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This model has been contextually constructed on four main foundations as emerged from Nazari's exploratory case study of IL. These are: a and b) conceptions of geospatial information and GIS as emerged from the perceptions and experiences of GIS students and educators as well as from the context of the case i.e. from GIS module outlines and an analysis of other relevant documents such as the GIS curricula as well as the researcher's observations of the ODL environment of the case; c) nature and characteristics of GIS education; d) nature and process of problem solving geospatially. This presentation introduces the MG/SIL as emerged "only" from the conceptions of geospatial information. So it does NOT present the final picture of the model. This presentation aims to highlight the implications of the model for GI/S education and research in the particular context of the City University in London (UCL). Hope you find it useful :)

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  • 1. Model of Geo/Spatial Information Literacy (MG/SIL):an innovative model for geospatial information education and research Maryam Nazari Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield giCentre, Department of Information Science, City University, London, October 2008

2. What is MG/SIL?

  • A model constructed on the properties of conceptions of geospatial information (GI) emerged from a qualitative, exploratory case study
  • It provides GIS (Geographic Information Science/Systems) learners, educators, curriculum designers, and other stakeholders with approaches that facilitate transferring learning in GI/S education
  • It also provides GI researchers with a framework and methodological approach to research GI and the needs of GI users

Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield 3. Information literacy inonline distance learning GIS programmesMaryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Real information and learning needs Perceptions, and teachingand learning experiences of,GIS andgeo/spatial information Real skill and knowledge-needs An exploratorycase study IdentifyExplore- Academics and students- 23 GIS modules - 3 ODL programs - semi-structured interview - questionnaire- students reflection - document study - To identify competencies GIS students need: a) to be able to find, evaluate, and use geospatial information; b) to solve problems geo/spatially Explore 4. Information literacy

  • Knowing when and why you need information, where to find it, and how to evaluate, use, and communicate it in an ethical manner.
  • (CILIP 2007)

Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield 5. Information literacy Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Information literacy to diagnose their information and learning needs when dealing with a task to find, evaluate and use appropriate information to meet their needs 6. Overall outcomes of this study

  • Conceptions of GIS
  • Conceptions of Geo/spatial information
  • A five-phase process of problem-solving geo/spatially
  • Model of Geo/Spatial Information Literacy

Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield 7. Why to you?

  • Department of information science
  • Master course on Geographic information
  • Interested in interactive methods of teaching and learning
  • Research on understanding GI and needs of GI users is one of the core aims of the giCentre

Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield 8. In this presentation:

  • Why MG/SIL is needed?
  • How was it developed?
  • How does it work?
  • How can it be used in GI education and research?

Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield 9. Rationale Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Purpose of GI/S education To enable people use GI/S in different disciplines and application areas for various purposesCalls for transferable education 10. Barriers to transferable learning in GI/S education Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield GIS education Diversity in the GIS learners backgrounds, abilities, and ambitions Wide application areas Technology-oriented nature of the information and learning in the GIS discipline Tight schedule, instruction-led Involves using wide range of tools, techniques, and operations Self-contained modules and tasks to deliverwide range of instructions and skill-sets Need for application and subject-relevant principles, knowledge and terminology, etc Wide range of knowledge-base and value systems Need to match various knowledge-base and value systems 11. Rationale Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Diversity in the applications of GI/S GI/S is technology-oriented Diversity in the knowledge of application areas Diversity in the GIS learners backgrounds Diversity in their knowledge-base Diversity in their value system Diversity in the GIS learners goals of learning GI/S Involves using wide range of GIS and non-GIS tools and techniques Diversity in their way of viewing and using GI/S Diversity in their ability to deal with a GI/S task Require doing various operations Require wide range of skill-sets Tight schedule GIS courses Diversity in the GIS learners knowledge and skill-needs Diversity in the underpinnings of the tools and techniques Instruction-led Self-contained tasks Transferring education 12. Fixed GIS curricula Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 13. Key models of GIS curricula Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Community-centred The UCGIS Model Curricula ProjectThe Body of Knowledge (BoK) NCGIA Core Curriculum 14. Some initiatives Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield The Body of Knowledge Using current models of IL Pedagogical approaches The BoK- providing learners withmultiple pathwaysto select their destination from ten areas of knowledge Jablonski (2004) uses theBig6: problem-solving processto develop GIS learning objectives that increase independent task accomplishment in undergraduate learnersXgrain, e-MapScholar, and EDINA use learning materials and resources to enable IL and research skills in undergraduate and graduate students, adoptingthe SCONUL model(Massey 2002) To engage learners in someIL activitiesin some GIS introductory courses (DiBiase 1996; Rahn and Zygo 2004) 15. Transferable educationMaryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 16. Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Understanding ways in which information is perceived and used in the process of teaching and learning 17. Exploration of GI conceptions and construction of the MG/SIL

  • Data collection
  • In-depth, semi-structured interviews with 20 academics within the context of 23 different GIS ODL modules
  • In-depth, semi-structured interviews with 7 students who had learning experiences of various GIS modules, and some workplace-oriented tasks
  • Questions
  • How would you describe geospatial information (GI) and what makes it unique?
  • How would you describe the physical format of GI?
  • What competencies are needed to make sense of, and use GI in each GI conception? What are the implications of the conceptions for the MG/SIL?
  • Data analysis
  • Grounded theory methodsconceptions of GI
  • Further analysis on the properties of the conceptions to construct the MG/SIL

Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield 18. Conceptions of GI Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Geo/spatial Temporal Geo/spatially Technology-mediated Geo/spatiallycontextualised Geo/spatialinformation 19. Conceptions of GI - 1 Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Geo/spatial LocationAttributes Locational (e.g. name of streets, postal codes) Non-locational (e.g. diseases, pollution, sand, water etc) Represents the earth featureInformation about the location Information about the target phenomenon in the location Defines in the corresponding context of application or subject area 20. Conceptions of GI - 2 Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Temporal It represents features of the earth in certain point(s) oftime It is about a dynamic-temporal phenomenon i.e. the earth It has a life span e.g. census data 21. Conceptions of GI - 3 Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Geo/spatiallycontextualisedneeds to be spatially conceptualised and contextualisedsocially and geographically constructed phenomenon 22. Conceptions of GI - 4 Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Geo/spatiallytechnology-mediatedGI is readable and usable by GIS It needs to be formed and transformed - x,y,z coordinates; - latitude-longitude; - spatial identifier GI is originally in any format-Text ; e.g. names of streets, lakes etc -Number ; e.g. table of census data, columns of spreadsheet etc -Visual formats ; e.g. maps, graphs, digital maps and images, scanned aerial photographs etc. 23. The GI conceptions as foundations of the MG/SIL Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield The multi-dimensional nature of and characteristics of GI The multi-dimensional context of GI Need for various operations & skill-sets Various forms of user input GI conceptions Informative framework of GI conceptions 24. Various user inputs

  • Spatial way of thinking
  • Spatial and temporal way of thinking
  • To geo/spatially form and transform GI
  • To geo/spatially construct GI

Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield 25. The GI conceptions as foundations of the MG/SIL Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield The multi-dimensional nature of and characteristics of GI The multi-dimensional context of GI Need for various operations & skill-sets Various forms of user input GI conceptions Informative framework of GI conceptions Time Location Attributes Subject Application Task/ query Constructive framework of GI conceptions 26. The GI conceptions as foundations of the MG/SIL Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield The multi-dimensional nature of and characteristics of GI The multi-dimensional context of GI Need for various operations & skill-sets Various forms of user input GI conceptions Informative framework of GI conceptions Time Location Attributes Subject Application Task/ query Constructive framework of GI conceptions Task/ problem Informed thinking & questioningTo diagnose and perform appropriategeo/spatial information behaviour , and acquire their needed skill and knowledge to make sense of, and use GI, geo/spatially 27. Learners in charge

  • To understand the features and characteristics of GI as described in the four conceptions
  • Combining this understanding with their

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