediamine sulphate monohydrate

Wt 29634CIOH16N20middot1l2S04middotJI20 tiO

Ac60 (Agfa) Colour Developer 60 (Merck) N-Butyl-N-(4-sulphobutyl)-1 4-pheny l~ neciiamine

4-(N-Butyl-N-(4- s u phobutyl)amino)2 t ~ l i _e

Cl4 i 24 N203S HoliVt 30042

Gcnochrome (M amp B) - Acti~ol 1 (Johnsons)

S 28 OM) NN-Diethyl-l4-phenylcnediamine 9ulphit 2 Diethyl-p-phenylencdiamin~ sulphite

Mol ot t 23734

The bhse is ident i cal to Colour Develope r Sulpha t e and Hydrochloride)

APPENDIX 3 Anhydrous and lIydrncd Forms of Sal ts Many of the chemicals commonly used in photographic processing arc availllhlc

either in anhydrous forms or in one or more states of hydration If these oiffc l-ent forms are used in the ratio of their me l e u t ar weights then the amount of active ingredient is constant For example s od i um carbonate is available as the anhydrous powder (Molecular weight 105 99) and as tle decahydrate (Na C0 10I1 0 molecular2 3 2weight 21l6l4) The ratio of their molecular weights is 1270 so for every gram of anhydrous sodium carbonate required 270 grams of the decahydrate would have to be used It is important to remember thill point whe) compa r ing prices of chemicals because a hydrated crystalline form may appear cheaper weight for weight but be actually more expensive because of the add it ional quantity required

The following is a list of the commonly used chemicals which are available 1n different degrees of hydration showing their molecular weights and the ratios in which they should be used Those underlined are the forms which are supplied by Photo Chemical Supplies and are the most usual most economic or most stable form of the chemical concerned

Cupric chloride CUCI =13445 ~20=17048 Use 1127Z Cupric sulphate CuS0 =1596l _+511 deg=2[1)68 Use 1 1 564 2Ferric chloride FeC13c1622l +611 deg=27030 Use 11672Magnesium sulphate ~lgS04120=1J8 39 Z20=24647 Use 1 1 78

Potassium carbonate ~2C03=1J821 +1~1l20=l65_23 Use 1119

di-Potassium hydrogen ~211P04=174l8 +3H 0=22822 Usc 1 1 312orthophosphate

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-- --

~5 rJ Jiunt acct~te Cl COONa = 8203 Ue 1166~~2~= 13(~p~_3o d ium uisul phate NaIlS0 =12006 ~middotZO=lJ8 03 Use 1115

4~2SlJ=105 99 +10il20~2l6 14 Use 1270

)laquo ( ium d i hyd rogp n orthophosphate +211 0=15601 Use 1130

--2 -~---

d l-Slt)(JiJnl hydroren orlhophosphate Na

211P0

4=14196 +21122= 58~l~ Use 1 1 25 252

~ c liJgtn sulphlte +]011 0=32219 lise 1217~a23 =1t-Q~ 2~- dium suiphite i2 S03= 1~6 04 +711 deg=25215 Use 1200

2So diulIl tliiocYlOate N3SCN=8107 +2HZ2l2JQ Use 114-1 ( Ilst stored as 20 solutions)

S dilllll thiosu1phalc i02~22)=15sect1J +51120~24l1l Use 1157

Stannous chloride 21129=22563 Use 1119

l li-SodiUlll orthophosphate - thp mhydrous and crystalline forms not interChangeable due to alkalinity of the crystalline form whi~~ contains applox 2~~ sodium hydroxide

1 i IEND I X LI ~oJiuhl versus Potilssium Salts -- -- - r111( lIajority of phot~g-l--aphic--rroccs s ing soluti~~s sodiulU salts lIIay be

S dltituted [or pntasraquoiullI s 1lts n sodium salts are genentlly diEaper cmiddotleciall) since legs of tlte godiuHl salt is tequired to giV E the same molecular middotmiddot iuivalent In the Clse of tlte anhydrous carbonates and sulphites the sodium lts an 1sJ deliquescent than the potassium salls and 1re therefor easier to sL ore alld hnllJle The only advantage of the potassiLlln salts is their greater s o luui lily Ih e n highly concentrated solutions are made up lleCRuse of the slightly hi her nlkaLinity of the potnssiulO salts SOllie care in controtiing the pH is needed 1-111 11 substituting sodiulll [or potassium salts in buffer sy~te1ls For this reuson L1 uSllal buffer snIts nre not given here The (ollowing is a list of the ratios in which sorne of the CCgtlnlllon sodium nnd potassium sollts should be lIsed to give the I IiU (ecular equiv11cnts

Piltassiurn bromide Sod iUln bromide 100865 PutassiulTI cIrbonnte nnhyd Sodium carbonate Ilnhyd 100765 lJtlssium l)l1tS tUIlI

citr3LIO 0112deg)

hydroxide Sodium citrate (211

2deg)

SodiulII hyel ox ide 100905 100710

l u tass ium l1letabisulphite SodiullI metabislliphite 100 855 f o tl3S iunl Icrslllphilte Sodillm persulphate 100 880 Potassium sulphite anhyd Sodium sulphite anhyd 100 795

ArPENDIX 5 Wei~lts and Measures There are OIany old books which contain phot o graphic formulae 11 lot of which

al e still v11id todilY In Brilain thcse old formulae were Ilsuillly given in avoidupois ulli t rud the following tnbles 0I1Y be uficd to convert these formulae to the metric sf tem Avoi rdupJis Wli~ilts ~~~d TfT~r---- 16 ounces (oz) 7000 grnins (grs) f153 6gra1ll8 (g)

1 Juncc (llZ) 16 tJrll1ls (drm) 4375 grains (grs) 2835 grams (g) dram (drill) 2734 grHins (grs) 177 grams (g)

(1543 grains (grs) 10 gL1n1 (g) )

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Liquid Heaures (Ilritish alld Netd c )

1 quart 2 pints (pL) = 40 fluid oUllces (Floz) 1 136 1 it re (I) pint 20 fluid ounces (Fl nz) 568 millilitres (m1) fluid ounc~ (Floz)= B fluid drams (or d r c hills) 28lllml fluid drachm 60 minims 355ml

(1 minilll = 1 drop)

Temperature conv e rsion Fahrnheit to Celsius (Centigrade) (xoF - 32) x S = yOC

lt) Celsiu9 to Fahrenheit (yU C x 9) + 32 = xOF

5

APPlNlllX 6 Refrences and Funher Reading The following ia a short 1 ist uf publi c ations which readers will find

useful (or further informatiun 1 Jacobson C1 and Jacoblun R E (1976) Developing 18th Edit ion

Focal Press (see below) 2 Jacobson Cl a nd Hannheim LA (1975) Elllarging 22nd Edition Futal Press J Jacobson RE Ray SF Attridge GG and Axford NR (1978) Hanual of

Photography 7th Edition Focal Press I bull Langfo rd H J (1980) Advanced Photogl-aphy 4th Fdition Focal Press S Hason LFA_ ( 1975) Photographic Processing Chemistry 2nd Editioll Focil Press 6 Wat k ins D (19 78) The Focalguide to Coluur Film Processing Focal Press 7 Ilritish Journal of Photography Annual 1982 Henry Greenwood [ Co_ Ltd 28 Great

James Stn ~ t London WCl

The Focal Press Butterworth [ Co (Pllblishers) Ltd Ilorough Green Sevenoaks Kent TN15 flPH

Books 1 2 and] are all standard refere n c e w rks on photographic processing Ilook 4 is a ve r y useftl soutce of inforlUBtion on all aspe cts of photography but particularly on tone and colour reproduc t ion on sensitised materials The bouk by LFA_ Hasun (S) is es~ential [or those wishing to devise formulations of their own especially co loul formulations but the reader shoulJ have some chemical knowshyledge Book No 6 explains the principles o[ colour film processing and describegt th use of a variety of processing kits as well as providing Bubltitute formulae [or brew-it-yourself enthusiasts

The British Juurnal of Photography Annual (n is the traditiollal source of formulae fo r those wishing to mix up their own solut iOlls The formulae cover all aspects of both black and white and colour proc e ssing

NOTE The purpo se of this booklet is to stilllul te interest in the compounding of

photographi c processing solutiuns by tho se ph o t ographers wh o s e ek a greater undershystanding of the medium The ruatedal ill this buoklet is presented in good faith but because results are d e pe ndent on so many factors outside our control we cannot accept l iability for any processing [aults or inju~y to petsolls or property that might ari9 howsoever callsed Becaugte o f the subject ive nature of the medium it is the r e spons ibility of the user to Elac e rtain for himself the suitability of any [ormula or process in relation to hi8 mat e r ials e quipment and objectives Any suggestions from I a ders whi c h could be incorporated into foture editions o[ lhis booklet will be welcome _

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II c knuw l edgcmcnts

Til e author wOlld l ike to thank the f11 owing f o r pc n nisRiOll to us e m1terial for inclusion in this book let

Kod a k te for details of thfir formuln p (morw c hrome) ltlnd for addi t ional h e lpflll info rmati o n

IHo rd Ltd for permis~i on to reproduce their pllb lish e d formula e

Agfa- Ge v a ert Ltd for informat io n o n their p rod u c ts and pro c eRRinr

The Fo c al P If) 9S who publish a wiel e r ang e oC b oks u n plHtogl middot ~PY for permisAion t o US Ilel(cted m1terial [rom SOllI e of their puhlicltions (R ( e Appendix ()

~1r )( rek Watkins for pe rmissio n t o r e pr ud u c ( his slIbstitute 1-6 proc 1ing prn ee- dur( whi c h was first puhlished in the maga zine SLH Camer~

~h G W Crawley fditor of the Bri tish Journal of Photography for prmis9ion lltl rfprodllcE SOIll( of his FX sprifs -f d(vclop(rs

Th E ahv( prsons or organisnion9 (middot 1nnot Iccept 1ny liabil i t y arisin from the nprodnct inn of their lIIal([ial in Ihi hooklet

Writtfn by R C Potts ~fSc and publish e d hy PHOTO CHEMICAL SUPPliES 21 LODGE CLOSE

COWL EY MIDDLE SEX

UBB 2ES - 34 shy

No responsibility accepted for any formula or information contained in this document This is a scan of the original document

Use chemicals and formulae at your own risk Intended for personal and educational use only

Page 10: PCS Darkroom Formulary

Table 3 Super fine Grain Developers

No 9 No 10 No 11 FocDl fXIO Kod Dk

-shy--_-------------_ Gcnocllrome 20 6

~~lJc in 20

ydroquinolle 6

Nydochrome (CD 3) 5

Sodillm sulphite anhyrl 100 100 30

Sodium carbonate anhyd 30

Borax 20 4

Boric acid 4

lola ter to 1000 1000 1000

Dilution (Stock + 3ter) 1+7 None None

Jppr(l~irnnte development time at 20 C 12-15 8 20

4 tcutallce or IIiIll D(~finiti(1n Developers ----The middot dZutancemiddot dt2vclopecs arc gencrnlly very dilute and require onl y suffic u~nt ngitation to prevent the [ormatLon of streamers The effect of this is twofold Firrtly the developer becomes exhllIsted in areas of heavy exposure yet remains active in the shadow areas This results in good shadow detail (resulting in an incre1se in effective emulsion speed) yet the highlight areas do not become blocked liP This type of cornp~nsRting development yields reduced macro-contrast but the result is not the same ltIS that acheived by ordinary soft-working developers siOlce tl(~ important highlight und shado bull contrast is good and the gradation of the less important ~id-tone9 is compressed The second effect of the high dilutfonl minimum agitation techniqlle is the forl1l3tion of ~Iackie lines which enhlllce apparent imGgc sharpness at the boundaries between lightly and heavily exposed 1re35 This is due to fresh developer on the lightly exposed side of the boundary diffusing across and acceleratill~ deve l opment in the adjacent heavily exposed emulsion Bromide a product of the developm~nt reaction diffuses in the revcrs direction and retilrds development in the lightly exposed en1l1sion adjacent to the boundary The net effect is an incn~ase in the apparent sharpne~s of the boundary

Developers of this type arc not fine grain developers and it is essential that they be used ith slower film8 (bdoN 150 ISI) which have fine grain emulsionr These sloNer films have a thin emulsion and are n3turally contrasty wih good acutillicc 1middotlith the fast films which normally yield a soft grainy neltative the reduction in macro-contrast produces a dull flat image which cannot b improved by printing on hard parer due to the grain In addition the thick emulflion of these [~ut films docs no t lend itself to the development of Mackie lines

Innlula No 12 (nr Table LI) the oriin~l Llclltance fonuJla can be made Jp in two parts the IlIrtol and sulphite in one solution and the carborlJte in the s e cond solution Forll1lae Nos 14 and 15 can be made up as concentrJted stock solucion s and 3f1in t h (o alkali (sonium or potassium carbonate) is kept as a SCp1ilt e solution Wi t h yenormuJ rio 15 the Pinacryptol Yellow solution shoul not be included in the concentrated stock solution but added just before lIe Pinacryptol Yel101Y is l desensicising dye which is decomposed by sulphite When preparing

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-------- ---------------------------

f o r mulae Nos 14 alld IS as concentrated stock soluti u llS it is aclvisable tu make up the solutions (except the carbonlt solution) in 10 iS0prufyl a lcohul (1 part isopropyl alcohol + 9 parts ltIter) as this helps d issulve thp Jeve lopin~ agents and improves the keeping q ua lities All these forllluiltl ( give tu one stop increase in effective emulsion speed

Formula 10 14 (FXlh) is a modification of iln)thcr (UrJlluln (FXl) where the sodium sulphite concentrat ion is only 5g per litre instemiddotad o[ lt0amp pe r 1 itrc This low sulphite furmula yields very high definition negatives bJt is more critical as to tKposure Development times are as [ornlula 10 15 (FX2)

Table 4 High Definition (Acutance) DeveL~~

No 12 Nu l) No 14 No 15 Beutler Jindisch HIll FX2

Crawl(l C_~w 1 e j

~ie tu 1 5 05 02gt

0ycin 075 I

Catechol (Pyrocatechin) 125

5(ld i urn sulphi~~ anhyd 25 80 10 35

Sodium carbonitf~ J an1d 25 25

Pot3ssium carbonate 7S

Po tas sium iodide 0001 solll 5

Pynacryptol yellow 12000 solli 3 5

----------- -----------------------------------------------------~----1000 1000 1000 100 0

----~---------------Dilution 1+10 25ml stock Nunc None

+l5ml potshyassium hydroxide 10k water to 10001111

[)c vmiddotd pmcnt t i llle 7 -1 0 15 - 20 8- J0 12- 15 at 20c i

5 Speed increasing developer f or push-processin g Thi s fine-grain IQ developcrrlO(iS) gives Ill incrcase in cillulsion speed of

a bou t one stop in normi1 use but further specd illcrenses can be achieved by cKtCnding the development tillle Jlth film slich IS 1115 this dolgt not lead to excessive contra~t or grain This developer may aiso be used [or dillllC 011(gtshy

shot procesfiing for enhanccd ltIcutance Dt 1+1 and Ii-] d llut lun (wilII cxt e nLilJ dcvclopmcnt tillles) giving a hulf 10 Olll stop incrcase in slwecl lhi developer is ~irnilar in 1 11 respects to 11[onl ltllltroll1

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Formula No 16 Fine grain speed increDsine developer (ID68)

Sodium sulphite a~lyd 850g llydroquinone 50g Borax 70g Boric acid 20g Phenidone 013g Potassium bromide LOg ImiddotJaCer to 1000 ml

Dllution Time (1115)

None 6middotmiddot9 1+1 11-16 1+3 22-30

Usc undiluted for the indiclted time to give the following speed increases on 111[5

800llSA (1 stop) 8-) mins l600ASA (2 stops) ll-12mins 3~00ASA (3 stops) 16-18mins

6 nigh Contrast Developers These developers give high contrast negatives lind are bese used on thin

emulsion high contrast film such as pes Ortholith film obtainable in 35mm cassettes from Photo ClwlllicoJ Supplies The first is the classic Caustic-hydroquinone developer and the s(cond is the s cand a -d Iniectious development low ulphitic developer T1e lotter is more delnonding of accurate exposure and development bUI

yields the highcst possible contrast for col our separation work and ha~f-tone dot screening Lith film may also be successfully developed using formula~ Nos 4 and 5 (undiluted) which hove better keeping qllalities once used but yield a blightly lowe contrast

No 17 CauGtic-llydro1uinone High Concrast Developer

SOLUTION A llydroquinone 25g

Potassium mctabisulphite 258 (or Sodium metabisulphite 2l5b ) PotassiUM bromide 25p (or Sodium bromide 2l5g) -I1ter to 1000ml

SOLUTlOCl B Sodillm hydroxide 36g (or Potassium hydroxide 50g) -IGter to lOOOml

Usc eqllJI P1rts A and Il and develop for 2-4 minutes The quantity of alkllli in Solntion B may be safely halved without loss of contrast but devrlopment time should be extended slihtly The two solutions keep indefinitely separately but ke e ping properties nre limited once mixed Use an acid stop bath before fixing to avoid staining

Nlt) 18 Infectious Lith Developer

SOLUTlON A Sodium sulphite anhyd 1

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Parafonnaldehyde 15 Po tassilil metaLisulphite 5 (or Sodium metabisulp lti t e I Jg) Water to 500ml

SOLUTiON Il Sodium sulphite anhyd 60 Tloric acid 15 Ilydroquinone 45 Potassium bromide J Water tJ 1500ml

------------------~~~ Use 1 part Solution A and 3 parts Solution Baud develop [or 2 minutes (Mix well and allow to stand for a few minutes before illuoersing fil m) The tlltO

solltloIls keep indefinitely separately and also keep quite well once mixed Both these high contrast dev elopers should be rl ixed fresh [ o r each film [or

best rf9ults pes Ortholith film is orthochromatic and developmcnt can be [olloved under a red safelight

7 HOlloba lils --TIse are solutions ill which development 1nd fixation t a ke place in the same bath In addition to the convenience of being single operation othlter advantages arc that the process is not dependent on criticll tilllillgt telllperatu(e o r agitJtion lmage contrast cannot be altered by extending or c u rtailing d(vel o pne nt but is built-into the mOllobath formula This can be set when m-Iking up the 1II01l0bath pri llci pally by varying the amount of fixing agent (sodium thios u llhate) includ e d The more fixing agent added the softer the contrast III addition the a moun t or act ivi ty of the developing agent can infl ue nce the contnlst o[ the (esult ill g ne gative

Tab le 5 Monobath formulae No 19 No 20

Socl i-lm sylphite anhyd 50 50

12 12

4

Sodiuln thiosulphate anhyd 70 (55-90) 60 (15-80)

Sod i lm h ydro ~ide=-____________--_4 10

Wat er to 1000 1000

P r oc ltss i ng time 5 mi ns +- mi n 5 llI ins-

+ mi n

i ll( degree of cont ras t produc ed will VIH y f ro on ~ f i 1m ype t o allo thl tmiddot and the qu antity of thiosulpbate requir ed will have to be determined e xpe(imentally

Ifor y o ur favourite film stock If a higher contrast than that given by using the lowest quantity of thiosulphate is required the hydroquinone concentration can be I increa s e d by about 25-30 Iloth these monobnths can be re-llned for up to ten [ill1ls or until the film is no longer cleared by the fixing agent CInLidenta lly a [ew minutes in a1 ordinary negative fixer will restore the [ilm) Films an plocessed for about 5 minutes (less for slow films) and washed Jnd dri e d nortlllly

pTO _ regJ1sect It is always good practice to use n stop bath betwee n the developing and

fixing baths An acid stop b1th not only halts develolIlllt 1lld millilliis s cont3mishynation o[ the fixer but also removes the scum formed Ly ~olle developer s nnd prevents

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st1ining particularly of lith materials after a hydroquinone-cauntic dcvclopcr

Table 6 Stop bath formulac

No 21 No 22 No 2) No 24 Acid Stop Buffered Stop Hardening Hardening

Sto~ Bath Stor Bath 2

Sodium Acctate )1l20 ))

Acetic acid (glaciat)(mt) 25 10 65

Chromium potassium sulphate 30 15

Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000

A few drops of stop hattgt indicator such as that obtainable from Photo Chemical Supplies lllay be added The indicator ch111ges from pale ycllow to blue 19 soon as the 11 rilles above 70 (neutral) Thc hardening baths (2) and 24) are sed after high temperature development Formulae 21 and 22 are also suitable stop baths for print processing

yrxrms

Fixation 15 necessary to remove the undeveloped silver halide from the ernU L ion lIardening agents may bc added to harden the emulsion Hardening is essential for films which have been reversal processed or processed at high temperatures and for bromide papers that arc going to be hot-glazed Typical fixers are shown in Table 7

Table 7 Fixllg [laths

No 25 No 26 No 27 No 28 Standard Buffered Buffered Buffered Acid Hypo Hardening Rapid Ilarden bullng Fix~r Hypo Fixer 7ixer Rapid Fixer

Sod i urn t h io 11 ]_--ptat-=e2-=anhtyd_ _ ~____-=-___________________160 150

(or Sodium thinsulphate cryst) (50) (240 )

Ammonium thiosulphate 175 200

Sodium sulphite anhyd 15 25 15

Sodium metabisulphite 25

Acetic acid glacial IS 10 15

Bodc acid 75 10 75

Potassium alum 15 15

Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000

All are used undiluted for films but may be diluted 1+1 for papers The buffered flxer~ havf a partiClllnrly long lifc and the buffered non-hardening rapid fixer (No 27) is recommended for plastic-coated papers such 1S 11fospeed

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REVERSlL PROCESSING OF Damp_ W FILM

Ileversl processing of black Ilnd white film yields positive transparencies with Il beautiful tonal gradation As with all reversal processes exposure and first development must be very carefully controlled beciluse density variatiolls cannot be compensated (or in printing The process involves the developmellt of Lile negative image (first developer) dissolving away the s i lvcr thus fOnilPU (bleach bath) clering and re-exposure to white light (reversal exposure) and develorshyment of the silver halide thus re-exposed (second development) The film is then fixed and washed in the normal way I t is the firs t deve lope r wh ich de termincs the quality of the final image It is usual to include a small quantity of silver halide solvent to brighten the highlights and sodiulll thiosullilate or sodiulll thiocyanate are usually used for this The subsequent processes are carried on more or less to completion so timing is not as critical as with the first developer In the fol~owiJlg procedure the first developer is retained antI used again [or the second dev e lopment

Rev r rsal processing solutions

No 29 Reversal developer (stock solution)

Netol 3g Sodium sulphite anhyd SOg lIydroquinone l2g Sodium carbonate anhyd 6()g Potassium bromide 4g Water to lOOOml

Dilution (stock + water) 1+1

To the diluted working strength developer add sodiulll thiosulphate at the following rale (gram~ per litre)

PAN F FP4 llPS Sodium thiosulphate anhyd 5 75 5 (a~ Sodium thiosulphat~

cryst) (8) (12) (8) AlternAtively a print deve l oper such as Dromophen may be used diluted 1+1 ith thiooulpilate dded as above

No 30 Blcach (two part stock solutions) SOLUTI ON A

Potassium permanganate 2g Water to SOOml

SOLUTION B Sulphuric acid 10 vv lOOml Water to SOOml These stock solutions will keep indefinitely but deteriorate rapidly when mixed

For use mix equal parts of A and D and discard after each film Potassium dichromate (lOg) may be used in place of the Potassium permanganate in Solution A

No 31 Clearing Bath

Sodium (or Potassium) metabisulphite 25g Water to 1000ml

Fixer ---The bleaching solution softens the emulsion and a hardening fixer must be used

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The hardening fixers given enrl ier laquo(onnube Nos 26 and 28) are ideal

Procedure 1 First developel 12 mins at 20

0 e for all llford films with an inversion every 15 seconds Keep the developer for use in the second development

2 Wnsh 3 mins with frequent changes 3 llicach 5 mins with strong continuous agitation Roarbull lights may be

switched on after two minutes in the bleach 4 I~n s h 2 mins with frequent chnnges 5 Clear 2 mins in the Clearing bath 6 Iash 2 mins with changes 7 Reversal exposure Re-expose ench cnd of the spiral for 2 mins at 12-18 inches

from a 100 watt bulb This is best done underwater in a clear gls9 bowl standing on a sheet of white paper Rotate the bulb or the spiral during re-exposure to ensure even illumination

8 Second developer Develop for 6-8 mins at 20 0 C in the developer solution retained from the first development Development time is not critical but should go to completion

9 Rin s e 10 Fix Fix in acid htrdening fixer for 10 mins (formula No 2cent ) or

4 mins (formula No 28) It Final 5h Wash for 30 mins and dryas usual

Modifying the Processed Negative Th e silver imJge obtained after development and fixation may be either l r censhy

sified or r educ ed TIlis is to compensate (or errors in exposure or dlvelopment or both

INTE~(UFICTION

The following for muLt has been select e d [rom the many published because i t is simple effective etsily controlled and yields a permanently enhllnced negative The basic chemicals are reasollably safe unlike the mercury and uranium intensifiers

No 32 Chromium Intensifier

STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium dichromate 12 5g lJnter to 200 ml

STOCK SO LUTION II Hydrochloric acid 10 vv (36 ww) 30ml ( o r I1ydrochloric acid 10 1 ww) (L Iml) (or Hydrochloric acid cone) (]ml) WJter to 200ml For use mi~ 1 part Solution A with 3 parts water and add 1 part rolution n

The negative should be properly fixed and well washed Old negatives should be sO kcd in water for a few minutes The negative is immersed in the intensifier [or 2-3 minutes until the image is (ully bleached (it turns a yellowy-brown colour) It is then washed well until the yellow stain is removed The intensified image is then re-developed after exposure to daylight (or a light bulb 1 minute each side at 18 inches) in l nOli-solvent type developer This may be a print developer or general purpose necative developer such as formtJl No3 or any universal j developer An advantage of thi s intensifier is that the whole proces8 may be repe a ted several times with an increase in intensification each time as the image

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is built up

~EDUCTrON

There are three classes of reducers which reduce the amount o[ silver in the negative in different ways

The subtraltive reducers remove silver from all parts o[ the illlagc (shadows and highlights) at about the salTle rate 50 that the contrast 15 incrcaBed This is uscful for Jver-euroxposed negatives which tend to be flat

The peoporti)lal reducers remove silver in proportion to the density so that the contrast grildient is maintained This type of reducer is suitable for those negatives which are too dense for easy printing through over-exposure ~ombined

with over-development The uper-proportional reducersattack the IllDvy silver depositll more than

[he lightly exposed parts leading to a reduction ill contrast and density Dense contrasty negltives are usually the result of over-development

No 33 Farmers Reducer (Subtractive)

STOCK SOLUTION A Sodium thiosulphate anhyd 32g (or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (SOg) Water to 500ml

STOCK SOLUTION B Potassium ferricyanide 109 Water to 100ml Immediately before use mix 15 p3rts A with 15 parts w(lter and ~dd 1 pa[t B

The process of reduction should be watched carefully and may be stoppcd at nny time by flooding wi th wn ter The ac t i vi ty 0 [ the reducer may be n 1te [cd by va ry ing the qunutity of Soltltion II added [ncrensing t he [crricyanidc increa ses the activity and vice versa The stock solutions keep indefinitely hut the working solution hu 3

short life

No 34 Permanganate - Persulphate Reducer (Proportional)

STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium permanganate 1 solution lZ 5ml Sulphuric acid 10 wlw 65ml Water to 500ml

STOCK SOLUTLON II Ammonium persulphate 25g Water to 1000mi Distilled water should be used to make up these solutions for use take one

part A two ports distilled water and two parts B A slower acting mixture is I part A 4 parts water and 1 part II and this may be easier to control A[ter reduction the action con be halted and the brown stain removed by immersing the negative in a 1-2 solution of sodium (or potnssiul1l) metabisulphite The negative should he thoroughly waMhed before being dried

No 35 Pelslliphate Reducer (Super-proportional) Ammonium persulphate 125g Sulphuric acid lOr ww 5m1 Distilled water to 500101

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The ne)a t i ve shou 1d be fu lly wn shed The leduc t ion mus t be wa tC1ed close ly as the rate varies ~idely with different emulsions nnd with some modern high speed ~mulsions it iR not effective ]t all to 12-157 solution of sodium Ilulphite anhyd can be Ilseu as ] s top bath Imd the negat ive is fi na lly given a good wash

BampW Print Processes [1) NI_I2EV~1QI2yRS

Print developers arc generally fairly contrasty compared to negative developers and of course it ig not necclisary or desirable to use fine grain or acutance techniqupound for prints The colour tone of the image is the main variable in print developers but the colour obtained will depend largely on the type of print paper (eg bromide chlorobromide or chloride)

Table 8 Standard Print Developers

No 36 No 37 No 38 No 39 D163 ID62 ID20 New

PQ Univ NQ Paper Winchester

~middotc to 1 22 3 35

Sodium sulphite anhyd 75 50 50 35

-lL(~ro(l~1 i WJlle 17 12 12 86

Socli11Tl -----shy

carbollate lt1nilyd 65 60 60 63

lhellidolle 05

Potassium bromide 28 2 4 l9

I3cn7otriazole 1 15-25 20 37

Wettinr agent 10 10 10 10

Wnter to 1000 1000 1000 1000

Dilution (stock + water) 1+3 1+3 1+3 1+2 Calgon may be added to all the above at the rate of 2g per litre If the ueveloper is uRed at less dilution development iR more rlpid The

benzotriClzole in these formulilc irnproves the brightness of highlights by reduc i ng fog and also shifts the colour of the illlage towards black or blue-black The New middotIinchester formula (No 39) is a universal paper delTeloper giving good black to nc s and is the basis of many commercially available print developers

Table 9 Warm-tone Print DClTelopers

No +O ~Jo 41

~Lltf01 I i nonc _________--25 ---8_ ___

Sodium Dulphite anhyd 60 60

Sad i IIll carboIlHe anhyd 90 90

~ycin 25

Potassium oronlidc 2

~ater to 1000 1000

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Dilution (Stock + water) 1+3 1+2 Time 2-3 mins 1-2~ mins

Formula No 41 has a warmer tone tllan No 40 but both arc best used on warm-tone papers

STQ- [lATHS FOR PR_INT~

The 1I0n-hilnlenlng stop blths given carlier (Nos 21 and 22) arc suitable f0 r prints as is a 47 solution oE sodium or potassium mctabisulphite (I~Oplitre) good economical stop bilth can be made up by adding 1 part stop batl (as above) to two parts old fixer and mixing up a fresh fixing bath When the stop batll shows exhaustion the stop bath ia discarded and the old fixer converted to the ncw st op bath This double use of fixing solution Lcally does prolong the life of the fl xer bath as a large part of the fixation takes place in the stop bath and the diluti on ensures that no staining occurs

PRINi FIXERS Any of the fixer formulae given earlier for negativcs will provide fix e rs

suitatle for papers (formulae 25-28) The rapid fixers have a much grentcr cJptc ity than the hypo filter s and formula 27 is especially recommended for plastic-coatcd pap~rs Prints on normal paper wh i ch a r c t o be hot-glazed should be fixed in 1

hardening fixer (formulae 26 or 28) Formula 25 is obviously the cheapest to ma ke up but the pll should be monitored and more metabisulphite added to restOt-e thc acidity when required All may be used diluted 1+1 It is advisable not to U 5C the some solution for fixing both films and pape rs even if the same formula is used but to keep film filter and paper fixer i n s eparate bottles

t~ID F9H PAPER PInNTsect The fibre base of normal printing pl pe rs retains acid chemicals from the fj xing

bath which are difficult to remove by -a s h ing alone If after a brief rine 11C

print is i~nersed in a 2-5 solution o f s od ium carbonate anhyd for 2-] minutes the subsequent nonnl wash ensures that all the hypo and hYPolilver camplexes a t c removed This alkaline bath should be used whenever any subsequent trcatmenl of the print such as toning is to be carried out

LYPO ELI~IN~TOB 11C following solution (formula No 42) serves to oxidise the thiosulphate t o

~ulphate which is then easily washed ou t o f the paper

~~_~po Elimin_ator

Hydrogen peroltide solution 3 (10 volume) 125ml or Hydrogen peroxide solution 6 (20 volume) 63mU Ammonia solution 0B80sg 10ml Hater to 1000ml immerse the prints in the above solution after a normill W8lh in running W (l ~ er

for about 5 minutes followed by a fu cthc r Hash of about 10 minute This hyposhyelimnator is made up of volatile compOIw nts so that there is_ no risk of elininllor salts remaining in the p1per-base after drying

PRINT TONING Prints may be toned a variety of colours and depending on subject can yielel very

pleasing results All prints must be tlloroughly washed prior to toning and old prints

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~lloliid be soaked ~n water for a few minute s to soften the emulsion

1) Sepia Toning Th follow(ng method yields perm1nlnt prints with a good brown tone In fact

prints treated in lhis way have greater permanence than untreated prints and the lmiddotLlwd is USLd ill 3rchival processinl The print is first bleached ill a ferri shyqnidcbroHiide bleach until the d3ri~est partH of the image tire a raint straw LU lour 1 t is lilen placed in the toner b3th 1111lt1 the sepia image quickly reappears

Nu (d FerricyanidcDromi de Bleach

Potassium [erricyanide 40g Potassium bromide 251 Jater to 1000mi Tllis stock solution is used undiluted and keeps well if stored in the dark or

ll a dnk bottle It may be re-used until exhausted h[ter bleaching the print 1~ washed well and trGnsferred to tbe following solution

Uu 44 Sepia Toning BGth -Thiolre1 109

Potassium bromide 40g Sodiul1i hydroxide 3-6g WJter to 1000mi The qu~n[ity of sodium hydroxide can be adjusted between the above limits to

yield the desired tone colour This toning bath is preferable to the traditional suJiul11 sulphide hath because of the unpiensant smell and properties of sodium sulphide solutions Thiourea and sod i um sulphide should not be used or stored in lilt dGrkroom or near sensitised materials

bJ lllie Toner This process does not re qruire a bleach stage but the print should be thoroughly

- s hed a[te1 fixation The process intell5ifies the image slightly so prints to bpshytOiled blue should be mnde a little lighter than they would otherwise be

Nu 45 Dlue Toning Bath

SOLUTION A

Potassium ferricyanide Ig Sulphuric acid 10 ww 30ml Wnter to 500ml

SUIUTION 13

Alliinonilim ferric citrate (green) Ig

Sulphuric acid 10 ww 30ml Water to 5001111 Mi elt[uGI parts hand B immediately before use The wet print is immersed

ulltil the desired tone is reached and then washed Excessive wnsh ing will ble a ch lliit the blue colour and just sufficient wash to remove the yellow tain should be lven This bleaching is largely eliminated if the print is lshed in water conshy[lining a l ittle acetic acid (51111 or less per litre)

c) Red TOiler Th~TtO~ing is il traditional red tOller using copper sulphate hglin no

b I each is llluircd

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No 46 Red TOllin~ Bath

SOLUTION A Cupric s~lphate (511 deg) 12 5g

2Sodium citrate 500g (or Potassium citrate) (55g) Water to SCOml

SOLUTION B Potassium ferricyanide 109 Sodium citrate 50 g (or Potassium citrate) (SSg) Water to SCOml Use equal volumes of II and B mixed just before use The image colour changes

through warm black then sepia to rea 2nd t he process can be halted at any stage by flushing with water The print is th~n wa s hed and dried normally

PRINT nEDUCERS Print reducers are generally used Eor the local reduction of dense parts of

iarge prints for generally brightening dense flat prints or for removing fiilvcr completely from unwanted areas Farmers Reducer (formula No 33) is the most commonly used print reducer and shoul d Df t sed s ufficiently diluted to allow control of the reduction proc ess Use scr 1p dn ts to de t e rmine the appropriate conditions ~len using Farmers Reducer wash the pr in t frequently in running water or permanent yellow staining may occur Farmers Reduc e r used very dilute is ideal for brightening dense flat prints It is a s ub t ractive reducer and gives bright highshylights a nd increased contrast

~len heavy deposits of silver have 0 igt e remov ed completely such as that cause1 by pinholes in line nega t i ves Fa nna r s Reduce r is not su i tab Ie because of the possibility of staining The followin g formula (No 47) is an iodine re ducer which i9 very effect i ve at removing dense silver

No 47 Iodine Reduce r

Potas sium iodide 1Sg Iodine crystals 05g Water to lOOml This reducer is applied to the mOl s t lot ~et) print with a swab or brush and

the resulting brown Btain is easily r emove d in a 15 solution of sodium thiosulphate Illlhyd (or 25 sodium thiosulphate cryst ) after a rinse in water The print should then be thoroughly rinsed

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Colour Processing Besides offering real economy brew-it-yourself colour processing is v~ry

satisfying and can yield results superior to those offered by ln3ny commercial proshycfSSinl~ houses All that is required ilre careful working methods and atttntion to dltlails Tlte Icrwrill instruction relating to monochrome proc(ssin~ should be r~d in conjunction with thcse notes on colour processing It should be emphasised that the formulae given in this section are not those of the film manufacturers who do not publish their formulae but have been worked out to yield results comparable with the manufacturers recommended processing

Time and Temperature Cololl~ ma-terials are not as flexible as black and white materials with regard

to development conditions since wide deviation from the recommended development can yield shifts in colour balrnce ohich lQay be impossible to correct in printing With reversal materials in particular exposure must be accurate and the time and temperature of the first development is crucial as thi largely determines the quality of the ftnal transparency In the C(j process the processing temperature is rather high (3a

oC) bllt this must be maintained at least for the first dtvelopment There is

slightly more leeway ~Iith the other st~ges but these should b~ kept within the limite shown The sallie applies with colour development of negative materials and again the processing tenrperature of the C41 procefiS is high (also JaoC) The times given in the formulae include 10-15 seconds to uHo~ for draining the tank

H~king up the Solutions As wi th all the - formulae in this bookl e t the chemicals should be dissolved in

tire order given Some of the colour dev e lo p ing agents while extremely solub i I wa te r tend to separn te out in the a 1 k a 1 ine J eve loper sol ut ions Ita aov isab le to dissolve the colour developing agen t to gether with the hydroxylamine (hydro shycldoride or sulphnte) where p r e sent se pa r a te ly i n part of th e total volume of water alld add this slowly 0 th e rerna mJer o f the solution some time before use rile hydroxylamine acts as an antioxidant and is required because the sulphite conshyclntrltion hCls eO be low Hydroxylamine is rapidly decomposed in alkaline solutions ill the pr se nce of sequestering agents of the EDTA type so Cnlgon should be used i n h~rd water ~~ r e s rather than EDTA

V~QCESliING G9J~QI1lLill=VERSAL FILMs_U0R COLOUR SLIDES) There are at present two princiPlll systems for colour reversal film prGcessing

(excluding Kodachrome) The first is the ~g fachrome 41 process covering all Agfa r-tJVersal fi 1m (except Igfachrotnc [(IOOS Profe ssional - proce Sl E6) olhether sold process paid or not Thepound are few if any other makes o f [i Tm available in Britain ohich use this process The second ir the Kodak Ektachrome E6 process hich covers IllOSt of the rCIllining colour n~versal films There are a few filns Idlich ltIre still made for outdated process es sLlch as ORWO f i l ms ohich are proc e s sed by an old Igf~ process Rnd some specillised Ko d ak films suc h as Ektachrome In f rared Film find Photomicrography Color Film 248J which are processed by the old E-4 process There may still be a [ew films from independent manufacturers designed for the old E ~ process

Kodak Kod~lchlome films are sold process paid and user processing is not feasible

Keversal Exposures - Reversal film mUfit be given a fogging exposure to light (Where chemical fegging is not used) after the first development Because the emulsion is very much less sensitive at this stage than normal film this exposure mtlst be rather intense It

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is best to remove the film from the spinl and SCC-SDW it through plain wter below a Photo flood lamp Ilowever a wet delicate film is difficult to reload into the spi ra 1 (bes t done under lola ter) and it is cas icr to leave the film in thc 5 pi ra 1 nlld extend the exposure time With clear spira ls thc exrosure time should be at lea~t

doubled and with the translucent nylon spira l s the exposure should be increased 5-10 fold When the film is not removed for the exposure place the spiral in a white 001011 of water (or a clear glass bowl on J wl ite surface) and place the lamp above it During the exposure of each end of the s pir a l the lamp or bowl should be moved about so that the exposure is more even Watc r and cl~ctricity dont mix so care is needed and a hot photoflood lamp will burst if s plashed Dont skimp on th e reversal exposhysure - it is easy to underexpose but dif f ic ul t to overexpose For the Ektachrome E-6 p r-ocess a reversa l bath which chemi c3 1y fogs tile film making the reversal exposure unnecessary i s available from Pb c to Chemical Supplies

The Agfachrome 41 Proce ss Suitablc for all Agfa Reversal poundll ns (except Agfachrorne RIOOS Professional

available in 120 size and sheet film only)

formul ~ e - Agfachrome 41 No 48 First Developer

Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g middot1e to 1 3g Sodium sulphite anhyd SOg Hydroquinone 6g Sodium carbonate anhyd 40g Potassium thiocyanate 25g Potassium bromide 2g otassium iodide 0 1 Solution 6ml wate to 1000111

No 49 Stop Bath

Ac etic acid glac iol 101 Sodium acetate (3H 0) lO g

2Water to 10001111

No 50 Colour Developer PART I

Sodium sulphit e anhyd 3 5g Hydroxylamine hydrochloride I t Potassium bromide 19 Colour Developing Agent see below Ethylenediamine (50 vv Soln) 16ml (or 2-phenylethylamine) (3ml) -later to 300ml

PART BI Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g S~dium carbonate anhyd 62g Water to 500ml

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c) lour iPVf loping age nts [0[ Part lI

Colour Dev e loper 1 (sulphate) 28g or Colour l)eve l o pe r I (chloIide) ( CIH) 22g or Cenochrollc 2 5g or Dtoxych rome 3 2g

lOOt usc add ParL II slowly to Part D with tirring and make up to a total volume o f 10U0Il1I

No 51 [leach ~-----Po tas s ium-[e rr i CY[lnidc 80g

Potassium bromide 30g Sodium acetate (J1l 0) 50g2lor ic Jeid 5g Potnssiwa nll11 30g Water to 10001111

Ngt 52 Fixcr ---S-oJI~-tTiosu I ph a te anhyd l25g

(or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (200g) Sodiul1l s ulphi te lnhyd lag Imiddotlater to 1000ml

Th pit of this fixer is approximately neutral Do not use an acid fixer because it Jill blcnch th e dyes

Nu 53 Stnbiliser - --- We t ti~g agelt - Im1

Forlllaide hyde 0 5ml I-Jte r to IOOOml

~ (lCeslng Procedure lIrfachrome 41

At 20 0 C (minutes) At 24degC (minutes )

1 First Developer 18 - zr-----shy lJ-l~ (z00-O 50C) (2l 0 -02SoC)

2 Rin sc ~ 3 St op bath 4 3 4 1[151 10 7 S Reve r sni Exposure See be l~w 6 Colour developer 14 (20 0 -0SoC) 11 (z4 0 02SoC) 7 - 1 5 h 20 14 8 Ill eac ll 9 I-[lsh 5 4 lll Fix 5 4 ll Wash 10 7 12 Stabil iser 1 1 1] Dry (30 D

e) mox

One minute each side with film r emo ved from spiral 2 minuteR each end rf clear sl c rlll lid 5-10 minutes ench end of ttanslucent nylon spirill frolll a No2 Photoflood a l I lie t re () f le t)

Thp t Cll peratllre during the Lwo developme nt stages should be maintained within til limits shown For other stages tlte t e lllperature may range from 17-20lC or 21 - 2llC The third wash (Htole n iu raLh e r long and it is important that it is llt lL shorted In soft watcr ilHilS this lung wallh nwy c ause the clUulsion to slocll Su un int e l-mediate bilth of 5 minutes immediately J(tcr the colour developer can be given to prevent excessive swelling This is a 2 solution of either sodium

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sulphate or magnesium sulphate (Glaubers salts or Epsom Salts) If the intermediate bath is used the third wash may be shortened by 5 minutes In the two developer baths agitation should be continuous for the first 30 seconds followed by two invershysions every half minute for the rest of the period

As usual it is the developer solutio 1~ which deteriorate first The remalnlng solutions (stop hath bleach and fixer ) have double the capacity of tIle two developers Ea ch litre of developer should process 6-8 films but the development timcs should be extended by 30 seconds at 20degC (or 20 5cco~ds at 24 o

C) after the first two films anQ after each subsequent two films hi applies to both the first and colour deve lo pers

rne Ektachrome E-6 Pro ess 1 am indebted to Mr Derek Wa tkl 9 r0~ permission to reproduce this formula

wh i ch first appe1red in the March 198 1 i sgt lc of the magazine SLR Camera (Haymnket Publi t hing Ltd 38-42 Hampton Road TCd ingcon Middlcsex)

There are a lot of films from man n~rUl facturers sold under a wide variety of brand names which are compatible with the E-6 process Even Agfa make an E-6 compatible film (Agfachrome RIOOS Professional)

FormuL ae - E-6 i-lo-54---first Deve 1upe r

Sodium 6exametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g Sodium sulphite anhyd J9g Potassium carbonate anhyd 14g Sodium bicarbonate 12g Phen i done O 6g Itydroluinone 6g Sodium bromide 22g Sodium thiocyanate Ig Sodium hydroxide 33g Pot~asium iodide (01 50ln) 45ml Water to 1000m~ pH 9 6-005

No 5~ Stop Bath 1 ------S0dium acetate anhyd 30g

(or Sodium acetate 320) (50g) Acetic acid glacial 6ml Water to 1000m~ pit 55-02

No 56 Colour Develoger Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g tri-50dium orthophosphate 1220 36g Sodium hydroxide 3g Sodium sul~lite anhyd 4 5g 3gtdium bromide 065g Potassium iodide (01 Soln) 30ml Sodium thiocyanate 1 3g Citrazinic acid 1 25g CD-3 l1g ~oter to 1000mi + pH 1165-005

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S LOp lath 2 Same as Stop lath 1 but once used do no t interchange them

No 57 ll l e ach lotassiulil (erricyanide 80g Potassium bromide 20g Ji-So JiullI hydrogen orthophosphattnnhyd 12g (or di-Sodium hydrogen olthophosphnte

1211 2deg) (JOg) Acetic acid glacial 5ml Hater to IOOOrot plt 55-02

No 58 Fixe r - - Sndi-u-thiosulphate Mlhyo 125g

(or SodiulTl thiosulpilte cryst ) (200g) SodiuJJ sulphite anhyd 5g So dium me tabisulphite O5g Water to lOOOlllt 11 72-02

~Jc tt ing JgCllt lmL

L r to lOOOml

Time ~pe ratute

l First development 6r J8-U57 - shygt Stop iJath 1 2 33-JoC J Ih 2 3J-J90C 4 Reversal Exposure Two minutes each side with (ilm removed

froro spiral 5 minutes each side of clear spiral ano 10 minutes each side of nylon spiral with No 2 PhotofLoud at

(Or HeveJs31 JlJth) (ObtainJhle 12 inches frolll Photo Chical Supplies) 2 JJ-J90C

5 Col o ur u(ve [o[JllICnt G JSlOC 6 St o p Bath 2 2 JJ-l)degC 7 1-1 2 ])-J9()C g 11 [e middoth 5 JJ-l9C l) Rins e ~ 3J-390C [0 fix 5 3J-390C II Wnsh 6 33-J90C I ~ S tid il s c 1 3J-390C n Dry (Fillll cllt~Jrs on drying) r uTES ) As wilh all revlrsnl processes the [irut developer largely delermines the ehnrilct(tmiddotistic~ o[ the final translnrency Jntl the rcconlllltnJeu time anJ temp~rature

hlHJ1J be Iuhlrcu to b) AgitJtion in 11 ba ths (except the optional reversal bnth and the stabiliser

- - - - - - - ------------

wllich should not be agitated) is continuous for the first 15 seconds followed by two

inversions of the tank each subsequent half minute With the reversal bath and stnbiliRer an initial inversion to ensure uniform distribution is all that is required cl The conditioner bth in the offici)l process is lwl required in the pLOceJllre given hele as this useR ferricyllnide bleach rather than all EUTA hl(ach d) The two Rtop hth re of identical compositioll bllt should not be illtcrchlIircl due tu dnmn~illg carry-over contomination e) The caplcity of the solutiolls is 10 filll1ll pr litre (36 exposure - 35 or 120 roll film) bnt the tillle in the first developer must be extencled hy 15 second~ after the first two films and after each subsequent two films (by 20 seconds fOl the last two films) f) The made-up solutions should be scored in dark bottles at room temperature not in the refrigerator The first developer will keep for two months unused or for four weeks once used The colomiddoti developer will keep for 3 months unused or 2 lIIo11~hs partly used nd all the remaining solutions will keep for 6 months ur longer Although the first developer contains many ingredients it is not expensi ve to moke up Thus it is worthwhile retaining the remaining solutions to be used ith a ((esh ly made fi rs t deve loper if the fu 11 capac i ty canno t be used in the four we ek life 0f the original first developer g) Drying temperature should not exceed 60

0 C and all EktachrOllle films only clclr

when nearly dry For information on process control and fault finding in both Agfachrome 41 and

Ektachrome E-6 the reader is referred to The Focal Guide to Colour Film Proces~ing by Derek IJAtkins (published by the Focal Press norough Green SevEnolt)ks Kent TNlS 8PB) This excellent book also gives 11 the background information you may require Also in the book is a substitute E-4 process (as well an a low cost Ln~ temperature simplified E-4 process) for those films using this system This book also covers colour negative film processing

PROCESSING COLOUR NEGATIVE FILMS (PLUS XP-l AND VARIa XL BL~CK A~~lJTE FIL~ ~~__________~_ ____~______M~)__ __

As with colour reversal film the two major manufacturers of ~olour fil~s A~ [a

and Kodak each have tlieir own fi lms and processing systemy [or cololJr negative~ Again the trend seems to be towards a unified compatible system based on Kodaks C-lfl prccens

Processing negative film is very much eaGier tlan reversal processing for two reasons Firstly there are fewer steps in the processing sequence with no revcr~al EXpOSlln required and secondly there ill a little more latitude with tlte pro cessing since most faults can be corrected later at the print ing sta ge HOI_e ver cons iL e nt good resutts depend on consistent processing Attention to detail ~ile proce8s i ng a film can save a lot of time later on

Agfacolor N Negative Process ---T-tiis-process is in tended for all II fa co lour nega t i ve film (CNS CNS2 ann 80S Pr~fe9sionol) excluding AgCacoluur CNS400 negative film This ltter is designed to be processed in Agfacol o r Peo ceMs 70 chemicals and is compatible witl l Kodaks Flexicolor C41 process as is Agf a s chromogenic 131ack and ~hite film Vor l XL

The Agfacolor N process is slightly unusual in that the devclopmpnt is 11101-11(

to continue in the lowlgtr layers of the e mulsion during an intermedi1 t e bath wll icll immediately follows the colour developer

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Pu rmulnc - Agfucolour N i u 59- Colur- ll(vIoI~er SULUTION A

Sodium hexnmetaphosphate (Calgon) 2g PutnsSilJln carl)ooatc atlhyd 75p Potassium bromide 25p Wat e r Lo 500ml

~()LUTroN Il

lIydroxylamine hydrochloride 19 (or Hydroxylamine sulphate) 0 2g) Sodium sulphite anhyd 35g Colour Dcvcloppr 1 (Sulph~te) 28g (or Colour Developer 1 (chlorideraquo C22g) (or Cenocilrome) (25g) (0 t Droxych rome) (J2g) ) t e r to SOOml

I l d B tlJ A with stirring before use

Nu 60 Intermediate Bath -- -~lgn~sin sulpil1te--===- JOg

Mixed (or used) Colour Deve lope r 501n 30ml 1000011

No 61 Bleach --S-(Tll~eXaeLaphospilate (Cnlgon) 5g

Potassiulll fcrricY1nide 42g Potassium brolllidp 12g 10[ltl8siu dihydrogen orthophosphate 15g di-Potassium hydrogcn ortilophosplwte

nll Jil yd Sg Water to 1000111

Nl 62 Fixer -------sz-dG----Umiddotios ul phn te nnhyd 125g

(01 Socii um thiosulphntc cryst) (200g) SodiulIl sulphitc anhyd 109 Wnter to 1000ml

ltc~ing Procedure Agfacolollr N Time (mins) Telpernture degc-S----shy

1 Colour developer 20-02 2 Intermediate bath 4 2005 J -IDsh 15 (lllinilllllm)-20 15-20 4 IHench 6 2005 5 Hash 6 15-20 6 FLx 6 18-20 7 -Ilsh 10 15-20 fl ~~ett lllg agent bath 15-20 N)lI~S

Agit1tilln in niL stDges is continuous (or the fi1st minute followed by o ue j version of Lhc LIll( (very hoi ( minute thcrcnfter

llevcl)plIlcnt 11I3Y be varied betccn 7 - 9 minutes Increase ueve10pment to 9 llItes Lo incrcasc contrast and reduC(~ the time to 7 minutes (or softer results

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The orange mask is formed in the bleach bath and the recommended time and temperature for this stage should be followed as the density of the mask increases with time

All the solutions including the co l our developer solutions (separately) shoilid keep for at least 4 months Once mixed the colour developer (and the intermediate bath) will only Inst a f ew weeks

The capacity is 6 - S films (135- 36 o C 120) per litre but the development ttne shoul d be incr eased with each film or pair of films to compensate for developer e xha ustion The c a pa c ity of the co lou r d vetoper s may be e xtended by mixing onl y

al f of so lu tions I a n d B and proceSS in f( 4 i ilms in e ach h a lf In this ca s e prolong the development time by one mi nute a f ter eacll film

Flexi color C-41 Tlis process was developed by Kod lt1 ilt [or the mach i ne pro ces~ing of their nc~

colour negative films Kodacolor II and Ve ricolor II The majorit y of colour films from independent manufacturers are now made compatible with the C-~l process In addition there are the two chromogenic bl ack and white films lifords XPI and Ag Eal s Vario XL whi ch were designed fo r C- 41 processing l gfas fast colour nega t i ve film CNS400 should also be proce sed i n C- 41 chemicals

Because C-41 was designed for use i n au t omated commercial laboratories the processing t emperature is rather h i gh (IOO or 3So

C) As with the ~ktachrome E-6 precess these high temperatures bring abo ut the a s sociated problems of short development times and DE maintaining t hL t empe ra ture betwe en the prescribed limit~ Tha t t hes e pro b lems are easi l y ove rc ome i s J emon s trat ed by the many thousa nds of amac e urs who s ucce ss f ully process t hei L own pol and Vari o XL monochrome films in

oC-4 chemicals at 3S C

The following formulae represent a l ow cosi substitute procedure using a traditional ferricyanide bleach

ihe substi t ute process is reproduc d fr om The Focalguide to Colour Film Proc es sing by Derek Wat ki ns with k i nd p2r ssion from the Focal Press

Formu11e C-4l

No 63 Colour Developer Sodium hexarroetaph()sphate (Calgon) 2g Po tassium carbonate anhyd 38g Sodium sulphite anhyd 5g Potassium iodide 01 Soln 2ml Potassium bromide 1 5g lIydroxamine hydrochloride 2g CD-4 5g Wlter to 1000ml

No 64 Stop Bath Ae tic acid glacial 20011 Sodium acet1te 311 0 25g

2Water to 1000ml

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------ ----------------

~

No 65 Bleach Potassium nitrate 2SB Potassium ferricyanide 30g Potassium bromide 12g Boric acid 5g Sodium tetraborate (Borax) 19 Water to 1000ml

No 66 Fixer Sodium thioulphate anhyd 125g (or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (ZOOg) Sodium metabisulphite 20g Water to LOOOtnl

No 53 Stabiliser Wetting a ~r~ nt 1m1 Formaldehyde 40 511 )1 ~ater to lOOOm1

f ocessinG Procedure e-4l (with [erricY~lnid( bleach)

Time Temperature degc l Colour development 31- 38~~--

2 Stop bath 35-40 J Wash 35-40 4 Bleach 35-40 5 ~ash 35-40 6 Fix 35-40 7 ~ash 35-40 8 Stabiliser 35 -40 9 Dry

Agitation in the developer is continuous for the first half minute followed by one inversion of the tank each quarter minute thereafter In the remaining solution s the agitation may be reduced t o t lJO in ver sions every half minute after tilE init i a l )0 sec onds cont inuous agit a tio n e ach bath

TIll capacity of the so lut ions is a pplC))limately twelve films per litre if the dev eloper is made up as two 500ml port iuns dn d six films devel oped in eacll portion The development time should be extended by minute after the f irst two films and by middot a further i minute aft er t he seco nd 1lt1 fi ms A comb i ned b1each f ix bath may be u~cd in this procss b t t o[ cours Lilis calllu t be a f e rr i c Yll1ido ball ed bleach A sllitable formula can be found in t h e Br i i sh J our nal of Photography Annual

PIWCESSING COLOUR PRINTS For copyrigllt reasons we arc unabl e t o re produce the substi t ute fo rmulae for

colour print processing The f onnulae and pr ocedure s are quit e straight~orward and lIIay be found in the British Journal of Photography Annual Photocopies of the relevan t pnu es may be obtained for a nominal sum from the publishers This applies to earlic~ editions of the book and to the current edition after stocks are sold out (u s ually April or Hay) The address to 0 i s

Tlte Ed i tor Ilritish Journal of Photography Annmiddot qL Henry Greenwood ( Co Ltu 28 Creat James Street London WeI Telephone 01-404 4202

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APPENDIX I Chemical Names Seeals- Appendix 2 for Colour Developing Adurol Amidol Amidosulphonic acid Ammonium alum Ammonium hydroxide l2-B(nzenediol 14-Benzenediol Bor1cic acid Borax Calgon Chlorchydroquinone Chrcmlt alum Copper sulphate Copper chloride l2-Diaminoethane 24- Diaminophenol hydrochloride Digol l2-Dihydroxybenzene l4-Dihydroxybenzene 26-Dihydroxyisonicotinic acid Elo Ethy l enediaminetetraacetic acid and sa l ts Ethyl~ne glycol Ferri~ ammonium citrate Formalin p-Hydroxyphenyl glycine Iron perch loride Iron trichloride Kcdalk p-HtLhylaminophenol sulphate Nethyl p1raaminophenol sulphate middotIonoch 10 rhyd rOluinone 1- Pheny 1- 3-pyrazo lidone Potasnium alum Potassium bichromate Potassium bisulphite Potassium chrome alum Propan-2-01 Pyrocatechin (Pyrocatechol) Pyrogall ic acid Quino Sodium bisulphite Sodium hydrosulphite Thiocarbamide I 2 3-Trihydroxybenzene

and Synonyms Agent)

Chloroquinol 24-Diaminophenol hydrochloride Sulphamic acid Aluminium ammonium sulphate Aoononia solution Catechol (Pyrocatechol Pyrocatechin) Hydroquinone Boric acid Sodium tetraborate Sodium hexametaphosphate Chloroquinol (Adurol) Chromium potassium sulphate Cupric sulphate Cupric chloride Ethylenediamine Amidol Diethylene glycol Catechol Hydroquinone Citrazinic acid Hetol EDTA acid and salts Ethanediol Ammonium ferric citrate Formaldehyde solution Glycin Ferric chloride Ferric chloride Sodium metaborate Hetol Hetol Chloroquinol Phenidone Aluminium potnssium sulphate Potassium dichromate Potassium metabisulphite Chromium potassium sulphate Isopropyl alcohol (Isopropanol) Catechol Pyroglillol Ilydroquinone Sodium metabisulphite Sodium dithionite Thiourea Pyrogallol

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Jl)[l~NDIX 2

There appears to be considerable confusion surrounding the various colour developing agents This is probably due to the fact that these complex compounds helve all been given a different trade name by each manufacturer or distributor L1Ch compound may even have more than one chemical name depending on the chemical nOlllcnclature system used The following is a list of the chemical names and synonyms of the common colour developing agents All of them are derivatives of para-phenylenediamine the classic fine grain black and white developer and they sllare in varying degrees the unpleasant characteristics of this material They should be handled with care and skin contact or inhalation of dust should be avoided llecause these compounds are similar in structure and mode of action they arc interchangeable to some extent the differences being plincipally differcncfs ill activity and solubility Differences in solubility can cause slight colour cilmges but this is really important only with reversal films since with colour 1I~~ative films and colour papers colour casts can usually be corrected by filtration in printing The relative quantities re qui r ed ani adjustments to development times or exposure will have to be determined by experiment The names underlined are those used by Photo Chemical Supplies

Colour Developer I (Sulphate) - Ac t i vo 1 7 (Jejlt1Sltmi--shy= Uiethyl-p-phenylencdiamine sulphate =NN-Diethyl-l4-pbenylenerliamlne sulphate

C lO

II 16

NZ

H2

S04

Holht - 26232

Colour Developer 1 (Chloride) shy middotCOiKodak)

Die til y1- p-pheny lenedl alnine hydroch lorid e = NN-Diethyl-l4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride

MolWt = 20070

lt~ur [tgt velrer CD 2 (Kod~dd Activol 2 (Johnsons) [olochrome (M amp ll) NN-Diethyl-2-methyl-l4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride 4-Alllino-NN-diethyl-m-toluidine hydroch lo r ide

~ol Wt ~ 214 i3

Colour Developer 3 ~-CD3(Kod ak)

Activol 3 (Johnsons) ilyJoch rome (M amp ll) N-E thy 1- 3 -me thy 1- N- (f -me thylsul phonamidoe thy 1) -p-phenylenediamine sesqu isul pha te

monohydrate - Am lllO - N - e thy 1-N - (i me thanesu llhonalnidoe thy 1) -m- to 1uid inc s e s qu is u1pha t e

monohydrate

HolJt 43652

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Colour Develo~er 4 CD4 (Kodik)

= N-Ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyi-2-methyl-l4-phenylenediamine sulphate

~lolWt c 29235CllH18N20112S04

Droxychrome (M amp B) Activol 8 (Johnsons) Colaur Developcr 32 (Merck) T32 (Orwo) N-Ethyl-N-2-hydroxyethyl)-l4-phenylenediamine sulphate monohydrate

Wt 29634CIOH16N20middot1l2S04middotJI20 tiO

Ac60 (Agfa) Colour Developer 60 (Merck) N-Butyl-N-(4-sulphobutyl)-1 4-pheny l~ neciiamine

4-(N-Butyl-N-(4- s u phobutyl)amino)2 t ~ l i _e

Cl4 i 24 N203S HoliVt 30042

Gcnochrome (M amp B) - Acti~ol 1 (Johnsons)

S 28 OM) NN-Diethyl-l4-phenylcnediamine 9ulphit 2 Diethyl-p-phenylencdiamin~ sulphite

Mol ot t 23734

The bhse is ident i cal to Colour Develope r Sulpha t e and Hydrochloride)

APPENDIX 3 Anhydrous and lIydrncd Forms of Sal ts Many of the chemicals commonly used in photographic processing arc availllhlc

either in anhydrous forms or in one or more states of hydration If these oiffc l-ent forms are used in the ratio of their me l e u t ar weights then the amount of active ingredient is constant For example s od i um carbonate is available as the anhydrous powder (Molecular weight 105 99) and as tle decahydrate (Na C0 10I1 0 molecular2 3 2weight 21l6l4) The ratio of their molecular weights is 1270 so for every gram of anhydrous sodium carbonate required 270 grams of the decahydrate would have to be used It is important to remember thill point whe) compa r ing prices of chemicals because a hydrated crystalline form may appear cheaper weight for weight but be actually more expensive because of the add it ional quantity required

The following is a list of the commonly used chemicals which are available 1n different degrees of hydration showing their molecular weights and the ratios in which they should be used Those underlined are the forms which are supplied by Photo Chemical Supplies and are the most usual most economic or most stable form of the chemical concerned

Cupric chloride CUCI =13445 ~20=17048 Use 1127Z Cupric sulphate CuS0 =1596l _+511 deg=2[1)68 Use 1 1 564 2Ferric chloride FeC13c1622l +611 deg=27030 Use 11672Magnesium sulphate ~lgS04120=1J8 39 Z20=24647 Use 1 1 78

Potassium carbonate ~2C03=1J821 +1~1l20=l65_23 Use 1119

di-Potassium hydrogen ~211P04=174l8 +3H 0=22822 Usc 1 1 312orthophosphate

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-- --

~5 rJ Jiunt acct~te Cl COONa = 8203 Ue 1166~~2~= 13(~p~_3o d ium uisul phate NaIlS0 =12006 ~middotZO=lJ8 03 Use 1115

4~2SlJ=105 99 +10il20~2l6 14 Use 1270

)laquo ( ium d i hyd rogp n orthophosphate +211 0=15601 Use 1130

--2 -~---

d l-Slt)(JiJnl hydroren orlhophosphate Na

211P0

4=14196 +21122= 58~l~ Use 1 1 25 252

~ c liJgtn sulphlte +]011 0=32219 lise 1217~a23 =1t-Q~ 2~- dium suiphite i2 S03= 1~6 04 +711 deg=25215 Use 1200

2So diulIl tliiocYlOate N3SCN=8107 +2HZ2l2JQ Use 114-1 ( Ilst stored as 20 solutions)

S dilllll thiosu1phalc i02~22)=15sect1J +51120~24l1l Use 1157

Stannous chloride 21129=22563 Use 1119

l li-SodiUlll orthophosphate - thp mhydrous and crystalline forms not interChangeable due to alkalinity of the crystalline form whi~~ contains applox 2~~ sodium hydroxide

1 i IEND I X LI ~oJiuhl versus Potilssium Salts -- -- - r111( lIajority of phot~g-l--aphic--rroccs s ing soluti~~s sodiulU salts lIIay be

S dltituted [or pntasraquoiullI s 1lts n sodium salts are genentlly diEaper cmiddotleciall) since legs of tlte godiuHl salt is tequired to giV E the same molecular middotmiddot iuivalent In the Clse of tlte anhydrous carbonates and sulphites the sodium lts an 1sJ deliquescent than the potassium salls and 1re therefor easier to sL ore alld hnllJle The only advantage of the potassiLlln salts is their greater s o luui lily Ih e n highly concentrated solutions are made up lleCRuse of the slightly hi her nlkaLinity of the potnssiulO salts SOllie care in controtiing the pH is needed 1-111 11 substituting sodiulll [or potassium salts in buffer sy~te1ls For this reuson L1 uSllal buffer snIts nre not given here The (ollowing is a list of the ratios in which sorne of the CCgtlnlllon sodium nnd potassium sollts should be lIsed to give the I IiU (ecular equiv11cnts

Piltassiurn bromide Sod iUln bromide 100865 PutassiulTI cIrbonnte nnhyd Sodium carbonate Ilnhyd 100765 lJtlssium l)l1tS tUIlI

citr3LIO 0112deg)

hydroxide Sodium citrate (211

2deg)

SodiulII hyel ox ide 100905 100710

l u tass ium l1letabisulphite SodiullI metabislliphite 100 855 f o tl3S iunl Icrslllphilte Sodillm persulphate 100 880 Potassium sulphite anhyd Sodium sulphite anhyd 100 795

ArPENDIX 5 Wei~lts and Measures There are OIany old books which contain phot o graphic formulae 11 lot of which

al e still v11id todilY In Brilain thcse old formulae were Ilsuillly given in avoidupois ulli t rud the following tnbles 0I1Y be uficd to convert these formulae to the metric sf tem Avoi rdupJis Wli~ilts ~~~d TfT~r---- 16 ounces (oz) 7000 grnins (grs) f153 6gra1ll8 (g)

1 Juncc (llZ) 16 tJrll1ls (drm) 4375 grains (grs) 2835 grams (g) dram (drill) 2734 grHins (grs) 177 grams (g)

(1543 grains (grs) 10 gL1n1 (g) )

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Liquid Heaures (Ilritish alld Netd c )

1 quart 2 pints (pL) = 40 fluid oUllces (Floz) 1 136 1 it re (I) pint 20 fluid ounces (Fl nz) 568 millilitres (m1) fluid ounc~ (Floz)= B fluid drams (or d r c hills) 28lllml fluid drachm 60 minims 355ml

(1 minilll = 1 drop)

Temperature conv e rsion Fahrnheit to Celsius (Centigrade) (xoF - 32) x S = yOC

lt) Celsiu9 to Fahrenheit (yU C x 9) + 32 = xOF

5

APPlNlllX 6 Refrences and Funher Reading The following ia a short 1 ist uf publi c ations which readers will find

useful (or further informatiun 1 Jacobson C1 and Jacoblun R E (1976) Developing 18th Edit ion

Focal Press (see below) 2 Jacobson Cl a nd Hannheim LA (1975) Elllarging 22nd Edition Futal Press J Jacobson RE Ray SF Attridge GG and Axford NR (1978) Hanual of

Photography 7th Edition Focal Press I bull Langfo rd H J (1980) Advanced Photogl-aphy 4th Fdition Focal Press S Hason LFA_ ( 1975) Photographic Processing Chemistry 2nd Editioll Focil Press 6 Wat k ins D (19 78) The Focalguide to Coluur Film Processing Focal Press 7 Ilritish Journal of Photography Annual 1982 Henry Greenwood [ Co_ Ltd 28 Great

James Stn ~ t London WCl

The Focal Press Butterworth [ Co (Pllblishers) Ltd Ilorough Green Sevenoaks Kent TN15 flPH

Books 1 2 and] are all standard refere n c e w rks on photographic processing Ilook 4 is a ve r y useftl soutce of inforlUBtion on all aspe cts of photography but particularly on tone and colour reproduc t ion on sensitised materials The bouk by LFA_ Hasun (S) is es~ential [or those wishing to devise formulations of their own especially co loul formulations but the reader shoulJ have some chemical knowshyledge Book No 6 explains the principles o[ colour film processing and describegt th use of a variety of processing kits as well as providing Bubltitute formulae [or brew-it-yourself enthusiasts

The British Juurnal of Photography Annual (n is the traditiollal source of formulae fo r those wishing to mix up their own solut iOlls The formulae cover all aspects of both black and white and colour proc e ssing

NOTE The purpo se of this booklet is to stilllul te interest in the compounding of

photographi c processing solutiuns by tho se ph o t ographers wh o s e ek a greater undershystanding of the medium The ruatedal ill this buoklet is presented in good faith but because results are d e pe ndent on so many factors outside our control we cannot accept l iability for any processing [aults or inju~y to petsolls or property that might ari9 howsoever callsed Becaugte o f the subject ive nature of the medium it is the r e spons ibility of the user to Elac e rtain for himself the suitability of any [ormula or process in relation to hi8 mat e r ials e quipment and objectives Any suggestions from I a ders whi c h could be incorporated into foture editions o[ lhis booklet will be welcome _

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II c knuw l edgcmcnts

Til e author wOlld l ike to thank the f11 owing f o r pc n nisRiOll to us e m1terial for inclusion in this book let

Kod a k te for details of thfir formuln p (morw c hrome) ltlnd for addi t ional h e lpflll info rmati o n

IHo rd Ltd for permis~i on to reproduce their pllb lish e d formula e

Agfa- Ge v a ert Ltd for informat io n o n their p rod u c ts and pro c eRRinr

The Fo c al P If) 9S who publish a wiel e r ang e oC b oks u n plHtogl middot ~PY for permisAion t o US Ilel(cted m1terial [rom SOllI e of their puhlicltions (R ( e Appendix ()

~1r )( rek Watkins for pe rmissio n t o r e pr ud u c ( his slIbstitute 1-6 proc 1ing prn ee- dur( whi c h was first puhlished in the maga zine SLH Camer~

~h G W Crawley fditor of the Bri tish Journal of Photography for prmis9ion lltl rfprodllcE SOIll( of his FX sprifs -f d(vclop(rs

Th E ahv( prsons or organisnion9 (middot 1nnot Iccept 1ny liabil i t y arisin from the nprodnct inn of their lIIal([ial in Ihi hooklet

Writtfn by R C Potts ~fSc and publish e d hy PHOTO CHEMICAL SUPPliES 21 LODGE CLOSE

COWL EY MIDDLE SEX

UBB 2ES - 34 shy

No responsibility accepted for any formula or information contained in this document This is a scan of the original document

Use chemicals and formulae at your own risk Intended for personal and educational use only

Page 11: PCS Darkroom Formulary

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f o r mulae Nos 14 alld IS as concentrated stock soluti u llS it is aclvisable tu make up the solutions (except the carbonlt solution) in 10 iS0prufyl a lcohul (1 part isopropyl alcohol + 9 parts ltIter) as this helps d issulve thp Jeve lopin~ agents and improves the keeping q ua lities All these forllluiltl ( give tu one stop increase in effective emulsion speed

Formula 10 14 (FXlh) is a modification of iln)thcr (UrJlluln (FXl) where the sodium sulphite concentrat ion is only 5g per litre instemiddotad o[ lt0amp pe r 1 itrc This low sulphite furmula yields very high definition negatives bJt is more critical as to tKposure Development times are as [ornlula 10 15 (FX2)

Table 4 High Definition (Acutance) DeveL~~

No 12 Nu l) No 14 No 15 Beutler Jindisch HIll FX2

Crawl(l C_~w 1 e j

~ie tu 1 5 05 02gt

0ycin 075 I

Catechol (Pyrocatechin) 125

5(ld i urn sulphi~~ anhyd 25 80 10 35

Sodium carbonitf~ J an1d 25 25

Pot3ssium carbonate 7S

Po tas sium iodide 0001 solll 5

Pynacryptol yellow 12000 solli 3 5

----------- -----------------------------------------------------~----1000 1000 1000 100 0

----~---------------Dilution 1+10 25ml stock Nunc None

+l5ml potshyassium hydroxide 10k water to 10001111

[)c vmiddotd pmcnt t i llle 7 -1 0 15 - 20 8- J0 12- 15 at 20c i

5 Speed increasing developer f or push-processin g Thi s fine-grain IQ developcrrlO(iS) gives Ill incrcase in cillulsion speed of

a bou t one stop in normi1 use but further specd illcrenses can be achieved by cKtCnding the development tillle Jlth film slich IS 1115 this dolgt not lead to excessive contra~t or grain This developer may aiso be used [or dillllC 011(gtshy

shot procesfiing for enhanccd ltIcutance Dt 1+1 and Ii-] d llut lun (wilII cxt e nLilJ dcvclopmcnt tillles) giving a hulf 10 Olll stop incrcase in slwecl lhi developer is ~irnilar in 1 11 respects to 11[onl ltllltroll1

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Formula No 16 Fine grain speed increDsine developer (ID68)

Sodium sulphite a~lyd 850g llydroquinone 50g Borax 70g Boric acid 20g Phenidone 013g Potassium bromide LOg ImiddotJaCer to 1000 ml

Dllution Time (1115)

None 6middotmiddot9 1+1 11-16 1+3 22-30

Usc undiluted for the indiclted time to give the following speed increases on 111[5

800llSA (1 stop) 8-) mins l600ASA (2 stops) ll-12mins 3~00ASA (3 stops) 16-18mins

6 nigh Contrast Developers These developers give high contrast negatives lind are bese used on thin

emulsion high contrast film such as pes Ortholith film obtainable in 35mm cassettes from Photo ClwlllicoJ Supplies The first is the classic Caustic-hydroquinone developer and the s(cond is the s cand a -d Iniectious development low ulphitic developer T1e lotter is more delnonding of accurate exposure and development bUI

yields the highcst possible contrast for col our separation work and ha~f-tone dot screening Lith film may also be successfully developed using formula~ Nos 4 and 5 (undiluted) which hove better keeping qllalities once used but yield a blightly lowe contrast

No 17 CauGtic-llydro1uinone High Concrast Developer

SOLUTION A llydroquinone 25g

Potassium mctabisulphite 258 (or Sodium metabisulphite 2l5b ) PotassiUM bromide 25p (or Sodium bromide 2l5g) -I1ter to 1000ml

SOLUTlOCl B Sodillm hydroxide 36g (or Potassium hydroxide 50g) -IGter to lOOOml

Usc eqllJI P1rts A and Il and develop for 2-4 minutes The quantity of alkllli in Solntion B may be safely halved without loss of contrast but devrlopment time should be extended slihtly The two solutions keep indefinitely separately but ke e ping properties nre limited once mixed Use an acid stop bath before fixing to avoid staining

Nlt) 18 Infectious Lith Developer

SOLUTlON A Sodium sulphite anhyd 1

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Parafonnaldehyde 15 Po tassilil metaLisulphite 5 (or Sodium metabisulp lti t e I Jg) Water to 500ml

SOLUTiON Il Sodium sulphite anhyd 60 Tloric acid 15 Ilydroquinone 45 Potassium bromide J Water tJ 1500ml

------------------~~~ Use 1 part Solution A and 3 parts Solution Baud develop [or 2 minutes (Mix well and allow to stand for a few minutes before illuoersing fil m) The tlltO

solltloIls keep indefinitely separately and also keep quite well once mixed Both these high contrast dev elopers should be rl ixed fresh [ o r each film [or

best rf9ults pes Ortholith film is orthochromatic and developmcnt can be [olloved under a red safelight

7 HOlloba lils --TIse are solutions ill which development 1nd fixation t a ke place in the same bath In addition to the convenience of being single operation othlter advantages arc that the process is not dependent on criticll tilllillgt telllperatu(e o r agitJtion lmage contrast cannot be altered by extending or c u rtailing d(vel o pne nt but is built-into the mOllobath formula This can be set when m-Iking up the 1II01l0bath pri llci pally by varying the amount of fixing agent (sodium thios u llhate) includ e d The more fixing agent added the softer the contrast III addition the a moun t or act ivi ty of the developing agent can infl ue nce the contnlst o[ the (esult ill g ne gative

Tab le 5 Monobath formulae No 19 No 20

Socl i-lm sylphite anhyd 50 50

12 12

4

Sodiuln thiosulphate anhyd 70 (55-90) 60 (15-80)

Sod i lm h ydro ~ide=-____________--_4 10

Wat er to 1000 1000

P r oc ltss i ng time 5 mi ns +- mi n 5 llI ins-

+ mi n

i ll( degree of cont ras t produc ed will VIH y f ro on ~ f i 1m ype t o allo thl tmiddot and the qu antity of thiosulpbate requir ed will have to be determined e xpe(imentally

Ifor y o ur favourite film stock If a higher contrast than that given by using the lowest quantity of thiosulphate is required the hydroquinone concentration can be I increa s e d by about 25-30 Iloth these monobnths can be re-llned for up to ten [ill1ls or until the film is no longer cleared by the fixing agent CInLidenta lly a [ew minutes in a1 ordinary negative fixer will restore the [ilm) Films an plocessed for about 5 minutes (less for slow films) and washed Jnd dri e d nortlllly

pTO _ regJ1sect It is always good practice to use n stop bath betwee n the developing and

fixing baths An acid stop b1th not only halts develolIlllt 1lld millilliis s cont3mishynation o[ the fixer but also removes the scum formed Ly ~olle developer s nnd prevents

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st1ining particularly of lith materials after a hydroquinone-cauntic dcvclopcr

Table 6 Stop bath formulac

No 21 No 22 No 2) No 24 Acid Stop Buffered Stop Hardening Hardening

Sto~ Bath Stor Bath 2

Sodium Acctate )1l20 ))

Acetic acid (glaciat)(mt) 25 10 65

Chromium potassium sulphate 30 15

Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000

A few drops of stop hattgt indicator such as that obtainable from Photo Chemical Supplies lllay be added The indicator ch111ges from pale ycllow to blue 19 soon as the 11 rilles above 70 (neutral) Thc hardening baths (2) and 24) are sed after high temperature development Formulae 21 and 22 are also suitable stop baths for print processing

yrxrms

Fixation 15 necessary to remove the undeveloped silver halide from the ernU L ion lIardening agents may bc added to harden the emulsion Hardening is essential for films which have been reversal processed or processed at high temperatures and for bromide papers that arc going to be hot-glazed Typical fixers are shown in Table 7

Table 7 Fixllg [laths

No 25 No 26 No 27 No 28 Standard Buffered Buffered Buffered Acid Hypo Hardening Rapid Ilarden bullng Fix~r Hypo Fixer 7ixer Rapid Fixer

Sod i urn t h io 11 ]_--ptat-=e2-=anhtyd_ _ ~____-=-___________________160 150

(or Sodium thinsulphate cryst) (50) (240 )

Ammonium thiosulphate 175 200

Sodium sulphite anhyd 15 25 15

Sodium metabisulphite 25

Acetic acid glacial IS 10 15

Bodc acid 75 10 75

Potassium alum 15 15

Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000

All are used undiluted for films but may be diluted 1+1 for papers The buffered flxer~ havf a partiClllnrly long lifc and the buffered non-hardening rapid fixer (No 27) is recommended for plastic-coated papers such 1S 11fospeed

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REVERSlL PROCESSING OF Damp_ W FILM

Ileversl processing of black Ilnd white film yields positive transparencies with Il beautiful tonal gradation As with all reversal processes exposure and first development must be very carefully controlled beciluse density variatiolls cannot be compensated (or in printing The process involves the developmellt of Lile negative image (first developer) dissolving away the s i lvcr thus fOnilPU (bleach bath) clering and re-exposure to white light (reversal exposure) and develorshyment of the silver halide thus re-exposed (second development) The film is then fixed and washed in the normal way I t is the firs t deve lope r wh ich de termincs the quality of the final image It is usual to include a small quantity of silver halide solvent to brighten the highlights and sodiulll thiosullilate or sodiulll thiocyanate are usually used for this The subsequent processes are carried on more or less to completion so timing is not as critical as with the first developer In the fol~owiJlg procedure the first developer is retained antI used again [or the second dev e lopment

Rev r rsal processing solutions

No 29 Reversal developer (stock solution)

Netol 3g Sodium sulphite anhyd SOg lIydroquinone l2g Sodium carbonate anhyd 6()g Potassium bromide 4g Water to lOOOml

Dilution (stock + water) 1+1

To the diluted working strength developer add sodiulll thiosulphate at the following rale (gram~ per litre)

PAN F FP4 llPS Sodium thiosulphate anhyd 5 75 5 (a~ Sodium thiosulphat~

cryst) (8) (12) (8) AlternAtively a print deve l oper such as Dromophen may be used diluted 1+1 ith thiooulpilate dded as above

No 30 Blcach (two part stock solutions) SOLUTI ON A

Potassium permanganate 2g Water to SOOml

SOLUTION B Sulphuric acid 10 vv lOOml Water to SOOml These stock solutions will keep indefinitely but deteriorate rapidly when mixed

For use mix equal parts of A and D and discard after each film Potassium dichromate (lOg) may be used in place of the Potassium permanganate in Solution A

No 31 Clearing Bath

Sodium (or Potassium) metabisulphite 25g Water to 1000ml

Fixer ---The bleaching solution softens the emulsion and a hardening fixer must be used

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The hardening fixers given enrl ier laquo(onnube Nos 26 and 28) are ideal

Procedure 1 First developel 12 mins at 20

0 e for all llford films with an inversion every 15 seconds Keep the developer for use in the second development

2 Wnsh 3 mins with frequent changes 3 llicach 5 mins with strong continuous agitation Roarbull lights may be

switched on after two minutes in the bleach 4 I~n s h 2 mins with frequent chnnges 5 Clear 2 mins in the Clearing bath 6 Iash 2 mins with changes 7 Reversal exposure Re-expose ench cnd of the spiral for 2 mins at 12-18 inches

from a 100 watt bulb This is best done underwater in a clear gls9 bowl standing on a sheet of white paper Rotate the bulb or the spiral during re-exposure to ensure even illumination

8 Second developer Develop for 6-8 mins at 20 0 C in the developer solution retained from the first development Development time is not critical but should go to completion

9 Rin s e 10 Fix Fix in acid htrdening fixer for 10 mins (formula No 2cent ) or

4 mins (formula No 28) It Final 5h Wash for 30 mins and dryas usual

Modifying the Processed Negative Th e silver imJge obtained after development and fixation may be either l r censhy

sified or r educ ed TIlis is to compensate (or errors in exposure or dlvelopment or both

INTE~(UFICTION

The following for muLt has been select e d [rom the many published because i t is simple effective etsily controlled and yields a permanently enhllnced negative The basic chemicals are reasollably safe unlike the mercury and uranium intensifiers

No 32 Chromium Intensifier

STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium dichromate 12 5g lJnter to 200 ml

STOCK SO LUTION II Hydrochloric acid 10 vv (36 ww) 30ml ( o r I1ydrochloric acid 10 1 ww) (L Iml) (or Hydrochloric acid cone) (]ml) WJter to 200ml For use mi~ 1 part Solution A with 3 parts water and add 1 part rolution n

The negative should be properly fixed and well washed Old negatives should be sO kcd in water for a few minutes The negative is immersed in the intensifier [or 2-3 minutes until the image is (ully bleached (it turns a yellowy-brown colour) It is then washed well until the yellow stain is removed The intensified image is then re-developed after exposure to daylight (or a light bulb 1 minute each side at 18 inches) in l nOli-solvent type developer This may be a print developer or general purpose necative developer such as formtJl No3 or any universal j developer An advantage of thi s intensifier is that the whole proces8 may be repe a ted several times with an increase in intensification each time as the image

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is built up

~EDUCTrON

There are three classes of reducers which reduce the amount o[ silver in the negative in different ways

The subtraltive reducers remove silver from all parts o[ the illlagc (shadows and highlights) at about the salTle rate 50 that the contrast 15 incrcaBed This is uscful for Jver-euroxposed negatives which tend to be flat

The peoporti)lal reducers remove silver in proportion to the density so that the contrast grildient is maintained This type of reducer is suitable for those negatives which are too dense for easy printing through over-exposure ~ombined

with over-development The uper-proportional reducersattack the IllDvy silver depositll more than

[he lightly exposed parts leading to a reduction ill contrast and density Dense contrasty negltives are usually the result of over-development

No 33 Farmers Reducer (Subtractive)

STOCK SOLUTION A Sodium thiosulphate anhyd 32g (or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (SOg) Water to 500ml

STOCK SOLUTION B Potassium ferricyanide 109 Water to 100ml Immediately before use mix 15 p3rts A with 15 parts w(lter and ~dd 1 pa[t B

The process of reduction should be watched carefully and may be stoppcd at nny time by flooding wi th wn ter The ac t i vi ty 0 [ the reducer may be n 1te [cd by va ry ing the qunutity of Soltltion II added [ncrensing t he [crricyanidc increa ses the activity and vice versa The stock solutions keep indefinitely hut the working solution hu 3

short life

No 34 Permanganate - Persulphate Reducer (Proportional)

STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium permanganate 1 solution lZ 5ml Sulphuric acid 10 wlw 65ml Water to 500ml

STOCK SOLUTLON II Ammonium persulphate 25g Water to 1000mi Distilled water should be used to make up these solutions for use take one

part A two ports distilled water and two parts B A slower acting mixture is I part A 4 parts water and 1 part II and this may be easier to control A[ter reduction the action con be halted and the brown stain removed by immersing the negative in a 1-2 solution of sodium (or potnssiul1l) metabisulphite The negative should he thoroughly waMhed before being dried

No 35 Pelslliphate Reducer (Super-proportional) Ammonium persulphate 125g Sulphuric acid lOr ww 5m1 Distilled water to 500101

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The ne)a t i ve shou 1d be fu lly wn shed The leduc t ion mus t be wa tC1ed close ly as the rate varies ~idely with different emulsions nnd with some modern high speed ~mulsions it iR not effective ]t all to 12-157 solution of sodium Ilulphite anhyd can be Ilseu as ] s top bath Imd the negat ive is fi na lly given a good wash

BampW Print Processes [1) NI_I2EV~1QI2yRS

Print developers arc generally fairly contrasty compared to negative developers and of course it ig not necclisary or desirable to use fine grain or acutance techniqupound for prints The colour tone of the image is the main variable in print developers but the colour obtained will depend largely on the type of print paper (eg bromide chlorobromide or chloride)

Table 8 Standard Print Developers

No 36 No 37 No 38 No 39 D163 ID62 ID20 New

PQ Univ NQ Paper Winchester

~middotc to 1 22 3 35

Sodium sulphite anhyd 75 50 50 35

-lL(~ro(l~1 i WJlle 17 12 12 86

Socli11Tl -----shy

carbollate lt1nilyd 65 60 60 63

lhellidolle 05

Potassium bromide 28 2 4 l9

I3cn7otriazole 1 15-25 20 37

Wettinr agent 10 10 10 10

Wnter to 1000 1000 1000 1000

Dilution (stock + water) 1+3 1+3 1+3 1+2 Calgon may be added to all the above at the rate of 2g per litre If the ueveloper is uRed at less dilution development iR more rlpid The

benzotriClzole in these formulilc irnproves the brightness of highlights by reduc i ng fog and also shifts the colour of the illlage towards black or blue-black The New middotIinchester formula (No 39) is a universal paper delTeloper giving good black to nc s and is the basis of many commercially available print developers

Table 9 Warm-tone Print DClTelopers

No +O ~Jo 41

~Lltf01 I i nonc _________--25 ---8_ ___

Sodium Dulphite anhyd 60 60

Sad i IIll carboIlHe anhyd 90 90

~ycin 25

Potassium oronlidc 2

~ater to 1000 1000

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Dilution (Stock + water) 1+3 1+2 Time 2-3 mins 1-2~ mins

Formula No 41 has a warmer tone tllan No 40 but both arc best used on warm-tone papers

STQ- [lATHS FOR PR_INT~

The 1I0n-hilnlenlng stop blths given carlier (Nos 21 and 22) arc suitable f0 r prints as is a 47 solution oE sodium or potassium mctabisulphite (I~Oplitre) good economical stop bilth can be made up by adding 1 part stop batl (as above) to two parts old fixer and mixing up a fresh fixing bath When the stop batll shows exhaustion the stop bath ia discarded and the old fixer converted to the ncw st op bath This double use of fixing solution Lcally does prolong the life of the fl xer bath as a large part of the fixation takes place in the stop bath and the diluti on ensures that no staining occurs

PRINi FIXERS Any of the fixer formulae given earlier for negativcs will provide fix e rs

suitatle for papers (formulae 25-28) The rapid fixers have a much grentcr cJptc ity than the hypo filter s and formula 27 is especially recommended for plastic-coatcd pap~rs Prints on normal paper wh i ch a r c t o be hot-glazed should be fixed in 1

hardening fixer (formulae 26 or 28) Formula 25 is obviously the cheapest to ma ke up but the pll should be monitored and more metabisulphite added to restOt-e thc acidity when required All may be used diluted 1+1 It is advisable not to U 5C the some solution for fixing both films and pape rs even if the same formula is used but to keep film filter and paper fixer i n s eparate bottles

t~ID F9H PAPER PInNTsect The fibre base of normal printing pl pe rs retains acid chemicals from the fj xing

bath which are difficult to remove by -a s h ing alone If after a brief rine 11C

print is i~nersed in a 2-5 solution o f s od ium carbonate anhyd for 2-] minutes the subsequent nonnl wash ensures that all the hypo and hYPolilver camplexes a t c removed This alkaline bath should be used whenever any subsequent trcatmenl of the print such as toning is to be carried out

LYPO ELI~IN~TOB 11C following solution (formula No 42) serves to oxidise the thiosulphate t o

~ulphate which is then easily washed ou t o f the paper

~~_~po Elimin_ator

Hydrogen peroltide solution 3 (10 volume) 125ml or Hydrogen peroxide solution 6 (20 volume) 63mU Ammonia solution 0B80sg 10ml Hater to 1000ml immerse the prints in the above solution after a normill W8lh in running W (l ~ er

for about 5 minutes followed by a fu cthc r Hash of about 10 minute This hyposhyelimnator is made up of volatile compOIw nts so that there is_ no risk of elininllor salts remaining in the p1per-base after drying

PRINT TONING Prints may be toned a variety of colours and depending on subject can yielel very

pleasing results All prints must be tlloroughly washed prior to toning and old prints

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~lloliid be soaked ~n water for a few minute s to soften the emulsion

1) Sepia Toning Th follow(ng method yields perm1nlnt prints with a good brown tone In fact

prints treated in lhis way have greater permanence than untreated prints and the lmiddotLlwd is USLd ill 3rchival processinl The print is first bleached ill a ferri shyqnidcbroHiide bleach until the d3ri~est partH of the image tire a raint straw LU lour 1 t is lilen placed in the toner b3th 1111lt1 the sepia image quickly reappears

Nu (d FerricyanidcDromi de Bleach

Potassium [erricyanide 40g Potassium bromide 251 Jater to 1000mi Tllis stock solution is used undiluted and keeps well if stored in the dark or

ll a dnk bottle It may be re-used until exhausted h[ter bleaching the print 1~ washed well and trGnsferred to tbe following solution

Uu 44 Sepia Toning BGth -Thiolre1 109

Potassium bromide 40g Sodiul1i hydroxide 3-6g WJter to 1000mi The qu~n[ity of sodium hydroxide can be adjusted between the above limits to

yield the desired tone colour This toning bath is preferable to the traditional suJiul11 sulphide hath because of the unpiensant smell and properties of sodium sulphide solutions Thiourea and sod i um sulphide should not be used or stored in lilt dGrkroom or near sensitised materials

bJ lllie Toner This process does not re qruire a bleach stage but the print should be thoroughly

- s hed a[te1 fixation The process intell5ifies the image slightly so prints to bpshytOiled blue should be mnde a little lighter than they would otherwise be

Nu 45 Dlue Toning Bath

SOLUTION A

Potassium ferricyanide Ig Sulphuric acid 10 ww 30ml Wnter to 500ml

SUIUTION 13

Alliinonilim ferric citrate (green) Ig

Sulphuric acid 10 ww 30ml Water to 5001111 Mi elt[uGI parts hand B immediately before use The wet print is immersed

ulltil the desired tone is reached and then washed Excessive wnsh ing will ble a ch lliit the blue colour and just sufficient wash to remove the yellow tain should be lven This bleaching is largely eliminated if the print is lshed in water conshy[lining a l ittle acetic acid (51111 or less per litre)

c) Red TOiler Th~TtO~ing is il traditional red tOller using copper sulphate hglin no

b I each is llluircd

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No 46 Red TOllin~ Bath

SOLUTION A Cupric s~lphate (511 deg) 12 5g

2Sodium citrate 500g (or Potassium citrate) (55g) Water to SCOml

SOLUTION B Potassium ferricyanide 109 Sodium citrate 50 g (or Potassium citrate) (SSg) Water to SCOml Use equal volumes of II and B mixed just before use The image colour changes

through warm black then sepia to rea 2nd t he process can be halted at any stage by flushing with water The print is th~n wa s hed and dried normally

PRINT nEDUCERS Print reducers are generally used Eor the local reduction of dense parts of

iarge prints for generally brightening dense flat prints or for removing fiilvcr completely from unwanted areas Farmers Reducer (formula No 33) is the most commonly used print reducer and shoul d Df t sed s ufficiently diluted to allow control of the reduction proc ess Use scr 1p dn ts to de t e rmine the appropriate conditions ~len using Farmers Reducer wash the pr in t frequently in running water or permanent yellow staining may occur Farmers Reduc e r used very dilute is ideal for brightening dense flat prints It is a s ub t ractive reducer and gives bright highshylights a nd increased contrast

~len heavy deposits of silver have 0 igt e remov ed completely such as that cause1 by pinholes in line nega t i ves Fa nna r s Reduce r is not su i tab Ie because of the possibility of staining The followin g formula (No 47) is an iodine re ducer which i9 very effect i ve at removing dense silver

No 47 Iodine Reduce r

Potas sium iodide 1Sg Iodine crystals 05g Water to lOOml This reducer is applied to the mOl s t lot ~et) print with a swab or brush and

the resulting brown Btain is easily r emove d in a 15 solution of sodium thiosulphate Illlhyd (or 25 sodium thiosulphate cryst ) after a rinse in water The print should then be thoroughly rinsed

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Colour Processing Besides offering real economy brew-it-yourself colour processing is v~ry

satisfying and can yield results superior to those offered by ln3ny commercial proshycfSSinl~ houses All that is required ilre careful working methods and atttntion to dltlails Tlte Icrwrill instruction relating to monochrome proc(ssin~ should be r~d in conjunction with thcse notes on colour processing It should be emphasised that the formulae given in this section are not those of the film manufacturers who do not publish their formulae but have been worked out to yield results comparable with the manufacturers recommended processing

Time and Temperature Cololl~ ma-terials are not as flexible as black and white materials with regard

to development conditions since wide deviation from the recommended development can yield shifts in colour balrnce ohich lQay be impossible to correct in printing With reversal materials in particular exposure must be accurate and the time and temperature of the first development is crucial as thi largely determines the quality of the ftnal transparency In the C(j process the processing temperature is rather high (3a

oC) bllt this must be maintained at least for the first dtvelopment There is

slightly more leeway ~Iith the other st~ges but these should b~ kept within the limite shown The sallie applies with colour development of negative materials and again the processing tenrperature of the C41 procefiS is high (also JaoC) The times given in the formulae include 10-15 seconds to uHo~ for draining the tank

H~king up the Solutions As wi th all the - formulae in this bookl e t the chemicals should be dissolved in

tire order given Some of the colour dev e lo p ing agents while extremely solub i I wa te r tend to separn te out in the a 1 k a 1 ine J eve loper sol ut ions Ita aov isab le to dissolve the colour developing agen t to gether with the hydroxylamine (hydro shycldoride or sulphnte) where p r e sent se pa r a te ly i n part of th e total volume of water alld add this slowly 0 th e rerna mJer o f the solution some time before use rile hydroxylamine acts as an antioxidant and is required because the sulphite conshyclntrltion hCls eO be low Hydroxylamine is rapidly decomposed in alkaline solutions ill the pr se nce of sequestering agents of the EDTA type so Cnlgon should be used i n h~rd water ~~ r e s rather than EDTA

V~QCESliING G9J~QI1lLill=VERSAL FILMs_U0R COLOUR SLIDES) There are at present two princiPlll systems for colour reversal film prGcessing

(excluding Kodachrome) The first is the ~g fachrome 41 process covering all Agfa r-tJVersal fi 1m (except Igfachrotnc [(IOOS Profe ssional - proce Sl E6) olhether sold process paid or not Thepound are few if any other makes o f [i Tm available in Britain ohich use this process The second ir the Kodak Ektachrome E6 process hich covers IllOSt of the rCIllining colour n~versal films There are a few filns Idlich ltIre still made for outdated process es sLlch as ORWO f i l ms ohich are proc e s sed by an old Igf~ process Rnd some specillised Ko d ak films suc h as Ektachrome In f rared Film find Photomicrography Color Film 248J which are processed by the old E-4 process There may still be a [ew films from independent manufacturers designed for the old E ~ process

Kodak Kod~lchlome films are sold process paid and user processing is not feasible

Keversal Exposures - Reversal film mUfit be given a fogging exposure to light (Where chemical fegging is not used) after the first development Because the emulsion is very much less sensitive at this stage than normal film this exposure mtlst be rather intense It

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is best to remove the film from the spinl and SCC-SDW it through plain wter below a Photo flood lamp Ilowever a wet delicate film is difficult to reload into the spi ra 1 (bes t done under lola ter) and it is cas icr to leave the film in thc 5 pi ra 1 nlld extend the exposure time With clear spira ls thc exrosure time should be at lea~t

doubled and with the translucent nylon spira l s the exposure should be increased 5-10 fold When the film is not removed for the exposure place the spiral in a white 001011 of water (or a clear glass bowl on J wl ite surface) and place the lamp above it During the exposure of each end of the s pir a l the lamp or bowl should be moved about so that the exposure is more even Watc r and cl~ctricity dont mix so care is needed and a hot photoflood lamp will burst if s plashed Dont skimp on th e reversal exposhysure - it is easy to underexpose but dif f ic ul t to overexpose For the Ektachrome E-6 p r-ocess a reversa l bath which chemi c3 1y fogs tile film making the reversal exposure unnecessary i s available from Pb c to Chemical Supplies

The Agfachrome 41 Proce ss Suitablc for all Agfa Reversal poundll ns (except Agfachrorne RIOOS Professional

available in 120 size and sheet film only)

formul ~ e - Agfachrome 41 No 48 First Developer

Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g middot1e to 1 3g Sodium sulphite anhyd SOg Hydroquinone 6g Sodium carbonate anhyd 40g Potassium thiocyanate 25g Potassium bromide 2g otassium iodide 0 1 Solution 6ml wate to 1000111

No 49 Stop Bath

Ac etic acid glac iol 101 Sodium acetate (3H 0) lO g

2Water to 10001111

No 50 Colour Developer PART I

Sodium sulphit e anhyd 3 5g Hydroxylamine hydrochloride I t Potassium bromide 19 Colour Developing Agent see below Ethylenediamine (50 vv Soln) 16ml (or 2-phenylethylamine) (3ml) -later to 300ml

PART BI Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g S~dium carbonate anhyd 62g Water to 500ml

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c) lour iPVf loping age nts [0[ Part lI

Colour Dev e loper 1 (sulphate) 28g or Colour l)eve l o pe r I (chloIide) ( CIH) 22g or Cenochrollc 2 5g or Dtoxych rome 3 2g

lOOt usc add ParL II slowly to Part D with tirring and make up to a total volume o f 10U0Il1I

No 51 [leach ~-----Po tas s ium-[e rr i CY[lnidc 80g

Potassium bromide 30g Sodium acetate (J1l 0) 50g2lor ic Jeid 5g Potnssiwa nll11 30g Water to 10001111

Ngt 52 Fixcr ---S-oJI~-tTiosu I ph a te anhyd l25g

(or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (200g) Sodiul1l s ulphi te lnhyd lag Imiddotlater to 1000ml

Th pit of this fixer is approximately neutral Do not use an acid fixer because it Jill blcnch th e dyes

Nu 53 Stnbiliser - --- We t ti~g agelt - Im1

Forlllaide hyde 0 5ml I-Jte r to IOOOml

~ (lCeslng Procedure lIrfachrome 41

At 20 0 C (minutes) At 24degC (minutes )

1 First Developer 18 - zr-----shy lJ-l~ (z00-O 50C) (2l 0 -02SoC)

2 Rin sc ~ 3 St op bath 4 3 4 1[151 10 7 S Reve r sni Exposure See be l~w 6 Colour developer 14 (20 0 -0SoC) 11 (z4 0 02SoC) 7 - 1 5 h 20 14 8 Ill eac ll 9 I-[lsh 5 4 lll Fix 5 4 ll Wash 10 7 12 Stabil iser 1 1 1] Dry (30 D

e) mox

One minute each side with film r emo ved from spiral 2 minuteR each end rf clear sl c rlll lid 5-10 minutes ench end of ttanslucent nylon spirill frolll a No2 Photoflood a l I lie t re () f le t)

Thp t Cll peratllre during the Lwo developme nt stages should be maintained within til limits shown For other stages tlte t e lllperature may range from 17-20lC or 21 - 2llC The third wash (Htole n iu raLh e r long and it is important that it is llt lL shorted In soft watcr ilHilS this lung wallh nwy c ause the clUulsion to slocll Su un int e l-mediate bilth of 5 minutes immediately J(tcr the colour developer can be given to prevent excessive swelling This is a 2 solution of either sodium

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sulphate or magnesium sulphate (Glaubers salts or Epsom Salts) If the intermediate bath is used the third wash may be shortened by 5 minutes In the two developer baths agitation should be continuous for the first 30 seconds followed by two invershysions every half minute for the rest of the period

As usual it is the developer solutio 1~ which deteriorate first The remalnlng solutions (stop hath bleach and fixer ) have double the capacity of tIle two developers Ea ch litre of developer should process 6-8 films but the development timcs should be extended by 30 seconds at 20degC (or 20 5cco~ds at 24 o

C) after the first two films anQ after each subsequent two films hi applies to both the first and colour deve lo pers

rne Ektachrome E-6 Pro ess 1 am indebted to Mr Derek Wa tkl 9 r0~ permission to reproduce this formula

wh i ch first appe1red in the March 198 1 i sgt lc of the magazine SLR Camera (Haymnket Publi t hing Ltd 38-42 Hampton Road TCd ingcon Middlcsex)

There are a lot of films from man n~rUl facturers sold under a wide variety of brand names which are compatible with the E-6 process Even Agfa make an E-6 compatible film (Agfachrome RIOOS Professional)

FormuL ae - E-6 i-lo-54---first Deve 1upe r

Sodium 6exametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g Sodium sulphite anhyd J9g Potassium carbonate anhyd 14g Sodium bicarbonate 12g Phen i done O 6g Itydroluinone 6g Sodium bromide 22g Sodium thiocyanate Ig Sodium hydroxide 33g Pot~asium iodide (01 50ln) 45ml Water to 1000m~ pH 9 6-005

No 5~ Stop Bath 1 ------S0dium acetate anhyd 30g

(or Sodium acetate 320) (50g) Acetic acid glacial 6ml Water to 1000m~ pit 55-02

No 56 Colour Develoger Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g tri-50dium orthophosphate 1220 36g Sodium hydroxide 3g Sodium sul~lite anhyd 4 5g 3gtdium bromide 065g Potassium iodide (01 Soln) 30ml Sodium thiocyanate 1 3g Citrazinic acid 1 25g CD-3 l1g ~oter to 1000mi + pH 1165-005

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S LOp lath 2 Same as Stop lath 1 but once used do no t interchange them

No 57 ll l e ach lotassiulil (erricyanide 80g Potassium bromide 20g Ji-So JiullI hydrogen orthophosphattnnhyd 12g (or di-Sodium hydrogen olthophosphnte

1211 2deg) (JOg) Acetic acid glacial 5ml Hater to IOOOrot plt 55-02

No 58 Fixe r - - Sndi-u-thiosulphate Mlhyo 125g

(or SodiulTl thiosulpilte cryst ) (200g) SodiuJJ sulphite anhyd 5g So dium me tabisulphite O5g Water to lOOOlllt 11 72-02

~Jc tt ing JgCllt lmL

L r to lOOOml

Time ~pe ratute

l First development 6r J8-U57 - shygt Stop iJath 1 2 33-JoC J Ih 2 3J-J90C 4 Reversal Exposure Two minutes each side with (ilm removed

froro spiral 5 minutes each side of clear spiral ano 10 minutes each side of nylon spiral with No 2 PhotofLoud at

(Or HeveJs31 JlJth) (ObtainJhle 12 inches frolll Photo Chical Supplies) 2 JJ-J90C

5 Col o ur u(ve [o[JllICnt G JSlOC 6 St o p Bath 2 2 JJ-l)degC 7 1-1 2 ])-J9()C g 11 [e middoth 5 JJ-l9C l) Rins e ~ 3J-390C [0 fix 5 3J-390C II Wnsh 6 33-J90C I ~ S tid il s c 1 3J-390C n Dry (Fillll cllt~Jrs on drying) r uTES ) As wilh all revlrsnl processes the [irut developer largely delermines the ehnrilct(tmiddotistic~ o[ the final translnrency Jntl the rcconlllltnJeu time anJ temp~rature

hlHJ1J be Iuhlrcu to b) AgitJtion in 11 ba ths (except the optional reversal bnth and the stabiliser

- - - - - - - ------------

wllich should not be agitated) is continuous for the first 15 seconds followed by two

inversions of the tank each subsequent half minute With the reversal bath and stnbiliRer an initial inversion to ensure uniform distribution is all that is required cl The conditioner bth in the offici)l process is lwl required in the pLOceJllre given hele as this useR ferricyllnide bleach rather than all EUTA hl(ach d) The two Rtop hth re of identical compositioll bllt should not be illtcrchlIircl due tu dnmn~illg carry-over contomination e) The caplcity of the solutiolls is 10 filll1ll pr litre (36 exposure - 35 or 120 roll film) bnt the tillle in the first developer must be extencled hy 15 second~ after the first two films and after each subsequent two films (by 20 seconds fOl the last two films) f) The made-up solutions should be scored in dark bottles at room temperature not in the refrigerator The first developer will keep for two months unused or for four weeks once used The colomiddoti developer will keep for 3 months unused or 2 lIIo11~hs partly used nd all the remaining solutions will keep for 6 months ur longer Although the first developer contains many ingredients it is not expensi ve to moke up Thus it is worthwhile retaining the remaining solutions to be used ith a ((esh ly made fi rs t deve loper if the fu 11 capac i ty canno t be used in the four we ek life 0f the original first developer g) Drying temperature should not exceed 60

0 C and all EktachrOllle films only clclr

when nearly dry For information on process control and fault finding in both Agfachrome 41 and

Ektachrome E-6 the reader is referred to The Focal Guide to Colour Film Proces~ing by Derek IJAtkins (published by the Focal Press norough Green SevEnolt)ks Kent TNlS 8PB) This excellent book also gives 11 the background information you may require Also in the book is a substitute E-4 process (as well an a low cost Ln~ temperature simplified E-4 process) for those films using this system This book also covers colour negative film processing

PROCESSING COLOUR NEGATIVE FILMS (PLUS XP-l AND VARIa XL BL~CK A~~lJTE FIL~ ~~__________~_ ____~______M~)__ __

As with colour reversal film the two major manufacturers of ~olour fil~s A~ [a

and Kodak each have tlieir own fi lms and processing systemy [or cololJr negative~ Again the trend seems to be towards a unified compatible system based on Kodaks C-lfl prccens

Processing negative film is very much eaGier tlan reversal processing for two reasons Firstly there are fewer steps in the processing sequence with no revcr~al EXpOSlln required and secondly there ill a little more latitude with tlte pro cessing since most faults can be corrected later at the print ing sta ge HOI_e ver cons iL e nt good resutts depend on consistent processing Attention to detail ~ile proce8s i ng a film can save a lot of time later on

Agfacolor N Negative Process ---T-tiis-process is in tended for all II fa co lour nega t i ve film (CNS CNS2 ann 80S Pr~fe9sionol) excluding AgCacoluur CNS400 negative film This ltter is designed to be processed in Agfacol o r Peo ceMs 70 chemicals and is compatible witl l Kodaks Flexicolor C41 process as is Agf a s chromogenic 131ack and ~hite film Vor l XL

The Agfacolor N process is slightly unusual in that the devclopmpnt is 11101-11(

to continue in the lowlgtr layers of the e mulsion during an intermedi1 t e bath wll icll immediately follows the colour developer

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Pu rmulnc - Agfucolour N i u 59- Colur- ll(vIoI~er SULUTION A

Sodium hexnmetaphosphate (Calgon) 2g PutnsSilJln carl)ooatc atlhyd 75p Potassium bromide 25p Wat e r Lo 500ml

~()LUTroN Il

lIydroxylamine hydrochloride 19 (or Hydroxylamine sulphate) 0 2g) Sodium sulphite anhyd 35g Colour Dcvcloppr 1 (Sulph~te) 28g (or Colour Developer 1 (chlorideraquo C22g) (or Cenocilrome) (25g) (0 t Droxych rome) (J2g) ) t e r to SOOml

I l d B tlJ A with stirring before use

Nu 60 Intermediate Bath -- -~lgn~sin sulpil1te--===- JOg

Mixed (or used) Colour Deve lope r 501n 30ml 1000011

No 61 Bleach --S-(Tll~eXaeLaphospilate (Cnlgon) 5g

Potassiulll fcrricY1nide 42g Potassium brolllidp 12g 10[ltl8siu dihydrogen orthophosphate 15g di-Potassium hydrogcn ortilophosplwte

nll Jil yd Sg Water to 1000111

Nl 62 Fixer -------sz-dG----Umiddotios ul phn te nnhyd 125g

(01 Socii um thiosulphntc cryst) (200g) SodiulIl sulphitc anhyd 109 Wnter to 1000ml

ltc~ing Procedure Agfacolollr N Time (mins) Telpernture degc-S----shy

1 Colour developer 20-02 2 Intermediate bath 4 2005 J -IDsh 15 (lllinilllllm)-20 15-20 4 IHench 6 2005 5 Hash 6 15-20 6 FLx 6 18-20 7 -Ilsh 10 15-20 fl ~~ett lllg agent bath 15-20 N)lI~S

Agit1tilln in niL stDges is continuous (or the fi1st minute followed by o ue j version of Lhc LIll( (very hoi ( minute thcrcnfter

llevcl)plIlcnt 11I3Y be varied betccn 7 - 9 minutes Increase ueve10pment to 9 llItes Lo incrcasc contrast and reduC(~ the time to 7 minutes (or softer results

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The orange mask is formed in the bleach bath and the recommended time and temperature for this stage should be followed as the density of the mask increases with time

All the solutions including the co l our developer solutions (separately) shoilid keep for at least 4 months Once mixed the colour developer (and the intermediate bath) will only Inst a f ew weeks

The capacity is 6 - S films (135- 36 o C 120) per litre but the development ttne shoul d be incr eased with each film or pair of films to compensate for developer e xha ustion The c a pa c ity of the co lou r d vetoper s may be e xtended by mixing onl y

al f of so lu tions I a n d B and proceSS in f( 4 i ilms in e ach h a lf In this ca s e prolong the development time by one mi nute a f ter eacll film

Flexi color C-41 Tlis process was developed by Kod lt1 ilt [or the mach i ne pro ces~ing of their nc~

colour negative films Kodacolor II and Ve ricolor II The majorit y of colour films from independent manufacturers are now made compatible with the C-~l process In addition there are the two chromogenic bl ack and white films lifords XPI and Ag Eal s Vario XL whi ch were designed fo r C- 41 processing l gfas fast colour nega t i ve film CNS400 should also be proce sed i n C- 41 chemicals

Because C-41 was designed for use i n au t omated commercial laboratories the processing t emperature is rather h i gh (IOO or 3So

C) As with the ~ktachrome E-6 precess these high temperatures bring abo ut the a s sociated problems of short development times and DE maintaining t hL t empe ra ture betwe en the prescribed limit~ Tha t t hes e pro b lems are easi l y ove rc ome i s J emon s trat ed by the many thousa nds of amac e urs who s ucce ss f ully process t hei L own pol and Vari o XL monochrome films in

oC-4 chemicals at 3S C

The following formulae represent a l ow cosi substitute procedure using a traditional ferricyanide bleach

ihe substi t ute process is reproduc d fr om The Focalguide to Colour Film Proc es sing by Derek Wat ki ns with k i nd p2r ssion from the Focal Press

Formu11e C-4l

No 63 Colour Developer Sodium hexarroetaph()sphate (Calgon) 2g Po tassium carbonate anhyd 38g Sodium sulphite anhyd 5g Potassium iodide 01 Soln 2ml Potassium bromide 1 5g lIydroxamine hydrochloride 2g CD-4 5g Wlter to 1000ml

No 64 Stop Bath Ae tic acid glacial 20011 Sodium acet1te 311 0 25g

2Water to 1000ml

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------ ----------------

~

No 65 Bleach Potassium nitrate 2SB Potassium ferricyanide 30g Potassium bromide 12g Boric acid 5g Sodium tetraborate (Borax) 19 Water to 1000ml

No 66 Fixer Sodium thioulphate anhyd 125g (or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (ZOOg) Sodium metabisulphite 20g Water to LOOOtnl

No 53 Stabiliser Wetting a ~r~ nt 1m1 Formaldehyde 40 511 )1 ~ater to lOOOm1

f ocessinG Procedure e-4l (with [erricY~lnid( bleach)

Time Temperature degc l Colour development 31- 38~~--

2 Stop bath 35-40 J Wash 35-40 4 Bleach 35-40 5 ~ash 35-40 6 Fix 35-40 7 ~ash 35-40 8 Stabiliser 35 -40 9 Dry

Agitation in the developer is continuous for the first half minute followed by one inversion of the tank each quarter minute thereafter In the remaining solution s the agitation may be reduced t o t lJO in ver sions every half minute after tilE init i a l )0 sec onds cont inuous agit a tio n e ach bath

TIll capacity of the so lut ions is a pplC))limately twelve films per litre if the dev eloper is made up as two 500ml port iuns dn d six films devel oped in eacll portion The development time should be extended by minute after the f irst two films and by middot a further i minute aft er t he seco nd 1lt1 fi ms A comb i ned b1each f ix bath may be u~cd in this procss b t t o[ cours Lilis calllu t be a f e rr i c Yll1ido ball ed bleach A sllitable formula can be found in t h e Br i i sh J our nal of Photography Annual

PIWCESSING COLOUR PRINTS For copyrigllt reasons we arc unabl e t o re produce the substi t ute fo rmulae for

colour print processing The f onnulae and pr ocedure s are quit e straight~orward and lIIay be found in the British Journal of Photography Annual Photocopies of the relevan t pnu es may be obtained for a nominal sum from the publishers This applies to earlic~ editions of the book and to the current edition after stocks are sold out (u s ually April or Hay) The address to 0 i s

Tlte Ed i tor Ilritish Journal of Photography Annmiddot qL Henry Greenwood ( Co Ltu 28 Creat James Street London WeI Telephone 01-404 4202

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APPENDIX I Chemical Names Seeals- Appendix 2 for Colour Developing Adurol Amidol Amidosulphonic acid Ammonium alum Ammonium hydroxide l2-B(nzenediol 14-Benzenediol Bor1cic acid Borax Calgon Chlorchydroquinone Chrcmlt alum Copper sulphate Copper chloride l2-Diaminoethane 24- Diaminophenol hydrochloride Digol l2-Dihydroxybenzene l4-Dihydroxybenzene 26-Dihydroxyisonicotinic acid Elo Ethy l enediaminetetraacetic acid and sa l ts Ethyl~ne glycol Ferri~ ammonium citrate Formalin p-Hydroxyphenyl glycine Iron perch loride Iron trichloride Kcdalk p-HtLhylaminophenol sulphate Nethyl p1raaminophenol sulphate middotIonoch 10 rhyd rOluinone 1- Pheny 1- 3-pyrazo lidone Potasnium alum Potassium bichromate Potassium bisulphite Potassium chrome alum Propan-2-01 Pyrocatechin (Pyrocatechol) Pyrogall ic acid Quino Sodium bisulphite Sodium hydrosulphite Thiocarbamide I 2 3-Trihydroxybenzene

and Synonyms Agent)

Chloroquinol 24-Diaminophenol hydrochloride Sulphamic acid Aluminium ammonium sulphate Aoononia solution Catechol (Pyrocatechol Pyrocatechin) Hydroquinone Boric acid Sodium tetraborate Sodium hexametaphosphate Chloroquinol (Adurol) Chromium potassium sulphate Cupric sulphate Cupric chloride Ethylenediamine Amidol Diethylene glycol Catechol Hydroquinone Citrazinic acid Hetol EDTA acid and salts Ethanediol Ammonium ferric citrate Formaldehyde solution Glycin Ferric chloride Ferric chloride Sodium metaborate Hetol Hetol Chloroquinol Phenidone Aluminium potnssium sulphate Potassium dichromate Potassium metabisulphite Chromium potassium sulphate Isopropyl alcohol (Isopropanol) Catechol Pyroglillol Ilydroquinone Sodium metabisulphite Sodium dithionite Thiourea Pyrogallol

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Jl)[l~NDIX 2

There appears to be considerable confusion surrounding the various colour developing agents This is probably due to the fact that these complex compounds helve all been given a different trade name by each manufacturer or distributor L1Ch compound may even have more than one chemical name depending on the chemical nOlllcnclature system used The following is a list of the chemical names and synonyms of the common colour developing agents All of them are derivatives of para-phenylenediamine the classic fine grain black and white developer and they sllare in varying degrees the unpleasant characteristics of this material They should be handled with care and skin contact or inhalation of dust should be avoided llecause these compounds are similar in structure and mode of action they arc interchangeable to some extent the differences being plincipally differcncfs ill activity and solubility Differences in solubility can cause slight colour cilmges but this is really important only with reversal films since with colour 1I~~ative films and colour papers colour casts can usually be corrected by filtration in printing The relative quantities re qui r ed ani adjustments to development times or exposure will have to be determined by experiment The names underlined are those used by Photo Chemical Supplies

Colour Developer I (Sulphate) - Ac t i vo 1 7 (Jejlt1Sltmi--shy= Uiethyl-p-phenylencdiamine sulphate =NN-Diethyl-l4-pbenylenerliamlne sulphate

C lO

II 16

NZ

H2

S04

Holht - 26232

Colour Developer 1 (Chloride) shy middotCOiKodak)

Die til y1- p-pheny lenedl alnine hydroch lorid e = NN-Diethyl-l4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride

MolWt = 20070

lt~ur [tgt velrer CD 2 (Kod~dd Activol 2 (Johnsons) [olochrome (M amp ll) NN-Diethyl-2-methyl-l4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride 4-Alllino-NN-diethyl-m-toluidine hydroch lo r ide

~ol Wt ~ 214 i3

Colour Developer 3 ~-CD3(Kod ak)

Activol 3 (Johnsons) ilyJoch rome (M amp ll) N-E thy 1- 3 -me thy 1- N- (f -me thylsul phonamidoe thy 1) -p-phenylenediamine sesqu isul pha te

monohydrate - Am lllO - N - e thy 1-N - (i me thanesu llhonalnidoe thy 1) -m- to 1uid inc s e s qu is u1pha t e

monohydrate

HolJt 43652

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Colour Develo~er 4 CD4 (Kodik)

= N-Ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyi-2-methyl-l4-phenylenediamine sulphate

~lolWt c 29235CllH18N20112S04

Droxychrome (M amp B) Activol 8 (Johnsons) Colaur Developcr 32 (Merck) T32 (Orwo) N-Ethyl-N-2-hydroxyethyl)-l4-phenylenediamine sulphate monohydrate

Wt 29634CIOH16N20middot1l2S04middotJI20 tiO

Ac60 (Agfa) Colour Developer 60 (Merck) N-Butyl-N-(4-sulphobutyl)-1 4-pheny l~ neciiamine

4-(N-Butyl-N-(4- s u phobutyl)amino)2 t ~ l i _e

Cl4 i 24 N203S HoliVt 30042

Gcnochrome (M amp B) - Acti~ol 1 (Johnsons)

S 28 OM) NN-Diethyl-l4-phenylcnediamine 9ulphit 2 Diethyl-p-phenylencdiamin~ sulphite

Mol ot t 23734

The bhse is ident i cal to Colour Develope r Sulpha t e and Hydrochloride)

APPENDIX 3 Anhydrous and lIydrncd Forms of Sal ts Many of the chemicals commonly used in photographic processing arc availllhlc

either in anhydrous forms or in one or more states of hydration If these oiffc l-ent forms are used in the ratio of their me l e u t ar weights then the amount of active ingredient is constant For example s od i um carbonate is available as the anhydrous powder (Molecular weight 105 99) and as tle decahydrate (Na C0 10I1 0 molecular2 3 2weight 21l6l4) The ratio of their molecular weights is 1270 so for every gram of anhydrous sodium carbonate required 270 grams of the decahydrate would have to be used It is important to remember thill point whe) compa r ing prices of chemicals because a hydrated crystalline form may appear cheaper weight for weight but be actually more expensive because of the add it ional quantity required

The following is a list of the commonly used chemicals which are available 1n different degrees of hydration showing their molecular weights and the ratios in which they should be used Those underlined are the forms which are supplied by Photo Chemical Supplies and are the most usual most economic or most stable form of the chemical concerned

Cupric chloride CUCI =13445 ~20=17048 Use 1127Z Cupric sulphate CuS0 =1596l _+511 deg=2[1)68 Use 1 1 564 2Ferric chloride FeC13c1622l +611 deg=27030 Use 11672Magnesium sulphate ~lgS04120=1J8 39 Z20=24647 Use 1 1 78

Potassium carbonate ~2C03=1J821 +1~1l20=l65_23 Use 1119

di-Potassium hydrogen ~211P04=174l8 +3H 0=22822 Usc 1 1 312orthophosphate

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-- --

~5 rJ Jiunt acct~te Cl COONa = 8203 Ue 1166~~2~= 13(~p~_3o d ium uisul phate NaIlS0 =12006 ~middotZO=lJ8 03 Use 1115

4~2SlJ=105 99 +10il20~2l6 14 Use 1270

)laquo ( ium d i hyd rogp n orthophosphate +211 0=15601 Use 1130

--2 -~---

d l-Slt)(JiJnl hydroren orlhophosphate Na

211P0

4=14196 +21122= 58~l~ Use 1 1 25 252

~ c liJgtn sulphlte +]011 0=32219 lise 1217~a23 =1t-Q~ 2~- dium suiphite i2 S03= 1~6 04 +711 deg=25215 Use 1200

2So diulIl tliiocYlOate N3SCN=8107 +2HZ2l2JQ Use 114-1 ( Ilst stored as 20 solutions)

S dilllll thiosu1phalc i02~22)=15sect1J +51120~24l1l Use 1157

Stannous chloride 21129=22563 Use 1119

l li-SodiUlll orthophosphate - thp mhydrous and crystalline forms not interChangeable due to alkalinity of the crystalline form whi~~ contains applox 2~~ sodium hydroxide

1 i IEND I X LI ~oJiuhl versus Potilssium Salts -- -- - r111( lIajority of phot~g-l--aphic--rroccs s ing soluti~~s sodiulU salts lIIay be

S dltituted [or pntasraquoiullI s 1lts n sodium salts are genentlly diEaper cmiddotleciall) since legs of tlte godiuHl salt is tequired to giV E the same molecular middotmiddot iuivalent In the Clse of tlte anhydrous carbonates and sulphites the sodium lts an 1sJ deliquescent than the potassium salls and 1re therefor easier to sL ore alld hnllJle The only advantage of the potassiLlln salts is their greater s o luui lily Ih e n highly concentrated solutions are made up lleCRuse of the slightly hi her nlkaLinity of the potnssiulO salts SOllie care in controtiing the pH is needed 1-111 11 substituting sodiulll [or potassium salts in buffer sy~te1ls For this reuson L1 uSllal buffer snIts nre not given here The (ollowing is a list of the ratios in which sorne of the CCgtlnlllon sodium nnd potassium sollts should be lIsed to give the I IiU (ecular equiv11cnts

Piltassiurn bromide Sod iUln bromide 100865 PutassiulTI cIrbonnte nnhyd Sodium carbonate Ilnhyd 100765 lJtlssium l)l1tS tUIlI

citr3LIO 0112deg)

hydroxide Sodium citrate (211

2deg)

SodiulII hyel ox ide 100905 100710

l u tass ium l1letabisulphite SodiullI metabislliphite 100 855 f o tl3S iunl Icrslllphilte Sodillm persulphate 100 880 Potassium sulphite anhyd Sodium sulphite anhyd 100 795

ArPENDIX 5 Wei~lts and Measures There are OIany old books which contain phot o graphic formulae 11 lot of which

al e still v11id todilY In Brilain thcse old formulae were Ilsuillly given in avoidupois ulli t rud the following tnbles 0I1Y be uficd to convert these formulae to the metric sf tem Avoi rdupJis Wli~ilts ~~~d TfT~r---- 16 ounces (oz) 7000 grnins (grs) f153 6gra1ll8 (g)

1 Juncc (llZ) 16 tJrll1ls (drm) 4375 grains (grs) 2835 grams (g) dram (drill) 2734 grHins (grs) 177 grams (g)

(1543 grains (grs) 10 gL1n1 (g) )

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Liquid Heaures (Ilritish alld Netd c )

1 quart 2 pints (pL) = 40 fluid oUllces (Floz) 1 136 1 it re (I) pint 20 fluid ounces (Fl nz) 568 millilitres (m1) fluid ounc~ (Floz)= B fluid drams (or d r c hills) 28lllml fluid drachm 60 minims 355ml

(1 minilll = 1 drop)

Temperature conv e rsion Fahrnheit to Celsius (Centigrade) (xoF - 32) x S = yOC

lt) Celsiu9 to Fahrenheit (yU C x 9) + 32 = xOF

5

APPlNlllX 6 Refrences and Funher Reading The following ia a short 1 ist uf publi c ations which readers will find

useful (or further informatiun 1 Jacobson C1 and Jacoblun R E (1976) Developing 18th Edit ion

Focal Press (see below) 2 Jacobson Cl a nd Hannheim LA (1975) Elllarging 22nd Edition Futal Press J Jacobson RE Ray SF Attridge GG and Axford NR (1978) Hanual of

Photography 7th Edition Focal Press I bull Langfo rd H J (1980) Advanced Photogl-aphy 4th Fdition Focal Press S Hason LFA_ ( 1975) Photographic Processing Chemistry 2nd Editioll Focil Press 6 Wat k ins D (19 78) The Focalguide to Coluur Film Processing Focal Press 7 Ilritish Journal of Photography Annual 1982 Henry Greenwood [ Co_ Ltd 28 Great

James Stn ~ t London WCl

The Focal Press Butterworth [ Co (Pllblishers) Ltd Ilorough Green Sevenoaks Kent TN15 flPH

Books 1 2 and] are all standard refere n c e w rks on photographic processing Ilook 4 is a ve r y useftl soutce of inforlUBtion on all aspe cts of photography but particularly on tone and colour reproduc t ion on sensitised materials The bouk by LFA_ Hasun (S) is es~ential [or those wishing to devise formulations of their own especially co loul formulations but the reader shoulJ have some chemical knowshyledge Book No 6 explains the principles o[ colour film processing and describegt th use of a variety of processing kits as well as providing Bubltitute formulae [or brew-it-yourself enthusiasts

The British Juurnal of Photography Annual (n is the traditiollal source of formulae fo r those wishing to mix up their own solut iOlls The formulae cover all aspects of both black and white and colour proc e ssing

NOTE The purpo se of this booklet is to stilllul te interest in the compounding of

photographi c processing solutiuns by tho se ph o t ographers wh o s e ek a greater undershystanding of the medium The ruatedal ill this buoklet is presented in good faith but because results are d e pe ndent on so many factors outside our control we cannot accept l iability for any processing [aults or inju~y to petsolls or property that might ari9 howsoever callsed Becaugte o f the subject ive nature of the medium it is the r e spons ibility of the user to Elac e rtain for himself the suitability of any [ormula or process in relation to hi8 mat e r ials e quipment and objectives Any suggestions from I a ders whi c h could be incorporated into foture editions o[ lhis booklet will be welcome _

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II c knuw l edgcmcnts

Til e author wOlld l ike to thank the f11 owing f o r pc n nisRiOll to us e m1terial for inclusion in this book let

Kod a k te for details of thfir formuln p (morw c hrome) ltlnd for addi t ional h e lpflll info rmati o n

IHo rd Ltd for permis~i on to reproduce their pllb lish e d formula e

Agfa- Ge v a ert Ltd for informat io n o n their p rod u c ts and pro c eRRinr

The Fo c al P If) 9S who publish a wiel e r ang e oC b oks u n plHtogl middot ~PY for permisAion t o US Ilel(cted m1terial [rom SOllI e of their puhlicltions (R ( e Appendix ()

~1r )( rek Watkins for pe rmissio n t o r e pr ud u c ( his slIbstitute 1-6 proc 1ing prn ee- dur( whi c h was first puhlished in the maga zine SLH Camer~

~h G W Crawley fditor of the Bri tish Journal of Photography for prmis9ion lltl rfprodllcE SOIll( of his FX sprifs -f d(vclop(rs

Th E ahv( prsons or organisnion9 (middot 1nnot Iccept 1ny liabil i t y arisin from the nprodnct inn of their lIIal([ial in Ihi hooklet

Writtfn by R C Potts ~fSc and publish e d hy PHOTO CHEMICAL SUPPliES 21 LODGE CLOSE

COWL EY MIDDLE SEX

UBB 2ES - 34 shy

No responsibility accepted for any formula or information contained in this document This is a scan of the original document

Use chemicals and formulae at your own risk Intended for personal and educational use only

Page 12: PCS Darkroom Formulary

Formula No 16 Fine grain speed increDsine developer (ID68)

Sodium sulphite a~lyd 850g llydroquinone 50g Borax 70g Boric acid 20g Phenidone 013g Potassium bromide LOg ImiddotJaCer to 1000 ml

Dllution Time (1115)

None 6middotmiddot9 1+1 11-16 1+3 22-30

Usc undiluted for the indiclted time to give the following speed increases on 111[5

800llSA (1 stop) 8-) mins l600ASA (2 stops) ll-12mins 3~00ASA (3 stops) 16-18mins

6 nigh Contrast Developers These developers give high contrast negatives lind are bese used on thin

emulsion high contrast film such as pes Ortholith film obtainable in 35mm cassettes from Photo ClwlllicoJ Supplies The first is the classic Caustic-hydroquinone developer and the s(cond is the s cand a -d Iniectious development low ulphitic developer T1e lotter is more delnonding of accurate exposure and development bUI

yields the highcst possible contrast for col our separation work and ha~f-tone dot screening Lith film may also be successfully developed using formula~ Nos 4 and 5 (undiluted) which hove better keeping qllalities once used but yield a blightly lowe contrast

No 17 CauGtic-llydro1uinone High Concrast Developer

SOLUTION A llydroquinone 25g

Potassium mctabisulphite 258 (or Sodium metabisulphite 2l5b ) PotassiUM bromide 25p (or Sodium bromide 2l5g) -I1ter to 1000ml

SOLUTlOCl B Sodillm hydroxide 36g (or Potassium hydroxide 50g) -IGter to lOOOml

Usc eqllJI P1rts A and Il and develop for 2-4 minutes The quantity of alkllli in Solntion B may be safely halved without loss of contrast but devrlopment time should be extended slihtly The two solutions keep indefinitely separately but ke e ping properties nre limited once mixed Use an acid stop bath before fixing to avoid staining

Nlt) 18 Infectious Lith Developer

SOLUTlON A Sodium sulphite anhyd 1

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Parafonnaldehyde 15 Po tassilil metaLisulphite 5 (or Sodium metabisulp lti t e I Jg) Water to 500ml

SOLUTiON Il Sodium sulphite anhyd 60 Tloric acid 15 Ilydroquinone 45 Potassium bromide J Water tJ 1500ml

------------------~~~ Use 1 part Solution A and 3 parts Solution Baud develop [or 2 minutes (Mix well and allow to stand for a few minutes before illuoersing fil m) The tlltO

solltloIls keep indefinitely separately and also keep quite well once mixed Both these high contrast dev elopers should be rl ixed fresh [ o r each film [or

best rf9ults pes Ortholith film is orthochromatic and developmcnt can be [olloved under a red safelight

7 HOlloba lils --TIse are solutions ill which development 1nd fixation t a ke place in the same bath In addition to the convenience of being single operation othlter advantages arc that the process is not dependent on criticll tilllillgt telllperatu(e o r agitJtion lmage contrast cannot be altered by extending or c u rtailing d(vel o pne nt but is built-into the mOllobath formula This can be set when m-Iking up the 1II01l0bath pri llci pally by varying the amount of fixing agent (sodium thios u llhate) includ e d The more fixing agent added the softer the contrast III addition the a moun t or act ivi ty of the developing agent can infl ue nce the contnlst o[ the (esult ill g ne gative

Tab le 5 Monobath formulae No 19 No 20

Socl i-lm sylphite anhyd 50 50

12 12

4

Sodiuln thiosulphate anhyd 70 (55-90) 60 (15-80)

Sod i lm h ydro ~ide=-____________--_4 10

Wat er to 1000 1000

P r oc ltss i ng time 5 mi ns +- mi n 5 llI ins-

+ mi n

i ll( degree of cont ras t produc ed will VIH y f ro on ~ f i 1m ype t o allo thl tmiddot and the qu antity of thiosulpbate requir ed will have to be determined e xpe(imentally

Ifor y o ur favourite film stock If a higher contrast than that given by using the lowest quantity of thiosulphate is required the hydroquinone concentration can be I increa s e d by about 25-30 Iloth these monobnths can be re-llned for up to ten [ill1ls or until the film is no longer cleared by the fixing agent CInLidenta lly a [ew minutes in a1 ordinary negative fixer will restore the [ilm) Films an plocessed for about 5 minutes (less for slow films) and washed Jnd dri e d nortlllly

pTO _ regJ1sect It is always good practice to use n stop bath betwee n the developing and

fixing baths An acid stop b1th not only halts develolIlllt 1lld millilliis s cont3mishynation o[ the fixer but also removes the scum formed Ly ~olle developer s nnd prevents

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st1ining particularly of lith materials after a hydroquinone-cauntic dcvclopcr

Table 6 Stop bath formulac

No 21 No 22 No 2) No 24 Acid Stop Buffered Stop Hardening Hardening

Sto~ Bath Stor Bath 2

Sodium Acctate )1l20 ))

Acetic acid (glaciat)(mt) 25 10 65

Chromium potassium sulphate 30 15

Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000

A few drops of stop hattgt indicator such as that obtainable from Photo Chemical Supplies lllay be added The indicator ch111ges from pale ycllow to blue 19 soon as the 11 rilles above 70 (neutral) Thc hardening baths (2) and 24) are sed after high temperature development Formulae 21 and 22 are also suitable stop baths for print processing

yrxrms

Fixation 15 necessary to remove the undeveloped silver halide from the ernU L ion lIardening agents may bc added to harden the emulsion Hardening is essential for films which have been reversal processed or processed at high temperatures and for bromide papers that arc going to be hot-glazed Typical fixers are shown in Table 7

Table 7 Fixllg [laths

No 25 No 26 No 27 No 28 Standard Buffered Buffered Buffered Acid Hypo Hardening Rapid Ilarden bullng Fix~r Hypo Fixer 7ixer Rapid Fixer

Sod i urn t h io 11 ]_--ptat-=e2-=anhtyd_ _ ~____-=-___________________160 150

(or Sodium thinsulphate cryst) (50) (240 )

Ammonium thiosulphate 175 200

Sodium sulphite anhyd 15 25 15

Sodium metabisulphite 25

Acetic acid glacial IS 10 15

Bodc acid 75 10 75

Potassium alum 15 15

Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000

All are used undiluted for films but may be diluted 1+1 for papers The buffered flxer~ havf a partiClllnrly long lifc and the buffered non-hardening rapid fixer (No 27) is recommended for plastic-coated papers such 1S 11fospeed

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REVERSlL PROCESSING OF Damp_ W FILM

Ileversl processing of black Ilnd white film yields positive transparencies with Il beautiful tonal gradation As with all reversal processes exposure and first development must be very carefully controlled beciluse density variatiolls cannot be compensated (or in printing The process involves the developmellt of Lile negative image (first developer) dissolving away the s i lvcr thus fOnilPU (bleach bath) clering and re-exposure to white light (reversal exposure) and develorshyment of the silver halide thus re-exposed (second development) The film is then fixed and washed in the normal way I t is the firs t deve lope r wh ich de termincs the quality of the final image It is usual to include a small quantity of silver halide solvent to brighten the highlights and sodiulll thiosullilate or sodiulll thiocyanate are usually used for this The subsequent processes are carried on more or less to completion so timing is not as critical as with the first developer In the fol~owiJlg procedure the first developer is retained antI used again [or the second dev e lopment

Rev r rsal processing solutions

No 29 Reversal developer (stock solution)

Netol 3g Sodium sulphite anhyd SOg lIydroquinone l2g Sodium carbonate anhyd 6()g Potassium bromide 4g Water to lOOOml

Dilution (stock + water) 1+1

To the diluted working strength developer add sodiulll thiosulphate at the following rale (gram~ per litre)

PAN F FP4 llPS Sodium thiosulphate anhyd 5 75 5 (a~ Sodium thiosulphat~

cryst) (8) (12) (8) AlternAtively a print deve l oper such as Dromophen may be used diluted 1+1 ith thiooulpilate dded as above

No 30 Blcach (two part stock solutions) SOLUTI ON A

Potassium permanganate 2g Water to SOOml

SOLUTION B Sulphuric acid 10 vv lOOml Water to SOOml These stock solutions will keep indefinitely but deteriorate rapidly when mixed

For use mix equal parts of A and D and discard after each film Potassium dichromate (lOg) may be used in place of the Potassium permanganate in Solution A

No 31 Clearing Bath

Sodium (or Potassium) metabisulphite 25g Water to 1000ml

Fixer ---The bleaching solution softens the emulsion and a hardening fixer must be used

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The hardening fixers given enrl ier laquo(onnube Nos 26 and 28) are ideal

Procedure 1 First developel 12 mins at 20

0 e for all llford films with an inversion every 15 seconds Keep the developer for use in the second development

2 Wnsh 3 mins with frequent changes 3 llicach 5 mins with strong continuous agitation Roarbull lights may be

switched on after two minutes in the bleach 4 I~n s h 2 mins with frequent chnnges 5 Clear 2 mins in the Clearing bath 6 Iash 2 mins with changes 7 Reversal exposure Re-expose ench cnd of the spiral for 2 mins at 12-18 inches

from a 100 watt bulb This is best done underwater in a clear gls9 bowl standing on a sheet of white paper Rotate the bulb or the spiral during re-exposure to ensure even illumination

8 Second developer Develop for 6-8 mins at 20 0 C in the developer solution retained from the first development Development time is not critical but should go to completion

9 Rin s e 10 Fix Fix in acid htrdening fixer for 10 mins (formula No 2cent ) or

4 mins (formula No 28) It Final 5h Wash for 30 mins and dryas usual

Modifying the Processed Negative Th e silver imJge obtained after development and fixation may be either l r censhy

sified or r educ ed TIlis is to compensate (or errors in exposure or dlvelopment or both

INTE~(UFICTION

The following for muLt has been select e d [rom the many published because i t is simple effective etsily controlled and yields a permanently enhllnced negative The basic chemicals are reasollably safe unlike the mercury and uranium intensifiers

No 32 Chromium Intensifier

STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium dichromate 12 5g lJnter to 200 ml

STOCK SO LUTION II Hydrochloric acid 10 vv (36 ww) 30ml ( o r I1ydrochloric acid 10 1 ww) (L Iml) (or Hydrochloric acid cone) (]ml) WJter to 200ml For use mi~ 1 part Solution A with 3 parts water and add 1 part rolution n

The negative should be properly fixed and well washed Old negatives should be sO kcd in water for a few minutes The negative is immersed in the intensifier [or 2-3 minutes until the image is (ully bleached (it turns a yellowy-brown colour) It is then washed well until the yellow stain is removed The intensified image is then re-developed after exposure to daylight (or a light bulb 1 minute each side at 18 inches) in l nOli-solvent type developer This may be a print developer or general purpose necative developer such as formtJl No3 or any universal j developer An advantage of thi s intensifier is that the whole proces8 may be repe a ted several times with an increase in intensification each time as the image

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is built up

~EDUCTrON

There are three classes of reducers which reduce the amount o[ silver in the negative in different ways

The subtraltive reducers remove silver from all parts o[ the illlagc (shadows and highlights) at about the salTle rate 50 that the contrast 15 incrcaBed This is uscful for Jver-euroxposed negatives which tend to be flat

The peoporti)lal reducers remove silver in proportion to the density so that the contrast grildient is maintained This type of reducer is suitable for those negatives which are too dense for easy printing through over-exposure ~ombined

with over-development The uper-proportional reducersattack the IllDvy silver depositll more than

[he lightly exposed parts leading to a reduction ill contrast and density Dense contrasty negltives are usually the result of over-development

No 33 Farmers Reducer (Subtractive)

STOCK SOLUTION A Sodium thiosulphate anhyd 32g (or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (SOg) Water to 500ml

STOCK SOLUTION B Potassium ferricyanide 109 Water to 100ml Immediately before use mix 15 p3rts A with 15 parts w(lter and ~dd 1 pa[t B

The process of reduction should be watched carefully and may be stoppcd at nny time by flooding wi th wn ter The ac t i vi ty 0 [ the reducer may be n 1te [cd by va ry ing the qunutity of Soltltion II added [ncrensing t he [crricyanidc increa ses the activity and vice versa The stock solutions keep indefinitely hut the working solution hu 3

short life

No 34 Permanganate - Persulphate Reducer (Proportional)

STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium permanganate 1 solution lZ 5ml Sulphuric acid 10 wlw 65ml Water to 500ml

STOCK SOLUTLON II Ammonium persulphate 25g Water to 1000mi Distilled water should be used to make up these solutions for use take one

part A two ports distilled water and two parts B A slower acting mixture is I part A 4 parts water and 1 part II and this may be easier to control A[ter reduction the action con be halted and the brown stain removed by immersing the negative in a 1-2 solution of sodium (or potnssiul1l) metabisulphite The negative should he thoroughly waMhed before being dried

No 35 Pelslliphate Reducer (Super-proportional) Ammonium persulphate 125g Sulphuric acid lOr ww 5m1 Distilled water to 500101

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The ne)a t i ve shou 1d be fu lly wn shed The leduc t ion mus t be wa tC1ed close ly as the rate varies ~idely with different emulsions nnd with some modern high speed ~mulsions it iR not effective ]t all to 12-157 solution of sodium Ilulphite anhyd can be Ilseu as ] s top bath Imd the negat ive is fi na lly given a good wash

BampW Print Processes [1) NI_I2EV~1QI2yRS

Print developers arc generally fairly contrasty compared to negative developers and of course it ig not necclisary or desirable to use fine grain or acutance techniqupound for prints The colour tone of the image is the main variable in print developers but the colour obtained will depend largely on the type of print paper (eg bromide chlorobromide or chloride)

Table 8 Standard Print Developers

No 36 No 37 No 38 No 39 D163 ID62 ID20 New

PQ Univ NQ Paper Winchester

~middotc to 1 22 3 35

Sodium sulphite anhyd 75 50 50 35

-lL(~ro(l~1 i WJlle 17 12 12 86

Socli11Tl -----shy

carbollate lt1nilyd 65 60 60 63

lhellidolle 05

Potassium bromide 28 2 4 l9

I3cn7otriazole 1 15-25 20 37

Wettinr agent 10 10 10 10

Wnter to 1000 1000 1000 1000

Dilution (stock + water) 1+3 1+3 1+3 1+2 Calgon may be added to all the above at the rate of 2g per litre If the ueveloper is uRed at less dilution development iR more rlpid The

benzotriClzole in these formulilc irnproves the brightness of highlights by reduc i ng fog and also shifts the colour of the illlage towards black or blue-black The New middotIinchester formula (No 39) is a universal paper delTeloper giving good black to nc s and is the basis of many commercially available print developers

Table 9 Warm-tone Print DClTelopers

No +O ~Jo 41

~Lltf01 I i nonc _________--25 ---8_ ___

Sodium Dulphite anhyd 60 60

Sad i IIll carboIlHe anhyd 90 90

~ycin 25

Potassium oronlidc 2

~ater to 1000 1000

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Dilution (Stock + water) 1+3 1+2 Time 2-3 mins 1-2~ mins

Formula No 41 has a warmer tone tllan No 40 but both arc best used on warm-tone papers

STQ- [lATHS FOR PR_INT~

The 1I0n-hilnlenlng stop blths given carlier (Nos 21 and 22) arc suitable f0 r prints as is a 47 solution oE sodium or potassium mctabisulphite (I~Oplitre) good economical stop bilth can be made up by adding 1 part stop batl (as above) to two parts old fixer and mixing up a fresh fixing bath When the stop batll shows exhaustion the stop bath ia discarded and the old fixer converted to the ncw st op bath This double use of fixing solution Lcally does prolong the life of the fl xer bath as a large part of the fixation takes place in the stop bath and the diluti on ensures that no staining occurs

PRINi FIXERS Any of the fixer formulae given earlier for negativcs will provide fix e rs

suitatle for papers (formulae 25-28) The rapid fixers have a much grentcr cJptc ity than the hypo filter s and formula 27 is especially recommended for plastic-coatcd pap~rs Prints on normal paper wh i ch a r c t o be hot-glazed should be fixed in 1

hardening fixer (formulae 26 or 28) Formula 25 is obviously the cheapest to ma ke up but the pll should be monitored and more metabisulphite added to restOt-e thc acidity when required All may be used diluted 1+1 It is advisable not to U 5C the some solution for fixing both films and pape rs even if the same formula is used but to keep film filter and paper fixer i n s eparate bottles

t~ID F9H PAPER PInNTsect The fibre base of normal printing pl pe rs retains acid chemicals from the fj xing

bath which are difficult to remove by -a s h ing alone If after a brief rine 11C

print is i~nersed in a 2-5 solution o f s od ium carbonate anhyd for 2-] minutes the subsequent nonnl wash ensures that all the hypo and hYPolilver camplexes a t c removed This alkaline bath should be used whenever any subsequent trcatmenl of the print such as toning is to be carried out

LYPO ELI~IN~TOB 11C following solution (formula No 42) serves to oxidise the thiosulphate t o

~ulphate which is then easily washed ou t o f the paper

~~_~po Elimin_ator

Hydrogen peroltide solution 3 (10 volume) 125ml or Hydrogen peroxide solution 6 (20 volume) 63mU Ammonia solution 0B80sg 10ml Hater to 1000ml immerse the prints in the above solution after a normill W8lh in running W (l ~ er

for about 5 minutes followed by a fu cthc r Hash of about 10 minute This hyposhyelimnator is made up of volatile compOIw nts so that there is_ no risk of elininllor salts remaining in the p1per-base after drying

PRINT TONING Prints may be toned a variety of colours and depending on subject can yielel very

pleasing results All prints must be tlloroughly washed prior to toning and old prints

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~lloliid be soaked ~n water for a few minute s to soften the emulsion

1) Sepia Toning Th follow(ng method yields perm1nlnt prints with a good brown tone In fact

prints treated in lhis way have greater permanence than untreated prints and the lmiddotLlwd is USLd ill 3rchival processinl The print is first bleached ill a ferri shyqnidcbroHiide bleach until the d3ri~est partH of the image tire a raint straw LU lour 1 t is lilen placed in the toner b3th 1111lt1 the sepia image quickly reappears

Nu (d FerricyanidcDromi de Bleach

Potassium [erricyanide 40g Potassium bromide 251 Jater to 1000mi Tllis stock solution is used undiluted and keeps well if stored in the dark or

ll a dnk bottle It may be re-used until exhausted h[ter bleaching the print 1~ washed well and trGnsferred to tbe following solution

Uu 44 Sepia Toning BGth -Thiolre1 109

Potassium bromide 40g Sodiul1i hydroxide 3-6g WJter to 1000mi The qu~n[ity of sodium hydroxide can be adjusted between the above limits to

yield the desired tone colour This toning bath is preferable to the traditional suJiul11 sulphide hath because of the unpiensant smell and properties of sodium sulphide solutions Thiourea and sod i um sulphide should not be used or stored in lilt dGrkroom or near sensitised materials

bJ lllie Toner This process does not re qruire a bleach stage but the print should be thoroughly

- s hed a[te1 fixation The process intell5ifies the image slightly so prints to bpshytOiled blue should be mnde a little lighter than they would otherwise be

Nu 45 Dlue Toning Bath

SOLUTION A

Potassium ferricyanide Ig Sulphuric acid 10 ww 30ml Wnter to 500ml

SUIUTION 13

Alliinonilim ferric citrate (green) Ig

Sulphuric acid 10 ww 30ml Water to 5001111 Mi elt[uGI parts hand B immediately before use The wet print is immersed

ulltil the desired tone is reached and then washed Excessive wnsh ing will ble a ch lliit the blue colour and just sufficient wash to remove the yellow tain should be lven This bleaching is largely eliminated if the print is lshed in water conshy[lining a l ittle acetic acid (51111 or less per litre)

c) Red TOiler Th~TtO~ing is il traditional red tOller using copper sulphate hglin no

b I each is llluircd

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No 46 Red TOllin~ Bath

SOLUTION A Cupric s~lphate (511 deg) 12 5g

2Sodium citrate 500g (or Potassium citrate) (55g) Water to SCOml

SOLUTION B Potassium ferricyanide 109 Sodium citrate 50 g (or Potassium citrate) (SSg) Water to SCOml Use equal volumes of II and B mixed just before use The image colour changes

through warm black then sepia to rea 2nd t he process can be halted at any stage by flushing with water The print is th~n wa s hed and dried normally

PRINT nEDUCERS Print reducers are generally used Eor the local reduction of dense parts of

iarge prints for generally brightening dense flat prints or for removing fiilvcr completely from unwanted areas Farmers Reducer (formula No 33) is the most commonly used print reducer and shoul d Df t sed s ufficiently diluted to allow control of the reduction proc ess Use scr 1p dn ts to de t e rmine the appropriate conditions ~len using Farmers Reducer wash the pr in t frequently in running water or permanent yellow staining may occur Farmers Reduc e r used very dilute is ideal for brightening dense flat prints It is a s ub t ractive reducer and gives bright highshylights a nd increased contrast

~len heavy deposits of silver have 0 igt e remov ed completely such as that cause1 by pinholes in line nega t i ves Fa nna r s Reduce r is not su i tab Ie because of the possibility of staining The followin g formula (No 47) is an iodine re ducer which i9 very effect i ve at removing dense silver

No 47 Iodine Reduce r

Potas sium iodide 1Sg Iodine crystals 05g Water to lOOml This reducer is applied to the mOl s t lot ~et) print with a swab or brush and

the resulting brown Btain is easily r emove d in a 15 solution of sodium thiosulphate Illlhyd (or 25 sodium thiosulphate cryst ) after a rinse in water The print should then be thoroughly rinsed

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Colour Processing Besides offering real economy brew-it-yourself colour processing is v~ry

satisfying and can yield results superior to those offered by ln3ny commercial proshycfSSinl~ houses All that is required ilre careful working methods and atttntion to dltlails Tlte Icrwrill instruction relating to monochrome proc(ssin~ should be r~d in conjunction with thcse notes on colour processing It should be emphasised that the formulae given in this section are not those of the film manufacturers who do not publish their formulae but have been worked out to yield results comparable with the manufacturers recommended processing

Time and Temperature Cololl~ ma-terials are not as flexible as black and white materials with regard

to development conditions since wide deviation from the recommended development can yield shifts in colour balrnce ohich lQay be impossible to correct in printing With reversal materials in particular exposure must be accurate and the time and temperature of the first development is crucial as thi largely determines the quality of the ftnal transparency In the C(j process the processing temperature is rather high (3a

oC) bllt this must be maintained at least for the first dtvelopment There is

slightly more leeway ~Iith the other st~ges but these should b~ kept within the limite shown The sallie applies with colour development of negative materials and again the processing tenrperature of the C41 procefiS is high (also JaoC) The times given in the formulae include 10-15 seconds to uHo~ for draining the tank

H~king up the Solutions As wi th all the - formulae in this bookl e t the chemicals should be dissolved in

tire order given Some of the colour dev e lo p ing agents while extremely solub i I wa te r tend to separn te out in the a 1 k a 1 ine J eve loper sol ut ions Ita aov isab le to dissolve the colour developing agen t to gether with the hydroxylamine (hydro shycldoride or sulphnte) where p r e sent se pa r a te ly i n part of th e total volume of water alld add this slowly 0 th e rerna mJer o f the solution some time before use rile hydroxylamine acts as an antioxidant and is required because the sulphite conshyclntrltion hCls eO be low Hydroxylamine is rapidly decomposed in alkaline solutions ill the pr se nce of sequestering agents of the EDTA type so Cnlgon should be used i n h~rd water ~~ r e s rather than EDTA

V~QCESliING G9J~QI1lLill=VERSAL FILMs_U0R COLOUR SLIDES) There are at present two princiPlll systems for colour reversal film prGcessing

(excluding Kodachrome) The first is the ~g fachrome 41 process covering all Agfa r-tJVersal fi 1m (except Igfachrotnc [(IOOS Profe ssional - proce Sl E6) olhether sold process paid or not Thepound are few if any other makes o f [i Tm available in Britain ohich use this process The second ir the Kodak Ektachrome E6 process hich covers IllOSt of the rCIllining colour n~versal films There are a few filns Idlich ltIre still made for outdated process es sLlch as ORWO f i l ms ohich are proc e s sed by an old Igf~ process Rnd some specillised Ko d ak films suc h as Ektachrome In f rared Film find Photomicrography Color Film 248J which are processed by the old E-4 process There may still be a [ew films from independent manufacturers designed for the old E ~ process

Kodak Kod~lchlome films are sold process paid and user processing is not feasible

Keversal Exposures - Reversal film mUfit be given a fogging exposure to light (Where chemical fegging is not used) after the first development Because the emulsion is very much less sensitive at this stage than normal film this exposure mtlst be rather intense It

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is best to remove the film from the spinl and SCC-SDW it through plain wter below a Photo flood lamp Ilowever a wet delicate film is difficult to reload into the spi ra 1 (bes t done under lola ter) and it is cas icr to leave the film in thc 5 pi ra 1 nlld extend the exposure time With clear spira ls thc exrosure time should be at lea~t

doubled and with the translucent nylon spira l s the exposure should be increased 5-10 fold When the film is not removed for the exposure place the spiral in a white 001011 of water (or a clear glass bowl on J wl ite surface) and place the lamp above it During the exposure of each end of the s pir a l the lamp or bowl should be moved about so that the exposure is more even Watc r and cl~ctricity dont mix so care is needed and a hot photoflood lamp will burst if s plashed Dont skimp on th e reversal exposhysure - it is easy to underexpose but dif f ic ul t to overexpose For the Ektachrome E-6 p r-ocess a reversa l bath which chemi c3 1y fogs tile film making the reversal exposure unnecessary i s available from Pb c to Chemical Supplies

The Agfachrome 41 Proce ss Suitablc for all Agfa Reversal poundll ns (except Agfachrorne RIOOS Professional

available in 120 size and sheet film only)

formul ~ e - Agfachrome 41 No 48 First Developer

Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g middot1e to 1 3g Sodium sulphite anhyd SOg Hydroquinone 6g Sodium carbonate anhyd 40g Potassium thiocyanate 25g Potassium bromide 2g otassium iodide 0 1 Solution 6ml wate to 1000111

No 49 Stop Bath

Ac etic acid glac iol 101 Sodium acetate (3H 0) lO g

2Water to 10001111

No 50 Colour Developer PART I

Sodium sulphit e anhyd 3 5g Hydroxylamine hydrochloride I t Potassium bromide 19 Colour Developing Agent see below Ethylenediamine (50 vv Soln) 16ml (or 2-phenylethylamine) (3ml) -later to 300ml

PART BI Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g S~dium carbonate anhyd 62g Water to 500ml

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c) lour iPVf loping age nts [0[ Part lI

Colour Dev e loper 1 (sulphate) 28g or Colour l)eve l o pe r I (chloIide) ( CIH) 22g or Cenochrollc 2 5g or Dtoxych rome 3 2g

lOOt usc add ParL II slowly to Part D with tirring and make up to a total volume o f 10U0Il1I

No 51 [leach ~-----Po tas s ium-[e rr i CY[lnidc 80g

Potassium bromide 30g Sodium acetate (J1l 0) 50g2lor ic Jeid 5g Potnssiwa nll11 30g Water to 10001111

Ngt 52 Fixcr ---S-oJI~-tTiosu I ph a te anhyd l25g

(or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (200g) Sodiul1l s ulphi te lnhyd lag Imiddotlater to 1000ml

Th pit of this fixer is approximately neutral Do not use an acid fixer because it Jill blcnch th e dyes

Nu 53 Stnbiliser - --- We t ti~g agelt - Im1

Forlllaide hyde 0 5ml I-Jte r to IOOOml

~ (lCeslng Procedure lIrfachrome 41

At 20 0 C (minutes) At 24degC (minutes )

1 First Developer 18 - zr-----shy lJ-l~ (z00-O 50C) (2l 0 -02SoC)

2 Rin sc ~ 3 St op bath 4 3 4 1[151 10 7 S Reve r sni Exposure See be l~w 6 Colour developer 14 (20 0 -0SoC) 11 (z4 0 02SoC) 7 - 1 5 h 20 14 8 Ill eac ll 9 I-[lsh 5 4 lll Fix 5 4 ll Wash 10 7 12 Stabil iser 1 1 1] Dry (30 D

e) mox

One minute each side with film r emo ved from spiral 2 minuteR each end rf clear sl c rlll lid 5-10 minutes ench end of ttanslucent nylon spirill frolll a No2 Photoflood a l I lie t re () f le t)

Thp t Cll peratllre during the Lwo developme nt stages should be maintained within til limits shown For other stages tlte t e lllperature may range from 17-20lC or 21 - 2llC The third wash (Htole n iu raLh e r long and it is important that it is llt lL shorted In soft watcr ilHilS this lung wallh nwy c ause the clUulsion to slocll Su un int e l-mediate bilth of 5 minutes immediately J(tcr the colour developer can be given to prevent excessive swelling This is a 2 solution of either sodium

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sulphate or magnesium sulphate (Glaubers salts or Epsom Salts) If the intermediate bath is used the third wash may be shortened by 5 minutes In the two developer baths agitation should be continuous for the first 30 seconds followed by two invershysions every half minute for the rest of the period

As usual it is the developer solutio 1~ which deteriorate first The remalnlng solutions (stop hath bleach and fixer ) have double the capacity of tIle two developers Ea ch litre of developer should process 6-8 films but the development timcs should be extended by 30 seconds at 20degC (or 20 5cco~ds at 24 o

C) after the first two films anQ after each subsequent two films hi applies to both the first and colour deve lo pers

rne Ektachrome E-6 Pro ess 1 am indebted to Mr Derek Wa tkl 9 r0~ permission to reproduce this formula

wh i ch first appe1red in the March 198 1 i sgt lc of the magazine SLR Camera (Haymnket Publi t hing Ltd 38-42 Hampton Road TCd ingcon Middlcsex)

There are a lot of films from man n~rUl facturers sold under a wide variety of brand names which are compatible with the E-6 process Even Agfa make an E-6 compatible film (Agfachrome RIOOS Professional)

FormuL ae - E-6 i-lo-54---first Deve 1upe r

Sodium 6exametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g Sodium sulphite anhyd J9g Potassium carbonate anhyd 14g Sodium bicarbonate 12g Phen i done O 6g Itydroluinone 6g Sodium bromide 22g Sodium thiocyanate Ig Sodium hydroxide 33g Pot~asium iodide (01 50ln) 45ml Water to 1000m~ pH 9 6-005

No 5~ Stop Bath 1 ------S0dium acetate anhyd 30g

(or Sodium acetate 320) (50g) Acetic acid glacial 6ml Water to 1000m~ pit 55-02

No 56 Colour Develoger Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g tri-50dium orthophosphate 1220 36g Sodium hydroxide 3g Sodium sul~lite anhyd 4 5g 3gtdium bromide 065g Potassium iodide (01 Soln) 30ml Sodium thiocyanate 1 3g Citrazinic acid 1 25g CD-3 l1g ~oter to 1000mi + pH 1165-005

bull 23 shy

S LOp lath 2 Same as Stop lath 1 but once used do no t interchange them

No 57 ll l e ach lotassiulil (erricyanide 80g Potassium bromide 20g Ji-So JiullI hydrogen orthophosphattnnhyd 12g (or di-Sodium hydrogen olthophosphnte

1211 2deg) (JOg) Acetic acid glacial 5ml Hater to IOOOrot plt 55-02

No 58 Fixe r - - Sndi-u-thiosulphate Mlhyo 125g

(or SodiulTl thiosulpilte cryst ) (200g) SodiuJJ sulphite anhyd 5g So dium me tabisulphite O5g Water to lOOOlllt 11 72-02

~Jc tt ing JgCllt lmL

L r to lOOOml

Time ~pe ratute

l First development 6r J8-U57 - shygt Stop iJath 1 2 33-JoC J Ih 2 3J-J90C 4 Reversal Exposure Two minutes each side with (ilm removed

froro spiral 5 minutes each side of clear spiral ano 10 minutes each side of nylon spiral with No 2 PhotofLoud at

(Or HeveJs31 JlJth) (ObtainJhle 12 inches frolll Photo Chical Supplies) 2 JJ-J90C

5 Col o ur u(ve [o[JllICnt G JSlOC 6 St o p Bath 2 2 JJ-l)degC 7 1-1 2 ])-J9()C g 11 [e middoth 5 JJ-l9C l) Rins e ~ 3J-390C [0 fix 5 3J-390C II Wnsh 6 33-J90C I ~ S tid il s c 1 3J-390C n Dry (Fillll cllt~Jrs on drying) r uTES ) As wilh all revlrsnl processes the [irut developer largely delermines the ehnrilct(tmiddotistic~ o[ the final translnrency Jntl the rcconlllltnJeu time anJ temp~rature

hlHJ1J be Iuhlrcu to b) AgitJtion in 11 ba ths (except the optional reversal bnth and the stabiliser

- - - - - - - ------------

wllich should not be agitated) is continuous for the first 15 seconds followed by two

inversions of the tank each subsequent half minute With the reversal bath and stnbiliRer an initial inversion to ensure uniform distribution is all that is required cl The conditioner bth in the offici)l process is lwl required in the pLOceJllre given hele as this useR ferricyllnide bleach rather than all EUTA hl(ach d) The two Rtop hth re of identical compositioll bllt should not be illtcrchlIircl due tu dnmn~illg carry-over contomination e) The caplcity of the solutiolls is 10 filll1ll pr litre (36 exposure - 35 or 120 roll film) bnt the tillle in the first developer must be extencled hy 15 second~ after the first two films and after each subsequent two films (by 20 seconds fOl the last two films) f) The made-up solutions should be scored in dark bottles at room temperature not in the refrigerator The first developer will keep for two months unused or for four weeks once used The colomiddoti developer will keep for 3 months unused or 2 lIIo11~hs partly used nd all the remaining solutions will keep for 6 months ur longer Although the first developer contains many ingredients it is not expensi ve to moke up Thus it is worthwhile retaining the remaining solutions to be used ith a ((esh ly made fi rs t deve loper if the fu 11 capac i ty canno t be used in the four we ek life 0f the original first developer g) Drying temperature should not exceed 60

0 C and all EktachrOllle films only clclr

when nearly dry For information on process control and fault finding in both Agfachrome 41 and

Ektachrome E-6 the reader is referred to The Focal Guide to Colour Film Proces~ing by Derek IJAtkins (published by the Focal Press norough Green SevEnolt)ks Kent TNlS 8PB) This excellent book also gives 11 the background information you may require Also in the book is a substitute E-4 process (as well an a low cost Ln~ temperature simplified E-4 process) for those films using this system This book also covers colour negative film processing

PROCESSING COLOUR NEGATIVE FILMS (PLUS XP-l AND VARIa XL BL~CK A~~lJTE FIL~ ~~__________~_ ____~______M~)__ __

As with colour reversal film the two major manufacturers of ~olour fil~s A~ [a

and Kodak each have tlieir own fi lms and processing systemy [or cololJr negative~ Again the trend seems to be towards a unified compatible system based on Kodaks C-lfl prccens

Processing negative film is very much eaGier tlan reversal processing for two reasons Firstly there are fewer steps in the processing sequence with no revcr~al EXpOSlln required and secondly there ill a little more latitude with tlte pro cessing since most faults can be corrected later at the print ing sta ge HOI_e ver cons iL e nt good resutts depend on consistent processing Attention to detail ~ile proce8s i ng a film can save a lot of time later on

Agfacolor N Negative Process ---T-tiis-process is in tended for all II fa co lour nega t i ve film (CNS CNS2 ann 80S Pr~fe9sionol) excluding AgCacoluur CNS400 negative film This ltter is designed to be processed in Agfacol o r Peo ceMs 70 chemicals and is compatible witl l Kodaks Flexicolor C41 process as is Agf a s chromogenic 131ack and ~hite film Vor l XL

The Agfacolor N process is slightly unusual in that the devclopmpnt is 11101-11(

to continue in the lowlgtr layers of the e mulsion during an intermedi1 t e bath wll icll immediately follows the colour developer

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Pu rmulnc - Agfucolour N i u 59- Colur- ll(vIoI~er SULUTION A

Sodium hexnmetaphosphate (Calgon) 2g PutnsSilJln carl)ooatc atlhyd 75p Potassium bromide 25p Wat e r Lo 500ml

~()LUTroN Il

lIydroxylamine hydrochloride 19 (or Hydroxylamine sulphate) 0 2g) Sodium sulphite anhyd 35g Colour Dcvcloppr 1 (Sulph~te) 28g (or Colour Developer 1 (chlorideraquo C22g) (or Cenocilrome) (25g) (0 t Droxych rome) (J2g) ) t e r to SOOml

I l d B tlJ A with stirring before use

Nu 60 Intermediate Bath -- -~lgn~sin sulpil1te--===- JOg

Mixed (or used) Colour Deve lope r 501n 30ml 1000011

No 61 Bleach --S-(Tll~eXaeLaphospilate (Cnlgon) 5g

Potassiulll fcrricY1nide 42g Potassium brolllidp 12g 10[ltl8siu dihydrogen orthophosphate 15g di-Potassium hydrogcn ortilophosplwte

nll Jil yd Sg Water to 1000111

Nl 62 Fixer -------sz-dG----Umiddotios ul phn te nnhyd 125g

(01 Socii um thiosulphntc cryst) (200g) SodiulIl sulphitc anhyd 109 Wnter to 1000ml

ltc~ing Procedure Agfacolollr N Time (mins) Telpernture degc-S----shy

1 Colour developer 20-02 2 Intermediate bath 4 2005 J -IDsh 15 (lllinilllllm)-20 15-20 4 IHench 6 2005 5 Hash 6 15-20 6 FLx 6 18-20 7 -Ilsh 10 15-20 fl ~~ett lllg agent bath 15-20 N)lI~S

Agit1tilln in niL stDges is continuous (or the fi1st minute followed by o ue j version of Lhc LIll( (very hoi ( minute thcrcnfter

llevcl)plIlcnt 11I3Y be varied betccn 7 - 9 minutes Increase ueve10pment to 9 llItes Lo incrcasc contrast and reduC(~ the time to 7 minutes (or softer results

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The orange mask is formed in the bleach bath and the recommended time and temperature for this stage should be followed as the density of the mask increases with time

All the solutions including the co l our developer solutions (separately) shoilid keep for at least 4 months Once mixed the colour developer (and the intermediate bath) will only Inst a f ew weeks

The capacity is 6 - S films (135- 36 o C 120) per litre but the development ttne shoul d be incr eased with each film or pair of films to compensate for developer e xha ustion The c a pa c ity of the co lou r d vetoper s may be e xtended by mixing onl y

al f of so lu tions I a n d B and proceSS in f( 4 i ilms in e ach h a lf In this ca s e prolong the development time by one mi nute a f ter eacll film

Flexi color C-41 Tlis process was developed by Kod lt1 ilt [or the mach i ne pro ces~ing of their nc~

colour negative films Kodacolor II and Ve ricolor II The majorit y of colour films from independent manufacturers are now made compatible with the C-~l process In addition there are the two chromogenic bl ack and white films lifords XPI and Ag Eal s Vario XL whi ch were designed fo r C- 41 processing l gfas fast colour nega t i ve film CNS400 should also be proce sed i n C- 41 chemicals

Because C-41 was designed for use i n au t omated commercial laboratories the processing t emperature is rather h i gh (IOO or 3So

C) As with the ~ktachrome E-6 precess these high temperatures bring abo ut the a s sociated problems of short development times and DE maintaining t hL t empe ra ture betwe en the prescribed limit~ Tha t t hes e pro b lems are easi l y ove rc ome i s J emon s trat ed by the many thousa nds of amac e urs who s ucce ss f ully process t hei L own pol and Vari o XL monochrome films in

oC-4 chemicals at 3S C

The following formulae represent a l ow cosi substitute procedure using a traditional ferricyanide bleach

ihe substi t ute process is reproduc d fr om The Focalguide to Colour Film Proc es sing by Derek Wat ki ns with k i nd p2r ssion from the Focal Press

Formu11e C-4l

No 63 Colour Developer Sodium hexarroetaph()sphate (Calgon) 2g Po tassium carbonate anhyd 38g Sodium sulphite anhyd 5g Potassium iodide 01 Soln 2ml Potassium bromide 1 5g lIydroxamine hydrochloride 2g CD-4 5g Wlter to 1000ml

No 64 Stop Bath Ae tic acid glacial 20011 Sodium acet1te 311 0 25g

2Water to 1000ml

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------ ----------------

~

No 65 Bleach Potassium nitrate 2SB Potassium ferricyanide 30g Potassium bromide 12g Boric acid 5g Sodium tetraborate (Borax) 19 Water to 1000ml

No 66 Fixer Sodium thioulphate anhyd 125g (or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (ZOOg) Sodium metabisulphite 20g Water to LOOOtnl

No 53 Stabiliser Wetting a ~r~ nt 1m1 Formaldehyde 40 511 )1 ~ater to lOOOm1

f ocessinG Procedure e-4l (with [erricY~lnid( bleach)

Time Temperature degc l Colour development 31- 38~~--

2 Stop bath 35-40 J Wash 35-40 4 Bleach 35-40 5 ~ash 35-40 6 Fix 35-40 7 ~ash 35-40 8 Stabiliser 35 -40 9 Dry

Agitation in the developer is continuous for the first half minute followed by one inversion of the tank each quarter minute thereafter In the remaining solution s the agitation may be reduced t o t lJO in ver sions every half minute after tilE init i a l )0 sec onds cont inuous agit a tio n e ach bath

TIll capacity of the so lut ions is a pplC))limately twelve films per litre if the dev eloper is made up as two 500ml port iuns dn d six films devel oped in eacll portion The development time should be extended by minute after the f irst two films and by middot a further i minute aft er t he seco nd 1lt1 fi ms A comb i ned b1each f ix bath may be u~cd in this procss b t t o[ cours Lilis calllu t be a f e rr i c Yll1ido ball ed bleach A sllitable formula can be found in t h e Br i i sh J our nal of Photography Annual

PIWCESSING COLOUR PRINTS For copyrigllt reasons we arc unabl e t o re produce the substi t ute fo rmulae for

colour print processing The f onnulae and pr ocedure s are quit e straight~orward and lIIay be found in the British Journal of Photography Annual Photocopies of the relevan t pnu es may be obtained for a nominal sum from the publishers This applies to earlic~ editions of the book and to the current edition after stocks are sold out (u s ually April or Hay) The address to 0 i s

Tlte Ed i tor Ilritish Journal of Photography Annmiddot qL Henry Greenwood ( Co Ltu 28 Creat James Street London WeI Telephone 01-404 4202

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APPENDIX I Chemical Names Seeals- Appendix 2 for Colour Developing Adurol Amidol Amidosulphonic acid Ammonium alum Ammonium hydroxide l2-B(nzenediol 14-Benzenediol Bor1cic acid Borax Calgon Chlorchydroquinone Chrcmlt alum Copper sulphate Copper chloride l2-Diaminoethane 24- Diaminophenol hydrochloride Digol l2-Dihydroxybenzene l4-Dihydroxybenzene 26-Dihydroxyisonicotinic acid Elo Ethy l enediaminetetraacetic acid and sa l ts Ethyl~ne glycol Ferri~ ammonium citrate Formalin p-Hydroxyphenyl glycine Iron perch loride Iron trichloride Kcdalk p-HtLhylaminophenol sulphate Nethyl p1raaminophenol sulphate middotIonoch 10 rhyd rOluinone 1- Pheny 1- 3-pyrazo lidone Potasnium alum Potassium bichromate Potassium bisulphite Potassium chrome alum Propan-2-01 Pyrocatechin (Pyrocatechol) Pyrogall ic acid Quino Sodium bisulphite Sodium hydrosulphite Thiocarbamide I 2 3-Trihydroxybenzene

and Synonyms Agent)

Chloroquinol 24-Diaminophenol hydrochloride Sulphamic acid Aluminium ammonium sulphate Aoononia solution Catechol (Pyrocatechol Pyrocatechin) Hydroquinone Boric acid Sodium tetraborate Sodium hexametaphosphate Chloroquinol (Adurol) Chromium potassium sulphate Cupric sulphate Cupric chloride Ethylenediamine Amidol Diethylene glycol Catechol Hydroquinone Citrazinic acid Hetol EDTA acid and salts Ethanediol Ammonium ferric citrate Formaldehyde solution Glycin Ferric chloride Ferric chloride Sodium metaborate Hetol Hetol Chloroquinol Phenidone Aluminium potnssium sulphate Potassium dichromate Potassium metabisulphite Chromium potassium sulphate Isopropyl alcohol (Isopropanol) Catechol Pyroglillol Ilydroquinone Sodium metabisulphite Sodium dithionite Thiourea Pyrogallol

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Jl)[l~NDIX 2

There appears to be considerable confusion surrounding the various colour developing agents This is probably due to the fact that these complex compounds helve all been given a different trade name by each manufacturer or distributor L1Ch compound may even have more than one chemical name depending on the chemical nOlllcnclature system used The following is a list of the chemical names and synonyms of the common colour developing agents All of them are derivatives of para-phenylenediamine the classic fine grain black and white developer and they sllare in varying degrees the unpleasant characteristics of this material They should be handled with care and skin contact or inhalation of dust should be avoided llecause these compounds are similar in structure and mode of action they arc interchangeable to some extent the differences being plincipally differcncfs ill activity and solubility Differences in solubility can cause slight colour cilmges but this is really important only with reversal films since with colour 1I~~ative films and colour papers colour casts can usually be corrected by filtration in printing The relative quantities re qui r ed ani adjustments to development times or exposure will have to be determined by experiment The names underlined are those used by Photo Chemical Supplies

Colour Developer I (Sulphate) - Ac t i vo 1 7 (Jejlt1Sltmi--shy= Uiethyl-p-phenylencdiamine sulphate =NN-Diethyl-l4-pbenylenerliamlne sulphate

C lO

II 16

NZ

H2

S04

Holht - 26232

Colour Developer 1 (Chloride) shy middotCOiKodak)

Die til y1- p-pheny lenedl alnine hydroch lorid e = NN-Diethyl-l4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride

MolWt = 20070

lt~ur [tgt velrer CD 2 (Kod~dd Activol 2 (Johnsons) [olochrome (M amp ll) NN-Diethyl-2-methyl-l4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride 4-Alllino-NN-diethyl-m-toluidine hydroch lo r ide

~ol Wt ~ 214 i3

Colour Developer 3 ~-CD3(Kod ak)

Activol 3 (Johnsons) ilyJoch rome (M amp ll) N-E thy 1- 3 -me thy 1- N- (f -me thylsul phonamidoe thy 1) -p-phenylenediamine sesqu isul pha te

monohydrate - Am lllO - N - e thy 1-N - (i me thanesu llhonalnidoe thy 1) -m- to 1uid inc s e s qu is u1pha t e

monohydrate

HolJt 43652

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Colour Develo~er 4 CD4 (Kodik)

= N-Ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyi-2-methyl-l4-phenylenediamine sulphate

~lolWt c 29235CllH18N20112S04

Droxychrome (M amp B) Activol 8 (Johnsons) Colaur Developcr 32 (Merck) T32 (Orwo) N-Ethyl-N-2-hydroxyethyl)-l4-phenylenediamine sulphate monohydrate

Wt 29634CIOH16N20middot1l2S04middotJI20 tiO

Ac60 (Agfa) Colour Developer 60 (Merck) N-Butyl-N-(4-sulphobutyl)-1 4-pheny l~ neciiamine

4-(N-Butyl-N-(4- s u phobutyl)amino)2 t ~ l i _e

Cl4 i 24 N203S HoliVt 30042

Gcnochrome (M amp B) - Acti~ol 1 (Johnsons)

S 28 OM) NN-Diethyl-l4-phenylcnediamine 9ulphit 2 Diethyl-p-phenylencdiamin~ sulphite

Mol ot t 23734

The bhse is ident i cal to Colour Develope r Sulpha t e and Hydrochloride)

APPENDIX 3 Anhydrous and lIydrncd Forms of Sal ts Many of the chemicals commonly used in photographic processing arc availllhlc

either in anhydrous forms or in one or more states of hydration If these oiffc l-ent forms are used in the ratio of their me l e u t ar weights then the amount of active ingredient is constant For example s od i um carbonate is available as the anhydrous powder (Molecular weight 105 99) and as tle decahydrate (Na C0 10I1 0 molecular2 3 2weight 21l6l4) The ratio of their molecular weights is 1270 so for every gram of anhydrous sodium carbonate required 270 grams of the decahydrate would have to be used It is important to remember thill point whe) compa r ing prices of chemicals because a hydrated crystalline form may appear cheaper weight for weight but be actually more expensive because of the add it ional quantity required

The following is a list of the commonly used chemicals which are available 1n different degrees of hydration showing their molecular weights and the ratios in which they should be used Those underlined are the forms which are supplied by Photo Chemical Supplies and are the most usual most economic or most stable form of the chemical concerned

Cupric chloride CUCI =13445 ~20=17048 Use 1127Z Cupric sulphate CuS0 =1596l _+511 deg=2[1)68 Use 1 1 564 2Ferric chloride FeC13c1622l +611 deg=27030 Use 11672Magnesium sulphate ~lgS04120=1J8 39 Z20=24647 Use 1 1 78

Potassium carbonate ~2C03=1J821 +1~1l20=l65_23 Use 1119

di-Potassium hydrogen ~211P04=174l8 +3H 0=22822 Usc 1 1 312orthophosphate

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-- --

~5 rJ Jiunt acct~te Cl COONa = 8203 Ue 1166~~2~= 13(~p~_3o d ium uisul phate NaIlS0 =12006 ~middotZO=lJ8 03 Use 1115

4~2SlJ=105 99 +10il20~2l6 14 Use 1270

)laquo ( ium d i hyd rogp n orthophosphate +211 0=15601 Use 1130

--2 -~---

d l-Slt)(JiJnl hydroren orlhophosphate Na

211P0

4=14196 +21122= 58~l~ Use 1 1 25 252

~ c liJgtn sulphlte +]011 0=32219 lise 1217~a23 =1t-Q~ 2~- dium suiphite i2 S03= 1~6 04 +711 deg=25215 Use 1200

2So diulIl tliiocYlOate N3SCN=8107 +2HZ2l2JQ Use 114-1 ( Ilst stored as 20 solutions)

S dilllll thiosu1phalc i02~22)=15sect1J +51120~24l1l Use 1157

Stannous chloride 21129=22563 Use 1119

l li-SodiUlll orthophosphate - thp mhydrous and crystalline forms not interChangeable due to alkalinity of the crystalline form whi~~ contains applox 2~~ sodium hydroxide

1 i IEND I X LI ~oJiuhl versus Potilssium Salts -- -- - r111( lIajority of phot~g-l--aphic--rroccs s ing soluti~~s sodiulU salts lIIay be

S dltituted [or pntasraquoiullI s 1lts n sodium salts are genentlly diEaper cmiddotleciall) since legs of tlte godiuHl salt is tequired to giV E the same molecular middotmiddot iuivalent In the Clse of tlte anhydrous carbonates and sulphites the sodium lts an 1sJ deliquescent than the potassium salls and 1re therefor easier to sL ore alld hnllJle The only advantage of the potassiLlln salts is their greater s o luui lily Ih e n highly concentrated solutions are made up lleCRuse of the slightly hi her nlkaLinity of the potnssiulO salts SOllie care in controtiing the pH is needed 1-111 11 substituting sodiulll [or potassium salts in buffer sy~te1ls For this reuson L1 uSllal buffer snIts nre not given here The (ollowing is a list of the ratios in which sorne of the CCgtlnlllon sodium nnd potassium sollts should be lIsed to give the I IiU (ecular equiv11cnts

Piltassiurn bromide Sod iUln bromide 100865 PutassiulTI cIrbonnte nnhyd Sodium carbonate Ilnhyd 100765 lJtlssium l)l1tS tUIlI

citr3LIO 0112deg)

hydroxide Sodium citrate (211

2deg)

SodiulII hyel ox ide 100905 100710

l u tass ium l1letabisulphite SodiullI metabislliphite 100 855 f o tl3S iunl Icrslllphilte Sodillm persulphate 100 880 Potassium sulphite anhyd Sodium sulphite anhyd 100 795

ArPENDIX 5 Wei~lts and Measures There are OIany old books which contain phot o graphic formulae 11 lot of which

al e still v11id todilY In Brilain thcse old formulae were Ilsuillly given in avoidupois ulli t rud the following tnbles 0I1Y be uficd to convert these formulae to the metric sf tem Avoi rdupJis Wli~ilts ~~~d TfT~r---- 16 ounces (oz) 7000 grnins (grs) f153 6gra1ll8 (g)

1 Juncc (llZ) 16 tJrll1ls (drm) 4375 grains (grs) 2835 grams (g) dram (drill) 2734 grHins (grs) 177 grams (g)

(1543 grains (grs) 10 gL1n1 (g) )

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Liquid Heaures (Ilritish alld Netd c )

1 quart 2 pints (pL) = 40 fluid oUllces (Floz) 1 136 1 it re (I) pint 20 fluid ounces (Fl nz) 568 millilitres (m1) fluid ounc~ (Floz)= B fluid drams (or d r c hills) 28lllml fluid drachm 60 minims 355ml

(1 minilll = 1 drop)

Temperature conv e rsion Fahrnheit to Celsius (Centigrade) (xoF - 32) x S = yOC

lt) Celsiu9 to Fahrenheit (yU C x 9) + 32 = xOF

5

APPlNlllX 6 Refrences and Funher Reading The following ia a short 1 ist uf publi c ations which readers will find

useful (or further informatiun 1 Jacobson C1 and Jacoblun R E (1976) Developing 18th Edit ion

Focal Press (see below) 2 Jacobson Cl a nd Hannheim LA (1975) Elllarging 22nd Edition Futal Press J Jacobson RE Ray SF Attridge GG and Axford NR (1978) Hanual of

Photography 7th Edition Focal Press I bull Langfo rd H J (1980) Advanced Photogl-aphy 4th Fdition Focal Press S Hason LFA_ ( 1975) Photographic Processing Chemistry 2nd Editioll Focil Press 6 Wat k ins D (19 78) The Focalguide to Coluur Film Processing Focal Press 7 Ilritish Journal of Photography Annual 1982 Henry Greenwood [ Co_ Ltd 28 Great

James Stn ~ t London WCl

The Focal Press Butterworth [ Co (Pllblishers) Ltd Ilorough Green Sevenoaks Kent TN15 flPH

Books 1 2 and] are all standard refere n c e w rks on photographic processing Ilook 4 is a ve r y useftl soutce of inforlUBtion on all aspe cts of photography but particularly on tone and colour reproduc t ion on sensitised materials The bouk by LFA_ Hasun (S) is es~ential [or those wishing to devise formulations of their own especially co loul formulations but the reader shoulJ have some chemical knowshyledge Book No 6 explains the principles o[ colour film processing and describegt th use of a variety of processing kits as well as providing Bubltitute formulae [or brew-it-yourself enthusiasts

The British Juurnal of Photography Annual (n is the traditiollal source of formulae fo r those wishing to mix up their own solut iOlls The formulae cover all aspects of both black and white and colour proc e ssing

NOTE The purpo se of this booklet is to stilllul te interest in the compounding of

photographi c processing solutiuns by tho se ph o t ographers wh o s e ek a greater undershystanding of the medium The ruatedal ill this buoklet is presented in good faith but because results are d e pe ndent on so many factors outside our control we cannot accept l iability for any processing [aults or inju~y to petsolls or property that might ari9 howsoever callsed Becaugte o f the subject ive nature of the medium it is the r e spons ibility of the user to Elac e rtain for himself the suitability of any [ormula or process in relation to hi8 mat e r ials e quipment and objectives Any suggestions from I a ders whi c h could be incorporated into foture editions o[ lhis booklet will be welcome _

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II c knuw l edgcmcnts

Til e author wOlld l ike to thank the f11 owing f o r pc n nisRiOll to us e m1terial for inclusion in this book let

Kod a k te for details of thfir formuln p (morw c hrome) ltlnd for addi t ional h e lpflll info rmati o n

IHo rd Ltd for permis~i on to reproduce their pllb lish e d formula e

Agfa- Ge v a ert Ltd for informat io n o n their p rod u c ts and pro c eRRinr

The Fo c al P If) 9S who publish a wiel e r ang e oC b oks u n plHtogl middot ~PY for permisAion t o US Ilel(cted m1terial [rom SOllI e of their puhlicltions (R ( e Appendix ()

~1r )( rek Watkins for pe rmissio n t o r e pr ud u c ( his slIbstitute 1-6 proc 1ing prn ee- dur( whi c h was first puhlished in the maga zine SLH Camer~

~h G W Crawley fditor of the Bri tish Journal of Photography for prmis9ion lltl rfprodllcE SOIll( of his FX sprifs -f d(vclop(rs

Th E ahv( prsons or organisnion9 (middot 1nnot Iccept 1ny liabil i t y arisin from the nprodnct inn of their lIIal([ial in Ihi hooklet

Writtfn by R C Potts ~fSc and publish e d hy PHOTO CHEMICAL SUPPliES 21 LODGE CLOSE

COWL EY MIDDLE SEX

UBB 2ES - 34 shy

No responsibility accepted for any formula or information contained in this document This is a scan of the original document

Use chemicals and formulae at your own risk Intended for personal and educational use only

Page 13: PCS Darkroom Formulary

Parafonnaldehyde 15 Po tassilil metaLisulphite 5 (or Sodium metabisulp lti t e I Jg) Water to 500ml

SOLUTiON Il Sodium sulphite anhyd 60 Tloric acid 15 Ilydroquinone 45 Potassium bromide J Water tJ 1500ml

------------------~~~ Use 1 part Solution A and 3 parts Solution Baud develop [or 2 minutes (Mix well and allow to stand for a few minutes before illuoersing fil m) The tlltO

solltloIls keep indefinitely separately and also keep quite well once mixed Both these high contrast dev elopers should be rl ixed fresh [ o r each film [or

best rf9ults pes Ortholith film is orthochromatic and developmcnt can be [olloved under a red safelight

7 HOlloba lils --TIse are solutions ill which development 1nd fixation t a ke place in the same bath In addition to the convenience of being single operation othlter advantages arc that the process is not dependent on criticll tilllillgt telllperatu(e o r agitJtion lmage contrast cannot be altered by extending or c u rtailing d(vel o pne nt but is built-into the mOllobath formula This can be set when m-Iking up the 1II01l0bath pri llci pally by varying the amount of fixing agent (sodium thios u llhate) includ e d The more fixing agent added the softer the contrast III addition the a moun t or act ivi ty of the developing agent can infl ue nce the contnlst o[ the (esult ill g ne gative

Tab le 5 Monobath formulae No 19 No 20

Socl i-lm sylphite anhyd 50 50

12 12

4

Sodiuln thiosulphate anhyd 70 (55-90) 60 (15-80)

Sod i lm h ydro ~ide=-____________--_4 10

Wat er to 1000 1000

P r oc ltss i ng time 5 mi ns +- mi n 5 llI ins-

+ mi n

i ll( degree of cont ras t produc ed will VIH y f ro on ~ f i 1m ype t o allo thl tmiddot and the qu antity of thiosulpbate requir ed will have to be determined e xpe(imentally

Ifor y o ur favourite film stock If a higher contrast than that given by using the lowest quantity of thiosulphate is required the hydroquinone concentration can be I increa s e d by about 25-30 Iloth these monobnths can be re-llned for up to ten [ill1ls or until the film is no longer cleared by the fixing agent CInLidenta lly a [ew minutes in a1 ordinary negative fixer will restore the [ilm) Films an plocessed for about 5 minutes (less for slow films) and washed Jnd dri e d nortlllly

pTO _ regJ1sect It is always good practice to use n stop bath betwee n the developing and

fixing baths An acid stop b1th not only halts develolIlllt 1lld millilliis s cont3mishynation o[ the fixer but also removes the scum formed Ly ~olle developer s nnd prevents

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st1ining particularly of lith materials after a hydroquinone-cauntic dcvclopcr

Table 6 Stop bath formulac

No 21 No 22 No 2) No 24 Acid Stop Buffered Stop Hardening Hardening

Sto~ Bath Stor Bath 2

Sodium Acctate )1l20 ))

Acetic acid (glaciat)(mt) 25 10 65

Chromium potassium sulphate 30 15

Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000

A few drops of stop hattgt indicator such as that obtainable from Photo Chemical Supplies lllay be added The indicator ch111ges from pale ycllow to blue 19 soon as the 11 rilles above 70 (neutral) Thc hardening baths (2) and 24) are sed after high temperature development Formulae 21 and 22 are also suitable stop baths for print processing

yrxrms

Fixation 15 necessary to remove the undeveloped silver halide from the ernU L ion lIardening agents may bc added to harden the emulsion Hardening is essential for films which have been reversal processed or processed at high temperatures and for bromide papers that arc going to be hot-glazed Typical fixers are shown in Table 7

Table 7 Fixllg [laths

No 25 No 26 No 27 No 28 Standard Buffered Buffered Buffered Acid Hypo Hardening Rapid Ilarden bullng Fix~r Hypo Fixer 7ixer Rapid Fixer

Sod i urn t h io 11 ]_--ptat-=e2-=anhtyd_ _ ~____-=-___________________160 150

(or Sodium thinsulphate cryst) (50) (240 )

Ammonium thiosulphate 175 200

Sodium sulphite anhyd 15 25 15

Sodium metabisulphite 25

Acetic acid glacial IS 10 15

Bodc acid 75 10 75

Potassium alum 15 15

Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000

All are used undiluted for films but may be diluted 1+1 for papers The buffered flxer~ havf a partiClllnrly long lifc and the buffered non-hardening rapid fixer (No 27) is recommended for plastic-coated papers such 1S 11fospeed

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REVERSlL PROCESSING OF Damp_ W FILM

Ileversl processing of black Ilnd white film yields positive transparencies with Il beautiful tonal gradation As with all reversal processes exposure and first development must be very carefully controlled beciluse density variatiolls cannot be compensated (or in printing The process involves the developmellt of Lile negative image (first developer) dissolving away the s i lvcr thus fOnilPU (bleach bath) clering and re-exposure to white light (reversal exposure) and develorshyment of the silver halide thus re-exposed (second development) The film is then fixed and washed in the normal way I t is the firs t deve lope r wh ich de termincs the quality of the final image It is usual to include a small quantity of silver halide solvent to brighten the highlights and sodiulll thiosullilate or sodiulll thiocyanate are usually used for this The subsequent processes are carried on more or less to completion so timing is not as critical as with the first developer In the fol~owiJlg procedure the first developer is retained antI used again [or the second dev e lopment

Rev r rsal processing solutions

No 29 Reversal developer (stock solution)

Netol 3g Sodium sulphite anhyd SOg lIydroquinone l2g Sodium carbonate anhyd 6()g Potassium bromide 4g Water to lOOOml

Dilution (stock + water) 1+1

To the diluted working strength developer add sodiulll thiosulphate at the following rale (gram~ per litre)

PAN F FP4 llPS Sodium thiosulphate anhyd 5 75 5 (a~ Sodium thiosulphat~

cryst) (8) (12) (8) AlternAtively a print deve l oper such as Dromophen may be used diluted 1+1 ith thiooulpilate dded as above

No 30 Blcach (two part stock solutions) SOLUTI ON A

Potassium permanganate 2g Water to SOOml

SOLUTION B Sulphuric acid 10 vv lOOml Water to SOOml These stock solutions will keep indefinitely but deteriorate rapidly when mixed

For use mix equal parts of A and D and discard after each film Potassium dichromate (lOg) may be used in place of the Potassium permanganate in Solution A

No 31 Clearing Bath

Sodium (or Potassium) metabisulphite 25g Water to 1000ml

Fixer ---The bleaching solution softens the emulsion and a hardening fixer must be used

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The hardening fixers given enrl ier laquo(onnube Nos 26 and 28) are ideal

Procedure 1 First developel 12 mins at 20

0 e for all llford films with an inversion every 15 seconds Keep the developer for use in the second development

2 Wnsh 3 mins with frequent changes 3 llicach 5 mins with strong continuous agitation Roarbull lights may be

switched on after two minutes in the bleach 4 I~n s h 2 mins with frequent chnnges 5 Clear 2 mins in the Clearing bath 6 Iash 2 mins with changes 7 Reversal exposure Re-expose ench cnd of the spiral for 2 mins at 12-18 inches

from a 100 watt bulb This is best done underwater in a clear gls9 bowl standing on a sheet of white paper Rotate the bulb or the spiral during re-exposure to ensure even illumination

8 Second developer Develop for 6-8 mins at 20 0 C in the developer solution retained from the first development Development time is not critical but should go to completion

9 Rin s e 10 Fix Fix in acid htrdening fixer for 10 mins (formula No 2cent ) or

4 mins (formula No 28) It Final 5h Wash for 30 mins and dryas usual

Modifying the Processed Negative Th e silver imJge obtained after development and fixation may be either l r censhy

sified or r educ ed TIlis is to compensate (or errors in exposure or dlvelopment or both

INTE~(UFICTION

The following for muLt has been select e d [rom the many published because i t is simple effective etsily controlled and yields a permanently enhllnced negative The basic chemicals are reasollably safe unlike the mercury and uranium intensifiers

No 32 Chromium Intensifier

STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium dichromate 12 5g lJnter to 200 ml

STOCK SO LUTION II Hydrochloric acid 10 vv (36 ww) 30ml ( o r I1ydrochloric acid 10 1 ww) (L Iml) (or Hydrochloric acid cone) (]ml) WJter to 200ml For use mi~ 1 part Solution A with 3 parts water and add 1 part rolution n

The negative should be properly fixed and well washed Old negatives should be sO kcd in water for a few minutes The negative is immersed in the intensifier [or 2-3 minutes until the image is (ully bleached (it turns a yellowy-brown colour) It is then washed well until the yellow stain is removed The intensified image is then re-developed after exposure to daylight (or a light bulb 1 minute each side at 18 inches) in l nOli-solvent type developer This may be a print developer or general purpose necative developer such as formtJl No3 or any universal j developer An advantage of thi s intensifier is that the whole proces8 may be repe a ted several times with an increase in intensification each time as the image

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is built up

~EDUCTrON

There are three classes of reducers which reduce the amount o[ silver in the negative in different ways

The subtraltive reducers remove silver from all parts o[ the illlagc (shadows and highlights) at about the salTle rate 50 that the contrast 15 incrcaBed This is uscful for Jver-euroxposed negatives which tend to be flat

The peoporti)lal reducers remove silver in proportion to the density so that the contrast grildient is maintained This type of reducer is suitable for those negatives which are too dense for easy printing through over-exposure ~ombined

with over-development The uper-proportional reducersattack the IllDvy silver depositll more than

[he lightly exposed parts leading to a reduction ill contrast and density Dense contrasty negltives are usually the result of over-development

No 33 Farmers Reducer (Subtractive)

STOCK SOLUTION A Sodium thiosulphate anhyd 32g (or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (SOg) Water to 500ml

STOCK SOLUTION B Potassium ferricyanide 109 Water to 100ml Immediately before use mix 15 p3rts A with 15 parts w(lter and ~dd 1 pa[t B

The process of reduction should be watched carefully and may be stoppcd at nny time by flooding wi th wn ter The ac t i vi ty 0 [ the reducer may be n 1te [cd by va ry ing the qunutity of Soltltion II added [ncrensing t he [crricyanidc increa ses the activity and vice versa The stock solutions keep indefinitely hut the working solution hu 3

short life

No 34 Permanganate - Persulphate Reducer (Proportional)

STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium permanganate 1 solution lZ 5ml Sulphuric acid 10 wlw 65ml Water to 500ml

STOCK SOLUTLON II Ammonium persulphate 25g Water to 1000mi Distilled water should be used to make up these solutions for use take one

part A two ports distilled water and two parts B A slower acting mixture is I part A 4 parts water and 1 part II and this may be easier to control A[ter reduction the action con be halted and the brown stain removed by immersing the negative in a 1-2 solution of sodium (or potnssiul1l) metabisulphite The negative should he thoroughly waMhed before being dried

No 35 Pelslliphate Reducer (Super-proportional) Ammonium persulphate 125g Sulphuric acid lOr ww 5m1 Distilled water to 500101

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The ne)a t i ve shou 1d be fu lly wn shed The leduc t ion mus t be wa tC1ed close ly as the rate varies ~idely with different emulsions nnd with some modern high speed ~mulsions it iR not effective ]t all to 12-157 solution of sodium Ilulphite anhyd can be Ilseu as ] s top bath Imd the negat ive is fi na lly given a good wash

BampW Print Processes [1) NI_I2EV~1QI2yRS

Print developers arc generally fairly contrasty compared to negative developers and of course it ig not necclisary or desirable to use fine grain or acutance techniqupound for prints The colour tone of the image is the main variable in print developers but the colour obtained will depend largely on the type of print paper (eg bromide chlorobromide or chloride)

Table 8 Standard Print Developers

No 36 No 37 No 38 No 39 D163 ID62 ID20 New

PQ Univ NQ Paper Winchester

~middotc to 1 22 3 35

Sodium sulphite anhyd 75 50 50 35

-lL(~ro(l~1 i WJlle 17 12 12 86

Socli11Tl -----shy

carbollate lt1nilyd 65 60 60 63

lhellidolle 05

Potassium bromide 28 2 4 l9

I3cn7otriazole 1 15-25 20 37

Wettinr agent 10 10 10 10

Wnter to 1000 1000 1000 1000

Dilution (stock + water) 1+3 1+3 1+3 1+2 Calgon may be added to all the above at the rate of 2g per litre If the ueveloper is uRed at less dilution development iR more rlpid The

benzotriClzole in these formulilc irnproves the brightness of highlights by reduc i ng fog and also shifts the colour of the illlage towards black or blue-black The New middotIinchester formula (No 39) is a universal paper delTeloper giving good black to nc s and is the basis of many commercially available print developers

Table 9 Warm-tone Print DClTelopers

No +O ~Jo 41

~Lltf01 I i nonc _________--25 ---8_ ___

Sodium Dulphite anhyd 60 60

Sad i IIll carboIlHe anhyd 90 90

~ycin 25

Potassium oronlidc 2

~ater to 1000 1000

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Dilution (Stock + water) 1+3 1+2 Time 2-3 mins 1-2~ mins

Formula No 41 has a warmer tone tllan No 40 but both arc best used on warm-tone papers

STQ- [lATHS FOR PR_INT~

The 1I0n-hilnlenlng stop blths given carlier (Nos 21 and 22) arc suitable f0 r prints as is a 47 solution oE sodium or potassium mctabisulphite (I~Oplitre) good economical stop bilth can be made up by adding 1 part stop batl (as above) to two parts old fixer and mixing up a fresh fixing bath When the stop batll shows exhaustion the stop bath ia discarded and the old fixer converted to the ncw st op bath This double use of fixing solution Lcally does prolong the life of the fl xer bath as a large part of the fixation takes place in the stop bath and the diluti on ensures that no staining occurs

PRINi FIXERS Any of the fixer formulae given earlier for negativcs will provide fix e rs

suitatle for papers (formulae 25-28) The rapid fixers have a much grentcr cJptc ity than the hypo filter s and formula 27 is especially recommended for plastic-coatcd pap~rs Prints on normal paper wh i ch a r c t o be hot-glazed should be fixed in 1

hardening fixer (formulae 26 or 28) Formula 25 is obviously the cheapest to ma ke up but the pll should be monitored and more metabisulphite added to restOt-e thc acidity when required All may be used diluted 1+1 It is advisable not to U 5C the some solution for fixing both films and pape rs even if the same formula is used but to keep film filter and paper fixer i n s eparate bottles

t~ID F9H PAPER PInNTsect The fibre base of normal printing pl pe rs retains acid chemicals from the fj xing

bath which are difficult to remove by -a s h ing alone If after a brief rine 11C

print is i~nersed in a 2-5 solution o f s od ium carbonate anhyd for 2-] minutes the subsequent nonnl wash ensures that all the hypo and hYPolilver camplexes a t c removed This alkaline bath should be used whenever any subsequent trcatmenl of the print such as toning is to be carried out

LYPO ELI~IN~TOB 11C following solution (formula No 42) serves to oxidise the thiosulphate t o

~ulphate which is then easily washed ou t o f the paper

~~_~po Elimin_ator

Hydrogen peroltide solution 3 (10 volume) 125ml or Hydrogen peroxide solution 6 (20 volume) 63mU Ammonia solution 0B80sg 10ml Hater to 1000ml immerse the prints in the above solution after a normill W8lh in running W (l ~ er

for about 5 minutes followed by a fu cthc r Hash of about 10 minute This hyposhyelimnator is made up of volatile compOIw nts so that there is_ no risk of elininllor salts remaining in the p1per-base after drying

PRINT TONING Prints may be toned a variety of colours and depending on subject can yielel very

pleasing results All prints must be tlloroughly washed prior to toning and old prints

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~lloliid be soaked ~n water for a few minute s to soften the emulsion

1) Sepia Toning Th follow(ng method yields perm1nlnt prints with a good brown tone In fact

prints treated in lhis way have greater permanence than untreated prints and the lmiddotLlwd is USLd ill 3rchival processinl The print is first bleached ill a ferri shyqnidcbroHiide bleach until the d3ri~est partH of the image tire a raint straw LU lour 1 t is lilen placed in the toner b3th 1111lt1 the sepia image quickly reappears

Nu (d FerricyanidcDromi de Bleach

Potassium [erricyanide 40g Potassium bromide 251 Jater to 1000mi Tllis stock solution is used undiluted and keeps well if stored in the dark or

ll a dnk bottle It may be re-used until exhausted h[ter bleaching the print 1~ washed well and trGnsferred to tbe following solution

Uu 44 Sepia Toning BGth -Thiolre1 109

Potassium bromide 40g Sodiul1i hydroxide 3-6g WJter to 1000mi The qu~n[ity of sodium hydroxide can be adjusted between the above limits to

yield the desired tone colour This toning bath is preferable to the traditional suJiul11 sulphide hath because of the unpiensant smell and properties of sodium sulphide solutions Thiourea and sod i um sulphide should not be used or stored in lilt dGrkroom or near sensitised materials

bJ lllie Toner This process does not re qruire a bleach stage but the print should be thoroughly

- s hed a[te1 fixation The process intell5ifies the image slightly so prints to bpshytOiled blue should be mnde a little lighter than they would otherwise be

Nu 45 Dlue Toning Bath

SOLUTION A

Potassium ferricyanide Ig Sulphuric acid 10 ww 30ml Wnter to 500ml

SUIUTION 13

Alliinonilim ferric citrate (green) Ig

Sulphuric acid 10 ww 30ml Water to 5001111 Mi elt[uGI parts hand B immediately before use The wet print is immersed

ulltil the desired tone is reached and then washed Excessive wnsh ing will ble a ch lliit the blue colour and just sufficient wash to remove the yellow tain should be lven This bleaching is largely eliminated if the print is lshed in water conshy[lining a l ittle acetic acid (51111 or less per litre)

c) Red TOiler Th~TtO~ing is il traditional red tOller using copper sulphate hglin no

b I each is llluircd

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No 46 Red TOllin~ Bath

SOLUTION A Cupric s~lphate (511 deg) 12 5g

2Sodium citrate 500g (or Potassium citrate) (55g) Water to SCOml

SOLUTION B Potassium ferricyanide 109 Sodium citrate 50 g (or Potassium citrate) (SSg) Water to SCOml Use equal volumes of II and B mixed just before use The image colour changes

through warm black then sepia to rea 2nd t he process can be halted at any stage by flushing with water The print is th~n wa s hed and dried normally

PRINT nEDUCERS Print reducers are generally used Eor the local reduction of dense parts of

iarge prints for generally brightening dense flat prints or for removing fiilvcr completely from unwanted areas Farmers Reducer (formula No 33) is the most commonly used print reducer and shoul d Df t sed s ufficiently diluted to allow control of the reduction proc ess Use scr 1p dn ts to de t e rmine the appropriate conditions ~len using Farmers Reducer wash the pr in t frequently in running water or permanent yellow staining may occur Farmers Reduc e r used very dilute is ideal for brightening dense flat prints It is a s ub t ractive reducer and gives bright highshylights a nd increased contrast

~len heavy deposits of silver have 0 igt e remov ed completely such as that cause1 by pinholes in line nega t i ves Fa nna r s Reduce r is not su i tab Ie because of the possibility of staining The followin g formula (No 47) is an iodine re ducer which i9 very effect i ve at removing dense silver

No 47 Iodine Reduce r

Potas sium iodide 1Sg Iodine crystals 05g Water to lOOml This reducer is applied to the mOl s t lot ~et) print with a swab or brush and

the resulting brown Btain is easily r emove d in a 15 solution of sodium thiosulphate Illlhyd (or 25 sodium thiosulphate cryst ) after a rinse in water The print should then be thoroughly rinsed

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Colour Processing Besides offering real economy brew-it-yourself colour processing is v~ry

satisfying and can yield results superior to those offered by ln3ny commercial proshycfSSinl~ houses All that is required ilre careful working methods and atttntion to dltlails Tlte Icrwrill instruction relating to monochrome proc(ssin~ should be r~d in conjunction with thcse notes on colour processing It should be emphasised that the formulae given in this section are not those of the film manufacturers who do not publish their formulae but have been worked out to yield results comparable with the manufacturers recommended processing

Time and Temperature Cololl~ ma-terials are not as flexible as black and white materials with regard

to development conditions since wide deviation from the recommended development can yield shifts in colour balrnce ohich lQay be impossible to correct in printing With reversal materials in particular exposure must be accurate and the time and temperature of the first development is crucial as thi largely determines the quality of the ftnal transparency In the C(j process the processing temperature is rather high (3a

oC) bllt this must be maintained at least for the first dtvelopment There is

slightly more leeway ~Iith the other st~ges but these should b~ kept within the limite shown The sallie applies with colour development of negative materials and again the processing tenrperature of the C41 procefiS is high (also JaoC) The times given in the formulae include 10-15 seconds to uHo~ for draining the tank

H~king up the Solutions As wi th all the - formulae in this bookl e t the chemicals should be dissolved in

tire order given Some of the colour dev e lo p ing agents while extremely solub i I wa te r tend to separn te out in the a 1 k a 1 ine J eve loper sol ut ions Ita aov isab le to dissolve the colour developing agen t to gether with the hydroxylamine (hydro shycldoride or sulphnte) where p r e sent se pa r a te ly i n part of th e total volume of water alld add this slowly 0 th e rerna mJer o f the solution some time before use rile hydroxylamine acts as an antioxidant and is required because the sulphite conshyclntrltion hCls eO be low Hydroxylamine is rapidly decomposed in alkaline solutions ill the pr se nce of sequestering agents of the EDTA type so Cnlgon should be used i n h~rd water ~~ r e s rather than EDTA

V~QCESliING G9J~QI1lLill=VERSAL FILMs_U0R COLOUR SLIDES) There are at present two princiPlll systems for colour reversal film prGcessing

(excluding Kodachrome) The first is the ~g fachrome 41 process covering all Agfa r-tJVersal fi 1m (except Igfachrotnc [(IOOS Profe ssional - proce Sl E6) olhether sold process paid or not Thepound are few if any other makes o f [i Tm available in Britain ohich use this process The second ir the Kodak Ektachrome E6 process hich covers IllOSt of the rCIllining colour n~versal films There are a few filns Idlich ltIre still made for outdated process es sLlch as ORWO f i l ms ohich are proc e s sed by an old Igf~ process Rnd some specillised Ko d ak films suc h as Ektachrome In f rared Film find Photomicrography Color Film 248J which are processed by the old E-4 process There may still be a [ew films from independent manufacturers designed for the old E ~ process

Kodak Kod~lchlome films are sold process paid and user processing is not feasible

Keversal Exposures - Reversal film mUfit be given a fogging exposure to light (Where chemical fegging is not used) after the first development Because the emulsion is very much less sensitive at this stage than normal film this exposure mtlst be rather intense It

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is best to remove the film from the spinl and SCC-SDW it through plain wter below a Photo flood lamp Ilowever a wet delicate film is difficult to reload into the spi ra 1 (bes t done under lola ter) and it is cas icr to leave the film in thc 5 pi ra 1 nlld extend the exposure time With clear spira ls thc exrosure time should be at lea~t

doubled and with the translucent nylon spira l s the exposure should be increased 5-10 fold When the film is not removed for the exposure place the spiral in a white 001011 of water (or a clear glass bowl on J wl ite surface) and place the lamp above it During the exposure of each end of the s pir a l the lamp or bowl should be moved about so that the exposure is more even Watc r and cl~ctricity dont mix so care is needed and a hot photoflood lamp will burst if s plashed Dont skimp on th e reversal exposhysure - it is easy to underexpose but dif f ic ul t to overexpose For the Ektachrome E-6 p r-ocess a reversa l bath which chemi c3 1y fogs tile film making the reversal exposure unnecessary i s available from Pb c to Chemical Supplies

The Agfachrome 41 Proce ss Suitablc for all Agfa Reversal poundll ns (except Agfachrorne RIOOS Professional

available in 120 size and sheet film only)

formul ~ e - Agfachrome 41 No 48 First Developer

Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g middot1e to 1 3g Sodium sulphite anhyd SOg Hydroquinone 6g Sodium carbonate anhyd 40g Potassium thiocyanate 25g Potassium bromide 2g otassium iodide 0 1 Solution 6ml wate to 1000111

No 49 Stop Bath

Ac etic acid glac iol 101 Sodium acetate (3H 0) lO g

2Water to 10001111

No 50 Colour Developer PART I

Sodium sulphit e anhyd 3 5g Hydroxylamine hydrochloride I t Potassium bromide 19 Colour Developing Agent see below Ethylenediamine (50 vv Soln) 16ml (or 2-phenylethylamine) (3ml) -later to 300ml

PART BI Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g S~dium carbonate anhyd 62g Water to 500ml

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c) lour iPVf loping age nts [0[ Part lI

Colour Dev e loper 1 (sulphate) 28g or Colour l)eve l o pe r I (chloIide) ( CIH) 22g or Cenochrollc 2 5g or Dtoxych rome 3 2g

lOOt usc add ParL II slowly to Part D with tirring and make up to a total volume o f 10U0Il1I

No 51 [leach ~-----Po tas s ium-[e rr i CY[lnidc 80g

Potassium bromide 30g Sodium acetate (J1l 0) 50g2lor ic Jeid 5g Potnssiwa nll11 30g Water to 10001111

Ngt 52 Fixcr ---S-oJI~-tTiosu I ph a te anhyd l25g

(or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (200g) Sodiul1l s ulphi te lnhyd lag Imiddotlater to 1000ml

Th pit of this fixer is approximately neutral Do not use an acid fixer because it Jill blcnch th e dyes

Nu 53 Stnbiliser - --- We t ti~g agelt - Im1

Forlllaide hyde 0 5ml I-Jte r to IOOOml

~ (lCeslng Procedure lIrfachrome 41

At 20 0 C (minutes) At 24degC (minutes )

1 First Developer 18 - zr-----shy lJ-l~ (z00-O 50C) (2l 0 -02SoC)

2 Rin sc ~ 3 St op bath 4 3 4 1[151 10 7 S Reve r sni Exposure See be l~w 6 Colour developer 14 (20 0 -0SoC) 11 (z4 0 02SoC) 7 - 1 5 h 20 14 8 Ill eac ll 9 I-[lsh 5 4 lll Fix 5 4 ll Wash 10 7 12 Stabil iser 1 1 1] Dry (30 D

e) mox

One minute each side with film r emo ved from spiral 2 minuteR each end rf clear sl c rlll lid 5-10 minutes ench end of ttanslucent nylon spirill frolll a No2 Photoflood a l I lie t re () f le t)

Thp t Cll peratllre during the Lwo developme nt stages should be maintained within til limits shown For other stages tlte t e lllperature may range from 17-20lC or 21 - 2llC The third wash (Htole n iu raLh e r long and it is important that it is llt lL shorted In soft watcr ilHilS this lung wallh nwy c ause the clUulsion to slocll Su un int e l-mediate bilth of 5 minutes immediately J(tcr the colour developer can be given to prevent excessive swelling This is a 2 solution of either sodium

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sulphate or magnesium sulphate (Glaubers salts or Epsom Salts) If the intermediate bath is used the third wash may be shortened by 5 minutes In the two developer baths agitation should be continuous for the first 30 seconds followed by two invershysions every half minute for the rest of the period

As usual it is the developer solutio 1~ which deteriorate first The remalnlng solutions (stop hath bleach and fixer ) have double the capacity of tIle two developers Ea ch litre of developer should process 6-8 films but the development timcs should be extended by 30 seconds at 20degC (or 20 5cco~ds at 24 o

C) after the first two films anQ after each subsequent two films hi applies to both the first and colour deve lo pers

rne Ektachrome E-6 Pro ess 1 am indebted to Mr Derek Wa tkl 9 r0~ permission to reproduce this formula

wh i ch first appe1red in the March 198 1 i sgt lc of the magazine SLR Camera (Haymnket Publi t hing Ltd 38-42 Hampton Road TCd ingcon Middlcsex)

There are a lot of films from man n~rUl facturers sold under a wide variety of brand names which are compatible with the E-6 process Even Agfa make an E-6 compatible film (Agfachrome RIOOS Professional)

FormuL ae - E-6 i-lo-54---first Deve 1upe r

Sodium 6exametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g Sodium sulphite anhyd J9g Potassium carbonate anhyd 14g Sodium bicarbonate 12g Phen i done O 6g Itydroluinone 6g Sodium bromide 22g Sodium thiocyanate Ig Sodium hydroxide 33g Pot~asium iodide (01 50ln) 45ml Water to 1000m~ pH 9 6-005

No 5~ Stop Bath 1 ------S0dium acetate anhyd 30g

(or Sodium acetate 320) (50g) Acetic acid glacial 6ml Water to 1000m~ pit 55-02

No 56 Colour Develoger Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g tri-50dium orthophosphate 1220 36g Sodium hydroxide 3g Sodium sul~lite anhyd 4 5g 3gtdium bromide 065g Potassium iodide (01 Soln) 30ml Sodium thiocyanate 1 3g Citrazinic acid 1 25g CD-3 l1g ~oter to 1000mi + pH 1165-005

bull 23 shy

S LOp lath 2 Same as Stop lath 1 but once used do no t interchange them

No 57 ll l e ach lotassiulil (erricyanide 80g Potassium bromide 20g Ji-So JiullI hydrogen orthophosphattnnhyd 12g (or di-Sodium hydrogen olthophosphnte

1211 2deg) (JOg) Acetic acid glacial 5ml Hater to IOOOrot plt 55-02

No 58 Fixe r - - Sndi-u-thiosulphate Mlhyo 125g

(or SodiulTl thiosulpilte cryst ) (200g) SodiuJJ sulphite anhyd 5g So dium me tabisulphite O5g Water to lOOOlllt 11 72-02

~Jc tt ing JgCllt lmL

L r to lOOOml

Time ~pe ratute

l First development 6r J8-U57 - shygt Stop iJath 1 2 33-JoC J Ih 2 3J-J90C 4 Reversal Exposure Two minutes each side with (ilm removed

froro spiral 5 minutes each side of clear spiral ano 10 minutes each side of nylon spiral with No 2 PhotofLoud at

(Or HeveJs31 JlJth) (ObtainJhle 12 inches frolll Photo Chical Supplies) 2 JJ-J90C

5 Col o ur u(ve [o[JllICnt G JSlOC 6 St o p Bath 2 2 JJ-l)degC 7 1-1 2 ])-J9()C g 11 [e middoth 5 JJ-l9C l) Rins e ~ 3J-390C [0 fix 5 3J-390C II Wnsh 6 33-J90C I ~ S tid il s c 1 3J-390C n Dry (Fillll cllt~Jrs on drying) r uTES ) As wilh all revlrsnl processes the [irut developer largely delermines the ehnrilct(tmiddotistic~ o[ the final translnrency Jntl the rcconlllltnJeu time anJ temp~rature

hlHJ1J be Iuhlrcu to b) AgitJtion in 11 ba ths (except the optional reversal bnth and the stabiliser

- - - - - - - ------------

wllich should not be agitated) is continuous for the first 15 seconds followed by two

inversions of the tank each subsequent half minute With the reversal bath and stnbiliRer an initial inversion to ensure uniform distribution is all that is required cl The conditioner bth in the offici)l process is lwl required in the pLOceJllre given hele as this useR ferricyllnide bleach rather than all EUTA hl(ach d) The two Rtop hth re of identical compositioll bllt should not be illtcrchlIircl due tu dnmn~illg carry-over contomination e) The caplcity of the solutiolls is 10 filll1ll pr litre (36 exposure - 35 or 120 roll film) bnt the tillle in the first developer must be extencled hy 15 second~ after the first two films and after each subsequent two films (by 20 seconds fOl the last two films) f) The made-up solutions should be scored in dark bottles at room temperature not in the refrigerator The first developer will keep for two months unused or for four weeks once used The colomiddoti developer will keep for 3 months unused or 2 lIIo11~hs partly used nd all the remaining solutions will keep for 6 months ur longer Although the first developer contains many ingredients it is not expensi ve to moke up Thus it is worthwhile retaining the remaining solutions to be used ith a ((esh ly made fi rs t deve loper if the fu 11 capac i ty canno t be used in the four we ek life 0f the original first developer g) Drying temperature should not exceed 60

0 C and all EktachrOllle films only clclr

when nearly dry For information on process control and fault finding in both Agfachrome 41 and

Ektachrome E-6 the reader is referred to The Focal Guide to Colour Film Proces~ing by Derek IJAtkins (published by the Focal Press norough Green SevEnolt)ks Kent TNlS 8PB) This excellent book also gives 11 the background information you may require Also in the book is a substitute E-4 process (as well an a low cost Ln~ temperature simplified E-4 process) for those films using this system This book also covers colour negative film processing

PROCESSING COLOUR NEGATIVE FILMS (PLUS XP-l AND VARIa XL BL~CK A~~lJTE FIL~ ~~__________~_ ____~______M~)__ __

As with colour reversal film the two major manufacturers of ~olour fil~s A~ [a

and Kodak each have tlieir own fi lms and processing systemy [or cololJr negative~ Again the trend seems to be towards a unified compatible system based on Kodaks C-lfl prccens

Processing negative film is very much eaGier tlan reversal processing for two reasons Firstly there are fewer steps in the processing sequence with no revcr~al EXpOSlln required and secondly there ill a little more latitude with tlte pro cessing since most faults can be corrected later at the print ing sta ge HOI_e ver cons iL e nt good resutts depend on consistent processing Attention to detail ~ile proce8s i ng a film can save a lot of time later on

Agfacolor N Negative Process ---T-tiis-process is in tended for all II fa co lour nega t i ve film (CNS CNS2 ann 80S Pr~fe9sionol) excluding AgCacoluur CNS400 negative film This ltter is designed to be processed in Agfacol o r Peo ceMs 70 chemicals and is compatible witl l Kodaks Flexicolor C41 process as is Agf a s chromogenic 131ack and ~hite film Vor l XL

The Agfacolor N process is slightly unusual in that the devclopmpnt is 11101-11(

to continue in the lowlgtr layers of the e mulsion during an intermedi1 t e bath wll icll immediately follows the colour developer

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Pu rmulnc - Agfucolour N i u 59- Colur- ll(vIoI~er SULUTION A

Sodium hexnmetaphosphate (Calgon) 2g PutnsSilJln carl)ooatc atlhyd 75p Potassium bromide 25p Wat e r Lo 500ml

~()LUTroN Il

lIydroxylamine hydrochloride 19 (or Hydroxylamine sulphate) 0 2g) Sodium sulphite anhyd 35g Colour Dcvcloppr 1 (Sulph~te) 28g (or Colour Developer 1 (chlorideraquo C22g) (or Cenocilrome) (25g) (0 t Droxych rome) (J2g) ) t e r to SOOml

I l d B tlJ A with stirring before use

Nu 60 Intermediate Bath -- -~lgn~sin sulpil1te--===- JOg

Mixed (or used) Colour Deve lope r 501n 30ml 1000011

No 61 Bleach --S-(Tll~eXaeLaphospilate (Cnlgon) 5g

Potassiulll fcrricY1nide 42g Potassium brolllidp 12g 10[ltl8siu dihydrogen orthophosphate 15g di-Potassium hydrogcn ortilophosplwte

nll Jil yd Sg Water to 1000111

Nl 62 Fixer -------sz-dG----Umiddotios ul phn te nnhyd 125g

(01 Socii um thiosulphntc cryst) (200g) SodiulIl sulphitc anhyd 109 Wnter to 1000ml

ltc~ing Procedure Agfacolollr N Time (mins) Telpernture degc-S----shy

1 Colour developer 20-02 2 Intermediate bath 4 2005 J -IDsh 15 (lllinilllllm)-20 15-20 4 IHench 6 2005 5 Hash 6 15-20 6 FLx 6 18-20 7 -Ilsh 10 15-20 fl ~~ett lllg agent bath 15-20 N)lI~S

Agit1tilln in niL stDges is continuous (or the fi1st minute followed by o ue j version of Lhc LIll( (very hoi ( minute thcrcnfter

llevcl)plIlcnt 11I3Y be varied betccn 7 - 9 minutes Increase ueve10pment to 9 llItes Lo incrcasc contrast and reduC(~ the time to 7 minutes (or softer results

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The orange mask is formed in the bleach bath and the recommended time and temperature for this stage should be followed as the density of the mask increases with time

All the solutions including the co l our developer solutions (separately) shoilid keep for at least 4 months Once mixed the colour developer (and the intermediate bath) will only Inst a f ew weeks

The capacity is 6 - S films (135- 36 o C 120) per litre but the development ttne shoul d be incr eased with each film or pair of films to compensate for developer e xha ustion The c a pa c ity of the co lou r d vetoper s may be e xtended by mixing onl y

al f of so lu tions I a n d B and proceSS in f( 4 i ilms in e ach h a lf In this ca s e prolong the development time by one mi nute a f ter eacll film

Flexi color C-41 Tlis process was developed by Kod lt1 ilt [or the mach i ne pro ces~ing of their nc~

colour negative films Kodacolor II and Ve ricolor II The majorit y of colour films from independent manufacturers are now made compatible with the C-~l process In addition there are the two chromogenic bl ack and white films lifords XPI and Ag Eal s Vario XL whi ch were designed fo r C- 41 processing l gfas fast colour nega t i ve film CNS400 should also be proce sed i n C- 41 chemicals

Because C-41 was designed for use i n au t omated commercial laboratories the processing t emperature is rather h i gh (IOO or 3So

C) As with the ~ktachrome E-6 precess these high temperatures bring abo ut the a s sociated problems of short development times and DE maintaining t hL t empe ra ture betwe en the prescribed limit~ Tha t t hes e pro b lems are easi l y ove rc ome i s J emon s trat ed by the many thousa nds of amac e urs who s ucce ss f ully process t hei L own pol and Vari o XL monochrome films in

oC-4 chemicals at 3S C

The following formulae represent a l ow cosi substitute procedure using a traditional ferricyanide bleach

ihe substi t ute process is reproduc d fr om The Focalguide to Colour Film Proc es sing by Derek Wat ki ns with k i nd p2r ssion from the Focal Press

Formu11e C-4l

No 63 Colour Developer Sodium hexarroetaph()sphate (Calgon) 2g Po tassium carbonate anhyd 38g Sodium sulphite anhyd 5g Potassium iodide 01 Soln 2ml Potassium bromide 1 5g lIydroxamine hydrochloride 2g CD-4 5g Wlter to 1000ml

No 64 Stop Bath Ae tic acid glacial 20011 Sodium acet1te 311 0 25g

2Water to 1000ml

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------ ----------------

~

No 65 Bleach Potassium nitrate 2SB Potassium ferricyanide 30g Potassium bromide 12g Boric acid 5g Sodium tetraborate (Borax) 19 Water to 1000ml

No 66 Fixer Sodium thioulphate anhyd 125g (or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (ZOOg) Sodium metabisulphite 20g Water to LOOOtnl

No 53 Stabiliser Wetting a ~r~ nt 1m1 Formaldehyde 40 511 )1 ~ater to lOOOm1

f ocessinG Procedure e-4l (with [erricY~lnid( bleach)

Time Temperature degc l Colour development 31- 38~~--

2 Stop bath 35-40 J Wash 35-40 4 Bleach 35-40 5 ~ash 35-40 6 Fix 35-40 7 ~ash 35-40 8 Stabiliser 35 -40 9 Dry

Agitation in the developer is continuous for the first half minute followed by one inversion of the tank each quarter minute thereafter In the remaining solution s the agitation may be reduced t o t lJO in ver sions every half minute after tilE init i a l )0 sec onds cont inuous agit a tio n e ach bath

TIll capacity of the so lut ions is a pplC))limately twelve films per litre if the dev eloper is made up as two 500ml port iuns dn d six films devel oped in eacll portion The development time should be extended by minute after the f irst two films and by middot a further i minute aft er t he seco nd 1lt1 fi ms A comb i ned b1each f ix bath may be u~cd in this procss b t t o[ cours Lilis calllu t be a f e rr i c Yll1ido ball ed bleach A sllitable formula can be found in t h e Br i i sh J our nal of Photography Annual

PIWCESSING COLOUR PRINTS For copyrigllt reasons we arc unabl e t o re produce the substi t ute fo rmulae for

colour print processing The f onnulae and pr ocedure s are quit e straight~orward and lIIay be found in the British Journal of Photography Annual Photocopies of the relevan t pnu es may be obtained for a nominal sum from the publishers This applies to earlic~ editions of the book and to the current edition after stocks are sold out (u s ually April or Hay) The address to 0 i s

Tlte Ed i tor Ilritish Journal of Photography Annmiddot qL Henry Greenwood ( Co Ltu 28 Creat James Street London WeI Telephone 01-404 4202

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APPENDIX I Chemical Names Seeals- Appendix 2 for Colour Developing Adurol Amidol Amidosulphonic acid Ammonium alum Ammonium hydroxide l2-B(nzenediol 14-Benzenediol Bor1cic acid Borax Calgon Chlorchydroquinone Chrcmlt alum Copper sulphate Copper chloride l2-Diaminoethane 24- Diaminophenol hydrochloride Digol l2-Dihydroxybenzene l4-Dihydroxybenzene 26-Dihydroxyisonicotinic acid Elo Ethy l enediaminetetraacetic acid and sa l ts Ethyl~ne glycol Ferri~ ammonium citrate Formalin p-Hydroxyphenyl glycine Iron perch loride Iron trichloride Kcdalk p-HtLhylaminophenol sulphate Nethyl p1raaminophenol sulphate middotIonoch 10 rhyd rOluinone 1- Pheny 1- 3-pyrazo lidone Potasnium alum Potassium bichromate Potassium bisulphite Potassium chrome alum Propan-2-01 Pyrocatechin (Pyrocatechol) Pyrogall ic acid Quino Sodium bisulphite Sodium hydrosulphite Thiocarbamide I 2 3-Trihydroxybenzene

and Synonyms Agent)

Chloroquinol 24-Diaminophenol hydrochloride Sulphamic acid Aluminium ammonium sulphate Aoononia solution Catechol (Pyrocatechol Pyrocatechin) Hydroquinone Boric acid Sodium tetraborate Sodium hexametaphosphate Chloroquinol (Adurol) Chromium potassium sulphate Cupric sulphate Cupric chloride Ethylenediamine Amidol Diethylene glycol Catechol Hydroquinone Citrazinic acid Hetol EDTA acid and salts Ethanediol Ammonium ferric citrate Formaldehyde solution Glycin Ferric chloride Ferric chloride Sodium metaborate Hetol Hetol Chloroquinol Phenidone Aluminium potnssium sulphate Potassium dichromate Potassium metabisulphite Chromium potassium sulphate Isopropyl alcohol (Isopropanol) Catechol Pyroglillol Ilydroquinone Sodium metabisulphite Sodium dithionite Thiourea Pyrogallol

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Jl)[l~NDIX 2

There appears to be considerable confusion surrounding the various colour developing agents This is probably due to the fact that these complex compounds helve all been given a different trade name by each manufacturer or distributor L1Ch compound may even have more than one chemical name depending on the chemical nOlllcnclature system used The following is a list of the chemical names and synonyms of the common colour developing agents All of them are derivatives of para-phenylenediamine the classic fine grain black and white developer and they sllare in varying degrees the unpleasant characteristics of this material They should be handled with care and skin contact or inhalation of dust should be avoided llecause these compounds are similar in structure and mode of action they arc interchangeable to some extent the differences being plincipally differcncfs ill activity and solubility Differences in solubility can cause slight colour cilmges but this is really important only with reversal films since with colour 1I~~ative films and colour papers colour casts can usually be corrected by filtration in printing The relative quantities re qui r ed ani adjustments to development times or exposure will have to be determined by experiment The names underlined are those used by Photo Chemical Supplies

Colour Developer I (Sulphate) - Ac t i vo 1 7 (Jejlt1Sltmi--shy= Uiethyl-p-phenylencdiamine sulphate =NN-Diethyl-l4-pbenylenerliamlne sulphate

C lO

II 16

NZ

H2

S04

Holht - 26232

Colour Developer 1 (Chloride) shy middotCOiKodak)

Die til y1- p-pheny lenedl alnine hydroch lorid e = NN-Diethyl-l4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride

MolWt = 20070

lt~ur [tgt velrer CD 2 (Kod~dd Activol 2 (Johnsons) [olochrome (M amp ll) NN-Diethyl-2-methyl-l4-phenylenediamine hydrochloride 4-Alllino-NN-diethyl-m-toluidine hydroch lo r ide

~ol Wt ~ 214 i3

Colour Developer 3 ~-CD3(Kod ak)

Activol 3 (Johnsons) ilyJoch rome (M amp ll) N-E thy 1- 3 -me thy 1- N- (f -me thylsul phonamidoe thy 1) -p-phenylenediamine sesqu isul pha te

monohydrate - Am lllO - N - e thy 1-N - (i me thanesu llhonalnidoe thy 1) -m- to 1uid inc s e s qu is u1pha t e

monohydrate

HolJt 43652

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Colour Develo~er 4 CD4 (Kodik)

= N-Ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyi-2-methyl-l4-phenylenediamine sulphate

~lolWt c 29235CllH18N20112S04

Droxychrome (M amp B) Activol 8 (Johnsons) Colaur Developcr 32 (Merck) T32 (Orwo) N-Ethyl-N-2-hydroxyethyl)-l4-phenylenediamine sulphate monohydrate

Wt 29634CIOH16N20middot1l2S04middotJI20 tiO

Ac60 (Agfa) Colour Developer 60 (Merck) N-Butyl-N-(4-sulphobutyl)-1 4-pheny l~ neciiamine

4-(N-Butyl-N-(4- s u phobutyl)amino)2 t ~ l i _e

Cl4 i 24 N203S HoliVt 30042

Gcnochrome (M amp B) - Acti~ol 1 (Johnsons)

S 28 OM) NN-Diethyl-l4-phenylcnediamine 9ulphit 2 Diethyl-p-phenylencdiamin~ sulphite

Mol ot t 23734

The bhse is ident i cal to Colour Develope r Sulpha t e and Hydrochloride)

APPENDIX 3 Anhydrous and lIydrncd Forms of Sal ts Many of the chemicals commonly used in photographic processing arc availllhlc

either in anhydrous forms or in one or more states of hydration If these oiffc l-ent forms are used in the ratio of their me l e u t ar weights then the amount of active ingredient is constant For example s od i um carbonate is available as the anhydrous powder (Molecular weight 105 99) and as tle decahydrate (Na C0 10I1 0 molecular2 3 2weight 21l6l4) The ratio of their molecular weights is 1270 so for every gram of anhydrous sodium carbonate required 270 grams of the decahydrate would have to be used It is important to remember thill point whe) compa r ing prices of chemicals because a hydrated crystalline form may appear cheaper weight for weight but be actually more expensive because of the add it ional quantity required

The following is a list of the commonly used chemicals which are available 1n different degrees of hydration showing their molecular weights and the ratios in which they should be used Those underlined are the forms which are supplied by Photo Chemical Supplies and are the most usual most economic or most stable form of the chemical concerned

Cupric chloride CUCI =13445 ~20=17048 Use 1127Z Cupric sulphate CuS0 =1596l _+511 deg=2[1)68 Use 1 1 564 2Ferric chloride FeC13c1622l +611 deg=27030 Use 11672Magnesium sulphate ~lgS04120=1J8 39 Z20=24647 Use 1 1 78

Potassium carbonate ~2C03=1J821 +1~1l20=l65_23 Use 1119

di-Potassium hydrogen ~211P04=174l8 +3H 0=22822 Usc 1 1 312orthophosphate

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-- --

~5 rJ Jiunt acct~te Cl COONa = 8203 Ue 1166~~2~= 13(~p~_3o d ium uisul phate NaIlS0 =12006 ~middotZO=lJ8 03 Use 1115

4~2SlJ=105 99 +10il20~2l6 14 Use 1270

)laquo ( ium d i hyd rogp n orthophosphate +211 0=15601 Use 1130

--2 -~---

d l-Slt)(JiJnl hydroren orlhophosphate Na

211P0

4=14196 +21122= 58~l~ Use 1 1 25 252

~ c liJgtn sulphlte +]011 0=32219 lise 1217~a23 =1t-Q~ 2~- dium suiphite i2 S03= 1~6 04 +711 deg=25215 Use 1200

2So diulIl tliiocYlOate N3SCN=8107 +2HZ2l2JQ Use 114-1 ( Ilst stored as 20 solutions)

S dilllll thiosu1phalc i02~22)=15sect1J +51120~24l1l Use 1157

Stannous chloride 21129=22563 Use 1119

l li-SodiUlll orthophosphate - thp mhydrous and crystalline forms not interChangeable due to alkalinity of the crystalline form whi~~ contains applox 2~~ sodium hydroxide

1 i IEND I X LI ~oJiuhl versus Potilssium Salts -- -- - r111( lIajority of phot~g-l--aphic--rroccs s ing soluti~~s sodiulU salts lIIay be

S dltituted [or pntasraquoiullI s 1lts n sodium salts are genentlly diEaper cmiddotleciall) since legs of tlte godiuHl salt is tequired to giV E the same molecular middotmiddot iuivalent In the Clse of tlte anhydrous carbonates and sulphites the sodium lts an 1sJ deliquescent than the potassium salls and 1re therefor easier to sL ore alld hnllJle The only advantage of the potassiLlln salts is their greater s o luui lily Ih e n highly concentrated solutions are made up lleCRuse of the slightly hi her nlkaLinity of the potnssiulO salts SOllie care in controtiing the pH is needed 1-111 11 substituting sodiulll [or potassium salts in buffer sy~te1ls For this reuson L1 uSllal buffer snIts nre not given here The (ollowing is a list of the ratios in which sorne of the CCgtlnlllon sodium nnd potassium sollts should be lIsed to give the I IiU (ecular equiv11cnts

Piltassiurn bromide Sod iUln bromide 100865 PutassiulTI cIrbonnte nnhyd Sodium carbonate Ilnhyd 100765 lJtlssium l)l1tS tUIlI

citr3LIO 0112deg)

hydroxide Sodium citrate (211

2deg)

SodiulII hyel ox ide 100905 100710

l u tass ium l1letabisulphite SodiullI metabislliphite 100 855 f o tl3S iunl Icrslllphilte Sodillm persulphate 100 880 Potassium sulphite anhyd Sodium sulphite anhyd 100 795

ArPENDIX 5 Wei~lts and Measures There are OIany old books which contain phot o graphic formulae 11 lot of which

al e still v11id todilY In Brilain thcse old formulae were Ilsuillly given in avoidupois ulli t rud the following tnbles 0I1Y be uficd to convert these formulae to the metric sf tem Avoi rdupJis Wli~ilts ~~~d TfT~r---- 16 ounces (oz) 7000 grnins (grs) f153 6gra1ll8 (g)

1 Juncc (llZ) 16 tJrll1ls (drm) 4375 grains (grs) 2835 grams (g) dram (drill) 2734 grHins (grs) 177 grams (g)

(1543 grains (grs) 10 gL1n1 (g) )

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Liquid Heaures (Ilritish alld Netd c )

1 quart 2 pints (pL) = 40 fluid oUllces (Floz) 1 136 1 it re (I) pint 20 fluid ounces (Fl nz) 568 millilitres (m1) fluid ounc~ (Floz)= B fluid drams (or d r c hills) 28lllml fluid drachm 60 minims 355ml

(1 minilll = 1 drop)

Temperature conv e rsion Fahrnheit to Celsius (Centigrade) (xoF - 32) x S = yOC

lt) Celsiu9 to Fahrenheit (yU C x 9) + 32 = xOF

5

APPlNlllX 6 Refrences and Funher Reading The following ia a short 1 ist uf publi c ations which readers will find

useful (or further informatiun 1 Jacobson C1 and Jacoblun R E (1976) Developing 18th Edit ion

Focal Press (see below) 2 Jacobson Cl a nd Hannheim LA (1975) Elllarging 22nd Edition Futal Press J Jacobson RE Ray SF Attridge GG and Axford NR (1978) Hanual of

Photography 7th Edition Focal Press I bull Langfo rd H J (1980) Advanced Photogl-aphy 4th Fdition Focal Press S Hason LFA_ ( 1975) Photographic Processing Chemistry 2nd Editioll Focil Press 6 Wat k ins D (19 78) The Focalguide to Coluur Film Processing Focal Press 7 Ilritish Journal of Photography Annual 1982 Henry Greenwood [ Co_ Ltd 28 Great

James Stn ~ t London WCl

The Focal Press Butterworth [ Co (Pllblishers) Ltd Ilorough Green Sevenoaks Kent TN15 flPH

Books 1 2 and] are all standard refere n c e w rks on photographic processing Ilook 4 is a ve r y useftl soutce of inforlUBtion on all aspe cts of photography but particularly on tone and colour reproduc t ion on sensitised materials The bouk by LFA_ Hasun (S) is es~ential [or those wishing to devise formulations of their own especially co loul formulations but the reader shoulJ have some chemical knowshyledge Book No 6 explains the principles o[ colour film processing and describegt th use of a variety of processing kits as well as providing Bubltitute formulae [or brew-it-yourself enthusiasts

The British Juurnal of Photography Annual (n is the traditiollal source of formulae fo r those wishing to mix up their own solut iOlls The formulae cover all aspects of both black and white and colour proc e ssing

NOTE The purpo se of this booklet is to stilllul te interest in the compounding of

photographi c processing solutiuns by tho se ph o t ographers wh o s e ek a greater undershystanding of the medium The ruatedal ill this buoklet is presented in good faith but because results are d e pe ndent on so many factors outside our control we cannot accept l iability for any processing [aults or inju~y to petsolls or property that might ari9 howsoever callsed Becaugte o f the subject ive nature of the medium it is the r e spons ibility of the user to Elac e rtain for himself the suitability of any [ormula or process in relation to hi8 mat e r ials e quipment and objectives Any suggestions from I a ders whi c h could be incorporated into foture editions o[ lhis booklet will be welcome _

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II c knuw l edgcmcnts

Til e author wOlld l ike to thank the f11 owing f o r pc n nisRiOll to us e m1terial for inclusion in this book let

Kod a k te for details of thfir formuln p (morw c hrome) ltlnd for addi t ional h e lpflll info rmati o n

IHo rd Ltd for permis~i on to reproduce their pllb lish e d formula e

Agfa- Ge v a ert Ltd for informat io n o n their p rod u c ts and pro c eRRinr

The Fo c al P If) 9S who publish a wiel e r ang e oC b oks u n plHtogl middot ~PY for permisAion t o US Ilel(cted m1terial [rom SOllI e of their puhlicltions (R ( e Appendix ()

~1r )( rek Watkins for pe rmissio n t o r e pr ud u c ( his slIbstitute 1-6 proc 1ing prn ee- dur( whi c h was first puhlished in the maga zine SLH Camer~

~h G W Crawley fditor of the Bri tish Journal of Photography for prmis9ion lltl rfprodllcE SOIll( of his FX sprifs -f d(vclop(rs

Th E ahv( prsons or organisnion9 (middot 1nnot Iccept 1ny liabil i t y arisin from the nprodnct inn of their lIIal([ial in Ihi hooklet

Writtfn by R C Potts ~fSc and publish e d hy PHOTO CHEMICAL SUPPliES 21 LODGE CLOSE

COWL EY MIDDLE SEX

UBB 2ES - 34 shy

No responsibility accepted for any formula or information contained in this document This is a scan of the original document

Use chemicals and formulae at your own risk Intended for personal and educational use only

Page 14: PCS Darkroom Formulary

st1ining particularly of lith materials after a hydroquinone-cauntic dcvclopcr

Table 6 Stop bath formulac

No 21 No 22 No 2) No 24 Acid Stop Buffered Stop Hardening Hardening

Sto~ Bath Stor Bath 2

Sodium Acctate )1l20 ))

Acetic acid (glaciat)(mt) 25 10 65

Chromium potassium sulphate 30 15

Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000

A few drops of stop hattgt indicator such as that obtainable from Photo Chemical Supplies lllay be added The indicator ch111ges from pale ycllow to blue 19 soon as the 11 rilles above 70 (neutral) Thc hardening baths (2) and 24) are sed after high temperature development Formulae 21 and 22 are also suitable stop baths for print processing

yrxrms

Fixation 15 necessary to remove the undeveloped silver halide from the ernU L ion lIardening agents may bc added to harden the emulsion Hardening is essential for films which have been reversal processed or processed at high temperatures and for bromide papers that arc going to be hot-glazed Typical fixers are shown in Table 7

Table 7 Fixllg [laths

No 25 No 26 No 27 No 28 Standard Buffered Buffered Buffered Acid Hypo Hardening Rapid Ilarden bullng Fix~r Hypo Fixer 7ixer Rapid Fixer

Sod i urn t h io 11 ]_--ptat-=e2-=anhtyd_ _ ~____-=-___________________160 150

(or Sodium thinsulphate cryst) (50) (240 )

Ammonium thiosulphate 175 200

Sodium sulphite anhyd 15 25 15

Sodium metabisulphite 25

Acetic acid glacial IS 10 15

Bodc acid 75 10 75

Potassium alum 15 15

Water to 1000 1000 1000 1000

All are used undiluted for films but may be diluted 1+1 for papers The buffered flxer~ havf a partiClllnrly long lifc and the buffered non-hardening rapid fixer (No 27) is recommended for plastic-coated papers such 1S 11fospeed

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REVERSlL PROCESSING OF Damp_ W FILM

Ileversl processing of black Ilnd white film yields positive transparencies with Il beautiful tonal gradation As with all reversal processes exposure and first development must be very carefully controlled beciluse density variatiolls cannot be compensated (or in printing The process involves the developmellt of Lile negative image (first developer) dissolving away the s i lvcr thus fOnilPU (bleach bath) clering and re-exposure to white light (reversal exposure) and develorshyment of the silver halide thus re-exposed (second development) The film is then fixed and washed in the normal way I t is the firs t deve lope r wh ich de termincs the quality of the final image It is usual to include a small quantity of silver halide solvent to brighten the highlights and sodiulll thiosullilate or sodiulll thiocyanate are usually used for this The subsequent processes are carried on more or less to completion so timing is not as critical as with the first developer In the fol~owiJlg procedure the first developer is retained antI used again [or the second dev e lopment

Rev r rsal processing solutions

No 29 Reversal developer (stock solution)

Netol 3g Sodium sulphite anhyd SOg lIydroquinone l2g Sodium carbonate anhyd 6()g Potassium bromide 4g Water to lOOOml

Dilution (stock + water) 1+1

To the diluted working strength developer add sodiulll thiosulphate at the following rale (gram~ per litre)

PAN F FP4 llPS Sodium thiosulphate anhyd 5 75 5 (a~ Sodium thiosulphat~

cryst) (8) (12) (8) AlternAtively a print deve l oper such as Dromophen may be used diluted 1+1 ith thiooulpilate dded as above

No 30 Blcach (two part stock solutions) SOLUTI ON A

Potassium permanganate 2g Water to SOOml

SOLUTION B Sulphuric acid 10 vv lOOml Water to SOOml These stock solutions will keep indefinitely but deteriorate rapidly when mixed

For use mix equal parts of A and D and discard after each film Potassium dichromate (lOg) may be used in place of the Potassium permanganate in Solution A

No 31 Clearing Bath

Sodium (or Potassium) metabisulphite 25g Water to 1000ml

Fixer ---The bleaching solution softens the emulsion and a hardening fixer must be used

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The hardening fixers given enrl ier laquo(onnube Nos 26 and 28) are ideal

Procedure 1 First developel 12 mins at 20

0 e for all llford films with an inversion every 15 seconds Keep the developer for use in the second development

2 Wnsh 3 mins with frequent changes 3 llicach 5 mins with strong continuous agitation Roarbull lights may be

switched on after two minutes in the bleach 4 I~n s h 2 mins with frequent chnnges 5 Clear 2 mins in the Clearing bath 6 Iash 2 mins with changes 7 Reversal exposure Re-expose ench cnd of the spiral for 2 mins at 12-18 inches

from a 100 watt bulb This is best done underwater in a clear gls9 bowl standing on a sheet of white paper Rotate the bulb or the spiral during re-exposure to ensure even illumination

8 Second developer Develop for 6-8 mins at 20 0 C in the developer solution retained from the first development Development time is not critical but should go to completion

9 Rin s e 10 Fix Fix in acid htrdening fixer for 10 mins (formula No 2cent ) or

4 mins (formula No 28) It Final 5h Wash for 30 mins and dryas usual

Modifying the Processed Negative Th e silver imJge obtained after development and fixation may be either l r censhy

sified or r educ ed TIlis is to compensate (or errors in exposure or dlvelopment or both

INTE~(UFICTION

The following for muLt has been select e d [rom the many published because i t is simple effective etsily controlled and yields a permanently enhllnced negative The basic chemicals are reasollably safe unlike the mercury and uranium intensifiers

No 32 Chromium Intensifier

STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium dichromate 12 5g lJnter to 200 ml

STOCK SO LUTION II Hydrochloric acid 10 vv (36 ww) 30ml ( o r I1ydrochloric acid 10 1 ww) (L Iml) (or Hydrochloric acid cone) (]ml) WJter to 200ml For use mi~ 1 part Solution A with 3 parts water and add 1 part rolution n

The negative should be properly fixed and well washed Old negatives should be sO kcd in water for a few minutes The negative is immersed in the intensifier [or 2-3 minutes until the image is (ully bleached (it turns a yellowy-brown colour) It is then washed well until the yellow stain is removed The intensified image is then re-developed after exposure to daylight (or a light bulb 1 minute each side at 18 inches) in l nOli-solvent type developer This may be a print developer or general purpose necative developer such as formtJl No3 or any universal j developer An advantage of thi s intensifier is that the whole proces8 may be repe a ted several times with an increase in intensification each time as the image

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is built up

~EDUCTrON

There are three classes of reducers which reduce the amount o[ silver in the negative in different ways

The subtraltive reducers remove silver from all parts o[ the illlagc (shadows and highlights) at about the salTle rate 50 that the contrast 15 incrcaBed This is uscful for Jver-euroxposed negatives which tend to be flat

The peoporti)lal reducers remove silver in proportion to the density so that the contrast grildient is maintained This type of reducer is suitable for those negatives which are too dense for easy printing through over-exposure ~ombined

with over-development The uper-proportional reducersattack the IllDvy silver depositll more than

[he lightly exposed parts leading to a reduction ill contrast and density Dense contrasty negltives are usually the result of over-development

No 33 Farmers Reducer (Subtractive)

STOCK SOLUTION A Sodium thiosulphate anhyd 32g (or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (SOg) Water to 500ml

STOCK SOLUTION B Potassium ferricyanide 109 Water to 100ml Immediately before use mix 15 p3rts A with 15 parts w(lter and ~dd 1 pa[t B

The process of reduction should be watched carefully and may be stoppcd at nny time by flooding wi th wn ter The ac t i vi ty 0 [ the reducer may be n 1te [cd by va ry ing the qunutity of Soltltion II added [ncrensing t he [crricyanidc increa ses the activity and vice versa The stock solutions keep indefinitely hut the working solution hu 3

short life

No 34 Permanganate - Persulphate Reducer (Proportional)

STOCK SOLUTION A Potassium permanganate 1 solution lZ 5ml Sulphuric acid 10 wlw 65ml Water to 500ml

STOCK SOLUTLON II Ammonium persulphate 25g Water to 1000mi Distilled water should be used to make up these solutions for use take one

part A two ports distilled water and two parts B A slower acting mixture is I part A 4 parts water and 1 part II and this may be easier to control A[ter reduction the action con be halted and the brown stain removed by immersing the negative in a 1-2 solution of sodium (or potnssiul1l) metabisulphite The negative should he thoroughly waMhed before being dried

No 35 Pelslliphate Reducer (Super-proportional) Ammonium persulphate 125g Sulphuric acid lOr ww 5m1 Distilled water to 500101

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The ne)a t i ve shou 1d be fu lly wn shed The leduc t ion mus t be wa tC1ed close ly as the rate varies ~idely with different emulsions nnd with some modern high speed ~mulsions it iR not effective ]t all to 12-157 solution of sodium Ilulphite anhyd can be Ilseu as ] s top bath Imd the negat ive is fi na lly given a good wash

BampW Print Processes [1) NI_I2EV~1QI2yRS

Print developers arc generally fairly contrasty compared to negative developers and of course it ig not necclisary or desirable to use fine grain or acutance techniqupound for prints The colour tone of the image is the main variable in print developers but the colour obtained will depend largely on the type of print paper (eg bromide chlorobromide or chloride)

Table 8 Standard Print Developers

No 36 No 37 No 38 No 39 D163 ID62 ID20 New

PQ Univ NQ Paper Winchester

~middotc to 1 22 3 35

Sodium sulphite anhyd 75 50 50 35

-lL(~ro(l~1 i WJlle 17 12 12 86

Socli11Tl -----shy

carbollate lt1nilyd 65 60 60 63

lhellidolle 05

Potassium bromide 28 2 4 l9

I3cn7otriazole 1 15-25 20 37

Wettinr agent 10 10 10 10

Wnter to 1000 1000 1000 1000

Dilution (stock + water) 1+3 1+3 1+3 1+2 Calgon may be added to all the above at the rate of 2g per litre If the ueveloper is uRed at less dilution development iR more rlpid The

benzotriClzole in these formulilc irnproves the brightness of highlights by reduc i ng fog and also shifts the colour of the illlage towards black or blue-black The New middotIinchester formula (No 39) is a universal paper delTeloper giving good black to nc s and is the basis of many commercially available print developers

Table 9 Warm-tone Print DClTelopers

No +O ~Jo 41

~Lltf01 I i nonc _________--25 ---8_ ___

Sodium Dulphite anhyd 60 60

Sad i IIll carboIlHe anhyd 90 90

~ycin 25

Potassium oronlidc 2

~ater to 1000 1000

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Dilution (Stock + water) 1+3 1+2 Time 2-3 mins 1-2~ mins

Formula No 41 has a warmer tone tllan No 40 but both arc best used on warm-tone papers

STQ- [lATHS FOR PR_INT~

The 1I0n-hilnlenlng stop blths given carlier (Nos 21 and 22) arc suitable f0 r prints as is a 47 solution oE sodium or potassium mctabisulphite (I~Oplitre) good economical stop bilth can be made up by adding 1 part stop batl (as above) to two parts old fixer and mixing up a fresh fixing bath When the stop batll shows exhaustion the stop bath ia discarded and the old fixer converted to the ncw st op bath This double use of fixing solution Lcally does prolong the life of the fl xer bath as a large part of the fixation takes place in the stop bath and the diluti on ensures that no staining occurs

PRINi FIXERS Any of the fixer formulae given earlier for negativcs will provide fix e rs

suitatle for papers (formulae 25-28) The rapid fixers have a much grentcr cJptc ity than the hypo filter s and formula 27 is especially recommended for plastic-coatcd pap~rs Prints on normal paper wh i ch a r c t o be hot-glazed should be fixed in 1

hardening fixer (formulae 26 or 28) Formula 25 is obviously the cheapest to ma ke up but the pll should be monitored and more metabisulphite added to restOt-e thc acidity when required All may be used diluted 1+1 It is advisable not to U 5C the some solution for fixing both films and pape rs even if the same formula is used but to keep film filter and paper fixer i n s eparate bottles

t~ID F9H PAPER PInNTsect The fibre base of normal printing pl pe rs retains acid chemicals from the fj xing

bath which are difficult to remove by -a s h ing alone If after a brief rine 11C

print is i~nersed in a 2-5 solution o f s od ium carbonate anhyd for 2-] minutes the subsequent nonnl wash ensures that all the hypo and hYPolilver camplexes a t c removed This alkaline bath should be used whenever any subsequent trcatmenl of the print such as toning is to be carried out

LYPO ELI~IN~TOB 11C following solution (formula No 42) serves to oxidise the thiosulphate t o

~ulphate which is then easily washed ou t o f the paper

~~_~po Elimin_ator

Hydrogen peroltide solution 3 (10 volume) 125ml or Hydrogen peroxide solution 6 (20 volume) 63mU Ammonia solution 0B80sg 10ml Hater to 1000ml immerse the prints in the above solution after a normill W8lh in running W (l ~ er

for about 5 minutes followed by a fu cthc r Hash of about 10 minute This hyposhyelimnator is made up of volatile compOIw nts so that there is_ no risk of elininllor salts remaining in the p1per-base after drying

PRINT TONING Prints may be toned a variety of colours and depending on subject can yielel very

pleasing results All prints must be tlloroughly washed prior to toning and old prints

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~lloliid be soaked ~n water for a few minute s to soften the emulsion

1) Sepia Toning Th follow(ng method yields perm1nlnt prints with a good brown tone In fact

prints treated in lhis way have greater permanence than untreated prints and the lmiddotLlwd is USLd ill 3rchival processinl The print is first bleached ill a ferri shyqnidcbroHiide bleach until the d3ri~est partH of the image tire a raint straw LU lour 1 t is lilen placed in the toner b3th 1111lt1 the sepia image quickly reappears

Nu (d FerricyanidcDromi de Bleach

Potassium [erricyanide 40g Potassium bromide 251 Jater to 1000mi Tllis stock solution is used undiluted and keeps well if stored in the dark or

ll a dnk bottle It may be re-used until exhausted h[ter bleaching the print 1~ washed well and trGnsferred to tbe following solution

Uu 44 Sepia Toning BGth -Thiolre1 109

Potassium bromide 40g Sodiul1i hydroxide 3-6g WJter to 1000mi The qu~n[ity of sodium hydroxide can be adjusted between the above limits to

yield the desired tone colour This toning bath is preferable to the traditional suJiul11 sulphide hath because of the unpiensant smell and properties of sodium sulphide solutions Thiourea and sod i um sulphide should not be used or stored in lilt dGrkroom or near sensitised materials

bJ lllie Toner This process does not re qruire a bleach stage but the print should be thoroughly

- s hed a[te1 fixation The process intell5ifies the image slightly so prints to bpshytOiled blue should be mnde a little lighter than they would otherwise be

Nu 45 Dlue Toning Bath

SOLUTION A

Potassium ferricyanide Ig Sulphuric acid 10 ww 30ml Wnter to 500ml

SUIUTION 13

Alliinonilim ferric citrate (green) Ig

Sulphuric acid 10 ww 30ml Water to 5001111 Mi elt[uGI parts hand B immediately before use The wet print is immersed

ulltil the desired tone is reached and then washed Excessive wnsh ing will ble a ch lliit the blue colour and just sufficient wash to remove the yellow tain should be lven This bleaching is largely eliminated if the print is lshed in water conshy[lining a l ittle acetic acid (51111 or less per litre)

c) Red TOiler Th~TtO~ing is il traditional red tOller using copper sulphate hglin no

b I each is llluircd

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No 46 Red TOllin~ Bath

SOLUTION A Cupric s~lphate (511 deg) 12 5g

2Sodium citrate 500g (or Potassium citrate) (55g) Water to SCOml

SOLUTION B Potassium ferricyanide 109 Sodium citrate 50 g (or Potassium citrate) (SSg) Water to SCOml Use equal volumes of II and B mixed just before use The image colour changes

through warm black then sepia to rea 2nd t he process can be halted at any stage by flushing with water The print is th~n wa s hed and dried normally

PRINT nEDUCERS Print reducers are generally used Eor the local reduction of dense parts of

iarge prints for generally brightening dense flat prints or for removing fiilvcr completely from unwanted areas Farmers Reducer (formula No 33) is the most commonly used print reducer and shoul d Df t sed s ufficiently diluted to allow control of the reduction proc ess Use scr 1p dn ts to de t e rmine the appropriate conditions ~len using Farmers Reducer wash the pr in t frequently in running water or permanent yellow staining may occur Farmers Reduc e r used very dilute is ideal for brightening dense flat prints It is a s ub t ractive reducer and gives bright highshylights a nd increased contrast

~len heavy deposits of silver have 0 igt e remov ed completely such as that cause1 by pinholes in line nega t i ves Fa nna r s Reduce r is not su i tab Ie because of the possibility of staining The followin g formula (No 47) is an iodine re ducer which i9 very effect i ve at removing dense silver

No 47 Iodine Reduce r

Potas sium iodide 1Sg Iodine crystals 05g Water to lOOml This reducer is applied to the mOl s t lot ~et) print with a swab or brush and

the resulting brown Btain is easily r emove d in a 15 solution of sodium thiosulphate Illlhyd (or 25 sodium thiosulphate cryst ) after a rinse in water The print should then be thoroughly rinsed

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Colour Processing Besides offering real economy brew-it-yourself colour processing is v~ry

satisfying and can yield results superior to those offered by ln3ny commercial proshycfSSinl~ houses All that is required ilre careful working methods and atttntion to dltlails Tlte Icrwrill instruction relating to monochrome proc(ssin~ should be r~d in conjunction with thcse notes on colour processing It should be emphasised that the formulae given in this section are not those of the film manufacturers who do not publish their formulae but have been worked out to yield results comparable with the manufacturers recommended processing

Time and Temperature Cololl~ ma-terials are not as flexible as black and white materials with regard

to development conditions since wide deviation from the recommended development can yield shifts in colour balrnce ohich lQay be impossible to correct in printing With reversal materials in particular exposure must be accurate and the time and temperature of the first development is crucial as thi largely determines the quality of the ftnal transparency In the C(j process the processing temperature is rather high (3a

oC) bllt this must be maintained at least for the first dtvelopment There is

slightly more leeway ~Iith the other st~ges but these should b~ kept within the limite shown The sallie applies with colour development of negative materials and again the processing tenrperature of the C41 procefiS is high (also JaoC) The times given in the formulae include 10-15 seconds to uHo~ for draining the tank

H~king up the Solutions As wi th all the - formulae in this bookl e t the chemicals should be dissolved in

tire order given Some of the colour dev e lo p ing agents while extremely solub i I wa te r tend to separn te out in the a 1 k a 1 ine J eve loper sol ut ions Ita aov isab le to dissolve the colour developing agen t to gether with the hydroxylamine (hydro shycldoride or sulphnte) where p r e sent se pa r a te ly i n part of th e total volume of water alld add this slowly 0 th e rerna mJer o f the solution some time before use rile hydroxylamine acts as an antioxidant and is required because the sulphite conshyclntrltion hCls eO be low Hydroxylamine is rapidly decomposed in alkaline solutions ill the pr se nce of sequestering agents of the EDTA type so Cnlgon should be used i n h~rd water ~~ r e s rather than EDTA

V~QCESliING G9J~QI1lLill=VERSAL FILMs_U0R COLOUR SLIDES) There are at present two princiPlll systems for colour reversal film prGcessing

(excluding Kodachrome) The first is the ~g fachrome 41 process covering all Agfa r-tJVersal fi 1m (except Igfachrotnc [(IOOS Profe ssional - proce Sl E6) olhether sold process paid or not Thepound are few if any other makes o f [i Tm available in Britain ohich use this process The second ir the Kodak Ektachrome E6 process hich covers IllOSt of the rCIllining colour n~versal films There are a few filns Idlich ltIre still made for outdated process es sLlch as ORWO f i l ms ohich are proc e s sed by an old Igf~ process Rnd some specillised Ko d ak films suc h as Ektachrome In f rared Film find Photomicrography Color Film 248J which are processed by the old E-4 process There may still be a [ew films from independent manufacturers designed for the old E ~ process

Kodak Kod~lchlome films are sold process paid and user processing is not feasible

Keversal Exposures - Reversal film mUfit be given a fogging exposure to light (Where chemical fegging is not used) after the first development Because the emulsion is very much less sensitive at this stage than normal film this exposure mtlst be rather intense It

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is best to remove the film from the spinl and SCC-SDW it through plain wter below a Photo flood lamp Ilowever a wet delicate film is difficult to reload into the spi ra 1 (bes t done under lola ter) and it is cas icr to leave the film in thc 5 pi ra 1 nlld extend the exposure time With clear spira ls thc exrosure time should be at lea~t

doubled and with the translucent nylon spira l s the exposure should be increased 5-10 fold When the film is not removed for the exposure place the spiral in a white 001011 of water (or a clear glass bowl on J wl ite surface) and place the lamp above it During the exposure of each end of the s pir a l the lamp or bowl should be moved about so that the exposure is more even Watc r and cl~ctricity dont mix so care is needed and a hot photoflood lamp will burst if s plashed Dont skimp on th e reversal exposhysure - it is easy to underexpose but dif f ic ul t to overexpose For the Ektachrome E-6 p r-ocess a reversa l bath which chemi c3 1y fogs tile film making the reversal exposure unnecessary i s available from Pb c to Chemical Supplies

The Agfachrome 41 Proce ss Suitablc for all Agfa Reversal poundll ns (except Agfachrorne RIOOS Professional

available in 120 size and sheet film only)

formul ~ e - Agfachrome 41 No 48 First Developer

Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g middot1e to 1 3g Sodium sulphite anhyd SOg Hydroquinone 6g Sodium carbonate anhyd 40g Potassium thiocyanate 25g Potassium bromide 2g otassium iodide 0 1 Solution 6ml wate to 1000111

No 49 Stop Bath

Ac etic acid glac iol 101 Sodium acetate (3H 0) lO g

2Water to 10001111

No 50 Colour Developer PART I

Sodium sulphit e anhyd 3 5g Hydroxylamine hydrochloride I t Potassium bromide 19 Colour Developing Agent see below Ethylenediamine (50 vv Soln) 16ml (or 2-phenylethylamine) (3ml) -later to 300ml

PART BI Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g S~dium carbonate anhyd 62g Water to 500ml

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c) lour iPVf loping age nts [0[ Part lI

Colour Dev e loper 1 (sulphate) 28g or Colour l)eve l o pe r I (chloIide) ( CIH) 22g or Cenochrollc 2 5g or Dtoxych rome 3 2g

lOOt usc add ParL II slowly to Part D with tirring and make up to a total volume o f 10U0Il1I

No 51 [leach ~-----Po tas s ium-[e rr i CY[lnidc 80g

Potassium bromide 30g Sodium acetate (J1l 0) 50g2lor ic Jeid 5g Potnssiwa nll11 30g Water to 10001111

Ngt 52 Fixcr ---S-oJI~-tTiosu I ph a te anhyd l25g

(or Sodium thiosulphate cryst) (200g) Sodiul1l s ulphi te lnhyd lag Imiddotlater to 1000ml

Th pit of this fixer is approximately neutral Do not use an acid fixer because it Jill blcnch th e dyes

Nu 53 Stnbiliser - --- We t ti~g agelt - Im1

Forlllaide hyde 0 5ml I-Jte r to IOOOml

~ (lCeslng Procedure lIrfachrome 41

At 20 0 C (minutes) At 24degC (minutes )

1 First Developer 18 - zr-----shy lJ-l~ (z00-O 50C) (2l 0 -02SoC)

2 Rin sc ~ 3 St op bath 4 3 4 1[151 10 7 S Reve r sni Exposure See be l~w 6 Colour developer 14 (20 0 -0SoC) 11 (z4 0 02SoC) 7 - 1 5 h 20 14 8 Ill eac ll 9 I-[lsh 5 4 lll Fix 5 4 ll Wash 10 7 12 Stabil iser 1 1 1] Dry (30 D

e) mox

One minute each side with film r emo ved from spiral 2 minuteR each end rf clear sl c rlll lid 5-10 minutes ench end of ttanslucent nylon spirill frolll a No2 Photoflood a l I lie t re () f le t)

Thp t Cll peratllre during the Lwo developme nt stages should be maintained within til limits shown For other stages tlte t e lllperature may range from 17-20lC or 21 - 2llC The third wash (Htole n iu raLh e r long and it is important that it is llt lL shorted In soft watcr ilHilS this lung wallh nwy c ause the clUulsion to slocll Su un int e l-mediate bilth of 5 minutes immediately J(tcr the colour developer can be given to prevent excessive swelling This is a 2 solution of either sodium

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sulphate or magnesium sulphate (Glaubers salts or Epsom Salts) If the intermediate bath is used the third wash may be shortened by 5 minutes In the two developer baths agitation should be continuous for the first 30 seconds followed by two invershysions every half minute for the rest of the period

As usual it is the developer solutio 1~ which deteriorate first The remalnlng solutions (stop hath bleach and fixer ) have double the capacity of tIle two developers Ea ch litre of developer should process 6-8 films but the development timcs should be extended by 30 seconds at 20degC (or 20 5cco~ds at 24 o

C) after the first two films anQ after each subsequent two films hi applies to both the first and colour deve lo pers

rne Ektachrome E-6 Pro ess 1 am indebted to Mr Derek Wa tkl 9 r0~ permission to reproduce this formula

wh i ch first appe1red in the March 198 1 i sgt lc of the magazine SLR Camera (Haymnket Publi t hing Ltd 38-42 Hampton Road TCd ingcon Middlcsex)

There are a lot of films from man n~rUl facturers sold under a wide variety of brand names which are compatible with the E-6 process Even Agfa make an E-6 compatible film (Agfachrome RIOOS Professional)

FormuL ae - E-6 i-lo-54---first Deve 1upe r

Sodium 6exametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g Sodium sulphite anhyd J9g Potassium carbonate anhyd 14g Sodium bicarbonate 12g Phen i done O 6g Itydroluinone 6g Sodium bromide 22g Sodium thiocyanate Ig Sodium hydroxide 33g Pot~asium iodide (01 50ln) 45ml Water to 1000m~ pH 9 6-005

No 5~ Stop Bath 1 ------S0dium acetate anhyd 30g

(or Sodium acetate 320) (50g) Acetic acid glacial 6ml Water to 1000m~ pit 55-02

No 56 Colour Develoger Sodium hexametaphosphate (Calgon) 2g tri-50dium orthophosphate 1220 36g Sodium hydroxide 3g Sodium sul~