adpc _ myanmar community based disaster risk management manual - november 2009 _ burmese

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  • vufpGJpmtkyfonf

    &yf&GmtajcjyK ab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcG Ja&;twGuf avhusifhxm;aom &yf&GmrSapwemh0efxrf;rsm;?

    &yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcG Ja&;udk vufawGUusifhoHk;aqmif&Gufolrsm;?

    uRrf;usifynm&Sifrsm;twGuf &nf&G,fygonf/

  • Oa,smZOf

    2008 ckESpfwGif jrefrmEkdifiHodkU 0ifa&mufwdkufcdkufcJhaom em*pfrkefwdkif;onf jrefrmEkdifiHordkif;wGif

    tqdk;Gm;qHk;obm0ab;qdk; jzpfcJhonf/ xkdtjzpftysufonf obm0tE&m,fwdkUrS vlwdkUtm;'ku

    tBuD;rm;qHk;ay;EkdifaMumif;udk azmfjyaeayonf/ xkdUtjyif if;tjzpftysufonf ab;tE&m,fwdkUtm;BudKwif

    umuG,f&efESifhab;tE&m,f jzpfEkdifonfh taMumif;w&m;wdkUudk avQmhcs&eftwGuf aus;GmtqifhrS

    pwifvkyfaqmif&ef vdktyfaMumif;udkrD;armif;xdk;jyaeayonf/

    ordkif;tpOftvmt& jrefrmEkdifiHwGif rkefwdkif;'Pf? a&vTrf;rdk;rI? rdk;acgifrI? qlemrD ESifh rD;ab;tE&m,f

    wdkUusa&mufEkdifacsSdayonf/ em*pfrkefwdkif;\ oifcef;pmaMumifh jrefrmEkdifiHtwGif; obm0ab;tE&m,f

    avQmhcsa&;vkyfief;rsm;vkyfaqmif&eff tcGifhtvrf;rsm;yGifhvmonf/

    rnfonfhobm0ab;tE&m,fwGifrqdk? yxrqHk;wkefYjyefaqmifGufolrsm;rSmjynfol vlxkyifjzpfonf/

    jynfolvlxkonf olwdkUwwfEdkifoaGUenf;vrf;rsm;jzifh obm0ab;tE&m,fusa&mufNyD; yxrem&Dydkif;

    twGif;wkefUjyefEkdifMuonf/ xdkUaMumifh jynfolvlxk tajcjyK obm0ab;tE&m,f BudKwifumuG,fa&;onf

    rnfonfhobm0 ab;tE&m,favQmhcsa&;pDrHudef;wGifrqdk t"dutcef;[email protected] yg0ifayonf/ jynfolvlxk

    onf olwdkUaexdkif&ma'o\ yx0Dtaetxm;? ab;uif;&maSmifwdef;onfhvrf;aMumif;? rdrd\ tm;omcsuf?

    tm;enf;csufwdkUudk odSdem;vnf&efvdkayonf/ odkUrSom jynfolvlxk taejzifh obm0ab;tE&m,fwdkUukd

    xda&mufpGm &ifqdkifajzSif;Ekdifayrnf/ xdkodkUjzpfay: vmap&ef jynfolvlxkonf obm0ab;tE&m,favQmhcs

    umuG,fa&;vkyfief;pOfrsm;wGif wuf

  • vufpJGpmtkyfonf e,fy,ftrsdK;rsdK;Sd obm0ab;tE&m,f avQmhcsa&; wm0ef xrf;aqmifaeonfh

    yk*dKvfrsm;? jynfolvlxkrsm;ESifh oufqdkif&m tzJGUtpnf;trsdK;rsdK; wdkUtwGuf obm0ab;tE&m,f'PfwdkUudk

    atmifjrifpGm &ifqdkifEdkifvmap&efESifh ab;tE&m,fuif;vGwfonfh tem*wfudk wnfaqmufvmEdkifap&ef

    vrf;Tefay;Edkifvdrfh rnf[k,HkMunfarQmfvifhygonf/

    bDId;bD? yg&m*sKvD

    Bishow B. ParajuliXmeudk,fpm;vS,f

    ,ltef'DyD (jrefrm)

  • rmwdum

    tcef; 1 &yf&GmtajcjyK ab;tE&m,f pDrHcefUcGJa&; - rdwfqufed'gef;

    1-1 1-2 &yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&;

    &yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&;qdkonfrSm 1

    aqmif&Guf&eftb,faMumifhvdktyfoenf; 1

    udk rnfodkUaqmif&Gufrnfenf; 2

    CBDRM vkyfief;pOfrS ay:xGufvmrnfh&v'frsm;

    ]jrefrmh&yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefYcGJrIvufpGJpmtkyf} rdwfquf

    1-3 &yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&;1-4 CBDRM onf rnfolwdkUESifh oufqdkifyg oenf; 3 1-5 4 1-6 vufpGJpmtkyf\ &nf&G,fcsuf 5 1-7 5

    tcef; 2 vkyfief;tqifh(1) - &yf&Gma&G;cs,fjcif;

    2-1 7 2-2 &yfGmudk rnfodkY a&G;cs,f&rn 7

    &yf&Gma&G;cs,f&ef bmaMumifhvdktyfovJ

    fenf;

    tcef; 3 kyfief;tqifh(2) - cifrifrIwnfaqmufjcif;ESifh &yf&Gmudkem;vnf oabmaygufjcif;

    3-1 cifrifrIwnfaqmufjcif; tb,faMumifh vdktyfygoenf; qmufrnfenf; 9

    &yfGmtay: em;vnfatmif rnfodkY aqmif&Gufrnfenf;

    v9

    3-2 &yf&GmESifhcifrifrIudk rnfodkY wnfa3-3 10

    tcef; 4vkyfief;tqifh(3) - yg0ifaqmif&Gufaoma

    b;tE&m,ftuJjzwfjcif; (PDRA)

    -1 PDRA \t,ltq? oabmw&m; rlabmif 13 4-2 PDRA yHkpH

    2

    PDRA udkrnfodkUaqmif&Gufrnfenf;...tqifhcGJ4rS5txdenf;vrf;rsm; 34 rf;rsm;

    4

    15

    4-3 PDRA udkrnfodkUaqmif&Gufrnfenf;...tqifhcGJ1rS3txdenf;vrf;rsm; 24-4 4-5 PDRA udkrnfodkUaqmif&Gufrnfenf;...tqifhcGJ6enf;v 36

  • 4-6 37 4-7 PDRA twGufBudKwifjyifqifjcif; 39

    CVA rlabmifudktoHk;jyK tcsuftvufpkpnf;jcif;

    yg0ifaqmif&Gufaomab;tE&m,ftuJjzwfcsuf tkyfpkrsm; 4-8 42

    tcef; 5 vkyfief;tqifh(4) - yg0ifaqmif&Gufaom ab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrI tpDtpOf a&

    47

    yg0ifaqmif&Gufaomab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrItpDtpOfa&;qGJjcif;udk

    &yf&Gmab;tE&m,f pDrHcefUcGJrItpDtpOf a&;qGJjcif;wGif yg0ifaom

    &mrsm;

    ;qGJjcif; 5-1 yg0ifaqmif&Gufaomab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrItpDtpOfa&;qGJjcif;qdkonfrSm 5-2

    rnfokdU aqmif&Gufrnfenf; 47

    5-3 taMumif;t 50

    tcef; 6

    vkyfieoifwef;ay;jcif;

    f;tqifh(5) - &yf&Gmab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&;tpktzGJUwnfaxmifjcif;ESifh avhusifh

    &yf&Gmab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&;tpktzGJUwnfaxmifjcif;ESifh

    DMC zGJUpnf;wnfaxmifjcif; vkyfief;tqifhrsm;

    DMC \rlrsm;

    6-1 avhusifhoifwef;ay;jcif;qdkonfrSm 52

    6-2 52 6-3 DMC \vkyfief;wm0efrsm; 53 6-4 55 6-5 DMC ESifh htzGJYrsm;\ pGrf;aqmif&nfwnfaqmufjcif; 56

    tcef; 7 kyfief;tqifh(6) - &yf&Gmvlxkudk,fwdkif; pDrHcefUcGJtaumiftxnfazmfjcif;

    7-1 taumiftxnfazmfa&; vkyfief;wm0efrsm;ESifh vkyfief;pOfrsm;

    yg0ifaqmif&GufaomjyefvnfoHk;oyfjcif; vkyfaqmifyHk

    v59

    7-2 t&if;tjrpfEId;aqmf&mwGif rnfodkU ulnDyHhydk;rnfenf; ... 62 7-3 64 7-4 vsmxm;csufrsm; odkUr[kwf pDrHcsufrsm;udk jyifqifyHk 64

  • tcef; 8&yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&;\ t"dutpdwftydkif;rsm; t"duta&;ygaom CBDRM tpdwftydkif;rsm;ESifh oufqkdif&m

    Tefjycsufrsm; 67

    aemufqufwGJrsm;

    1 yg0ifaqmif&Gufaomaus;vufa'o\tuJjzwfcsuf(Participatory Rural Appraisal-PRA) udk tusOf;tm;jzifh jcHKiHkazmfjyjcif;

    nfh

    yg0ifaqmif&GufaomapmifhMunfhppfaq;jcif;ESifh tuJjzwfoHk;oyfjcif; tion - PME 76

    jrefrmEdkifiHtwGufab;&efrsm;azmfjycsuf 85

    72

    2 &yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&;pDrHudef;wGif yg0ifotaMumift&mrsm; 74

    3 Participatory Monitoring and Evalua

    4 5 t"dyg,fazmfjycsufrsm;ESifh toHk;tEIef;rsm; 91

  • &yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrIvufpGJpmtkyf

    pmrsufESm 1

    yHk 1 CBDRM oifwef;ay;aepOf

    tcef; 1 &yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&; - rdwfqufed'gef;

    1-1 &yfGmtajcjyK ab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcG Ja&;qdkonfrSm .... &yfGmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&; (Community Based Disaster Risk Management - CBDRM) onf ab;tE&m,fMuHKawGU&Edkifaom &yfGmvlxktaejzifh ab;tE&m,frsm;udkazmfxkwfjcif;? qef;ppfavhvmjcif;? udkifwG,fajzSif;jcif;? apmifhMunfh ppfaq;jcif;? tuJjzwfoHk;oyfjcif; wdkUwGif wuf

  • jrefrmh&yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrIvufpGJpmtkyf

    pmrsufESm 2

    CBDRM onf a'ocH&yf&Gmvlxkrsm;omru &yf&GmjyifyrSyk*dKvf (tzGJYtpnf;) rsm;udkyifpGrf;tm;pkrsm;csJUxGif&ef pkpnf;apEdkifygonf/

    &yf&Gmvlxkonf ab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&;vkyfief;pOftwGuf t"duta&;ygol rsm;jzpfouJhodkY if;vkyfief;pOf\ tusdK;aus;Zl;udk &,lcHpm;&rnfholrsm;jzpfaom aMumifh CBDRMudk aqmif&Gufjcif;onf a&&SnfwnfwhH&ef vdktyfygonf/

    jynfolvlxk\ pGrf;aqmif&nfESifh pGrf;tm;pkrsm;udk jrifhwif&efESifh if;wdkU\ tE&m,fusa&mufvG,frIudk avsmhyg;ap&ef tav;xm; vkyfaqmifoifhygonf/

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    1-3 &yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcG Ja&;udkrnfodk Yaqmif&Gufrnfenf; ....

    CBDRM vkyfief;pOfwGif &yfGm\ ab;tE&m,ffMuHKawGUEkdifrIudk jynfhpHkpGm tuJjzwf jcif;? if;wdkU\ tE&m,fusa&mufvG,frIrsm;ESifh pGrf;aqmif&nfrsm;udk qef;ppfavhvmjcif; wdkUonf ab;tE&m,frsm;avsmhyg;apa&;vkyfief;aqmifGufrIrsm;\ tajccH jzpfygonf/ &yfGmonf tuJjzwfjcif;? tpD tpOfa&;qGJjcif;ESifh taumif txnfazmfjcif;vkyfief;pOfwGif yg0ifoifhygonf/ csOf;uyfyHk twkdif;aqmifGufjcif;jzifh &yfGm \ ppfrSefaom vdktyfcsufrsm; ESifht&if;tjrpfrsm;udk xnfhoGif; pOf;pm;Edkifygrnf/ vkyfief;pOf udk usifhoHk;jcif;jzifh jyemrsm; udk oifhavsmfaom Mum;0if aqmifGufrIrsm;jyKvkyf ajzSif; ay;Ekdifrnfh tvm;tvm ydkrdk rsm;jym;ygonf/

    CBDRMvkyfief;pOfwGif tqifhqifh vkyfaqmif&rnfh vkyfief; (6)&yf yg0ifygonf/ ab;tE&m,frjzpfrD aqmifGufEdkifouJhodkU ab;tE&m,f jzpfyGm;NyD;csdefwGifvnf; aemiftcgab;tE&m,fusa&mufrIavsmhenf;ap&efaqmifGufEdkifygonf/ vkyfief;tqifh wpfqifhpDrSm ,cifvkyfief;tqifhtay:wGif qufvufaqmifGuf&efjzpfNyD; aemufxyf aqmifGuf&rnfh vkyfief;pOfodkU OD;wnfoGm;ygonf/ ,if;vkyfief;pOfrsm;tm;vHk;udk

    yH k 2 CBDRM pDrHudef;a&;qGJa&;aqmif&GufaepOf

  • jrefrmh&yf&GmtajcjyKab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrIvufpGJpmtkyf

    pmrsufESm 3

    yH k3 &yfGmrS CBDRM wGifyg0ifywfoufol (jyifyrS yk* d Kvfrsm;ESif ha'ocHrsm;)

    aygif;pnf;vdkufaomtcg tpDtpOfa&;qGJa&;ESifh taumiftxnfazmfa&;pepfwpf&yfudk &SdNyD; tm;aumif;aom ab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&; enf;vrf;ud&d,mwpf&yf jzpfvmEkdif ygrnf/ ab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&;vkyfief;pOfwGifyg0ifonfhvkyfief;tqifh (6)&yfudk atmufwGif azmfjyxm;ygonf-

    vkyfief;tqifh(1) &yfGmaG;cs,fjcif; vkyfief;tqifh(2) cifrifrIwnfaqmufjcif;ESifh&yfGmudkem;vnfoabmaygufjcif; vkyfief;tqifh(3) yg0ifaqmifGufaomab;tE&m,ftuJjzwfcsuf

    (Participatory Disaster Risk Assessment - PDRA) vkyfief;tqifh(4) yg0ifaqmifGufaomab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrItpDtpOfa&;qGJ

    jcif;/ vkyfief;tqifh(5) ab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJrIaumfrwD (Disaster Management

    Committee-DMC) zGJYpnf;jcif;ESihf avhusifhoifwef;ay;jcif; vkyfief;tqifh(6) &yfGmvlxkudk,fwdkif pDrHcefUcGJtaumiftxnfazmfjcif;

    1-4 CBDRM onf rnfolwdkUESif houfqdkifygoenf; .... &yfGmtajcjyK ab;tE&m,fpDrHcefUcGJa&; vkyfief;pOfwGif