genetically modified organisms and limitations

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Page 1: Genetically modified organisms and limitations
Page 2: Genetically modified organisms and limitations

Introduction

Page 3: Genetically modified organisms and limitations

What is GMO’s?

• Genetically modified organism (GMO) “GMO is any organism whose genetic

 material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques”

Genetic engineering• Also called genetic modification“Genetic engineering is the manipulation

of an organism's genome using biotechnology

” 

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Specifically, “ Any living organism that

possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology.”

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Production procedure of GMO

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1.  Identification of the gene interest.

2. Isolation of the gene of interest.

3. Amplifying gene to produce many

copies.

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4. Associating the gene with an

appropriate promoter and poly A

sequence

5. Insertion into plasmids.

6. Multiplying the plasmid in bacteriaBacteria

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6. Transference of the construct into

the recipient tissue, usually fertilized

eggs

7. Integration of gene into recipient

genome;

8. Expression of gene in recipient

genome

9.Inheritance of gene through further

generations.

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Examples Of GMO’s

•Genetically Modified Animals•Genetically Modified Plants•Genetically Modified Bacteria

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Glofish Web-spinnnig goat

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Genetically modified PLANTS

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Genetically modified crops• Also called GMCs, GM crops,

or biotech crops) • Plants with modified DNA by

using genetic engineering techniques• The aim is to introduce a new trait to

the plant which does not occur naturally in the species

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  Examples in food crops

• Crops resistant to certain pests diseases environmental conditions fast spoilage chemical treatments

• Crops with improved nutrient profile

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Examples in non-food crops

• Include crops for production of-pharmaceutical agents-biofuels-other industrially useful

goods-for bioremediation.

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Examples

Insect resistant cotton – Bt toxin kills the cotton boll worm• transgene = Bt gene from Bacillus thuringiensis

Insect resistant corn – Bt toxin kills the European corn borer.• transgene = Bt protein

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Herbicide resistant crops -soybean, corn, canola• transgene = EPSP synthase

Virus resistance papaya- resistant to papaya ring spot virus• transgene = virus coat protein

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Golden rice

Sweet corn

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Yield• In 2014 the largest review yet

concluded that GM crops’ effects on farming were positive

• Yields increased -9% for herbicide tolerance-25% for insect resistance-GM crops made 69% higher

profits • GM crops help farmers in developing

countries by increasing yields by 14%

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Genetically Modified Bacteria

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Genetically modified bacteria

• 1st organisms to be modified- due to their simple

genetics.

• Used for several purposes • important in producing large

amounts of human proteins -for use in medicine

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Bacterial synthesized transgenic products

• Insulin• Hepatitis B vaccine• Tissue plasminogen activator• Human growth hormone• Interferon• bt corn

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Example:

In 1978, a version of the human insulin gene was inserted into the bacterium Escherichia coli 

to produce synthetic "human"

insulin.

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Examples of GM Bacteria

• E. coli bacteria - to produce clotting factors to treat hemophilia

• Streptococcus mutants: if properly colonized  in a person's mouth, could reduce the formation of cavities

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Genetically modified Animals

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Genetically modified Animals

“A transgenic animal is one that carries a foreign gene that has been

deliberately inserted into its genome”

•The foreign gene is constructed using recombinant DNA methedology.•Process of GMO animals is slow

-tedious-expensive

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Examples of genetic modified Animals

•Transgenic sheep•Transgenic cow•Genetically modified fish•Genetically modified mice •Genetically modified Chicken•Genetically modified Goat•Genetically modified pig

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Dolly sheep

•Born 5 July 1996•Roslin institute•Died 14 febrary 2003•National museum of scotland•First mammal to be cloned from somatic cell•Offspring six lambs

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Transgenic sheep

•Tracy is the first transgenic animal•Produce a recombinant protein in her milk

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Uses of transgenic sheep

It is used as a model for studying•Immunology •Human blood clotting factor 8•Transplantation•Haematology•Drug production in milk•Recombinant DNA

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Genetic modified cow•Transgenic cows carrying two types of cassiene genes •Results in 13% more milk proteine•A bovine growth hormone used in cows to increase milk production

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Transgenic fish

• Tilapia • Trout• Catfish ,Zebra fish• Grow 6 times faster than wild fish• Extra copies of growth hormone

gene.• To detect pollution in waterways.

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Genetically modified chicken•Featherless chicken are produced to increase the quantity of meat.

•Used to increase quantity of meat and eggs

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•GM goats

•GM pigs

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Advantages • Higher yields• Increased muscle bulk (animals)• Prolonged shelf-life • Higher nutritional value

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• Inbuilt resistance to pests, weeds and disease

• More environment friendly• Decrease in food prices (due to

lower costs and higher yield)

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• Less environmental hazards• Decrease costs of growing and farming• Source of more income for farmers• Production of medicines and vaccines

(biotechnology)

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Disadvantages

• Upsetting the ecosystem • Development of super pests • Ethical issues (religious, health) • Interfering the normal DNA system

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• Disappointing crop yields (may be)• Doubt over the environmental benefits• No good or natural taste• Unpredictable results

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• Increasing financial gaps between developed & developing countries

• False claim of ending world hunger with GMOs

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Reported problems

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Farmers reported:• Pigs and cows became sterile from GM

corn• Workers exposed to BT-cotton developed

allergies• Sheep died after grazing in BT-cotton fields

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Scientists reported:• GM peas generated an allergic-type

inflammatory response in mice• Rats fed BT- corn had multiple health

problems• Mice fed GM BT- potatoes had intestinal

damage

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Are GM foods safe?

• Many people are not sure either the GMO’s are safe to use or not.

• A very small proportion of population prefers the use of modified foods.

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Issues

• Religious issues–Banned human cloning

• Social issues–No to human cloning only for organs–Difference between developed &

under-developed countries

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