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Tense Structures Present Simple Present Continuous Do, Go, and Play Simple Collocation /s/, /z/, and /iz/ Conjunctions (and, or, so, but, because)

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  • Tense Structures Present Simple Present Continuous

    Do, Go, and Play Simple Collocation

    /s/, /z/, and /iz/

    Conjunctions (and, or, so, but, because)

  • 4a Adventurers of the year

    Reading

    1 Read the article. Complete the diagram with the phrases (1–6).

    Edurne Pasaban Steven Shoppman

    1. born in the USA 4. is famous

    2. travelled round the world 5. finished the adventure

    3. qualified in engineering 6. loves adventure

    both

  • Grammar Past Simple

    โครงสร้างของประโยค

    บอกเล่า (Affirmative) S + V.2

    ปฏิเสธ (Negative) S + did + not + V.inf

    คำถาม (Interrogative) Did + S + V.inf?

    ADVENTURE of the YEAR

    EVERY YEAR, READERS OF NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE VOTE FOR THEIR ADVENTURERS OF THE YEAR. HERE ARE TWO OF THEM.

    THE MOUNTAINEER

    THE ROAD TRIPPERS

    As a child, Edurne Pasaban lived in the mountainous Basque region of Spain and

    she climbed her first mountain when she was fourteen. At university, she studied

    engineering but she didn't want a nine-to-five job. In May 2010 she finished her

    biggest challenge, to climb the world's fourteen tallest mountains. Nowadays she

    is famous for her many climbing achievements, However, she didn't climb in order

    to become famous. She says, 'For me, adventure is a way of life.'

    Steven Shoppman and Stephen Bouey were old friends who grew up together in

    Denver. But they knew each other a lot better after their adventure. They both

    had an ambition to go on a road trip round the world. From 2007 to 2010, they

    drove through 69 different countries during their 122,000-kilometre journey and had

    many adventures. They took a big risk when they went across a minefield (see

    photo). They also got help from lots of people and they found that the world

    wasn't as dangerous as they thought!

  • Grammar Note

    เดิมทีใน Present Simple ถ้าเราเจอ V.to be เรามักใช้ is, am, หรือ are

    แต่หากเป็นใน Past Simple เราจะใช้ was หรือ were แทน

    Examples:

    Present Simple She is my assistant.

    Past Simple She was my assistant 3 years ago.

    Present Simple You are the apple of my eyes.

    Past Simple You were my boyfriend.

    Use of Past Simple

    1. เราใช้ Past Simple กับเร่ืองราวที่จบลงแล้วในอดีต (Completed Actions/Events) Examples: I graduated from the university 2 years ago.

    Last night, you were in my room.

    Did we go to the same university?

    My supervisor left so early this afternoon.

    I simply forgot about the meeting this morning.

    2. Past Simple สามารถนำมาใช้กับเหตุการณ์ที่เป็นเร่ืองจริงในอดีตได้ Examples: Ayutthaya was the capital city of Thailand.

    Lu bu was dubbed as the flying General.

    Obama was the president of the U.S.A.

  • Grammar Note

    โดยปกติแล้ว Past Simple มักมี Adverb ที่นิยมใช้ด้วยดังนี ้

    Adverb of Time (บอกเวลา)

    last … (…ที่แล้ว) yesterday (เม่ือวานนี้)

    this morning (เม่ือเช้านี้) … ago (…ที่แล้ว)

    previous … (…ที่แล้ว) previously (ก่อนหน้านี้)

    in the past (ในอดีต) once (คร้ังหนึ่ง)

    in the old days (ในวันเก่า) in + ปี (เม่ือปี...)

    Past Simple in Negative Sentences

    โครงสร้าง: S + did + not + V.infinitive

    1. หลัง did ต้องตามด้วยกริยาไม่ผันรูป (V. infinitive = Base form) Examples: He didn’t come to the party last night.

    We didn’t have the meeting yesterday.

    Troy did not receive a promotion last year.

    I

    you

    we

    they

    slept

    walked

    were

    had

    he

    she, it

    drove

    died

    Affirmative Negative

    I

    you

    we

    they

    he

    she, it

    didn't

    (did not)

    didn't

    (did not)

    sleep

    walk

    be

    have

  • Past Simple in Interrogative Sentences

    did + S + V. infinitive?

    What

    Where

    How often

    When

    Why

    did

    did

    did

    did

    Did

    were

    you

    she

    Andy

    it

    you

    you

    do

    go?

    meet

    happen?

    prepare

    so late

    last night?

    Sarah?

    for the meeting?

    this morning?

    Examples: Why didn’t you come to the party last night?

    Did you have breakfast?

    When did Henry meet Jane?

    Did the auditor submit her report?

    1. ถ้าประโยคคำถามขึ้นด้วย Question words มักตอบเป็นคำตอบเฉพาะ แต่หากขึ้นต้นด้วย Did มักตอบเป็น Yes/No

    Examples: Did you prepare for the morning session?

    Yes, I did.

    Why did Sarah decide to quit her job?

    She felt uncomfortable with her colleagues.

    5 Find the past tense form of these irregular verbs in The road trippers section

    of the article in Exercise 1.

    1. be was / were 6. grow up

    2. drive 7. have

    3. find 8. know

    4. get 9. take

    5. go 10. think

  • 6 Complete the text about another adventurer with the past simple form

    of the verbs.

    THE PHOTOGRAPHER

    Reza was born (be born) in Tabriz, Iran, in 1952. He …………...(study)

    architecture at the university in Tehran but he ……………. (not/become) an

    architect. When he was a teenager, Reza …………...(love) photography and,

    after university, he …………...(get) a job with a local newspaper as a

    photographer. But he …………... (not/ want) to take photos of local news and

    in 1978 he ……………. (go) abroad and he …………. (take) photos of wars.

    Nowadays he works for National Geographic magazine.

    4b The survivors

    Vocabulary and Speaking: Personal Qualities

    2 Read the sentences and comments (1-8) about this kind of expedition.

    What kind of personal quality does each describe? Match these adjectives

    to the sentences.

    ambitious careful decisive determined

    experienced intelligent patient reliable

    1 ‘The leader of our team has climbed in the Himalayas many times before

    in his thirty years as a mountaineer.'

    2 'Whatever the risk, we always achieved our goal. Nothing stopped us.'

    3 'Even as a child, I wanted to be the best at everything.’

    4 'It's important to plan before any expedition.'

  • 5 'When the weather is really bad, you have to wait. There's no point in

    taking stupid risks.'

    6 'Everyone in the team always has to be there for each other. You won't

    survive without each other's help and support.'

    7 'He has a quick brain and you need that for this kind of expedition.'

    8 'The leader is the person who makes the final decision and everyone has

    to agree.'

    Grammar Past Continuous

    โครงสร้างของประโยค

    บอกเล่า (Affirmative) S + was, were + V.ing

    ปฏิเสธ (Negative) S + was, were + not + V.ing

    คำถาม (Interrogative) Was, Were + S + V.ing?

    Past Continuous in Affirmative and Negative Sentences

    Examples:

    Paul was swimming in the pool.

    He was talking on the phone.

    You were reading the book.

    1. Past Continuous ใช้กับเหตกุารณ์ที่กระทำอยู่ ณ ขณะนัน้หรือเจาะจงเวลาในอดีต (Specific time in the past)

    Affirmative & Negative

    I

    you

    we they

    he

    she

    it

    was (not)

    were (not)

    was (not)

    crying

    smiling

    (V.ing)

  • Examples: At 5:30 p.m. Zack was watching the TV at my house.

    At 8:30 p.m. she was having dinner at the restaurant.

    We were having an altercation when Tony came.

    When I arrived, John was sleeping on the couch.

    2. เราใช้ Past Continuous คู่กับ Past Simple เม่ือเหตุการณ์หนึ่งดำเนนิอยู่ในอดีต และอีกเหตุการณ์หนึ่งเข้าแทรก (PC เกิด PS เสือก)

    Past Continuous

    Past Simple

    Examples: While I was changing the light bulbs, the accident occurred.

    The suspect was taking a bath when the police came.

    While our relationship was deteriorating, he came to you.

    3. เราสามารถใช้ Past Continuous คู่กับ Past Continuous เม่ือทั้งสองเหตกุารณ์นั้น

    เกิดขึ้นพร้อมๆ กัน (PC เกิดพร้อม PC) **while, as มักนำมาใช้

    Past Continuous1

    Past Continuous2

    Examples: While my father was cooking, my mother was sleeping.

    He was studying for his final examination as you were

    drinking alcohol.

    Andy was climbing the tree while Sarah was swimming.

    Past Continuous in Interrogative Sentences

    was, were + S + V. ing?

    What

    Who

    were

    was

    Were

    Was

    you

    Jane

    the kids

    she

    doing?

    talking

    sleeping

    cooking

    when …?

    to when …?

    ?

    while …?

  • Examples: What were you doing when she came?

    Who was Sarah dating with that time?

    Were you doing your work?

    Were you there when she came?

    Grammar Note

    Past Simple VS Past Continuous

    PC เกิดพร้อม PC (เกิดพร้อมกัน)

    While the government was launching the new campaign,

    เหตุการณ์จบลงแล้วโดยสมบูรณ ์

    Keywords: yesterday, ago, last

    เจาะจงเวลาที่เกิดขึ้น (ในอดีต)

    PC เกิด PS เสือก

    He broke up with me 3 days ago.

    Last night you were in my room.

    At 5:30 PM she was working out with me.

    I was sleeping when my brother broke his mobile phone.

    many citizens were opposing an execution.

  • 8 Look at the grammar box. Then choose the correct options to complete

    the true life survival stories.

    life SURVIVAL STORIES! The sun shone / was shining when Bethany Hamilton arrived at the beach

    on a beautiful morning in Hawaii. But hours later, the young teenager surfed

    / was surfing out at sea when a shark attacked her and she lost her left

    arm. Amazingly, Bethany swam / was swimming back to the beach with

    one arm and, as she was swimming, she told other surfers to get out of the

    water.

    While Steven and Rachel Carlson sailed / were sailing around the Canary

    Islands, their boat sank. They didn't have / weren't having much food and

    water but after 31 days at sea they still survived.

    It was a normal afternoon at Denver airport but as Flight 455 was taking

    off, passengers saw / was seeing a fire from the window. Immediately, the

    plane's captain realized that the engines didn't work / weren't working and

    radioed for help. While passengers ran/were running towards the front exits,

    Maria Garza pulled her daughter through the window exit next to the wing.

    Personal Qualities

    ABILITY BEHAVIOUR MATURITY PERSONALITY ATTITUDE

    outstanding

    excellent

    helpful

    considerate

    confidential

    mature

    well developed

    all-round

    positive

    enthusiastic

    Vocabulary

  • very good

    good

    well-

    behaved

    responsible

    careful

    patient

    reliable

    sensible

    self-motivated

    experienced

    V.be interested in

    everything

    eager

    motivated

    keen

    ambitious

    decisive

    determined

    able

    average

    inconsistent

    poor

    weak

    thoughtless

    inconsiderate

    disruptive

    naughty

    problematic

    selfish

    shy

    childish

    immature

    lacks

    confidence

    one-sided

    uneven

    lacks curiosity

    V.be dependent on

    others

    unmotivated

    passive

    lazy

    Examples: She is very reliable.

    This information is confidential.

    Robert is selfish.

    My colleagues are extremely enthusiastic.

    His performance is outstanding this year.

    Negative Prefixes

    ขึ้นต้นแล้วเป็นลบ/ปฏิเสธ

    • คำท่ีสามารถเติมด้วย a- ขึ้นต้น มักเป็นคำท่ีขึน้ต้นด้วย พยัญชนะทัว่ไป

  • affirmative negative

    political

    sexual

    theist

    apolitical

    asexual

    atheist

    • คำท่ีสามารถเติมด้วย dis- ขึ้นต้น มักเปน็คำท่ีขึ้นต้นด้วย สระหรือพยัญชนะทั่วไป

    affirmative negative

    agree

    comfort

    mount

    orient

    disagree

    discomfort

    dismount

    disorient

    • คำท่ีสามารถเติมด้วย il- ขึ้นต้น มักเป็นคำท่ีขึ้นต้นด้วย l

    affirmative negative

    legal

    legible

    literate

    logical

    illegal

    illegible

    illiterate

    illogical

    • คำท่ีสามารถเติมด้วย im- ขึ้นต้น มักเป็นคำท่ีขึ้นต้นด้วย m หรือ p

    affirmative negative

    mobile

    moral

    immobile

    immoral

  • perfect

    possible

    imperfect

    impossible

    • คำท่ีสามารถเติมด้วย in- ขึ้นต้น มักเป็นคำท่ีขึ้นต้นด้วย สระ (ยกเว้น i หรือ u) หรือ

    พยัญชนะ

    affirmative negative

    accurate

    eligible

    Organic

    decent

    sane

    inaccurate

    ineligible

    inorganic

    indecent

    insane

    Special Note

    โปรดระวังว่า มีหลายคำมากที่ขึ้นต้นด้วย in- แต่ไม่ได้มีความหมายเป็นเชิงปฏิเสธ

    word does not mean ความหมาย

    incline

    indulge

    insist

    invoke

    not cline

    not dulge

    not sist

    not voke

    มีแนวโน้ม

    ดื่มด่ำ

    ยืนกราน

    อุทธรณ์, ขอร้อง

    • คำท่ีสามารถเติมด้วย ir- ขึ้นต้น มักเป็นคำท่ีขึ้นต้นด้วย r

    affirmative negative

    rational

    reconcilable

    irrational

    irreconcilable

  • regular

    resistible

    irregular

    irresistible

    • คำท่ีสามารถเติมด้วย non- ขึน้ต้น มักเป็นคำท่ีขึ้นต้นด้วย สระ หรือ พยัญชนะทั่วไป

    affirmative negative

    conformist

    essential

    fiction

    sense

    nonconformist

    nonessential

    nonfiction

    nonsense

    • คำท่ีสามารถเติมด้วย un- ขึน้ต้น มักเป็นคำท่ีขึน้ต้นด้วย สระ หรือ พยัญชนะทั่วไป

    affirmative negative

    able

    interesting

    usual

    comfortable

    helpful

    prepared

    unable

    uninteresting

    unusual

    uncomfortable

    unhelpful

    unprepared

  • Geographical Features

    Summit (n.) ยอดเขา

    Glacier (n.) ธารน้ำแข็ง

    Mountain (n.) ภูเขา

    Ridge (n.) สันเขา

    Crevasse (n.) รอยแยก

    Cave (n.) ถ้ำ

    Cliff (n.) หน้าผา

    Volcano (n.) ภูเขาไฟ

    Hill (n.) เนินเขา

    Lake (n.) ทะเลสาป Ocean (n.) มหาสมุทร

    Harbor (n.) อ่าว

    Island (n.) เกาะ

    4c The right decision?

  • Prepositions for time expressions

    ปี, เดือน, ฤดกูาล, ช่วงเวลานาน

    วันที่, วัน

    เวลาที่เฉพาะเจาะจง

    - IN -

    • “in” มักถกูใช้กับช่วงหรือระยะเวลา เช่น ฤดกูาล เดือน หรือ ระยะเวลายาวนาน

    Examples: I was born in 1986.

    He’ll visit them in October.

    The ski resort is closed in summer.

    He grew up in the seventies. (between 1970 and 1980)

    It happened in the 16th century.

    Don’t worry, it all happened in the past.

    • นอกจากนี้ เรายังสามารถใช้กับช่วงเวลาในระหว่างวันได้

    Examples: They’re leaving in the evening.

    The baby sleeps in the afternoon.

    I work most productively in the morning.

    • เรายังสามารถใช้ “in” เพื่ออธิบายจำนวนเวลาที่ต้องการในการทำบางส่ิงได้

    Examples: They managed to complete the job in two weeks.

    You can drive around the island in a day.

    I’ll be ready in five minutes.

    He’s gone away but he’ll be back in a couple of days.

    You can collect your parcel in a week.

    It’s too hot to go out in the middle of the day.

    in

    on

    at

  • - ON -

    • เราสามารถใช้ “on” สำหรับวันต่างๆ ในสัปดาห์ได้

    Examples: She’s working on Monday.

    She usually works on Mondays.

    We’re going to the theatre on Wednesday evening.

    Let’s have a coffee on Friday morning.

    It’s his birthday on Saturday.

    • “on” สามารถใช้กับวันที่ได้อีกด้วย

    Examples: The interview is on the 29th of April.

    He was born on February 14th.

    It’s also used with special days.

    She was born on Valentine’s Day.

    We’re moving house on Christmas Eve.

    I have an exam on my birthday.

    • ข้อควรระวัง! เราสามารถใช้ “at” ถ้าหากว่าเรากำลังพูดถึงเทศกาล หรือช่วงเวลาพิเศษ

    Example: Are you going home at Christmas?

    • แต่ถ้าหากว่าเราหมายถึงวัน อย่างเฉพาะเจาะจง (ถ้ามี day มักใช้ “on”)

    Example: What are you doing on New Year’s Day?

    - AT -

    • เราใช้ “at” สำหรับระยะเวลาที่เจาะจง

    Example: Clock time

    The train arrives at 3:30.

    The party starts at midnight.

    The meeting will finish at 5:30.

    I’ll be there at noon or at midday / at dawn / at dusk.

    Specific times of the day

  • He doesn’t like driving at night.

    I’m going shopping at lunchtime.

    I read my daughter a story at bedtime.

    Let’s talk about it at dinner (time) tonight.

    โปรดระวัง! ถ้าหากเป็นช่วงเวลาเช่น morning, afternoon, evening and night.

    เราใช้ “at night” แต่ที่เหลือเราจะใช้ “in the morning” “in the afternoon” “in the

    evening”

    Vocabulary in, on or at for time expressions

    7 Look at these time expressions from the story. Then complete the rules (1-

    4) with in, on or at.

    in May 1985 on Day 1 three days later at the last

    second at four o'clock in the afternoon

    in the middle of that night in 1988

    1. We use …….. with months, years, seasons, decades, centuries and parts

    of the day.

    2. We use …….. with days, dates and special days such as her birthday,

    New Year's Day.

    3. We use …….. with times and special expressions such as night, the

    weekend, the final moment.

    4. We don't use …… , …… or ………. with time expressions such as

    yesterday, last week, two days later.

  • In May 1985 two climbers, Joe Simpson and Simon Yates, left their base camp by a lake and

    started climbing the north face of a mountain called Siula Grande in the Peruvian Andes. This

    climb was incredibly dangerous but the two men were experienced climbers and physically fit. On

    Day 1, the weather was good and the climb began well. At night they made a snow cave and

    slept on the side of the mountain.

    Three days later, after some very difficult climbing and bad weather, the two men stood at the

    summit. Unfortunately, the weather was getting worse so they didn't stay long. As they were going

    down a mountain ridge, a disaster happened. Simpson fell and broke his knee. Quickly, Yates tied

    a rope to himself and then to his friend. He began lowering Simpson down the mountain and, for

    hours and hours, Yates helped Simpson get down the mountain. They were getting close to the

    glacier at the bottom of the mountain but suddenly Simpson slipped. This time he went over the

    edge of a cliff. He was hanging in mid-air. Simpson shouted up to Yates, but the wind was blowing

    loudly and Yates couldn't hear him.

    Yates didn't know what was happening below. He waited for an hour but the rope was too heavy

    and it was pulling Yates down the mountain towards the cliff. He had two choices: hold the rope

    but then both of them might die, or cut the rope and survive. It was an impossible decision for

    Yates but, at the last second, Yates cut the rope and saved himself. Immediately, Simpson fell

    thirty metres into a crevasse.

    The next day, while Yates was desperately looking for Simpson, he found the crevasse. He ca lled

    for Simpson but he heard nothing. Sadly, he decided that Simpson was dead. Yates didn't know

    it but Simpson was - unbelievably - still alive inside the crevasse.

    Simpson waited for hours but when he realised Yates wasn't coming, he decided to take a risk.

    He had some rope so he abseiled to the bottom of the crevasse. He managed to find a way out.

    For three days, Simpson drank water from the snow and ice. He crawled back towards the base

    camp and at four o'clock in the afternoon of Day 7, Simpson was very near.

    In the middle of that night, Yates was sleeping in his tent at base camp when he woke up. He

    was sure someone was shouting his name. Excitedly, he ran outside and looked around. Finally,

    after searching and searching he found Simpson. He was lying on the ground, not moving, but he

    was still breathing.

    After a few days, the two men returned home and their story became famous. Unfairly, some

    climbers criticised Yates for cutting the rope. But, in 1988, Simpson wrote a book about the events

    and defended Yates. Simpson believed Yates made the right decision.

  • BOYS SURVIVE 50 DAY LOST AT SEA

    It's an amazing story and it's true! Fifty days ago, three teenage boys suddenly disappeared from the island of Atafu in a small boat. Immediately, rescue boats went to look for them but sadly there was no sign of their boat. Eventually, a fishing boat in the middle of the Pacific Ocean safely pulled them from the sea. The boys were badly sunburned and dehydrated but doctors said they were in surprisingly good health. Now, they are back happily with their families.

    -ly Adverb

    1. เรามักใช้ adverb ในการขยายประโยค

    Ex. Normally, Andy pushes himself first.

    2. เราสามารถใช้ในการขยายกริยาได ้

    Ex. He quietly asked me for help this morning.

    He asked me for help this morning quietly.

    3. เราสามารถใช้ในการขยาย Adjective

    Ex. The three survivors were amazingly healthy.

    5 Make these sentences from short stories more interesting using the adverbs.

    1. The climb was dangerous. (incredibly)

    The climb was incredibly dangerous.

    2. The sun was shining. (brightly)

    3. The man jumped into the car. (quickly)

  • 4. They were nearly at the top of the mountain but one of them slipped.

    (suddenly)

    5. It started raining. Gill had an umbrella. (fortunately)

    6. The Amazon river was long and they were lost for days. (amazingly)

    7. They walked back and looked into each other's eyes. (slowly)

    8. They were lost in the forest for hours but they found the road again. (eventually)

    climb (v.) ปีน climber (n.) นักปนีเขา

    crampons (n.) ปลายแหลมรองเท้าปีนเขา doubtful (adj.) ไม่แน่ใจ

    glacier (n.) ธารน้ำแข็ง guide (n.) มัคคุเทศก ์

    heel (n.) ส้นเท้า hike (n.) เดินในป่า

    rope (n.) เชือก stable (adj.) ม่ันคง

    unsafe (adj.) ไม่ปลอดภัย weather (n.) อากาศ

    UNIT 4 REVIEW Grammar 2 Read about two adventurers and check your ideas in Exercise 1. Then complete the text with the past simple form of the verbs.

    Steve O'Meara …………...(meet) Donna in Boston in 1986. On their second date, Steve

    …………...(take) Donna in a helicopter to Hawaii. That sounds romantic but they …………...

    (not/fly) to a beach. They …………...(go) to the Kilauea volcano. A year later, they

    …………...(visit) to the volcano again and this time they“. …………... (get) married on the

    volcano. It? …………...(not/be) only for romantic reasons. Steve and Donna both

    …………...(become) volcanologists and they …………...(travel) all over the world to study

    volcanoes. But they really …………... (want) to spend more time by the Kilauea volcano

    and some years later they" …………...(buy) a house there. Donna explains why: 'This

    volcano can still kill you but for me to live on the volcano is exciting every day’.

  • Vocabulary 4 Choose the correct option (a-c) to complete the sentences.

    1. My biggest ……….. at school was passing my mathematics exam. I got an A grade

    in the end!

    a. achievement b. challenge c. decision

    2. Don't get angry when things don't happen as fast as you'd like. Learn to be ………..

    a. patient b. reliable c. experienced

    3 Probably the most ………..person in history was Albert Einstein. He had an amazing brain.

    a. ambitious b. careful c. intelligent

    4. You dropped water everywhere. Please try to be more ………..!

    a. ambitious b. careful c. determined