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  • Picture: Final Design, Sarah Mair, Jacqueline Kirwan, 2013

    Jacqueline Kirwan637846Virtual EnvironmentsSemester 2/2013Group 11

  • Module 1 IdeationPicture: Final Design, Sarah Mair, Jacqueline Kirwan, 2013

  • Module 1 Ideation

    While reading 300 Years of Industrial Design, I began to think a lot more about the complexity of measuring hollow objects. Though because my object is so simple in terms of measurement and drawing, I didnt need to apply the methods that were illustrated.

    Coffee Filter drawings and measurements

    You can visibly see on the drawing where the panels joint the two sides of the filter together in order to produce a cohesively functioning object.


    Using basic skills in Rhino such as lofting, copying and adjusting control points to produce a 3-D interpretation of the cofee filter

  • Sketch Diagrams of proposed second skin


    Front:half wrapped around the body - ensure shoulder and waste protection

    Back:Covering a large proportion of the back area - minimise the opportunity for someone to sneak up from behind.

    Spikes would be successful in preventing physical contact (intimidating)

    Uses panel and fold system

    Materials:Either plastic or paper - robust and not too heavy

    Concept:While reading Personal Space: The Behavioural Basis of Design, I began to think about the idea of feeling uncomfortable when your personal space is breached. I wanted to make a second skin that would make that person feel uncomfortable when entering your personal space.






    Modeling in Rhino was very difficult and frustrating for the group at first, though with some persistance, most of us were able to understand the basics

    Concept:Designing a second skin to resemble a large bubble surrouding the entire body - making the metaphorical personal bubble into a physical representation.

    Floatie interpretation, Sarah Mair, 2013

    Floatie Rhino 3-D model, Sarah Mair, 2013 Second Skin Prototype, Bilal Hallak, 2013

    Second Skin Proposal, Bilal Hallak, 2013

  • Module 2 DesignPicture: Final Design, Sarah Mair, Jacqueline Kirwan, 2013

  • Design Breif





    A protection system that illustrates a defence mechanism behind the individual, acting as a warning system




    Should be highly adjustable to suit the needs of the wearer and the situation




    Should create an extended space around the person that is adjustable depending on the situation, and makes the wearer feel comforatble in different situations


  • Precedence of Ideas

    Spikes on the back of crocodiles are systematic and vary in size to protect the most vulnerable parts of the back - This minimises unsuspected attacks to less visible areas of the body. They are also flexible to allow movement

    CROCODILEPanel and fold system

    Inflatable SystemBEIJING WATER CUBE

    Shapes fitted together and inflated to become soft bubbles that work cohesively together. Hexagonal patterns and different sized bubbles look interesting and work well together


    Tiago Barros, 2011 Myhrvold, N. 2008


    Lots of plastic bags inflated creates a concept of temporary protection

    Voelker, N. 2010.


    The spikes look extremely threatening and dangerous. They would result in the person being less approachable. I also like how the spikes are large in the center and are tailored down on the edges.


    Heatherwick created a stunning effect in his building The Seed Cathedral through the use of composite materialsof the glass tube and the base material holding the structure up. I find it so interesting how the materials work so well together visually and practically. (Heatherwick, T 2011)

    Dangerous Animals in Australia, 2011 Direct, P. 2013 Heatherwick, T 2011

  • Precedence of Ideas Exploration of ideas - Composite Materials

    I l l u s t r a t e s personal space as an exclusive p r o t e c t i o n system.

    System is able to be voluntarily inflated and deflated.

    Lucy McRae design

    The inflation of bubbles is often difficult to produce a perfect circle - when stressed, edges are pulled inwards

    Inflation of multiple bubbles joined together to inflate as oneStraight line connections turn into bulges when inflated

    Extend bubbles over the neck for greater security

    Turning one bubble into many

    Many inflated bubbles

    Design Experimentation, Sarah Mair, 2013Design Experimentation, Sarah Mair, 2013

    Design Experimentation, Sarah Mair, 2013

    Design Experimentation, Sarah Mair, 2013

    Design Experimentation, Sarah Mair, 2013

    Single bubble surrounding the head - complete protection

  • Idea Formation

    Concept Spike dominated back (panel and fold) protection

    Bubble dominated back (inflatables)

    Protection from behind

    Adjustable, comfortable depiction of personal space infront

    The composite system acts as a form of protection, and barrier system that can be altered to reflect the situation

    Spike dominated back:Warning system - Encourages approach from a more visible and suitable angle

    Bubble front:Approachable and adjustable in accordance to the situation

    Design Development, Sarah Mair, 2013

  • Physical representation of personal space

    BuBBles spikes PROTECTIVE WARNING SYSTEMCONSENTIAL BOUNDARIESPersonal space depiction, Bilal Hallak, 2013 Personal space depiction, Bilal Hallak, 2013




    Prototyping brought us to understand the importance of physically invisioning what our model will look like.

    We realised that heavy materials can be fatal to the design being able to withhold its own weight.

    We realised that spikes should not be too large around the head area, to allow for flexible movement of the neck. There should also be a smooth transition from spikes to bubbles is important

    Square BaSed Pyramid


    Simple, tessellating and developable surface

    Dodecahedron will inflate well into an almost rounded shape.

    Developable surfaces are characterised by the property that they can be mapped isometrically into the plane (H.Pottmann et al. 2007)



    Due to the complexity of the joints, we considered both abstraction and reduction. According to Scheurer, F, Stehling, H 2011 (pp. 75), abstraction means to systematically develop a general solution suiting all individual components, where as reduction is about finding the optimal way to transport it. We decided to adopt the abstraction solution by finding suitable tessellatable shapes that were able to work together.

    Sarah Mair, Jacqueline Kirwan, Bilal Hallak, 2013

    Sarah Mair, Jacqueline Kirwan, Bilal Hallak, 2013

    Sarah Mair, Jacqueline Kirwan, Bilal Hallak, 2013

  • 3-D Panelling and Development

    First attempt at creating spikes. It is quite unorganised and not what we were invisioning



    Producing a custom panel, though the spikes are each bent slightly (unable to fabricate)

    The new shell is more rounded, to create more tailored spikes (tall in the center, becoming smaller)

    Spikes have straight edges and begin to show an organised variety of sizes

    Spikes are much larger in the center, which illustrates a greater threat to approaching people

    The shell for the back is quite simple

    First attempt at modelling bubbles on Rhino - quite box-like

    Techiherda, a pattern that can be tessellated. This will enable us to create a pattern that closely resembles bubbles. Colours represent the different shapes.

    The techiherda pattern was organised to create an organised and cohesive shape, and then was sliced along a flat plain in order to lie flat against the chest.

    Hangs over the shoulder and lies flat on the chest.

    Rhino Development, Sarah Mair, 2013Rhino Development, Sarah Mair, 2013

    Rhino development, Sarah Mair, 2013 Rhino development, Sarah Mair, 2013

    Complete Rhino Design, Sarah Mair, 2013

  • Module 3 FabricationPicture: Final Design, Sarah Mair, Jacqueline Kirwan, 2013

  • Prototyping

    Different materials connected to one another - Integrating panel and fold and inflatable systems together

    Printed out dodecahedron from Fab Lab

    Integrating two systems, with a larger bag. When inflated the bag would become overpowering

    This prototype is looking at the shape of the shell on the body, and how the spikes and dodecahedrons would sit on the shell. Also how they would transition from one shape to another.

    Fab Lab Printed Prototype, Sarah Mair, 2013 Prototype, Sarah Mair, 2013 Prototype, Sarah Mair, 2013

  • Technology utilised throughout our design and in modern society

    From the week 8 lecture, we learned about grasshopper on Rhino which made the process of making tabs a lot faster and easier.

    As we worked through the semester, we had a lot of trouble with operating Rhino, though as we worked through making our design, we began to build our skills up, which made using Rhino much easier.

    Having access to affordable high tech machinery and materials allowed us to have a lot of precision in our fabrication process, which helped us produce a very clean and well presented model (Iwamoto, L 2009).

    In our design, we took advantage of digital fabrication which we then turned into a 2-Dimentional fabrication product by printing the templates in Fab Lab.

    Although we did not get the opportunity to utilise them in Virtual Environments, many industries do undertake many other methods of digital production. These processes include additive formation (adding material layer by layer) and formative fabrication (deforming materials to adjust the shape) (Kolarevic, B, 2003).


    Unrolling in Rhino, Sarah Mair, 2013


    Making a full size prototype of the spikes was very benificial as we discovered that in order to neartly connect each row of spikes to one another, we would need to have more tabs connecting each row. We also realised that the two horizontal rows of spikes at the top were unnecessary, as they were too small for a transition to the dodecahedron shapes.

    The way in which the shapes were put together had to be reasessed, as they looked incredibly messy, and as a result would have been difficult to fit every shape together precicely.

    The darker plastic bags looked messy, so we decided to go with the clear ones. We decided it would look more defined if the plastic bags are turned inside out, as the extra seems look a little messy.

    ISSUES ENCOUNTEREDPrototype, Bilal Hallak, 2013

    Airflow Explanation, Sarah Mair, 2013

    Inflatable system prototype, Sarah Mair, Jacqueline Kirwan, 2013

    Inflatable system prototype, Sarah Mair, Jacqueline Kirwan, 2013

    Inflatable system prototype, Sarah Mair, Jacqueline Kirwan, 2013

    Inflatable system prototype, Sarah Mair, Jacqueline Kirwan, 2013

  • Fabricating Final Design

    We pieced together every tessellating shape individually, before gluing them in an orderly maner to form the front part of our design.The shoulder piece is a very important part in the design as it connects the two different systems, and requires a smooth transition between shapes.


    After a lot of persistance, our model began to take shape. It consists of two layers which will hold the inflatable system. We added a flat piece of card to the back with 6 splinted holes in order to comfortably house the plastic inflatable system without too much disorderly movement.

    Final Fabrication, Sarah Mair, 2013

    Final Fabrication, Sarah Mair, 2013

    Final Fabrication, Sarah Mair, 2013

    Final Fabrication, Sarah Mair, 2013Final Fabrication, Sarah Mair, 2013

  • Fabricating Final Design


    We decided to create composite materials in order to integrate different materials, and connect the two systems (inflatable and panel and fold) to one another. This allowed for a smoother transition between the spikes at the back and the tessellating pattern at the front.


    First we cut out some faces of the dodecahedrons in various positions around the design. We also stuck extra faces on the inside to hide the visible tabs.

    We then used a welding iron to weld edges of plastic together in the same shape as the card shapes.

    Finally, we secured the plastic shapes in the areas where faces had been cut out to produce integrated systems.

    Final Fabrication, Sarah Mair, Jacqueline Kirwan, 2013 Final Fabrication, Sarah Mair, 2013 Final Fabrication, Sarah Mair, 2013


    FINALISING THE SPIKESAfter the full size prototype, we made some changes in Rhino then fabricated it again. The connection of rows was much more neat and had better and more clean presentation.

    We then decided that in order to make the spikes appear more threatening we would like to increase the size of some of the spikes.

    In order to the the inflatable system work, we needed to make every compartment completely air tight. We made 7 small tubes, 6 of which we fitted in a long thin strip of card and one for the access of air. We then joined the card up to create a circular system which would reach each hole in the design. These tubes were then securerly joined up to each plastic bag, which were then able to be inflated through holding a fan up to the 7th tube. Each plastic bag inflated simultaneously.


    We made each plastic bag by welding the edges together. These bags are twice the size of the ones we protoyped with.

    Final Fabrication, Sarah Mair, 2013 Final Fabrication, Sarah Mair, Jacqueline Kirwan, 2013Final Fabrication, Sarah Mair, 2013

    Final Fabrication, Sarah Mair, 2013

  • Final Fabrication



    Final Design, Sarah Mair, Jacqueline Kirwan, 2013 Final Design, Sarah Mair, Jacqueline Kirwan, 2013

    Final Design, Sarah Mair, Jacqueline Kirwan, 2013

    Final Design, Sarah Mair, Jacqueline Kirwan, 2013

    Final Design, Sarah Mair, Jacqueline Kirwan, 2013Final Design, Sarah Mair, Jacqueline Kirwan, 2013


    INFLATEDINFLATINGFinal Design, Sarah Mair, Jacqueline Kirwan, 2013 Final Design, Sarah Mair, Jacqueline Kirwan, 2013 Final Design, Sarah Mair, Jacqueline Kirwan, 2013

    Final Design, Sarah Mair, Jacqueline Kirwan, 2013 Final Design, Sarah Mair, Jacqueline Kirwan, 2013

  • ReflectionPicture: Final Design, Sarah Mair, Jacqueline Kirwan, 2013

  • In the new era, everyone can potentially

    be their own manufacturer as well as their own

    power company. (Rifkin, J. 2011. pp. 117).

    At the beginning of this semester we were intoduced to a variety of different systems including inflatable, panel and fold, skin and bone and profile and section.

    I found it really interesting learning about how each of these can be used in a design process to each produce a completely different outcome.

    Basing our design off a representation of personal space I found to be challenging at first, as personal space is such a mental thing. Making personal space physical made me think deeply into what I believe is the most vulnerable part of the body and where on the body I would prefer people to not approach me from.

    It was mentioned in the week one lecture that simple rules become complex systems. This really only began to make sense to me as I began working on my second skin design. Personal

    space is such a simple concept of which we all understand and have our personal interpretation of its meaning. Though when personal space is made physical, it becomes a very complex system. As the semester went on, I was amazed about the intricacy and detail that was possible with the technology available. Although I found it difficult to navigate around Rhino at first, learning the skills I believe will become a profoundly important part of design in my later career. The fast pace of technology advancement means precision in any design process is at an all new high. I found this to be incredibly useful while designing my second skin, producing a very clean finish. Our access to digital technology and machenery in the new era has enabled individuals to produce products that were not too long ago only accessible by facteries (Rifkin, J. 2011. pp. 117).

    Throughout module 2, designing the second skin in my group was a long process that continuously needed to be reevaluated and altered. Brought to our attention in the Week 8 lecture, one of the things our group found challenging was digitalising and fabricating the ideas we had created through drawings. We discovered that the process of fabrication in some ways limited our ideas as they were not practical to physically make. An example of this was our original idea of having multiple bubbles all made from plastic connected to one another, and able to inflate and deflate simultaneously. Instead, we designed representatives of bubbles through the use of card using two tessellating shapes, then integrating inflatable systems throughout the use of card.

  • Risk has a resiliency that is essential to culture and technological progress

    - it is where innovation occurs.

    (Marble, S 2008. pp 43)

    Module 3 saw the beginning of a long fabrication process or which took multiple experiments and uncomplete prototypes.

    Michelles lecture in week 9 really highlighted the importance of making prototypes prior to fabricating the final design. Before hearing about her own design project and the journey it took, I had thought that if you knew what you wanted and how everything would work together the only fabrication that is ncessary is the final design. Though in this lecture I realised that there are multiple problems that arise which can only be discovered through prototyping. We found this to be very true as we ran into many difficulties through

    physically making sections of our design.

    Building the panel and fold system out of card was relatively straight forward, as we just had to make a representation of our digital design on Rhino. though integrating the panel and fold system with the inflatable system became a risk to us; a risk that it may not work. We experimented with multiple designs of the inflatable system, though we could only seem to inflate one plastic bag at a time. This threatened the significance and connotation behind the entire design. Though after hours of experimentation, we came up with an idea that seemed to work. We connected card tubes with the plastic bag to prevent air getting trapped and linked

    these tubes to one input of air, resulting in simultaneous inflation of 6 plastic bags.

    As outlined in the reading of Marble, S 2008, risk provides a gateway to many opportunities, and with percistance and patience, risk will , in many cases, become the key to success. This was a very valuable lesson to us.

    The reading and lecture content really did help to guide my learning which I utilised throughout the design process to assist me in achieving my goals.

    Throughout the semester in Virtual Environments, I have invested many hours into my learning and have aquired a great deal of valuable skills that will assist me in any design career I pursue in the future.

  • Heatherwick, T (March 2011) Thomas Heatherwick: Building the Seed Cathedral [Video file] retrieved from

    H.Pottmann,A.Asperl,M.Hofer, A.Kilian (eds) 2007 Surfaces that can be built from paper in Architectural Geometry, Bentley Institute Press, pp 534-561

    Iwamoto, L 2009, Digital fabrications: architectural and material techniques, Princeton Architectural Press, New York, Selected Extracts

    Kolarevic, B, 2003 Digital Production in Architecture in the Digital Age - Design and Manufacturing , Spon Press, London, pp30-54

    Scheurer, F, Stehling, H 2011, Lost in Parameter Space? AD: Architectural Design, vol 81 pp. 70-79

    Marble, S 2008 Imagining Risk In P Bernstein, P Deamer (eds). Building the Future: Recasting Labor in Architecture/, Princeton Architectural Press, New York, pp 39

    Rifkin, J 2011 Distributed Capitalism in The third Industrial Revolution Palgrave Macmillan, New York pp 117

    Reference ListWEEKLY READINGS

    Barros, T. 2011. Passing Cloud Available from:

    Dangerous Animals in Australia, 2011,[Online]. Available:

    DIRECT, P. 2013. Punk with spiky hair at Camdn Market [Online]. Available:

    Myhrvold, N. 2008. The Truth About Peking Duck and Other Beijing Reflections: A Guest Post. Available from:

    Voelker, N. 2010. 108 Inflatable Plastic Bags [Online]. Available: