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ModelSim Evolution 2014v3.0- Center for Connected Learning at Northwestern University Student Data Packet Case Study #3 – Data Packet 1 Case Study 3 – Data Packet Gray Wolves Canis lupas - (not including domestic dogs) Photos Physical Traits Weight: 22-170 lbs. Height: 26-38 in. to shoulder. Length 34-84 in. nose to tail tip. 5 toes Dentition: Teeth of wolves are proportionately larger than those of domestic dogs Compared to equally sized dogs, wolves tend to have 20% larger skulls and 10% bigger brains. This reduction lies in the parts of the brain that deal with sense impressions. Coat thickness ranges from thin to thick depending on sub- species. Coat color varies according to sub-species as well, from mottled gray in color, to nearly pure white, red, tan/yellow, brown to black. Hunting Behavior: Some sub-specie are solitary, others form large packs. Highly territorial (tend to spend 50% of their time in the core of their territory which is 14 sq. mi on average) Chromosome Number 2n=78 Food sources Small, medium-sized prey (e.g. hares, foxes, squirrels, mice, other rodents). Large prey that is vulnerable to pack hunting (e.g. Moose, elk, deer). Waterfowl and their eggs and amphibians. Reproductive Behavior Generally monogamous – take only one mate for life. The mating season usually ranges from February to April. Domestic dogs tend to breed three months earlier; hybrid wolf- dog offspring tend to be born earlier in the winter period, thus lessening their chances of survival. Gestations lasts 62 to 75 days Pups born in spring to summer corresponding to peak prey populations. A litter typically has 5 to 6 pups, each weighing about 300-500 g (0.7 to 1.1 lb.). All sub-species of Canis lupas can interbreed with each other. All domestic dogs can interbreed wolves, but occurances of this are rare. Habitat Most of the Northern hemisphere ecosystems, except for some. See sub- species case studies #2 or range map below. Range Red = Extripated Green = Present Range Red + Green = Historical Range

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  • ModelSim Evolution 2014v3.0- Center for Connected Learning at Northwestern University Student Data Packet    

                        Case Study #3 – Data Packet  1  

    Case Study 3 – Data Packet

    Gray Wolves Canis lupas - (not including domestic dogs) Photos

    Physical Traits • Weight: 22-170 lbs. • Height: 26-38 in. to shoulder. • Length 34-84 in. nose to tail tip. • 5 toes • Dentition: Teeth of wolves are

    proportionately larger than those of domestic dogs

    • Compared to equally sized dogs, wolves tend to have 20% larger skulls and 10% bigger brains. This reduction lies in the parts of the brain that deal with sense impressions.

    • Coat thickness ranges from thin to thick depending on sub-species.

    • Coat color varies according to sub-species as well, from mottled gray in color, to nearly pure white, red, tan/yellow, brown to black.

    Hunting Behavior: • Some sub-specie are solitary,

    others form large packs. • Highly territorial (tend to spend

    50% of their time in the core of their territory which is 14 sq. mi on average)

    Chromosome Number

    • 2n=78

    Food sources • Small, medium-sized prey (e.g. hares,

    foxes, squirrels, mice, other rodents). • Large prey that is vulnerable to pack

    hunting (e.g. Moose, elk, deer). • Waterfowl and their eggs and

    amphibians. Reproductive Behavior • Generally monogamous – take only one

    mate for life. • The mating season usually ranges from

    February to April. Domestic dogs tend to breed three months earlier; hybrid wolf-dog offspring tend to be born earlier in the winter period, thus lessening their chances of survival.

    • Gestations lasts 62 to 75 days • Pups born in spring to summer

    corresponding to peak prey populations. • A litter typically has 5 to 6 pups, each

    weighing about 300-500 g (0.7 to 1.1 lb.). • All sub-species of Canis lupas can

    interbreed with each other. All domestic dogs can interbreed wolves, but occurances of this are rare.

    Habitat • Most of the Northern hemisphere

    ecosystems, except for some. See sub-species case studies #2 or range map below.

    Range Red = Extripated Green = Present Range Red + Green = Historical Range

     

  • ModelSim Evolution 2014v3.0- Center for Connected Learning at Northwestern University Student Data Packet    

                        Case Study #3 – Data Packet  2  

    Case Study 3 – Data Packet

    Maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus Photos

    Physical Traits • Weight: 44-51 lbs. • Height: 26-42 in. to shoulder. • Length: 60-67 in. nose to tail tip. • 5 toes • Dentition: Its upper shearing teeth

    are small and incisors are week compared to gray wolves (Canis lupas).

    • Coat color comes in brown to golden orange with long black legs and black mane. Coat is also marked with whitish tuft at the tip of the tail and white beneath the throat

    • Distinctive odor, earning it the nickname “skunk wolf”

    Hunting Behavior: • Does not form packs. • Hunts alone between sundown and

    midnight. • Both males and females use their

    urine to mark their hunting paths or where they have buried hunted prey.

    • It stalks and pounces in a foxlike manner upon its animal prey.

    Chromosome Number • 2n=76

    Food sources • A large fraction of its diet (over 50%)

    is vegetable matter, including sugarcane, tubers, and fruit.

    • Small and medium-sized prey, including small mammals (typically rodents and rabbits), birds and even fish.

    • Does not kill or eat large prey. Reproductive Behavior • Monogamous – take only one mate

    for life; • Mates seldom meet outside of

    mating time. • The mating season ranges from

    November to April. • Gestations lasts 60 to 65 days • A litter may have from 2 to 6 black-

    furred pups, each weighing about 450 g (1lb.).

    • These pups are fully grown in about one year. During that year, the pups are known to rely on their parents for food.

    • Never observed to interbreed with Canis lupas and produce offspring.

    Habitat • Grasslands, savanna, dry shrub forest,

    swampy areas, and forest-edge and river habitat.

    • Prefer areas with low to medium shrub density.

    Current Range

  • ModelSim Evolution 2014v3.0- Center for Connected Learning at Northwestern University Student Data Packet    

                        Case Study #3 – Data Packet  3  

    Case Study 3 – Data Packet

    Coyote Canis latrans Photos

    Physical Traits • Weight: 15-46 lbs. • Height: 23-26 in. to shoulder. • Length: 42-50 in. from nose to tail tip. • 5 toes • Feet are relatively small in relation to

    the rest of the body. • Northern sub-species are typically

    larger than southern species. • Pelt varies from grayish-brown to

    yellowish-grey on the upper parts, while the throat and belly tend to have a buff or white color. The forelegs, size of the head, muzzle and paws are reddish-brown. Mountain-dwelling coyotes tend to be dark-furred, while desert coyotes tend to be more light brown in color.

    • Ears are proportionately large in relation to the head than wolves.

    • Similar to domestic dogs: higher density of sweat glands on their paw pads than wolves

    Hunting Behavior: • Primarily hunt in pairs, more rarely

    hunt in packs • Historically hunted in both night and

    day, but more recently have adapted to become night hunters due to selective pressure from humans.

    • Hunt in territories up to 600 mi2. • Travel along fixed trails. Chromosome Number

    • 2n=78

    Food sources • They eat small mammals, depending

    on the region in which it lives such as voles, squirrels, javelin, mice, birds, snakes, lizards, insects, and any species of bird that nests on the ground.

    • Can hunt medium sized mammals, when hunting in packs (e.g. deer, antelope)

    • They will eat carrion, but tend to prefer fresh meat.

    • Fruits and vegetables can form a significant part of the coyote's diet in the summer and autumn.

    Reproductive Behavior • Monogamous – take only one mate

    for life; • The mating season is between late

    January and early March. • Gestations lasts 60 to 80 days • A litter may have from 1 to 19 pups

    average is 6), each weighing about 250 g (0.55 lb.).

    • Coyote pairs will adopt the pup or pups of another pair if the original parents dies or for some reason separated form them.

    • Coyote pup growth rate is faster than that of wolves.

    • Coyotes will sometimes mate with domestic dogs or wild wolves. These offspring are referred to as coydogs or coywolfs.

    Habitat • They thrive in grassland, but they can also

    live well in forest, on mountains, and in artic regions.

    • In areas where wolves have been exterminated, coyotes usually flourish.

    • Coyotes appear better suited than wolves to live among areas where people are settled

    Present Range

  • ModelSim Evolution 2014v3.0- Center for Connected Learning at Northwestern University Student Data Packet    

                        Case Study #3 – Data Packet  4  

    Case Study 3 – Data Packet

    African wild dog Lcycaon pictus Photos

    Physical Traits • Weight: 40-60 lbs. • Length: 42-56 inches from nose to

    tip of tail. • Height: 24-30 inches to the

    shoulder. • 4 toes • Their coats are mottled and spotted in

    shades of brown, black and beige. • They have large, rounded ears and

    dark brown circles around their eyes

    Hunting Behavior: • Hunts cooperatively in packs of

    related females, males, and pups. • Typically 6-20 in a pack. • Rests during the day and hunts

    primarily in early morning and evening.

    • Does not show aggression toward other pack members during hunting and feeding.

    • Historical, more than 100 dogs gathered in packs during spring migrations.

    • Home range were historically as large as 200 mi2, but now often restricted to around 75mi2.

    Chromosome Number

    • 2n=78

    Food sources • Primarily large animals: Antelope,

    zebras, impala, kudu, dulker, gazelle, and wildebeest.

    Reproductive Behavior • Monogamous – take only one mate

    for life; • New packs are formed when groups

    of sisters or brothers emigrate together and join opposite-sex groups.

    • The mating season peaks between March and June, but can mate any time of year.

    • Gestations lasts 60 to 80 days • A litter may have from 2 to 21 pups

    6-9 is most common), each weighing about 450 g (1lb.).

    • Never observed to interbreed with Canis lupas and produce offspring..

    Habitat • South of the Sahara Desert. Savannas,

    grasslands, and open woodlands. Not in jungle areas.

    Historical Range

    Present Range