leadership motivation theories

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  • 7/30/2019 leadership motivation theories


    Motivation Theories

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    Motivation Motivation is derived from Latin wordmovere which meansto move

    a process that starts with physiological

    or psychological deficiency or need thatactivates a behaviour or a drive that isaimed at a goal or incentive.(Luthans:1998).

    The process that account for anindividuals intensity, direction andpersistence of effort toward attaining a

    goal. (Robbins)

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    Concept of Motivation

    A need must be felt by an individualin such a way that it drives him/herto satisfy it.

    The force underlying this behaviourmay be called motivation.

    This force may vary depending upon

    the intensity and importance of theneed to the individual.

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    Peoples behaviour is determined bywhat motivates them. Theirperformance is a product of both

    ability level and motivation.Needs: a physiological or psychological

    imbalance leads to the creation of aneed

    Drives/motives: propel individual toattain their goals or satisfy their needs.

    Incentives: that can fulfill a need and

    decrease the intensity of a drive is

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    Basic Motivational Model(Mullins:1996)

    Needs or


    Driving Force

    (behaviour or




    result in to achieve



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    Types of MotivationTheories

    Content Theories

    Process Theories

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    Content Theories

    These theories attempt to explainthose specific things which actuallymotivate the individual at work.

    These theories are concerned withidentifying peoples needs and theirrelative strengths, and the goals theypursue in order to satisfy theseneeds.

    Content theories place emphasis onwhat motivates human behaviour i.e.the wants and needs that people aretrying to satisfy.

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    Process Theories

    These theories attempt to identifythe relationship among thedynamic variables which make up

    motivation. They are concerned more with how

    behaviors are initiated, directed

    and sustained. Process theories place emphasis

    on the actual process of

    motivation, looking at how the

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    Content Models

    The Hierarchy of Needs Theory(Maslow:1943).

    The ERG Theory (Alderfer:1972).

    The Acquired NeedsTheory/Achievement MotivationTheory(McClelland:1961).

    The Dual-Factor Theory(Herzberg:1968).

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    Process Models

    Theory X, Theory Y (McGregor:1960)

    Expectancy Theory (Vroom:1964 andPorter & Lawler:1968)

    Equity Theory (Adams:1965)

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    Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Basic proposition is that people are

    wanting beings, they always wantmore, and what they want depends

    on what they already have. Hierarchy ranges through 5 levels

    and is displayed in the form of apyramid implying a thinning out of

    needs as people progress up thehierarchy.

    Ascending order implies that it is the

    next unachieved level that acts as

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    Maslows Hierarchy ofNeeds

    Self -


    Realisation of

    full potential.

    EsteemEgo needs.


    Social needs. Social and civilisational needs.


    Protection and security needs.

    Basic and instinctive needs.


    Basic needs.

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    Alderfers ERG Theory

    This is a modified need hierarchymodel and it condenses Maslows fivelevels of need into only three levels

    based on the core needs of:




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    Alderfers ERG Theory

    Existence Relatedness Growth

    Physiological and material needs. Social, interpersonal and friendship needs. Personal growth, development, self-respect.

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    Alderfers ERG Theory

    Existence needs are concernedwith sustaining human existence andsurvival and cover physiological and

    safety needs of a material nature.

    Relatedness needs are concernedwith relationships to the social

    environment and cover love orbelonging, affiliation and meaningfulinterpersonal relations of a safety or

    esteem nature.

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    Alderfers ERG Model

    Growth needs are concernedwith the development of potential

    and cover self-esteem and self-actualization.

    The theory propounds thata) The lower order needs must be satisfied to move on

    to higher order needs (satisfaction progressions inprocess)

    b) The frustration of higher order needs the person cango back to lower order needs ( frustration regressionprocess)

    c) All three needs can operate simultaneously.

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    Herzbergs Dual-FactorTheory

    Herzbergs original study consistedof interviews with 203 accountantsand engineers.

    The object of the research being todesign jobs that provided jobsatisfaction, thereby encouraging

    higher levels of performance. This process developed into job


    H b D l F

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    Herzbergs Dual FactorTheory

    Hygience or Maintenance Factors


    Job Security

    Working Conditions

    Level and Quality of Supervision

    Company Policy and Administration

    Interpersonal Relations

    The Dissatisfiers


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    Herzbergs Dual FactorTheorycont.MOTIVATION AND JOB SATISFACTION

    The Satisfiers

    Sense of Achievement



    Nature of the Work

    Personal Growth and Advancement

    Motivators or Growth Factors

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    Hygiene or MaintenanceFactors (Herzberg)

    These are the factors, which ifabsent, cause dissatisfaction.

    They are related to the job contextand concerned with the jobenvironment.

    They serve to prevent dissatisfaction.

    They act as a platform upon withthe satisfaction factors can be built.

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    Motivators or GrowthFactors (Herzberg)

    These factors, if present, serve tomotivate the individual to superioreffort and performance.

    These factors are related to the jobcontent of the work itself.

    The strength of these factors willaffect feelings of satisfaction or nosatisfaction, but not dissatisfaction.

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    McClellands AchievementMotivation Theory

    McClelland identified differentmotivational categories of people andif you could identify which category a

    person fell into it would helpestablish which patterns ofmotivation would lead to effective

    performance and success at work.

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    McClellands AchievementMotivation Theory

    Three motivesidentified byMcClelland:

    Need forAchievement

    Need for Power

    Need for Affiliation

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    1. Need for Achievement

    The need for achievement is thedesire to consistently wantchallenging tasks demanding

    responsibility and application.

    McClelland sees this need as themost critical for the organisations

    growth and success. This need is linked to entrepreneurial

    spirit and the development of

    available resources.

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    2. Need for Power

    The need for power is directed to themanager working for an organisationthat is concerned with group goals and

    the power is exercised on behalf ofother people, this is socialised powerand should be distinguished frompersonalised power which ischaracterised by satisfaction fromexercising dominance over otherpeople.

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    3. Need for Affiliation

    This is the need for good social andpersonal relations with people.

    It is related to Maslowsocial needs -the need to belong.

    If an individual does not experienceany sense of belonging within the

    organisation they will not bemotivated to perform well. .

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    Theory X (McGregor)

    Theory X represents the assumptionson which traditional organisationsare based, and was widely accepted

    and practiced before thedevelopment of the human relationsapproach.

    The central principle is direction andcontrol through a centralised systemof organisation and the exercise of


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    Theory X Assumptions The average person is lazy and has an

    inherent dislike of work. Most people must be coerced, controlled,

    directed and threatened with punishment

    if the organisation is to achieve itsobjectives. The average person avoids responsibility,

    prefers to be directed, lacks ambition and

    values security most of all. Motivation occurs only at the physiologicaland security levels.

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    Theory Y (McGregor)

    Theory Y represents the assumptionsconsistent with current researchknowledge.

    The central principle is theintegration of the individual andorganisation goals.

    It is recognised as the best way toelicit co-operation from workers.

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    Theory Y Assumptions

    For most people work is as natural asplay or rest.

    People will exercise self-direction andself-control in the service ofobjectives to which they arecommitted.

    Commitment to objectives is afunction of rewards associated withtheir achievement.

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    Theory Y Assumptions cont.

    Given the right conditions theaverage worker can learn to acceptand to seek responsibility.

    The capacity for creativity in solvingorganisational problems isdistributed.

    The intellectual potential of theaverage person is only partiallyutilised.

    Motivation occurs at all of Maslows

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    Expectancy Theory

    Vrooms expectancy theory(1964)maintains that employees behave inways they expect will produce

    positive outcomes. The model suggest that the persons

    level of effort or force (motivation) is

    not simply a function of rewards. It is a measure of the strength of a

    particular outcome has for the


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    Expectancy Theory

    Vrooms expectancy theory is:

    F = Sum (E * V) where,

    F = Force - the motivation or the force used

    to achieve it. E = Expectancy - the possibility of achieving

    a certain outcome through certain actions.

    V = Valency - the preference an individual

    has for a particular outcome, the worthplaced on a particular result.

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    Expectancy Theory

    Porter and Lawler (1968) developVrooms expectancy theory bysuggesting that there are two factors

    determining the effort people putinto their jobs.

    The value of the reward to individuals in

    so far as they satisfy their need forsecurity, social esteem, autonomy andself-actualization.

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    Expectancy Theory

    The probability that reward depends oneffort, as perceived by individuals - inother words their expectations of the

    relationship between effort and reward. Thus the greater the value of a set

    of rewards and the higher the

    probability that receiving each ofthese rewards depends upon effort,the greater the effort that will bemade in a given situation.

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    Adams Equity Theory

    Adams states that people will bebetter motivated if they are treatedequitably.

    The exchange variables are:

    Inputs - what the individual brings totheir employment in terms of effort,

    experience and skills.Outcomes - the range of factors the

    employee receives in return for theirinputs i.e. all the financial and non-fi i l d