southern united hockey club coaches kit for retaining youth girls

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SOUTHERN UNITED HOCKEY CLUB COACHES KIT FOR RETAINING YOUTH GIRLS. INTRODUCTION. For most children, sport participation peaks at 10 years. As children grow into adolescence, participation declines. Young females are twice as likely to be inactive as young males. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation



  • Young female athletes that mature late have delayed fat deposits which favours athletic success and may result in continued participation in competitive sport.

    There is also a decrease in anaerobic and absolute aerobic power in females 13-15. This occurs at puberty when there is an increase in body fat.





    Fitness Level



    Perceived barriers

    Perceived competence



    Type of activity


    Independent mobilitySOCIAL

    Peer group



    Role models

  • Figure 1 Childrens participation in organised sport

    Source: ABS, Childrens Participation in Cultural and Leisure Activities, April 2003, p. 14.

    As girls mature earlier they are dropping out earlier.

    Womensport and Recreation Victoria research (2004) suggests a 50% drop out rate at the ages 10-14.

  • The social status of adolescent girls often depends on conformity to the feminine stereotype and the intensification of gender difference. That is, not being strong, physical and athletically talented.

    For many women, dissatisfaction with body shape and appearance peaks during adolescence. It is a time that many teenage girls are often required to wear club sports uniforms that make them feel particularly self-conscious and can be a deterrent to participation.

  • Womensport and Recreation NSW suggest if girls are playing to be social and have fun, then relax the dress code and let them wear shorts and t-shirts, rather than girls being uncomfortable and embarrassed.

    As Table 1 shows NSW have more females involved in club hockey than males and have over three times as many female club players than Victoria, therefore, we should be following their advice.

  • Table 1. Club Involvement: Hockey Australia Census 2006.

  • If you understand the reasons children participate in sport, you can enhance their motivation by structuring environments that better meet their needs.It is for intrinsic reasons that girls are motivated to participate in sport. Winning is neither the only nor the most common reason for participation. Girls higher in self-esteem give reasons for their physical competence that were more internal, stable and personally controllable than did low self-esteem girls.

  • Competition and a focus on winning may act as extrinsic motivating forces to decrease intrinsic motivation.Most athletes have multiple reasons for participation, not a single motive. Although most children withdraw because of interest in other activities, a significant minority discontinue for negative reasons.

    Goal orientation tasks and technical information for skill improvement will enhance self-perceptions and motivated behaviour of girls.

  • Why Girls Participate

    To have funTo stay in shapeTo get exerciseTo improve skillsTo do something theyre good atTo learn new skillsFor the excitement of competitionTo play as part of a teamTo make new friendsFor the challenge of the competition

    Why Girls Withdraw

    Other interestsLack of funFailure to learn or improve skillsLack of belongingLack of thrills/excitementLack of exercise & fitnessNo challenge/failureCompetitive pressureCoach bias/discriminationInjury

    Underlying Psychological Motive for Participation or WithdrawalPerceived competenceGoal orientationsStress responseGIRLS IN ORGANISED SPORT TOP 10 RESPONSES

  • Girls who discontinue often have low perceived self-confidence, tend to focus on outcome goals and experience considerable stress.

    Girls with low perceptions of their athletic abilities do not participate in sport, or they drop out, whereas girls with high perceptions of their competence participate and persist.

  • Stress is an imbalance between the perceived demand of the situation and perceived ability of the individual to meet that demand, particularly under conditions in which failure to meet the demand has important consequences.

    Focussing on personal improvement rather than absolute outcome assists young athletes affected by stress.

  • Poor self-image/self confidenceLower participation in early childhood may also mean that girls have poorer motor skills that are precursors for sport.Girls tend to underrate their ability to perform at sports and are less likely to view themselves as talentedLack of encouragement, financial support, transport.

  • Girls may think it is unladylike to play sport, social stereotypingNot enough time with school, VCE, university or part-time jobNo role models (from either SUHC or professional athletesPeers and relationships become a priorityOther interestsToo competitive

  • Teach girls to evaluate their performances by their own standards of improvement rather than by competitive outcomes (winning or losing) to enhance self-perceived ability.Teach girls that success means exceeding their own goals, not merely winning contests.Emphasising individual goal setting, in which girls compare their athletic performances to their own standards (self-referenced standards), helps girls avoid focussing sole attention on the outcomes of competitions, therefore feeling more competent.Enhance peer relationships by creating motivational climates that enhance task goals and foster cooperation.

  • A coachs technical instruction, reinforcement, and encouragement of a player after a mistake, correlate with a players self-esteem, motivation and positive attitudes.

  • COACHS TASKTo learn whether girls are withdrawing from Southern United Club, hockey or from sport participation altogether by performing exit interviews.

    Conduct drills that require small groups of players to interact, which will maximise athlete involvement.

    Reduce displays of social status (public picking of teams).

    Time should be provided for children to be with their friends and for making new friends. A key factor of girls who engage and sustain physical activity was whether they had a same-sex friend with whom to participate.

    Encourage positive peer reinforcement. Adopt a no tolerance level toward derogatory remarks, teasing and negative comments. Children under 10 years rely more on adult comments however, 10-14 year old children rely more on peer comparison and evaluation.

  • Examples of Innovative Practices

    Active Girls Breakfast Teenage girls joined top Australian sports women to foster a sense of belonging by listening to female athletes talk about their love of sport and personal fulfilment.

    Junior Girls Cricket Squad, Illawarra Academy of Sport, Australia

    St. Kilda Lawn Bowls Club Engaging youth program Damien Van Trier (03) 9819 6177 Royal Victorian Bowls Association


  • Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation [email protected] (03) 9354 5311 An organisation that supports those working in HPE and RecreationAustralian Sports Commission National policy on women and girls in sport, recreation and physical activity 1999-2002. ASC provides national leadership in facets of sport from the elite level through to the wider community.Center for Research on Girls and Women in Sport [email protected] Physical and Mental Health Dimension form an Interdisciplinary Approach. Hockey Australia Hockey Victoria [email protected] Annette Hatherley, Development Manager. (03) 8379 4280 Governing bodies of hockey responsible for all aspects, including development.NSW Department of Sport and Recreation An interesting look into what other states are achieving with their youthOffice for Youth Government body responsible for positive youth programsPlanet Field Hockey This website aims to connect field hockey worldwide. It discusses a wide range of issues as well as informing the reader about the progress of national teams.

  • Positive Coaching Alliance [email protected] Developed to emphasise the need for youth coaches to be more positive with young athletes. It has a Coaching Behaviour Assessment System (CBAS).Sport and Recreation Victoria VicHealth VicSport Victorian Government sport sites that assist with the development of youth programs in physical activity. VicSport library has a range of articles and programs that can be borrowed.Victorian Institute of Sport (03) 9425 0000 Dr. N. Blundell, Dr. H. Speed, and Mr. P. Farell are sport psychologists for the VIS.Victorian University Research Project Dr. M. Craike. (03) 9919 5538 Current longitudinal research in retaining girls in activity.Womens Sports Foundation www.womensportsfoundation.orgWomensport and Recreation Victoria - (03) 9654 7545 [email protected] This organisation and website delivers information about women and sport from all states in Australia.