running water. rivers systems watershed land from which water runs off into streams (drainage...

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  • Running Water

  • Rivers Systems

  • WatershedLand from which water runs off into streams (drainage basin)

  • TributariesFeeder streams that flow into a mainriver.Where were these located on our watershed diagram?

  • A few terms to know..Divide-ridges or elevated regions of high ground that separate watersheds.

    Headwaters- Beginning of a stream

    Velocity- Distance water travels over time.

  • More terms to know.Discharge- volume of water moved by a stream within a given time.

    Gradient- steepness of a streams slope

  • Stream Erosion

  • channelThe path that a stream follows

  • headward erosionprocess of lengthening and branching of a stream

  • How old is that river?Youthful riverstraight erodes rapidlyV-shapedfew tributarieshas waterfalls and rapids

  • Mature rivermeandering (winding)slow erosionU-shaped lots of tributaries holds lots of water

  • Old rivergradient and velocity decreasesno more erosionmore meandering

  • River BasinsA river basin is the land that water flows across or under on its way to a river. Large river basins are made up of many smaller watersheds

  • LakesA depression in the surface of the earth that collects and holds water

    Which material would collect and hold water better: clay, sand, or gravel?

  • Lake OriginsNatural lakes originate in different ways in surface depressions and low areas.

    Oxbow LakesForm when streams cut off meanders and leave isolated channels of water

  • Lake OriginsLandslide LakeStream flow is blocked by sediment from landslides

  • Lake OriginsPrehistoric LakesRemnants of prehistoric lakes that have receded to lower-lying areasGlacial LakesBasins of these lakes formed as glaciers gouged out the land during the ice ages. Glacial moraines dammed the depression = moraine-dammed lakes

  • Lake Origins Cirque Lakes Circular depression carved out by a glacier carved high in the mountains by valley glaciers.

    Kettle or Pothole LakesBlocks of glacial ice left behind/blocked by rocks that melt and leave a depression

  • Man Made Lakes(Reservoirs)Dammed rivers that create lakes Used to create Hydroelectric power!

  • Amount of dissolved oxygen helps determine quality of lake water and its ability to support life

  • EutrophicationProcess by which lakes become rich in nutrients from the surrounding watershed

  • EutrophicationSourcesWastes from IndustryWastes from Sewage SystemsPesticide/herbicide runoff from farmsIllegal dumpingLeaking of storage tanks

    TypesCopper = leaching from rock weathering, corrosion of pipingNitrates = Most common! Septic tanks, fertilizers, organic wastes (poop)Phosphates = fertilizers, industrial wastesChlorine = from disinfection

  • What this mean for peopleCopper = Can lead to liver damage or anemiaNitrates = starve body of oxygen cyanosis = blue baby syndrome = occurs in infants who drink water contaminated with nitratesPhosphates = excessive amounts can cause algal blooms in ponds/lakesChlorine = can combine with other compounds forming potentially carcinogenic compounds (cancer causing compounds)

  • Wetlands

    Land area that is covered with water for a large part of the yearAKA: bogs, marshes, swamps

  • Bogs

    Receive water from precipitationSoils tend to be rich in SPHAGNUM = peat mossPeat moss breaks down= acidic soilAcidic soil supports unusual plants

  • Marshes

    Form along mouths of streams and in areas with extensive deltasGrasses, reeds, sedges, rushes, and abundant wildlife