pigeon dissection

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PIGEON DISSECTION

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PIGEON DISSECTION. WHAT BODY PARTS DOES A BIRD HAVE TO HELP IT FLY?. EVERYTHING! EVERY body system in a bird is modified in some way to help it fly!. ARCHAEOPTERYX First bird. Fossil image from: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/diapsids/birds/archaeopteryx.html. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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PIGEON DISSECTION

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WHAT BODY PARTS DOES A BIRD HAVE TO HELP IT FLY?

EVERYTHING!

EVERY body system in a bird is modified in some way to help it fly!

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Image from: http://www2.thny.bbc.co.uk/education/darwin/exfiles/archaeopteryx.htm

ARCHAEOPTERYX First bird Fossil image from:

http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/diapsids/birds/archaeopteryx.html

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PIGEON LATIN meaning

KINGDOM _____________

PHYLUM ____________________________

SUBPHYLUM ___________________________

CLASS _______________________________

ORDER _____________________________

ANIMALIA

CHORDATA

VERTEBRATA “backbone”

AVES Plural of “avis”= bird

COLUMBIFORMES

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FEATHERS

Image modified from:http://www.biology.eku.edu/RITCHISO/554notes1.html

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FEATHERS

Image from:http://www.biology.eku.edu/RITCHISO/554notes1.html

rachis

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PREEN GLANDImage from:http://www.rit.edu/~vertzo/Pigeon/PigeonPages/Home.html

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EXTERNAL FEATURES

Feathers

Beaks

Feet

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BEAKS

Image from:http://www.antbits.co.uk/ant_pages/bio-pages/bio-02.html

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MODIFICATIONS ofINTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

• THIN skin – light weight• Feathers provide lift & protect against heat loss• Preen gland keeps feathers in shape• Streamline body to decrease air/wind

resistance

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NICTITATING MEMBRANE

TYMPANIC MEMBRANE inside head

SCALY SKIN on feetCLAWS

EXTERNAL NARES

CERE

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EYESBIG for size of head See in COLOR

Eyes on front of face- gives depth perception Seen in predators

Eyes on sides of head-Gives wide range of vision Seen in prey

Kestral Image from:http://www.biology.eku.edu/RITCHISO/birdbrain2.html

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BROOD PATCH

Image from:http://www.ventanaws.org/images/bsol/SongSparrow.jpg

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CLOACA & VENT

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SKELETALHollow bones = light weight

Image from: BIODIDAC

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Image modified from:http://www.biology.eku.edu/RITCHISO/554notes1.html

FURCULAPYGOSTYLESTERNUM

FUSED BONES = Sturdy

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MODIFICATIONS ofSKELETAL SYSTEM

Bones = hollow/Air sacs extend into bones to make them less dense = fused to make them sturdy

FURCULA – stabilizes shoulders during flight

STERNUM- attaches flight muscles

PYGOSTYLE- support for tail

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PECTORALIS & SUPRACORACOIDEUS make up 35% of total body weight

MUSCULAR SYSTEM

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MODIFICATIONS ofMUSCULAR SYSTEM

HUGE PECTORALIS MUSCLE

powers wings

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CROP

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CROP

Stores & moistens food

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HEART

Heart = 1 ½ to 2 times larger than in equal size mammal

THYROID

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1 loop 2 loops 2 loops2 chambers 3 chambers 4 chambersFish amphibians birds &

& reptiles mammals

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4 CHAMBER HEART2 LOOPS

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Sinus venosus

RIGHTAtrium

Ventricle Conus arteriosus

Lungs

Bodyorgans

LEFTAtrium

FROG & TURTLE CIRCULATION

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BIRD CIRCULATION

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MODIFICATIONS ofCIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Heart large for body size

Closed 2 loop system- most efficient/faster

Complete septum/4 chamber heart- keeps Low/High oxygen blood totally separated

Rapid heart rate- delivers more oxygen/faster

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MODIFICATIONS ofENDOCRINE SYSTEM

ENDOTHERMIC METABOLISM-

provides maximum energy for extended activity (flying)

BURNING more GLUCOSE faster… is where the heat comes from!

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GIZZARD

PANCREAS

LIVER withGALL BLADDER inside

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GIZZARDMuscular

Contains gravel/rocks

to grind food

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SMALL INTESTINE (Duodenum & Ileum)

LARGE INTESTINE

isn’t very large!

EXITS through CLOACA

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COLIC CAECAPouches on

LARGE intestine

Contain bacteria to digest plants

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MODIFICATIONS ofDIGESTIVE SYSTEM

• Fast efficient digestive system fuels endothermic metabolism for more energy for extended activity

• CROP- stores next batch so food always moving through• 2 part stomach- so food moves through faster• COLIC CAECA- help break down plants• LONG SMALL INTESTINE-absorbs lots of nutrients• SHORT LARGE INTESTINE-

don’t waste time absorbing water or storing waste… out of body as it is made.

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TRACHEA BRONCHI

SYRINX

• Cartilage rings

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LUNGS

Remove 31% of oxygen ; Human lungs remove 24%

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AIR SACSSTORE AIR No gas exchange

ALLOW OXYGEN IN LUNGS on the

INHALE and on the EXHALE

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OXYGEN on the EXHALE

Animation from: http://www.sk.lung.ca/content.cfm/birds

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MODIFICATIONS ofRESPIRATORY SYSTEM

• EFFICIENT RESPIRATORY SYSTEM gets the most oxygen possible

• Extra AIR SACS allow oxygen in lungs on both the INHALE AND EXHALE

• Air sacs extending into bones makes skeleton less dense

• Alveoli increase surface area for more gas

exchange

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KIDNEYS & URETERS

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MODIFICATIONS ofEXCRETORY SYSTEM

Excrete nitrogen waste as URIC ACID- so needs less water

No URINARY BLADDER- so urine (water) not stored… less weight

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TESTES

TESTES

KIDNEYS

URETERS

CLOACA

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OVARY / OVIDUCTS

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TUBES IS TUBES?OVIDUCTS- carry eggs from ovary

to cloaca

VAS DEFERENS- carry sperm from testes to cloaca

URETERS- carry urine from kidneys to cloaca

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MODIFICATIONS ofREPRODUCTIVE

SYSTEM• Female has only ONE OVARY &

OVIDUCT on left side … less weight

• OVIPARITY- lay eggs outside of body … less weight

• Ovary enlarges during breeding season/shrinks rest of time… less weight

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MODIFICATIONS ofNERVOUS SYSTEM

• Large brain for body size = “smarter”• Bigger CEREBRUM for more complex behaviors

problem solving; learning; navigation;

• Bigger CEREBELLUM- for muscle coordination• Bigger OPTIC LOBES for better vision; 3D & Color• Concentration of iron in brain to act as compass