running water. rivers systems watershed land from which water runs off into streams (drainage...
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WatershedLand from which water runs off into streams (drainage basin)
TributariesFeeder streams that flow into a mainriver.Where were these located on our watershed diagram?
A few terms to know..Divide-ridges or elevated regions of high ground that separate watersheds.
Headwaters- Beginning of a stream
Velocity- Distance water travels over time.
More terms to know.Discharge- volume of water moved by a stream within a given time.
Gradient- steepness of a streams slope
channelThe path that a stream follows
headward erosionprocess of lengthening and branching of a stream
How old is that river?Youthful riverstraight erodes rapidlyV-shapedfew tributarieshas waterfalls and rapids
Mature rivermeandering (winding)slow erosionU-shaped lots of tributaries holds lots of water
Old rivergradient and velocity decreasesno more erosionmore meandering
River BasinsA river basin is the land that water flows across or under on its way to a river. Large river basins are made up of many smaller watersheds
LakesA depression in the surface of the earth that collects and holds water
Which material would collect and hold water better: clay, sand, or gravel?
Lake OriginsNatural lakes originate in different ways in surface depressions and low areas.
Oxbow LakesForm when streams cut off meanders and leave isolated channels of water
Lake OriginsLandslide LakeStream flow is blocked by sediment from landslides
Lake OriginsPrehistoric LakesRemnants of prehistoric lakes that have receded to lower-lying areasGlacial LakesBasins of these lakes formed as glaciers gouged out the land during the ice ages. Glacial moraines dammed the depression = moraine-dammed lakes
Lake Origins Cirque Lakes Circular depression carved out by a glacier carved high in the mountains by valley glaciers.
Kettle or Pothole LakesBlocks of glacial ice left behind/blocked by rocks that melt and leave a depression
Man Made Lakes(Reservoirs)Dammed rivers that create lakes Used to create Hydroelectric power!
Amount of dissolved oxygen helps determine quality of lake water and its ability to support life
EutrophicationProcess by which lakes become rich in nutrients from the surrounding watershed
EutrophicationSourcesWastes from IndustryWastes from Sewage SystemsPesticide/herbicide runoff from farmsIllegal dumpingLeaking of storage tanks
TypesCopper = leaching from rock weathering, corrosion of pipingNitrates = Most common! Septic tanks, fertilizers, organic wastes (poop)Phosphates = fertilizers, industrial wastesChlorine = from disinfection
What this mean for peopleCopper = Can lead to liver damage or anemiaNitrates = starve body of oxygen cyanosis = blue baby syndrome = occurs in infants who drink water contaminated with nitratesPhosphates = excessive amounts can cause algal blooms in ponds/lakesChlorine = can combine with other compounds forming potentially carcinogenic compounds (cancer causing compounds)
Land area that is covered with water for a large part of the yearAKA: bogs, marshes, swamps
Receive water from precipitationSoils tend to be rich in SPHAGNUM = peat mossPeat moss breaks down= acidic soilAcidic soil supports unusual plants
Form along mouths of streams and in areas with extensive deltasGrasses, reeds, sedges, rushes, and abundant wildlife