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September 10-13, 2016 New Mexico Land of Geologic Confluences and Cultural Crossroads AIPG 53 rd National Conference

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Page 1: Santa Fe -

Santa Fe

September 10-13, 2016

New Mexico

Land of Geologic Confluences and

Cultural Crossroads

AIPG 53rd National Conference


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• AIPG Northeast Section• Clear Creek Associates

• Sorrell Consulting

Chimayosos Peak Sponsors

• American Geosciences Institute• AMEC Foster Wheeler

• Cascade Drilling• FLUTe

• AssuredPartners of Colorado• GeoStabilization International

• Vista Geoscience• New Mexico Bureau of Geology

and Mineral Resources

• AIPG Michigan Section• FirstBank

• Aspen Laser & Technologies

• California Section• Colorado Section• Florida Section

• Minnesota Section• New Mexico Section• Wisconsin Section

Lunch Sponsors


AIPG Section Break Sponsors

Product Sponsor

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2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM 1

Table of Contents

Table of Contents ............................... 1

Welcome and Acknowledgements ..... 2

Daily Schedule ................................ 3-7

Hotel Floor Plan .............................. 8-9

Technical Session Schedule ......... 10-19

Conference Abstracts ................. 21-66

Congratulations!!!AIPG 2016 National Awardees

Ben H. Parker Memorial MedalVincent P. Amy, CPG 2035

Tequesta, Florida

Martin Van Couvering Memorial Award

J. Foster Sawyer, CPG 10000Rapid City, South Dakota

John T. Galey, Sr.Memorial Public Service Award

Logan T. MacMillan, CPG 4560Littleton, Colorado

Award of Honorary MembershipLarry A. Cerrillo, CPG 2763

Evergreen, Colorado

Outstanding Achievement AwardP. Patrick Leahy, CPG 10507

Alexandria, Virginia

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2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM2

Welcome!The organizing committee and the New Mexico AIPG Section would like to welcome each of you to historic Santa Fe, New Mexico and the American Institute of Pro-fessional Geologists 53rd Annual Meeting. The theme for this year’s meeting is Land of Geologic Confluences and Cultural Crossroads. We bring together geologists from across the nation and from across a broad spectrum of geologic professions: oil and gas; mineral exploration; resource development; environmental compliance and corrective action; energy fuels and many more. The di-verse program and technical sessions, coupled with the wide-ranging diversity of the field trips, will ensure that there will be plenty to interest the meeting attendees. All scheduled events are open to all registrants unless other-wise indicated.

We would like to thank the many people who worked quite diligently to put together this meeting. The AIPG headquarters staff, especially Cathy Duran and Wendy Davidson, who worked long hours planning this event. The field trip leaders and the New Mexico Bureau of Geology & Mineral Resources Director and State Geolo-gist, Matthew Rhoades. We have a diverse group of plan-ning committee members for this year’s annual meet-ing: Laura Crossey; Magdalena Donahue; Dave Groves; John Hawley; Ray Irwin; Karl Karlstrom; David McCraw; Steve Raugust; Adam Read; Shannon Williams; and Kate Ziegler. Without your dedication and hard work, this meeting would not be the same. Thanks also to our spon-sors, exhibitors, and participating AIPG sections.

Welcome and enjoy the conference and your time in Santa Fe!


Susan von Gonten CPG-10966 Conference Co-ChairTreasurer, NM AIPG Section

John Sorrell CPG-11366 Conference Co-ChairPresident, NM AIPG Section

Thomas Reynolds CPG-11186Conference Co-Chair

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2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM

Saturday, 9/10


8:00 am—12:00 noon AIPG Executive Committee Meeting Lamy Room (building across from lobby) (open to all registrants)..............................................................

12:00 noon—1:00 pm AIPG Awards Luncheon O’Keeffe Room (building across from lobby on the left) (open to all registrants)..............................................................

1:00 pm—4:30 pm AIPG Advisory Board Meeting Lamy Room (building across from lobby) (open to all registrants)..............................................................

4:30 pm—5:00 pm AIPG 2016-2017 Joint Executive Committee Meeting & Business Meeting Lamy Room (building across from lobby) (open to all registrants)..............................................................

5:00 pm—6:00 pm AIPG Foundation Meeting Meem Room (building across from lobby) (open to all registrants)..............................................................

5:00 pm—6:00 pm NM Section Meeting Rivera A Room..............................................................

*Breakfast is complimentary for hotel guests. If not staying at the Drury, cost for the breakfast buffet is $6.99+ tax.

Front Cover Photos Courtesy of John Sorrell - #1-Hagen, #2-Fenton

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Sunday, 9/11

2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM4

7:30 am—5:00 pm Registration (2nd floor)..............................................................

7:30 am—5:30 pm Field Trip — Valles Caldera and the Los Alamos Science Museum..............................................................

8:00 am—5:00 pm Field Trip — Sandia Crest..............................................................

10:00 am—4:00 pm Exhibitor and Poster Set-up Palace Ballroom..............................................................

5:30 pm—6:30 pm Student Networking Event with Professionals Lamy Room (building across from lobby) (complimentary for all registrants)..............................................................

6:30 pm—8:00 pm Reception — Exhibit Area Open Palace Ballroom (complimentary for all registrants) Rockslide Rendezvous to follow!..............................................................

8:00 pm—10:00 pm Rockslide Rendezvous! Come and share your musical talents or listen to live music and singing from your fellow geologists. Enjoy the Evening! Palace Ballroom (complimentary for all registrants)..............................................................

* All field trips will depart and return to the Drury Plaza Hotel out the front lobby doors.

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2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM

Monday, 9/12


7:30 am—5:00 pm Registration (2nd floor)..............................................................

7:30 am—8:15 am Section Delegate Meeting Palace Ballroom (open to all sections) *Breakfast is on your own...............................................................

8:00 am—5:00 pm Field Trip — The High Road to Taos Pueblo..............................................................

8:00 am—5:00 pm Field Trip — Paleontology and Geology of Ghost Ranch..............................................................

8:30 am—10:00 am Plenary Session Palace Ballroom..............................................................8:30 am—5:00 pm Exhibits Open Palace Ballroom..............................................................

10:00 am—10:30 am Break Palace Ballroom..............................................................

*Breakfast is complimentary for hotel guests. If not staying at the Drury, cost for the breakfast buffet is $6.99+ tax.





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Monday, 9/12

2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM6

10:30 am—5:00 pm Technical Sessions (see Technical Session Schedule page 10)..............................................................

12:00 noon—1:30 pm Luncheon with Keynote Speaker Kirt Kempter Palace Ballroom (complimentary for all registrants)..............................................................

1:30 pm—3:30 pm Student Poster Contest Judging Palace Ballroom (students please be at your poster for judging)..............................................................

3:00 pm—3:30 pm Break Palace Ballroom..............................................................

6:30 pm—8:30 pm AIPG Awards and Dinner O’Keeffe Room (building across from lobby on the left) Dessert will follow on the Rooftop Terrace (all attendees welcome with additional fee)..............................................................

Tent Rocks-Photo Courtesy of John Sorrell

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2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM

Tuesday, 9/13


* All trips will depart and return to the Drury Plaza Hotel out the front lobby doors.

7:30 am—3:00 pm Registration (2nd floor)..............................................................

8:00 am—2:00 pm Field Trip — Pecos-Picuris Fault in Deer Creek Canyon..............................................................

8:30 am—3:30 pm Exhibits Open Palace Ballroom..............................................................

8:30 am—5:00 pm Technical Sessions (see Technical Session Schedule page 16).............................................................

10:00 am—10:30 am Break Palace Ballroom..............................................................

12:00 noon—1:30 pm Networking Luncheon Garden (complimentary for all registrants)..............................................................

3:00 pm—3:30 pm Break Palace Ballroom...............................................................




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Hotel Site Map

2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM8


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2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM

Hotel Site Map



Drury Plaza Hotel828 Paseo De PeraltaSanta Fe, NM 87501

(505) 424-2175

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Technical Sessions

2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM10

— Plenary Session —• Welcome Helen Hickman, CPG - 2016 AIPG President

• Matthew Rhoades, CPG, NM State Geologist, New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM

• Geology in New Mexico: Future Opportunities and Challenges

Palace Ballroom

Monday, September 12, 2016 8:30 am-10:00 am

— Poster Session —The Characterization of Abandoned Uranium Mines in New MexicoJohn Asafo-Akowuah, SANew Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM

Development of a Low Cost, Field Portable, Geochemical Gold TestBenjamin Eppley, SA Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, CO

The Hydrogeologic Framework of Central Santa Fe, New Mexico - A Detailed Subsurface PerspectiveJohn Hawley, CPG Hawley Geomatters, Albuquerque, NM

Improving Ocean Stewardship through Acquisition of Oceanic DataDina London, SAUniversity of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO

Diagenetic Processes Capable of Precipitating Potassium Feldspar Cement in the Springdale Sandstone and Fountain FormationLindsay Mota, SALittleton, CO

GW Contour Maps, Preparation, Interpretation, Foren-sic PerspectiveMehmet Pehlivan, MEMBays Environmental Remediation Management, Ladera Ranch, CA

Monday, September 12, 2016 10:00 am-10:30 am

Poster Session Presentations - Palace Ballroom

Poster Presenters will be Available at their Posters Monday During the Morning Break.

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2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM

Technical Sessions


Monday, September 12, 2016 10:00 am-10:30 am

Poster Session Presentations - Palace Ballroom

— Poster Session —

Examining Ash Fall Sequences in Calk-Alkaline Subduction Related Volcanism, Southern New Mexico Shannon Rentz, SAMissouri State University, Springfield, MO

Experimental Cerargyrite (AgCl) Formation in SandstoneTravis Sullivan, SA Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, CO

Modeling Regional Weather Patterns in Southern Illinois by Integrating Stable Water Isotopes Found in Precipitation to Distinguish Various Controls on the Local Hydrologic CycleStephania Zneimer, SASouthern Illinois University, Geology Department, Carbondale, IL

Student Poster Contestants will be Available at their Posters

Monday During the Morning Break and also Monday Afternoon from 1:30 pm - 3:30 pm

to Answer Judges’ Questions• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •









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Technical Sessions

2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM12

Monday, September 12, 2016 10:30 am-12:00 pm

— Mining I — • Moderator - Donald Lumm, CPG - KY

10:30-11:00Uranium in Missouri? - The Rest of the StoryJohn Gustavson, CPG, Mineral Appraiser LLC, Boulder, CO


Mining Issues in New Mexico in 2016Virginia T. McLemore, Ph.D., CPG, New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM

11:30-12:00The Potash Identification (PID) Plot for Identifying Commercial Potash DepositsDonald Hill, University of Southern California, Walnut Creek, CA

— Environmental I —• Moderator - Shanna Schmitt, CPG - MN

10:30-11:00Hudson River Dredging Project: Promoting Continuous Improvement through Field AuditingJoseph Kraycik, MEM, Environmental Standards, Inc., Valley Forge, PA

11:00-11:30Mercury WarsDavid Lawler, CPG, FarWest Geoscience Foundation, Grass Valley, CA

11:30-12:00The Characterization of Abandoned Uranium Mines in New MexicoAshlynne Winton, SA, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM

Session 1B - Rivera Room

Session 1A - Lamy Room

Luncheon Keynote SpeakerKirt Kempter, Field Geologist

New Mexico’s Journey through Geologic Time

Palace Ballroom 12:00 noon-1:15 pm

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2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM

Technical Sessions


Monday, September 12, 2016 10:30 am-12:00 pm

— Engineering I —• Moderator - Keri Nutter, CPG - AK

10:30-11:00Innovations in Geohazard Mitigation and Geotechnical EngineeringRobert Barrett, GeoStabilization International, Grand Junction, CO

11:00-11:30Geotechnical Engineering Considerations Regarding Climate Change in the Intermountain WestLaurie Brandt, CPG, DOWL, Montrose, CO

11:30-12:00Construction Dewatering: Investigation Methods and Approach in New York CityWilliam Canavan, CPG, HydroEnvironmental Solutions, Somers, NY; Steve Verdibello, HydroEnvironmental

Session 1C - Meem Room

Session 2A - Lamy Room

— Professional I —• Moderator - J. Foster Sawyer, CPG - SD

1:30-2:00Adventures at a State Geological SurveyJim Burnell, Ph.D., CPG, Mineral Strategies, Golden, CO

2:00-2:30The Changing Landscape of the Next Generation of GeoscientistsChristopher Keane, Ph.D., American Geosciences Institute, Alexandria, VA

2:30-3:00Governance in Professional OrganizationsWilliam J. Siok, CPG, Tucson, AZ

Monday, September 12, 2016 1:30 pm-3:00 pm

Chupadera-Photo Courtesy of John Sorrell

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Technical Sessions

2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM14

— Environmental II —• Moderator - Susan von Gonten, CPG - NM

1:30-2:00Water Use Associated with Natural Gas Development in the Susquehanna River BasinPaula Ballaron, Susquehanna River Basin Commission, Harrisburg, PA

2:00-2:30In-Situ Remediation of Oil-Field Brine Spills in Low-Permeable Soils Using ElectrokineticsBrent Huntsman, CPG, Terran Corporation, Beavercreek, OH

2:30-3:00Petroleum Hydrocarbon Permeation of a PVC Water Line and Cleanup via Soil Excavation and Water Line ReplacementMichael McVey, CPG, Daniel B. Stephens & Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM

Session 2B - Rivera Room

Monday, September 12, 2016 1:30 pm-3:00 pm

— Geology I —• Moderator - Shanna Schmitt, CPG - MN

1:30-2:00Evidence for a Quaternary Lake, Western Colorado and Eastern UtahEdward Baltzer, CPG, Avant Environmental Services, Grand Junction, CO; Joe Fandrich, MEM, Grand Junction, CO


Westwater, Utah – A Present Day Ice-Dammed Lake: A Key to the PastJoe Fandrich, MEM, Grand Junction, CO

2:30-3:00Rare Earth Element Substitution and Cathodoluminescence in Apatite from the Bear Lodge Dome, Crook County, Wyoming, USAJason Felsman, CPG, Boulder, CO

Session 2C - Meem Room

Student Poster Contest Results will be Announced Tuesday at the

Morning Break in the Palace Ballroom

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2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM

Technical Sessions


— Hydrology I —• Moderator - Doug Bartlett, CPG - AZ

3:30-4:00Hydrogeologic Setting of Santa Fe, New Mexico—A Historic Perspective

John Hawley, CPG, Hawley Geomatters, Albuquerque, NM

4:00-4:30A New Rapid Method for Measuring the Vertical Head ProfileCarl Keller, FLUTe, Alcalde, NM

4:30-5:00Applying Transducer Networks to Evaluate Groundwater Communication in Fractured BedrockJeffrey Johnson, CPG, NewFields Companies, LLC – Houston, Houston, TX

Session 3A - Lamy Room

Monday, September 12, 2016 3:30 pm-5:00 pm

— Professional II —• Moderator - Helen Hickman, CPG - FL

3:30-4:00Do Your Homework: Conducting Community Due DiligenceLinda L. Lampl, Ph.D., Lampl Herbert Consultants, Tallahassee, FL

4:00-4:30Geoscientists Understanding Their Political World Thomas A. Herbert, Ph.D., P.G., CPG, Lampl Herbert Consultants, Tallahassee, FL

4:30-5:00The Future Direction of AIPG: Opportunities and Challenges Aaron W. Johnson, Ph.D., MEM, AIPG Executive Director, Thornton, CO

Session 3B - Rivera Room

Sandia Mountains-Photo Courtesy of Adam Read

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Technical Sessions

2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM16

Tuesday, September 13, 2016 8:30 am-10:00 am

Session 4A - Lamy Room— Engineering II —

• Moderator - John Sorrell, CPG - NM

8:30-9:00Utilization of Factor of Safety in Geotechnical SolutionsCameron Lobato, GeoStabilization International, Grand Junction, CO


Drones and Geological ConsultingMichael Lawless, CPG, Draper Aden Associates, Blacksburg, VA

9:30-10:00Oil Field Development Field Assessment: Leveraging Mobile GIS Applications to Streamline Geologic Field Data CollectionShawn Turner, P.G., CDM Smith, Houston, TX

Session 4B - Rivera Room— Environmental III —

• Moderator - David Pyles, CPG - IL

8:30-9:00Emerging Contaminant PFOA: A Primer on Perfluorooctanoic Acid (and Other Perfluorinated Chemicals)Jean (Neubeck) Patota, CPG, Alpha Geoscience, Clifton Park, NY

9:00-9:30The Critical Role of Hydrogeology in Investigating and Protecting Ground Water SuppliesJean (Neubeck) Patota, CPG, Alpha Geoscience, Clifton Park, NY

9:30-10:00Vacuum Driven In-Well Stripping and Recirculations (VACCIRC)Mehmet Pehlivan, MEM, Bays Environmental Remediation Management, Ladera Ranch, CA




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2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM

Technical Sessions


— Geology II —• Moderator - Tom Reynolds, CPG - NM

10:30-11:00Stratigraphic Alluvial Units in Las Vegas Valley, NevadaDavid J. Donovan, CPG, AquaPetrus LLC, Las Vegas, NV



The Interrelationship of Colorado Rifting and the Structural Colorado PlateauVincent Matthews, Ph.D., CPG, Leadville Geology LLC, Leadville, CO

Session 5A - Lamy Room

Tuesday, September 13, 2016 10:30 am-12:00 pm

— Hydrology II—• Moderator - Larry Cerrillo, CPG - CO

10:30-11:00Analyses of Radial Simulations of Plume Development and Confirmation of Containment of Injected Acid Gases in an Underpressured Clastic Carbonate ReservoirAlberto Gutierrez, CPG, Geolex, Inc., Albuquerque, NM

11:00-11:30Sedimentology and Paleohydrology of the Brushy Basin Member, Morrison Formation in the Henry Basin, UtahJeffrey Johnson, CPG, NewFields Companies, LLC – Houston, Houston, TX

11:30-12:00Hydrogeology Studies at the New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral ResourcesStacy Timmons, Hydrogeology and Aquifer Mapping Program Manager, New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM

Session 5B - Rivera Room



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Technical Sessions

2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM18

— Mining II / Energy —• Moderator - Jean (Neubeck) Patota, CPG - NY

1:30-2:00The Rock That Cried Silver Tears - The Early Jurassic Springdale Sandstone and its Unusual Precious Metal Mineralization at Silver Reef, UT RevisitedUwe Kackstaetter, Ph.D., MEM, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, CO

2:00-2:30Assessment of Remaining Oil and Gas Potential Within the Desert Creek Formation of Papoose Canyon Field, Paradox Basin, Western ColoradoJessica Davey, SA, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO


History of North American Potash MiningPeter Smith, CPG, RESPEC, Rapid City, SD

Session 6B - Rivera Room

Session 6A - Lamy Room

Tuesday, September 13, 2016 1:30 pm-3:00 pm

— Geology III —• Moderator - John Sorrell, CPG - NM

1:30-2:00New and Old High Resolution Investigation Tools Applied to Remediation Design Characterization. It’s a Contact SportJohn Fontana, P.G., President and CEO Vista Geoscience, Golden, CO

2:00-2:30Hydrologic and Geochemical Conditions in the Animas River WatershedDennis McQuillan, New Mexico Environment Department, Santa Fe, NM

2:30-3:00 TBA





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2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM

Technical Sessions


— Environmental IV —• Moderator - Larry Cerrillo, CPG - CO

3:30-4:00Using Hydrogeologic Data in Crop and Range Management Practices in Northeastern New Mexico: The Union County Hydrogeology ProjectKate Zeigler, CPG, Zeigler Geologic Consulting, LLC, Albuquerque, NM

4:00-4:30Confirmation of a Conceptual Site Model UsingMultimedia Compound Specific Isotope AnalysisSeema Turner, Ramboll Environ International Corporation, Los Angeles, CA

4:30-5:00A Method for Monitoring of Fugitive Fluids from Hydraulic Fracturing OperationsIan Sharp, FLUTe, Albuquerque, NM

Thank You for Attending! Safe Travels Home!

Session 7A - Lamy Room

Tuesday, September 13, 2016 3:30 pm-5:00 pm











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Conference Abstracts

(Alphabetical According to Lead Presenter)

Conference Presented by

American Institute of Professional Geologists

(AIPG)AIPG New Mexico Section

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2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM





John Asafo-Akowuah, SA, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM, [email protected]; Ashlynne Winton, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM; Virginia T. McLemore, CPG, New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources (NMBRMR), Socorro, NM

Not only has mining played a significant role in the United States, but for hundreds of years mining has aided in the eco-nomic and social development of New Mexico as early as the 1500s. One of the earliest gold rushes in the West was in the Ortiz Mountains (Old Placers district) in 1828, 21 years before the California Gold Rush in 1849. At the time the U.S. General Mining Law of 1872 was written, there was no recognition of the environmental consequences of direct discharge of mine and mill wastes into the nation’s rivers and streams or the impact of this activity on the availability of drinking water sup-plies, and riparian and aquatic habitats. Miners operating on federal lands had few to no requirements for environmental protection until the 1960s and 1970s, although the dumping of mine wastes and mill tailings directly into the nation’s rivers was halted by an Executive Order in 1935. It is important to recognize that these early miners were not breaking any laws, because there were no laws to break.

In New Mexico, there are tens of thousands of inactive or abandoned mine features in 274 mining districts and prospect areas (including coal, uranium, metals, and industrial miner-als districts and prospect areas). Many of these mine features do not pose any physical or environmental hazard and many more pose only a physical hazard, which is easy but costly to remediate. However, a complete inventory and prioritization for reclamation has not been accomplished in New Mexico. Some of these inactive or abandoned mine features can pose serious health, safety and/or environmental hazards.

Many state and federal agencies have mitigated the physical safety hazards by closing these mine features, but very few of these reclamation efforts have examined the long-term chem-ical effects from these mine sites. There is still potential for environmental effects long after remediation of the physical hazards, as found in several areas in New Mexico; two exam-ples are the Terrero and Questa mine. Some of these observa-tions only come from detailed electron microprobe studies that are not part of a government remediation effort.

The objective of our research is to develop a better proce-dure to inventory and characterize inactive or abandoned

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mine features in New Mexico, using the Lucky Don and Little Davie uranium mines in the Churapedero mining district, So-corro County, New Mexico as case study. Hazard ranking of mine openings and features, using BLM ranking methodology will be utilized for most sites. We will also suggest remedial activities that would manage or mitigate dangers to the en-vironment and public health, while taking into consideration historical, cultural and wildlife issues and mineral resource potential.



Paula Ballaron, Susquehanna River Basin Commission, Harrisburg, PA, [email protected]

Ten years into the Marcellus Shale gas boom, the Susquehan-na River Basin Commission (SRBC) has examined its activities surrounding its management of water use by the natural gas industry.

The SRBC had quickly set policies and regulations aimed at balancing development with environmental protection for the withdrawal and use of water resources by the industry hun-gry for the gas trapped in rock as deep as 9,000 feet below ground.

How did the SRBC meet the challenges posed by the rapid rise of interest from this multibillion-dollar industry, its attendant environmental issues, and the public’s concerns?

This presentation, based on a recent report released by the SRBC, will evaluate:

• regulatory responses taken to address this new, and pre-viously unfamiliar, energy industry activity;

• water use characteristics of the natural gas industry op-erating within the Basin;

• water quality monitoring activities conducted in re-sponse to industry activity; and

• the industry’s compliance with the SRBC’s regulations.





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2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM





Edward Baltzer, CPG, Avant Environmental Services, Grand Junction, CO, [email protected]; Joe Fandrich, MEM Grand Junction, CO, [email protected]

Numerous, often small-scale unconsolidated sediments and landslide deposits primarily located between 4,400 and 6,000 feet elevation are scattered throughout western Colorado and eastern Utah. These include thick sequences of fine-grained sediment overlying river gravel, nearly flat surfaces formed by these fine-grained sediments, numerous toreva blocks, other landslide features, and thick gravel accumulations in drainag-es located at or near specific elevations (proposed shorelines). Many of these features have been previously mapped as al-luvial fans, overbank sediments, slope wash, loess, aeolian, or other non-lacustrine deposits, or as bedrock. However, the deposits and features to be discussed appear more likely to be of lacustrine origin. Taken together, they provide evidence of the existence of one or more lakes that had several static elevations. The amount of apparent post-deposition incision, soil development, and other relative age-dating techniques indicate a likely mid- to late-Quaternary age for the deposits and therefore for the lake or lakes. Sediments were deposited in pre-existing valleys, indicat-ing that the general topography of these areas was formed prior to lake filling. It also appears that the lake drained rap-idly enough to erode lake features located at elevations be-low about 4,400 feet. Lake drainage would have incised areas downstream, likely deepening the canyon topography pres-ent in the modern middle and lower Colorado River drain-age. No specific evidence for dams forming the lake(s) has been identified, with such evidence possibly removed through post-failure erosion. Possible dam mechanisms and potential lake geometries and volumes will be discussed.



Robert Barrett, GeoStabilization International, Grand Junction, CO, [email protected]

This presentation is a summary of 50 years of geotechnical research in geohazard mitigation (landslides, rockfall, swell-ing soils), retaining walls, bridge abutments, open bottom box culverts, and reinforced soils. This research was performed by

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2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM24

Colorado DOT, the US Forest Service, the Federal Highway Administration and several agencies and universities. Expen-ditures on this research effort exceeded $25 million dollars and much of the information, albeit generic, has yet to be implemented.

The presentation will include a discussion of the FHWA GRS/IBS bridge construction initiative and a discussion on Geosyn-thetically Confined Soil, a better technology for wall construc-tion than Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE). Earthquake Wings, a new and better way to build abutments in seismic regions, will be presented. New scour prevention and mitiga-tion methods will be introduced, as will new techniques and technologies for box and bridge rehabilitation and replace-ment.

The presentation will conclude with a description of inno-vations in soil nailing and how all these technologies using closely spaced inclusions are related.


Laurie Brandt, CPG, DOWL, Montrose, CO, [email protected]

There have always been geotechnical engineering challenges in mountainous terrain due to steep slopes, complex geologic settings, geologic hazards, and limited areas suitable for de-velopment, but those challenges have increased dramatically due to the effects of climate change. The increased intensity of storm events, changing freeze/thaw cycles, rapid snowmelt and runoff, prolonged drought, invasive species, stressed vegetation, and wildfires are all examples of events or con-ditions that have become more common throughout the intermountain west. These conditions increase the intensity and frequency of geologic hazards such as flooding, debris flows/mudflows, rockfall, landslides and avalanches. Even ex-pansive soils become more problematic with regular cycles of prolonged drought and saturated conditions inherent with a warming environment. As geologists and geotechnical en-gineers we need to consider not just the present conditions, but what the landscape will look like in the future considering the effects of climate change, so that sites are properly de-signed with respect to exposure to potential geologic hazards, groundwater fluctuations, and changes in soil moisture. We need to rethink what is meant by the “100 year event” and that floods are not entirely confined to the river channels and immediate floodplain, but can involve entire hillsides. We also need to consider the ephemeral nature of trees, which may not be able to provide the protective cover from rockfall and

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2016 AIPG 53rd National Conference — Santa Fe, NM



potentially unstable slopes that they have in the past. It is our responsibility as geologic and geotechnical professionals to understand the effects of climate change on the regions in which we work so that we can apprise our clients of those potential hazards, allowing them to make informed decisions for mitigation and design.


Jim Burnell, Ph.D., CPG, Mineral Strategies, Golden, CO, [email protected]

A state geological survey is a direct connection between the citizens of a state and science. The Colorado Geological Sur-vey has always touted itself as an organization that is open and accessible, ready to provide information and to answer questions for citizens. That can be an adventure.

I had the privilege to finish out my professional career with the Colorado Geological Survey. As Colorado’s Minerals Ge-ologist, I heard from people around the country with ques-tions and issues pertaining to resources - metals, industrial minerals, and uranium. When I dealt with the public, the topics ranged from simple questions and inquiries to very intrigu-ing (and sometimes mysterious) geologic questions. Some of them I am still pondering.

Where do I go mineral hunting? Where should I pan for gold? Is my deposit suitable for use as frac sand? How did this min-eral get where I found it? Look at this rock or thing that I found … what is it? The experience generated many good sto-ries and I’ll share as many as I have time for.


William Canavan, CPG, HydroEnvironmental Solutions, Somers, NY, [email protected]; Steven Verdibello, HydroEnvironmental Solutions, Somers, NY

During large construction projects in New York City, ground-water is often an issue that has to be dealt with for a mul-titude of reasons. Specifically, groundwater can impede the installation of subsurface structures, such as foundations and elevator pits for large buildings. Due to the thriving real es-tate market in New York City, there is an increasing incentive

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for developers to utilize subsurface space that is often below the groundwater table. The value of a New York City property coupled with very high construction costs related to real es-tate development make effective dewatering methods essen-tial to the successful completion of a project.

Considering the varied geology and associated aquifer char-acteristics across the five boroughs of New York City, in or-der to properly and safely lower the groundwater table in the vicinity of any existing surface and/or subsurface structure, a certain level of hydrogeological understanding is needed prior to implementing dewatering. This understanding is typically obtained by conducting hydrogeological field work, which includes installing test wells, short-term pumping tests and in-situ permeability testing (i.e. slug tests). Additionally, it is essential that the underlying geology be understood. This is accomplished through field testing including continuous split spoon soil sampling and logging of unconsolidated material, and coring of shallow bedrock when encountered.

After the appropriate field work is compete, pertinent hy-drogeological parameters, such as hydraulic conductivity (K), transmissivity (T), storativity (S), and well capacity, can then be determined via analytical methods. The analytical meth-ods that are most often used include computer models such as MODFLOW and AQTESOLV. Using these readily available computer models allows the hydrogeologist to calculate K, T, and S quickly, efficiently, and accurately. Once K, T, and S are known, a dewatering system can be designed and tailored to the required application. For example, a site-wide founda-tion dewatering application or a limited areal extent system around an elevator pit. The dewatering system approach is also determined and designed at this juncture; for example, one composition could be a well point system using submers-ible pumps versus one using a suction pump.

When the subsurface geology and hydrogeology is prop-erly evaluated, misapplication of a dewatering system or a groundwater impeded site is avoided. Similarly, when a site is properly evaluated, off-site impacts due to drawdown ef-fects are avoided. Off-site drawdown effects caused by an im-properly designed dewatering system often have disastrous ramifications. Conveying the importance of hydrogeologic and geologic evaluation and dewatering system design to a client is imperative and instrumental to the overall success of the project.





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Jessica Davey, SA, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, [email protected]; Barbara EchoHawk, Denver, CO

Since 1970, oil and gas have been commercially produced from Papoose Canyon Field, located in Dolores County, Colo-rado. A 2005 government study concluded that the field is nearly exhausted of oil and gas resources. However, new technologies, such as directional drilling paired with hydrau-lic fracturing, have led to the rejuvenation of numerous long established oil and gas fields. In light of this trend of renewed production in older fields, this undergraduate research inves-tigation was undertaken in order to identify and character-ize the potential for future oil and gas production from the Desert Creek Formation within Papoose Canyon Field. As a result of Pennsylvanian sea transgression from the southeast, algal mounds formed as shallow water coastal deposits within the lower portion of the Desert Creek Formation. The algal mounds were subsequently encased by shale layers, which are the apparent source rocks for these oil and gas stratigraphic traps. Commercial production of oil and gas began in Pa-poose Canyon Field in 1970 with the discovery of the Desert Creek pay zone at a depth of 6,194 feet below ground level at the #1 Pribble-Govt well, located at NENE Section 31-T39N-R19W, Dolores County, Colorado. Based on the well logs from this field, the pay zone within the Desert Creek Formation was occasionally missed, as the geologist and/or drill team appar-ently misjudged the depth of the target zone while drilling, and it appears that drill stem tests at these locations were not performed in the known pay zone. The porosity and resistivity logs of these well bores indicate the presence of hydrocarbons within the pay zone, even within some of the wells previously thought dry. This study of Papoose Canyon Field includes: subsurface structural maps of the Pennsylvanian Gothic Shale, Desert Creek Formation, and Chimney Rock Shale; an isopach of the Desert Creek pay zone; cross-sections depicting lateral and vertical variation within the Desert Creek pay zone; pro-duction decline curves; and an estimate of oil and gas remain-ing for recovery. These maps and cross-sections have aided in a better understanding of the relationship between pay zone thickness, structure, and productivity, which hold potential to serve as a model for surrounding fields within the Paradox Basin.________________________________________________


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David J. Donovan, CPG, AquaPetrus LLC, Las Vegas, NV, [email protected]

A formal stratigraphy was proposed for the basin-fill of the Las Vegas Valley in the late 1990s. The units are allostrati-graphic units, which have been recognized in the North Amer-ican Code of Stratigraphic Nomenclature since 1983, and in all subsequent versions. Allostratigraphic units are defined by bounding discontinuities, and specifically recommended for this type of depositional setting. It is also important to specify allostratigraphic and stratigraphic units are co-equal in rank and application.

Historically, one fossiliferous; spatially, temporally and litho-graphically restricted Quaternary (Recent - Pleistocene) unit was defined in the 1960s. And a Miocene unit, better defined east of Las Vegas. Multiple investigations from the 1990s through 2010s, using; amongst other data, radiometric and geophysical, indicate; that nearly all of the surface deposits are mid-Pleistocene or younger. Moreover the basin-fill may exceed 5,000 meters, and a large portion of the basin fill is Pleistocene, Pliocene, and unrecognized Miocene. The late Pleistocene Las Vegas Formation is becoming well known, due to its importance as part of the recently designated 22,600 acre Tule Springs Fossil Beds National Monument.

The proposed formal stratigraphy applies to the late Neogene and Pleistocene deposits and uses the data available in the last quarter century. An overview, of which, will be presented. As well as; the utility to multiple Geoscience disciplines, of the proposed system.


Benjamin Eppley, SA, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, CO, [email protected]; Uwe Kackstaetter, Ph.D., MEM, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, CO

Field prospecting for gold has often involved labor intensive and time consuming processes to produce semi-accurate as-sessments of a prospect’s economic viability. Geochemical prospecting has historically required the dissemination of gold from an abundance of waste material through panning, sluicing, and other relatively inefficient methods, followed by the utilization of hazardous materials and laboratory facilities to obtain an accurate estimate of the economic potential of

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a deposit and subsequently determine the viability of pur-suing that wealth. The development of a rapid and precise microchemical gold test, geochemical field prospecting and exploration for placer and near surface gold deposits can be streamlined and expedited to allow for a highly accurate and simple assessment of a resource’s potential, while sub-sequently minimizing costs and maximizing efficiency for the future producer.

By utilizing and refining an antiquated procedure known as the “Purple of Cassius” technique, as well as employing mod-ern day atomic absorption spectroscopy, a standardized color spectrum based on gold concentration can be developed. In conjunction with this standardized spectrum, less hazardous, and highly portable materials that are readily available, can theoretically be utilized to digest and react a finely powdered sample material to achieve the purple coloration, should de-tectable gold be present. This colored solution can then be compared to a standardized color spectrum chart to establish an accurate grade by converting parts per million to grams per ton, and allow for GPS tracking and mapping of a resourc-es economic potential in a much more efficient and produc-tive manner.



Joe Fandrich, MEM, Grand Junction, CO, [email protected]

The geology of Westwater, Utah, presents a present day ana-log for the creation of ephemeral lakes during the Quaternary in western Colorado and eastern Utah. The formation of ice dams and ice damming is poorly understood and not well represented in the literature. This presentation sets the geo-logic stage, partially explains the basic mechanics of ice dam creation, shows the results of field test experiments in real time, and provides an explanation for many of the stranded deltas, laminated sediments, and flat bottoms present along the Colorado and Gunnison rivers.






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Jason Felsman, CPG, Boulder, CO, [email protected]

The Bear Lodge Mountains are an extension of the Black Hills of South Dakota, located north of the town of Sundance in northeastern Wyoming. The Bear Lodge Dome is in the south-ern Bear Lodge Mountains and is composed of Tertiary, alka-line intrusions surrounded by tilted Phanerozoic sediments. Rare earth element (REE) mineralization is hosted by carbon-atite dikes and veins, which cut the bulk of the alkaline sili-cate intrusions, but are post-dated by minor alkaline silicate intrusions. Gold and additional REE mineralization are associ-ated with fenitization, which is alkali-ferric iron metasomatism associated with carbonatite magmatism. Rare earth element enrichment is identified in several accessory minerals, most notably fluorite and apatite. Apatite is a common accessory mineral in sedimentary rocks, igneous rocks, and veins in the Bear Lodge Dome. Locally, apatite can be the dominant host for REE.

Rare earth element substitution in apatite grains in the Bear Lodge Dome causes distinct and bright cathodoluminescence (CL). The color of luminescence is controlled by the relative enrichment of REE. Laser Ablation – Inductively Coupled Plas-ma – Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses of naturally occurring apatite with different colors of CL are shown to cor-relate with distinctive REE enrichment patterns. In particular, igneous apatite in the Bear Lodge Dome can have lavender or yellow CL, indicating that igneous apatite grains can be dominantly enriched in either La to Nd, or Sm to Lu. Early intrusions host lavender CL apatite, and late intrusions host lavender and yellow CL apatite, suggesting an evolution from light rare earth element (LREE; La to Gd) to heavy rare earth el-ement (HREE; Tb to Lu) enrichment in the igneous system. Hy-drothermal apatite has yellow and orange CL, and is enriched in Sm to Lu. Host lithology appears to have no control on the CL or REE distribution of apatite. It is possible that there is a mineralogical control on the amount of each REE that can be accepted into apatite, but whole rock REE distributions match REE distributions of apatite, when apatite is the dominant REE host. Therefore, fluid chemistry is likely the dominant control on REE distribution in hydrothermal apatite.

There is a district wide zonation of REE enrichment noted at Bear Lodge, with a core area of LREE enriched carbonatite dike swarms surrounded by a halo of hydrothermally altered rocks, which are enriched in HREE and gold. Cathodoluminescence examination of apatite allows for efficient identification of

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samples that have been exposed to relatively HREE rich fluids, and might represent an area with potential for gold and HREE mineralization.



John Fontana, P.G., President and CEO Vista Geoscience, Golden, CO

The recent improvements in the collection of high resolution subsurface data has improved our ability to surgically apply in-situ injection technologies and utilize in-situ treatment products with better results. Selecting the right combination investigation tools, remediation products, and application methods can provide the quicker results often required for brownfield projects.

Qualitative high resolution tools such as Membrane Interface Probes (MIP), Optical Image Profiler (OIP), Hydraulic Profiling Tool (HPT), and Electrical Conductivity (EC) are combined with quantitative high resolution vertical sampling of saturated soil cores and ground water to obtain data required for an adequate Remedial Design Characterization (RDC). Once ac-quired, an equally high resolution treatment can be designed. Some treatment reagents will act slower while others can re-act quickly to clean up the site, providing it is applied in the correct dosage and makes contact. Using a qualified applica-tion contractor with the right equipment along with perfor-mance monitoring is the most important step. It’s a contact sport – If the treatment does not contact the contaminant, the site will fall short of remediation goals.

Methods, and equipment required to apply various types of liquid and slurried solid treatment products, both chemi-cal and biological, and how to apply them in various types of heterogeneous soil types and bedrock formations suing conventional injection and hydraulic fracturing techniques, are presented.





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John Gustavson, CPG, Mineral Appraiser LLC, Boulder, CO, [email protected]

The Author proposed his uranium deposit model at the AIPG 2009 Annual Meeting, in Uranium Exploration Following the Petroleum System Approach. All components (volcanic source rock, U mobilization, down-dip groundwater system, reservoir sands and reducing U traps) appeared to be present in the Northern Mississippi Embayment, based on published literature.

After securing key lease positions in Mississippi County, Mis-souri, the Author’s company entered a careful study of each of the five components, both in the field and with help from the research laboratories of the University of Memphis.

Subsurface mapping was facilitated by the availability of a Memphis-based, restricted core archive gathered by a Phillips predecessor company exploring for lignite. Next, a seventy-foot section of the regionally pervasive Porters Creek clay for-mation, locally known as Fuller’s earth, was retrieved from the walls of a major quarry, courtesy Nestlé-Purina.

The lab, under Dr. Dan Larsen, Geology Chair at Memphis, performed X-ray diffraction and petrographic analysis with student help. Both clay mineral origins and diagenesis were sought. Trioctahedral smectite and clinoptilolite were readily detected.

In parallel, regional groundwater sampling was conducted from shallow irrigation wells in the Holocene Mississippi aqui-fer. Samples were also gathered from deeper municipal wells in the down-dipping Tertiary aquifers, ultimately feeding ar-tesian wells in Arkansas. Tom Van Arsdale, the AIPG Colorado Section President-Elect, participated in the sampling.

As a result, the location of deep faulting in the northern ex-tension of the New Madrid Seismic Zone was correlated with geochemical data, confirming both the required anoxic en-vironment and the potential South Texas-type uranium fault traps.

Simultaneously, N.I. 43-101 filing with the Toronto Ventures Exchange (TSX-V) had been accomplished by Mohammed Alief, Qualified Person, and funding for the targeted drilling phase seemed assured. However, the Fukushima tsunami pushed out all timing of uranium exploration.

In the meantime, the final interpretation of the clay mineral analyses forever changed the knowledge of the Porters Creek clay and its volcanogenic origin.

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Alberto Gutierrez, CPG, Geolex, Inc., Albuquerque, NM, [email protected]; James C. Hunter, Geolex, Inc., Albuquerque, NM

Geolex sited, permitted and oversaw the installation of a dry acid gas injection (AGI) well into the mid-lower Permian Leon-ard Bone Springs carbonate in the Permian Basin of the south-western US in 2005-2007. The preliminary characterization of the reservoir using 2-D seismic and local well control was used to identify the injection targets and provide the basis for permitting. Following the drilling and completion of the ini-tial well, traditional and specialized geophysical logging tools, sidewall core analyses and long term injection testing were used to characterize the reservoir. Based on this pre-injection work, Geolex utilized a simple radial displacement model to predict plume migration over time during operation. The well has been injecting on a largely continuous basis since 2010 at an average injection rate of approximately 3.9 MMCFD (1.1 MMCMD) of treated acid gas (TAG), containing approximately 82% CO2 and 18% H2S. In 2013, Geolex permitted a second well to be placed into the same reservoir at the same facility located approximately 450 feet (140 meters) away. Based on the calculations derived from TAG volume injected cumula-tively, the plume front would have reached the new well loca-tion by the time when the well was completed.

Drilling, completion and testing of this new well were com-pleted in March of 2015. Initial testing and logging show that both pressure and chemical fronts from the first well have migrated though the reservoir to the location of the second well. This new well incorporates permanent bottom hole P/T measurement instruments. These instruments allow the moni-toring of the observed plume fronts from the original well as they reach the new well. In July 2015, a scheduled workover was performed on the original well, at which time identical bottom hole instrumentation were emplaced. These paired instruments are now monitoring “real time” P/T data during injection of either or both wells or during periods of transi-tion where one well is shut down or restarted. Initial and cur-rent bottom hole temperature and pressure from both wells has been analyzed and compared to evaluate the condition of the reservoir, given 5 years of injection of approximately 4MMCFD (1.13 MMCMD). Initial testing has demonstrated that although acid gases from the existing well have migrated to the second well, no acid gas has penetrated the cap rock.

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This paper presents the results of these ongoing investiga-tions and provides recommendations for the improvement of tools used to evaluate potential migration during evaluations done for initial evaluation, design and permitting purposes within these types of reservoirs. Based on the results of these analyses, this presentation will also discuss additional useful considerations in developing and designing similar systems for prolonged, safe, efficient and economical operation. This process will allow a greater degree of confidence in predic-tions of plume migration and long term reservoir behavior using data not usually available when AGI systems are initially permitted and installed.


John Hawley, CPG, Hawley Geomatters, Albuquerque, NM, [email protected];

The heart of the City of Santa Fe (COSF), “The City Different,” is La Villa de Santa Fé, founded as a Spanish colonial-provincial capital on the banks of El Río de Santa Fé in 1609. The place ranks high in pioneering developments in classic geology as well as North American history. Of note is its piedmont plain location at the base of the Santa Fe (SF) Range in the Española Basin of the Rio Grande (RG) rift tectonic province, and in a transition zone between the semi-arid Basin and Range, and sub-humid Southern Rocky Mountain physiographic prov-inces. Major urban landscape terrain features are the Santa Fe River Valley, which cuts through remnants of a Tertiary alluvi-al-fan piedmont, and the river’s headwaters in the SF Range of the southern Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Peak elevation of the upper-river basin is 12,408 ft amsl, and the elevation of central COSF is about 7,200 ft. The vital roles played by the terraced river valley and its interlinked acequias in surface-water supply, aquifer recharge, and environmental concerns still resonate. Population growth, and associated environ-mental and water-supply problems started with arrival of the Santa Fe and Denver & Rio Grande Railroads in the 1880s, and automobile-based tourism in the 1920s. However, things got really rolling in late 1942 when the AT&SF Railyards became the staging area for Manhattan Project construction of the “Secret City on the Hill” at Los Alamos.

The post WWII era of federal-state collaborative water-re-sources investigations was initiated by the “Geology and Wa-ter Resources of the Santa Fe Area, New Mexico,” published in 1963 as USGS Water-Supply Paper 1525. This seminal, multi-disciplinary assessment of ground- and surface-water resources was conceived and headed by Zane Spiegel (then USGS geohydrologist) and Brewster Baldwin (NM Bureau

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Mines geologist). While concepts have been improved at lo-cal scales by subsequent geological, geophysical and hydro-chemical studies, the fundamental hydrogeologic interpreta-tions recorded in WSP-1525 have stood the test of time (e.g. Hudson and Grauch, editors, 2013, GSA Special Paper 494).

The southern Española Basin is the type area of Spiegel and Baldwin’s Santa Fe Group (SFG), the primary intermontane-basin fill deposit throughout the RG rift. The type SFG in-cludes two formation-rank units: the Lower SFG-Tesuque Fm (Tt-mostly Lower Miocene piedmont facies) and the Upper SFG Ancha Fm (Pliocene and Lower Pleistocene fan [QTa] and ancestral-river [ARSF] facies). The Tesuque-Lithosome S (Tts) fan facies (500 to 2,500 ft thick beneath central COSF) forms the area’s only significant aquifer system. The Lower SFG was deformed during a major interval of RG rift tectonism, starting in the Mid-Miocene, that produced most of today’s basin and range structural relief and local 10-20° westward dip of Tes-uque beds. Initiation of an ARSF system in the Late Miocene produced an extensive erosion surface, informally named the post-Tesuque Erosion Surface (pTES), which is veneered with up to 200 ft of mostly unsaturated Ancha Fm and Quater-nary SFRv-terrace (Qtu) deposits. Examples of the hydrostrati-graphic and structural framework of the central COSF area are included in a companion Poster Presentation by Hawley and Swanson.


John Hawley, CPG, Hawley Geomatters, Albuquerque, NM, [email protected]; Baird H. Swanson, Swanson Geoscience, LLC, Albuquerque, NM

Most previous hydrogeologic work in the City of Santa Fe (COSF) area has been done at 1:24,000-1:48,000 map scales, with emphasis on surface mapping and geophysical surveys. This presentation focuses on a 2 mi2 area of central COSF where a logged-borehole database allows preparation of 1:3,000-scale hydrogeologic maps and fence-diagram grids based on records from four exploratory and public water-supply wells (PWSWs) with depths ranging from 1200 to 2660-ft; and more than 150 monitor-well boreholes at about 20 environmental-problem (E-P) sites, some of which are in the 300 to 500 ft depth range. While some significant anthro-pogenic contamination of subsurface waters dates back to the railroad’s arrival in 1880, current serious problems relate to rapid urban expansion since 1940, driven in part by use of the SF Railyards District as a staging area for Secret City construc-tion at Los Alamos.

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Research support has had two primary sources: Unrestricted grants from the Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM) for studies throughout the area surrounding their former San-ta Fe Generating Station (SFGS) Site; and INTERA, Inc. for in-vestigations at the EPA/NMED Targeted Brownfields/Santa Fe River (SFRv) Assessment Site. This has allowed development of a large number of illustrations that portray hydrogeologic-framework components at three levels.

1. A conceptual reconstruction of the original extent of the Tesuque Fm-Lithosome S (Tts) fan and its ancestral Santa Fe Range sediment-source area on a 2013 Google Earth® image-base provides an expanded spatial and temporal per-spective of our study area. The inset Google ® diagram of an alluvial fan in a Basin and Range setting portrays an ideal-ized internal fractal fabric of alternating distributary-channel and floodplain facies. This image is complemented by a 1:1 block diagram (1:6,000 scale) that illustrates the basic hy-drogeologic framework of the 7,000 x 10,000 ft study area to a 3,500 ft amsl base elevation. 2. The basic hydrogeologic framework is illustrated by 1:3,000-scale maps and a 1,000 ft fence-diagram grid of 26 cross-sections (1:1 and 5:1) on a 2 ft contour, NAD83 NM State Plane Coordinate base. Surface distribution of Santa Fe Gp (SFG) formations and Santa Fe River Valley-fill deposits, and the mostly-buried topography of a post-Tesuque Erosion Surface (pTES—10 ft contours) are schematically illustrated on the maps. The cross sections show basic hydrostratigraphic and structural relationships of Tts fan deposits to about 500 ft bgs, details of the buried pTES to-pography, and cut and fill relationship in capping SFG-Ancha Fm and river-terrace deposits. 3.The area’s southwest sec-tor includes the Railyards District and former PNM Santa Fe Generating Station (SFGS) Site, both of which contain known or suspected groundwater-contamination sources. Because increased density of deep monitor wells, the 18-section grid spacing was reduced to 500-ft. Controls on saturated and un-saturated flow at the SFGS Site include post-4/1951 pumping effects of an adjacent deep PSWS well. A 7,000 ft long, 3,000 ft deep cross section, with potentiometric-surface drawdown timelines, schematically illustrates the hydraulic/hydrologic impacts of about 62 years of pumping on an ever-diminishing saturated thickness of westward-dipping Tts fan-distributary channel conduits.


Thomas A. Herbert, Ph.D., P.G., CPG, Lampl Herbert Consultants, Tallahassee, FL, [email protected]

We as geoscientists live in a very political and often conten-

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tious world as we interact with other people. The understand-ing this political environment can begin in the realm of office “politics” and segue to include dealing with colleagues to lo-cal, state and federal government interactions and meetings with clients and the public. Geoscientists are often placed in situations where an understanding of the political process is critical and we need to interact in a “politic” manner. This dis-cussion will help understand the need to interact with others in an effective manner. We can be expected to deal with the public to impart the science and world view of geoscience to enable decisions to make our lives safe and productive.



Donald Hill, University of Southern California, Walnut Creek, CA, [email protected]

The mineralogy of McNutt “Potash” member of the Salado Formation in Southeastern New Mexico, is extremely complex, consisting of:

• Six radioactive potash minerals, only two of which are commercial.

• Radioactive, non-potash “Claystones” and “Marker Beds”.• Four non-radioactive evaporite minerals, one of which

interferes with potash milling chemistry.

Because of this complexity, traditional wireline and Logging While Drilling Potash Assay techniques, such as gamma ray log to core assay transforms, linear programming, and multi-mineral analyses, are not effective.

Numerous oil and gas wells in the area have cased hole gamma ray and neutron logs through the Salado Evaporite, run for stratigraphic and structural correlation. The logs from these wells could provide a rapid screening database, if used properly.

A simple screening cross-plot technique utilizing only gamma ray and neutron porosity, is proposed and successfully dem-onstrated for potash deposits in Michigan, Nova Scotia, and Saskatchewan, as well as southeastern New Mexico. This tech-nique allows utilization of the cased-hole petroleum well logs and provides discrimination of commercial potash mineraliza-tion from non-commercial radioactive mineralization.



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Brent Huntsman, CPG, Terran Corporation, Beavercreek, OH, [email protected]; Christopher Athmer, Terran Corporation, Beavercreek, OH

Applied electrokinetics provides an effective in-situ remedia-tion technology alternative for cleaning up brine contamina-tion in heterogeneous or low-permeability soils. The tech-nology exploits the physio-chemical characteristics of brine constituents by electrokinetic transport of ions in pore water soil between field-installed electrodes. Electromigration, driv-en by an applied direct current (DC) electric field, mobilizes the brine charged ionic species through soil toward the elec-trodes where they are removed or precipitated. Contamina-tion removal is further assisted by the flushing action of silts and clays from electroosmotic flow within the vadose or satu-rated zones.

A full-scale pilot application of electrokinetic technology to remediate an inadvertent brine spill from an operating oil and gas well in the Bakken Formation is reviewed. Physical and chemical site conditions that influenced the design, installa-tion and operation of a predominately electro-migration re-mediation system are discussed and summarized. Since the remediation system just came online in the spring of 2016, the overall effectiveness of the system will be assessed for the first six months of operation.



Jeffrey Johnson, CPG, NewFields Companies, LLC – Houston, Houston, TX, [email protected]; Irina Mamonkina, NewFields Companies, LLC – Houston, Houston, TX

This presentation discusses the results of a multi-point net-work of transducers in a fractured and folded granitic gneiss complex. The transducer network measures both water level and temperature. By comparing these attributes through time, spatial trends are observable, documenting distinct anisotro-pic groundwater regimes. These flow regimes are character-ized by sharp boundaries that are apparently produced by lithologic changes. The transducer data provide a detailed

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perspective of the changes in hydraulic conditions due to pre-cipitation events, seasonal trends, and infiltration. The moni-toring results document that “snap-shot” quarterly monitor-ing programs provide limited information on the groundwater conditions in complex fractured bedrock settings.



Jeffrey Johnson, CPG, NewFields Companies, LLC – Houston, Houston, TX, [email protected]

The Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation in the Henry Basin is of Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous age and consists of fluvially deposited volcanic and nonvolcanic sedi-ments. The member in the study area has a thickness of 60 to 90 meters and is composed of two facies, a bentonitic mudstone facies and a conglomerate-sandstone facies. The bentonic mudstone facies is the primary lithology, comprising approximately two-thirds of the member.

The vitric sediments of the Brushy Basin Member record the influx of volcanic ash over an extensive alluvial plain. Rhyolitic to dacitic volcanic ash inundated the alluvial plain and source area approximately 145 m.y. The ash, consisting primarily of glass shards and pumice, was derived from volcanism in the eastern Great Basin, approximately 200 to 300 kilometers to the west. The vitric sediments were the probable source rocks for the uranium deposits present in the lower Morrison For-mation in the Henry Basin.




Uwe Kackstaetter, Ph.D., MEM, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, CO, [email protected]

The light-gray Early Jurassic Springdale Sandstone Member of the Moenave Formation at historic Silver Reef and Harris-burg, now Leeds, UT, is a place of one of the most unusual precious metal deposits in the world. Void of any recogniz-

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able hydrothermal activity, this sheet like, 30 m thick, fluvial sandstone, exposed in a syncline at Leeds, contains the rare minerals cerargyrite (AgCl; Horn Silver), bromargyrite (AgBr), and iodargyrite (AgI) in mineable quantities. These minerals are finely disseminated and are usually invisible to the naked eye. Discovered in 1866, it was at first believed to be a hoax because of the purely sedimentary nature of the host rock. However, the Silver Reef mining district came to produce over 7 million ounces Ag at a value of close to $8,000,000 from 1875 to 1909. After the ore waned mining experienced a brief recurrence as uranium was extracted from the same lithology during the Cold War period.

The first scientific landmark investigation of the area in order to understand this unusual mineralization was completed in 1953 by the late Paul Dean Proctor. Later researchers have tried to tackle the mystery. While multiple hypothesis abound, the process of the unusual ore mineralization has never been completely answered and the last papers about the district’s geochemistry were published in the 1990’s.

However, modern sophisticated instrumentation, such as portable x-ray fluorescent (XRF) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with advanced energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), have opened novel possibilities in geo-chemical analysis. Therefore, the mystery of the Springdale Sandstone has been revisited through a variety of undergrad-uate research projects associated with the new geology de-gree at Metropolitan State University of Denver.

This presentation will pay homage to Paul D. Proctor and will familiarize the audience with one of the most unusual pre-cious metal deposits in the world. The current status of some exiting undergraduate research projects associated with this prospect will be introduced to facilitate the connection be-tween the Silver Reef student presentations exhibited at this conference.


Christopher Keane, Ph.D., American Geosciences Institute, Alexandria, VA, [email protected]; P. Patrick Leahy, Ph.D., CPG, American Geosciences Institute, Alexandria, VA

As we progress through this most recent commodity price cycle, emerging trends that were thought to be occurring within the rapidly growing geoscience community have be-come increasingly evident as growth rates have stabilized and external factors have teased out both expected and unex-pected systemic responses. With the completion of the 2015

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Geoscience Student Exit Survey and the parallel enrollment and degrees surveys, a number of trends are becoming clearly identifiable. Most interesting is the decline in undergraduate retention and/or extension of time to degree. We suspect we are seeing increased attrition as the “froth” in the growth of earlier enrollments leave degree programs in response to per-ceived decreased employment prospects in the energy sector. Yet, undergraduate enrollments continue to climb aggressive-ly, but these are directly attributable to a number of online geology degree programs initiating, some of which have more than 1000 declared majors. Though the online degree programs increase reach and accessibility of the profession, the continued aggressive adoption of flipped classrooms by instructors in traditional environments is narrowing the func-tional gap between traditional courses of study and wholly online programs.

Even with the slowdown in the energy industry, hiring of new graduates has remained brisk. This hiring has been helped by recent improvements in the minerals industry and ongoing strength in the environmental and engineering industry, but energy-focused schools are reporting most of their gradu-ates are still successfully securing employment in the energy sector. Some of this is believed to reflect attrition of either less capable or less committed students, thus right-sizing the supply-demand relationship, as well as feedback cycles of what is needed to be successful in securing and retaining employment.

In addition, we will take a look at some emerging trends that are likely to impact the feedstock of future geoscientists and how the community can become engaged to ensure that evo-lution is well informed.



Carl Keller, FLUTe, Alcalde, NM, [email protected]

This presentation describes a new technique for measur-ing the vertical head profile in a formation intersected by a vertical borehole. The procedure uses both the continuous transmissivity profile obtained by the eversion of a flexible borehole liner into an open borehole and the inversion of the same liner from the borehole. The method is possible because of the continuous transmissivity profile described by Keller, et al, 2014. The reverse head profile (RHP) method is performed using a stepwise inversion of the borehole liner (the reverse of the liner eversion into the borehole to measure the trans-missivity). As each interval of the borehole is uncovered by inversion of the liner, the head beneath the liner is allowed

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to equilibrate. By measuring the equilibration head and using the transmissivity measured for each increment uncovered by the inverted liner, the formation head can calculated for each increment of the formation uncovered. Once the formation head distribution has been measured, the flow into and out of each interval of the open borehole can be calculated. From that flow calculation, the open borehole flow can be calcu-lated for comparison with a borehole flow meter measure-ment. The head profile measured by the RHP method is com-pared directly to measurements with a multi-level sampling system sealed in the borehole. The results are compared to a head profile measured in a FLUTe multi-level system with the borehole sealed by a continuous liner. The utility of the measurement is that it provides information on the location of aquitards, the identification of individual aquifers, artesian in-tervals, extreme gradients, and at very low cost. The RHP and associated transmissivity profile are helpful to the design of multi-level systems for long term measurements of head and water quality. The main advantage of the RHP measurement is that it can be performed, with 10 foot resolution, in a 300 ft borehole in the same day as the transmissivity profile which is performed with the same FLUTe flexible liner.



Joseph Kraycik, MEM, Environmental Standards, Inc., Valley Forge, PA, [email protected]; David Blye, Environmental Standards, Inc., Valley Forge, PA; Robert Gibson, General Electric, Fort Edward, NY

In November 2015, General Electric (GE) completed dredging of approximately 40 miles of the Upper Hudson River north of Albany, New York to remove polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-impacted sediments. The dredging project began in 2009 and resulted in over 300,000 pounds of PCBs being removed from the river. The remedial action was conducted under a Consent Decree between GE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Completion of the Upper Hudson Dredging Project is a successful engineering and logistical feat that US EPA has publicly called “an historic achievement.”

A robust Remedial Action Monitoring Program (RAMP) was designed and implemented that included monitoring of the near-field and far-field water column, air, and sediment qual-ity along with fish monitoring. The purpose of the RAMP was to monitor water and fish PCB concentrations during reme-diation; to assess post-dredging PCB sediment concentra-tions; to monitor suspended solids and other water quality

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parameters to evaluate if remediation caused changes that could be harmful to aquatic biota or exceed drinking water standards; and to monitor air quality in the vicinity of remedial actions. Although remediation is complete, GE will continue to monitor the environmental condition of the river for the foreseeable future.

Environmental Standards, Inc. (Environmental Standards) was retained by GE to conduct third-party quality assurance (QA) oversight of the RAMP. One important aspect of Environ-mental Standards’ scope-of-work included field auditing of GE’s contractors during implementation of RAMP activities. Environmental Standards Auditors conducted field audits of each monitoring activity on an annual or semi-annual basis and additional audits were conducted if unusual situations warranted. The purpose of the field audits was to compare monitoring activities to the requirements and procedures set forth in the project Remedial Action Monitoring Quality As-surance Project Plan (RAM QAPP) in order to identify items that had the potential to impact data quality. Audit observa-tions and findings were shared with GE’s contractors as well as the larger project team with the intention of both highlighting activities being conducted in accordance with the RAM QAPP and correcting non-conforming activities in order to promote continuous program improvement.

This presentation will provide a summary of the dredging project that highlights the field audit program and its chal-lenges and successes. In addition, specific examples of RAMP field audit observations and findings will be presented along with a discussion of how the project team worked collabora-tively together to address these quality issues and continually improved the program.


Linda L. Lampl, Ph.D., Lampl Herbert Consultants, Tallahassee, FL

Look beyond the obvious. Every natural resource project in-cludes people – as well as geology. Who are these individuals and groups? The project system includes clients, host commu-nities, regulatory agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and the media, each of which bring collections of human beliefs, values, philosophies, needs, and expectations. Individuals and or groups may support, express skepticism, or actively oppose a project. So, how do you deal with this? Do your homework! Identify – and monitor – issues, expectations, and processes in your project area. This session discusses the elements of a community due diligence and uses mind maps to illustrate three mini-cases that depict the human element in geology projects.

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David Lawler, CPG, FarWest Geoscience Foundation, Grass Valley, CA, [email protected]; Hank Meals, Grass Valley, CA

The current controversy over mercury contamination and the use of specialized mining equipment (gold suction-dredges) in the Sierra Nevada region between miners and environ-mentalists has now been simmering for over a decade, but its roots lie buried deep in mining conflicts between hydraulic mining and the Sacramento Valley farming communities of the 19th century. The present ban on specialized mining equipment including suction dredges that directly discharge mine tailings into the rivers and streams of the Sierra region, represents the second time in California history that the state legislature has banned the use of a particular mining technology without the imple-mentation of adequate environmental safeguards. The discharge of hundreds of millions of cubic yards of hy-draulic mine tailings has caused repeated widespread flood-ing and adversely affected ship navigation. The widespread mercury contamination has created toxic effects within the biological food chain of this region in a multitude of animal species, as well as indirectly affecting human health in chil-dren and pregnant women. The author advises that the rival factions work together to create effective and practical solutions. While future regional-scale environmental cleanup efforts will be both expensive and time consuming to implement, there is no better time in California history than now for the development of innovative technologies to cost-effectively recover mercury. Inventors within the small scale-recreational mining commu-nity now have an opportunity to develop new types of rec-reational mining equipment that do not directly discharge tailings into the rivers and streams and potentially add to California’s existing toxic mercury contamination problems.


Michael Lawless, CPG, Draper Aden Associates, Blacksburg, VA, [email protected]

Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) technology (i.e., drones) has revolutionized aerial mapping. Aerial topographic data can be collected more cost-effectively and efficiently than using traditional fixed wing aircraft. Instrumentation such as LiDAR and temperature sensors can be mounted on the UAS to al-

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low additional data collection for topographic and geologic mapping as well as hazardous materials reconnaissance. Case studies will explore potential applications of this technology to geological consulting, including solid waste management, quarry operations and groundwater exploration. Other uses of UAS in the solid waste industry include aerial photography and video capabilities for marketing, aerial topography for air space evaluation and compaction rate analysis, and tempera-ture surveys for evaluation of landfill gas collection systems. As this technology continues to develop, additional applica-tions will certainly become apparent.


Cameron Lobato, P.E., Geostabilization International, Grand Junction, CO, Peter MacKenzie, CPG, GeoStabilization International, Grand Junction, CO, [email protected]; Stephen Harrison, Daedalus Drone Services, Austin, TX; Corey Mislinski, GeoStabilization International, Pittsburgh, PA

The factor of safety concept is indispensable to engineering practitioners. Factor of safety is simply the ratio of capacity to load. A factor of safety of 1.0 means the approximation of load is equal to the approximation of capacity. Increasing fac-tor of safety to 2.0 means the expected capacity is twice the expected load.

The concept is frequently misunderstood, misapplied and misrepresented. This latent confusion leads to excessive con-fidence in a design as well as excessive cost due to overdesign and unwarranted criticism of appropriate designs. Those who make decisions based on factor of safety need to understand what it means and what it does not mean.

Using engineering analysis, this presentation demonstrates that a wide range of safety factors can be calculated for a given design problem, all of which could be considered rea-sonable. This presentation will further review the costs associ-ated with demanding an excessive factor of safety.

Two examples will be used to illustrate the associated costs of increasing the factor of safety. Engineering analysis will il-lustrate the design parameter changes that will need to be employed to increase each solution’s factor of safety and the associated non-linear cost increase for each design. This pre-sentation will illustrate that 1) factor of safety alone is not suf-ficient to select an appropriate design; 2) site conditions and risk assessments must also be considered to effect an appro-priate solution for the specific application; 3) factor of safety mandates can increase costs but may not increase safety.

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Dina London, SA, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO, [email protected]

The health of the oceans is directly tied to the prosperity of human civilizations. The oceans are the global conveyor belt of heat and a repository of carbon. They also provide the habitat for oxygen creating organisms and provide a source of food. It is imperative to monitor the oceans to mitigate predictions of increasing extremities of weather and climatic events furthered by changes in the oceanic ecosystem.

Collaborative techniques using stationary and mobile devices overcome issues of underwater data interference. Subma-rine cables, multi node sensors, acoustic modems, and satel-lite transmissions create an infrastructure with capabilities to monitor and potentially mitigate environmental stewardship efforts. Areas of focus include the environment, military sur-veillance, disaster prevention, offshore exploration, pollution monitoring, and vessel location.

The ability to connect stationary underwater networks to mobile devices across the vast ocean will advance the under-standing of the abiotic, biotic, and anthropogenic interests. Researchers will be able to collect data in areas previously un-touched. Due to the advancement into international waters, effective immersion will need to be coupled with a clear, ef-ficient, and globally accepted approach.



Vincent Matthews, Ph.D., CPG, Leadville Geology LLC, Leadville, CO, [email protected]

An analysis of recent GPS data indicates the Colorado Plateau is currently rotating in a clockwise direction. Past analyses of paleomagnetic data have come to similar conclusions. This clockwise rotation of the structural Colorado Plateau is com-patible with, and can explain, two directions of rift features located in central and northern Colorado: north-south and west-northwest.

These rift systems are indicated by geologic features (Neo-gene faulting, basaltic volcanism, and rift deposits), GPS data, and stress field data. They also indicate that the Rio Grande Rift does not die out in southern Colorado.

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Virginia T. McLemore, Ph.D., CPG, New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM, [email protected]

New Mexico’s mineral wealth is among the richest of any state in the U.S. Petroleum is the most important extractive industry in NM in production value. In 2014, NM ranked 5th in oil pro-duction, 7th in gas production, 12th in coal production, and 13th in nonfuel minerals production. Most of the state’s production comes from oil, gas, coal, copper, potash, industrial minerals (potash, perlite, cement, zeolites, etc.) and aggregates. Other important commodities include molybdenum, gold, uranium, and silver. New Mexico is fortunate to have low (<190°F), moderate (190 to 300°F), and high (>350°F) temperature geo-thermal resources.

However, companies face many challenges to bring a deposit into production. Legacy issues of past mining activities form negative public perceptions of mining. Some mines have the potential to contaminate the environment; the Gold King un-controlled release into the Animas River is a recent example.

In NM, there are thousands of inactive mine features in 274 mining districts (including coal, uranium, metals, and industri-al minerals districts). Many pose only a physical hazard, which is easy, but costly to remediate. Although most of these mine features pose little or no environmental or stability threat, many of them have not been inventoried or prioritized for reclamation. At the time the General Mining Law of 1872 was written, there was no recognition of the environmental con-sequences of discharge of mine and mill wastes or the impact on drinking water, and riparian and aquatic habitats. Miners operating on federal lands had little or no requirement for environmental protection until the 1960s-1970s, although the dumping of mine wastes and mill tailings directly into rivers was halted by an Executive Order in 1935. It is important to recognize that these early miners were not breaking any laws, because there were no laws to break.

Today, more than 30 Federal environmental laws cover all as-pects of mining in an attempt to prevent such accidents, in-cluding the Clean Water Act (CWA), the Comprehensive Envi-ronmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA or Superfund act), and the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, among others. Mine safety has improved. Today, one important aspect of mine planning in a modern regulatory setting is the philosophy, actually, the require-ment, in most cases, that new mines and mine expansions must have plans for closure. This philosophy is relatively new and attempts to prevent environmental accidents common in the past. Mine development of the distant and even not-too-distant past commonly did not consider mine closure, except

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perhaps to plan for safeguards and contingencies. Mine clo-sure planning is necessary not only for safety reasons, but also for environmental reasons.

Other issues face today’s mining companies. Economic min-eral deposits are harder to locate because the easy deposits have been mined. Lower commodity prices results in closed mines and very little exploration. In some areas, there are conflicts between exploration and potential mining and pro-tecting the area for wilderness aspects (e.g., Otero Mesa) and water use (e.g., Grants uranium district, Copper Flat mine). Fi-nally there is a shortage of young geologists and engineers to explore for, develop, mine, permit these commodities and to evaluate their effect on the environment.



Dennis McQuillan, New Mexico Environment Depart-ment, Santa Fe, NM, [email protected]

The Animas River originates in the mountains above Silver-ton, CO and flows 126 miles south into the San Juan River in Farmington, NM. The Animas River and its associated alluvial aquifer are used as sources for public and private water sup-ply, and for irrigation and livestock.

The Animas River receives base flow from groundwater, and is largely a gaining stream where groundwater flows from the surrounding valley into the river. During winter when irriga-tion ceases, however, the water table declines in some areas, creating losing-stream conditions locally. Pumping wells also may cause water to flow from the river into the aquifer.

Water quality in the Animas River has been adversely impacted by multiple sources of contamination including naturally oc-curring acid rock drainage (ARD), discharges and spills of min-ing and milling waste, human and animal waste, and nutrients. Alluvial groundwater typically contains higher concentrations of total dissolved solids compared to Animas River water, of-ten with elevated manganese and iron, and sometimes with detectable thermogenic gas originating from deeper bedrock units.

The mountains surrounding Silverton were extensively frac-tured, altered, and intruded by Miocene hydrothermal fluids that emplaced sulfur-rich, base-metal ore bodies containing copper, lead, silver, molybdenum, and zinc. ARD began with the natural bio-geochemical oxidation of pyrite and other sul-fide minerals that released sulfuric acid and metals into the watershed over geologic time, and was exacerbated by ex-

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tensive mining.

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, after mining had ceased, bulkheads were installed in lower levels of some workings in and near the Gold King Mine to control ARD seepage. After the bulkheads were installed, the water table in the mountain rose by approximately 1,000 feet and flooded previously dry mine workings located at higher elevations. Flooding of the mine workings created ARD seeps that did not exist prior to installation of the bulkheads.

On August 5, 2015, a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) work crew digging into a collapsed GKM adit triggered a mine-water blowout, reported by EPA to be more than 3 mil-lion gallons of acidic mine water containing 1 million pounds of metals. High levels of dissolved and total metals were mea-sured in the river as the spill migrated downstream with most metals occurring in the suspended fraction. The distribution of contaminated sediments deposited in the watershed remains poorly defined. Re-suspension of contaminated sediment has caused total metals concentrations to increase again during storm events and spring runoff, creating a long-term concern for public water systems that must treat the contaminated river water and comply with EPAs drinking water standards. Hotspots of contaminated sediment, where lead concentra-tions greatly exceed EPAs risk-based criteria for residential soil, have been identified in areas where people live along the river. There is evidence that heavy metals have sequestered from the river into groundwater, and water wells in close prox-imity to the river are being monitored seasonally.

EPA’s response to this spill has been technically deficient, and inconsistent with what EPA has required of the regulated com-munity at other mining/metals contamination sites.



Michael McVey, CPG, Daniel B. Stephens & Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM, [email protected]; Susan von Gonten, CPG, New Mexico Environment Department/Petroleum Storage Tank Bureau, Santa Fe, NM

Petroleum hydrocarbon permeation of PVC water supply lines was encountered near two gasoline stations located in a small New Mexico village. The problem was first noted when local residents complained that their tap water smelled like gaso-line. In response, the State’s Drinking Water Bureau collected

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tap samples, and analysis detected low levels of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination.

The State’s Petroleum Storage Tank Bureau determined that there was a potential threat that contaminant concentra-tions in the tap water could increase over time, and a quick response was required. As a temporary measure, whole house filters were installed at ten residences and two businesses that were at risk of having their potable water impacted by petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. The next step was to conduct Geoprobe® investigations in the vicinity of the water lines to determine the extent of the soil contamination.

The stratigraphy in the vicinity of the water lines consisted of well-graded sand and silt with discontinuous gravel, cobbles, and boulders. The analytical results of soil and soil vapor sam-ples collected during the Geoprobe® investigations indicated petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in soil extended ap-proximately 400 feet along each of the two PVC water lines. High soil vapor concentrations in samples collected in the vi-cinity of the impacted portion of the water line were observed.

Daniel B. Stephens & Associates, Inc. prepared a remediation plan for the emergency response to clean up as much of the soil contamination as possible while minimizing disruption of village life. The cleanup involved excavation of contaminated soil below a state highway and subsequent rebuilding of the road. Continuous coordination with the state’s Department of Transportation was critical to the success of the project.

The scope of work as completed was: (1) excavation and dis-posal of approximately 10,500 cubic yards of contaminated soil; (2) replacement of approximately 800 feet of community PVC water lines with poly-wrapped ductile iron; and (3) re-placement of about 400 feet of roadway. Eight service lines were also replaced. Approximately $2.6 million dollars from the Petroleum Storage Tank Bureau’s Corrective Action Fund were allocated for the project.

During excavation, it was revealed that a portion of the PVC water line, installed in 1991, was in contact with highly con-taminated soil and had been permeated by petroleum hydro-carbons. The PVC pipe was stained brown, both inside and out, and was noted to be deformed in the vicinity of the worst soil contamination. The deformation may have been due in part to high pressure in the water line. The portion of the wa-ter line that was not in contact with contaminated soil did not show deformation or staining by petroleum hydrocarbons.

Pre- and post-project public meetings were held to keep the community informed. Follow-up tap sampling indicates that the project was a success. Petroleum hydrocarbons have not been detected in tap water samples since the completion of the project. Local groundwater conditions will continue to be

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monitored until State groundwater standards are met.




Lindsay Mota, SA, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Littleton, CO, [email protected]; Uwe Kackstaetter, Ph.D., MEM, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Department of Earth and Atmo-spheric Sciences, Denver, CO

The cement of sedimentary rocks is an important indicator for determining the diagenesis within a sedimentary rock af-ter deposition. The two most common types of cement are calcite and silica but many others such as iron oxide and clay cements have been described. Cementation occurs almost ex-clusively in the groundwater-saturated zone also described as the zone of “lithification”. The Early Jurassic Springdale Sand-stone near Shivwits, Utah and the older Pennsylvanian Foun-tain Formation of the Colorado Front Range have precipitated orthoclase cement most likely due to specialized groundwa-ter hydrochemistry. Because the Springdale Sandstone near Leeds, UT contains minable, rare, precious metal precipitates, which were most likely induced by groundwater diagenesis, understanding of the cementation process may lead to new insights about groundwater generated mineralization. By de-termining the diagenetic conditions of orthoclase cement, correlations can be made to like hydrochemical environments of modern day cementation processes. Theoretical method-ology assuming eh – pH environmental groundwater ionic species stability diagrams to describe plausible precipitation environments are utilized. Different analytical methods, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, thin section analysis, x-ray diffraction analysis, and others, are used to verify possible precipitation chemistry and the hydrochemical environmental processes that lead to this outcome. ________________________________________________





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Jean (Neubeck) Patota, CPG, Alpha Geoscience, Clifton Park, NY, [email protected]

Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) has emerged as a persistent and toxic chemical that is ubiquitous worldwide in the en-vironment due to its many uses throughout industry and in the manufacturing of countless consumer products. PFOA is a synthetic compound that is very soluble and resistant to chemical breakdown. It is a subset of perfluorinated com-pounds, which consist of carbon chains saturated with fluo-rine. Due to its both hydrophobic and oleophobic properties, it has been used to manufacture commercial materials that repel water, oil, and stains (e.g., GoreTex™, Scotchgard™) and for cooking (e.g., Teflon™). PFOA has been used extensively in industries including automotive, construction, aerospace, electronics, and paper manufacturing. This talk focuses on the use of PFOA, regulatory concerns, and the chemical proper-ties that make PFOA difficult and expensive to investigate and remediate. The presentation also summarizes the current field and laboratory protocols for sampling and analyses, including potential interferences and cross-contamination sources.



Jean (Neubeck) Patota, CPG, Alpha Geoscience, Clifton Park, NY, [email protected]

Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) is a persistent and toxic chemi-cal that is ubiquitous worldwide. PFOA contamination in pub-lic drinking water supplies near plastics plants in three NY and VT communities has caught national attention. The EPA re-cently issued a life-time advisory level of 70 ppt. Contaminant sources include industrial sites and illegal dumps. Specialized protocols are needed for sampling and analyses. This presen-tation describes the chemical properties of PFOA that current-ly challenge soil and ground water remediation and the avail-able treatment technologies. Generalized cross-sections are presented to illustrate why understanding the hydrogeologic framework is critical to understanding both chemical migra-tion and protecting ground water supplies in unconsolidated and bedrock settings. The characteristics of the water supply wells and pumping levels in various water-bearing units also influence migration and human exposure. The role of geology

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and examples of hydrogeologic settings and well construction that confound regulators in investigating and identifying con-taminant sources will be presented with discussion of why and how the drinking water data can appear conflicting.



Mehmet Pehlivan, MEM, Bays Environmental Remediation Management, Ladera Ranch, CA, [email protected]

This paper presents an outline of common pitfalls that most engineers and scientists encounter when preparing ground-water contour maps. Review of several public databases and reports indicated that a discussion about the contouring and interpretation is necessary. Even though most professionals prepare contour maps, it was noticed that some basic points have frequently been missed and unintended interpretations are presented without making any reference of their implica-tions. Several cases and examples of contour maps were com-piled from public databases and case files. These cases will be presented anonymously. All names, site addresses and com-pany logos will be removed from the presentation. A special emphasis will be given to preparation and interpretation of groundwater elevation contours and chemical concentration contours. The presentation will also include a brief discussion on how to recognize geological anomalies using the contour maps and preparation of logarithmic contour.


Mehmet Pehlivan, MEM, Bays Environmental Remediation Management, Ladera Ranch, CA, [email protected]

This paper presents a method of in-well stripping and recir-culation to remove or degrade in place volatile organic com-pounds (VOCs) from soil and groundwater. This method can be employed in a single recirculation and in-well stripping well or a pair of injection and extraction wells. The method does not employ any downhole pump, active air injection, or water spray system. All recirculation and in-well stripping is performed under vacuum that increases stripping of volatiles from groundwater. Additionally, the system enhances in-situ biodegradation of VOCs by increasing the oxygen content of water during recirculation. The method can be employed in

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conjunction with in-situ chemical oxidation. This method will enhance chemical distribution in the subsurface when em-ployed with ISCO. The paper will present a conceptual model of VacCirc using single well or dual well recirculation systems, lessons learned on application of recirculation and in-well stripping, benefits and limitation of vacuum driven in-well stripping and recir-culation method, and the results of pilot tests performed in New York.


Shannon Rentz, SA, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO, [email protected]; Gary Michelfelder, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO; Emily Salings, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO

Caldera systems are capable of outputting voluminous quan-tities of volcaniclastic material with wide ranging negative en-vironmental impacts. Determining the behaviors of previously erupted systems may help inform predictive models used to evaluate hazards and assess risks for analogous currently active volcanic systems. The Mogollon-Datil volcanic field (MDVF) is a 40-20 Ma cluster of caldera activity in southern New Mexico tied to the subduction of oceanic lithosphere be-neath the North American continental plate. The calc-alkaline magmatism of three calderas in this field - Mogollon, Bur-sum, and Gila Cliff Dwellings - produced several voluminous regionally dispersed ash flow tuffs. This study will specifically examine volcanic rocks output by the Mogollon and Gila Cliff Dwellings calderas to further elucidate petrogenic origins, attempt to determine if they may be of the same magmatic source, and yield data to help model processes that would generate magma of these particular compositions. These units include: the Cooney Formation, compositionally zoned rhyolitic to quartz latite ash flow tuff containing quartz>k-feldspar>plagioclase>biotite, pumice and lithic fragments; Davis Canyon Tuff, phenocryst poor, high-silica rhyolite ash flow tuff containing sanidine>quartz>sodic plagioclase; and Shelley Peak Tuff, compositionally zoned, crystal-rich rhyolite tuff containing sodic plagioclase>minor sanidine>biotite>cpx. This study will examine compositional variation between the Davis Canyon, Shelley Peak, and Cooney Tuffs and help un-derstand the magma plumbing system during each eruption. More specifically, we will evaluate possible crustal compo-nents of these units, along with geochemical signatures of arc or rift related magmatism. Additionally, chemical and textural

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variations among the three individual units of the Cooney For-mation (the Cooney Canyon member, the Whitewater mem-ber, and the South Fork member) will be investigated in detail. The possible relationship between these Cooney Formation members and a potential caldera outflow location in the Big Lue Mountains of Arizona is also of interest, as no outflow sheets from the Mogollon caldera have been conclusively identified. We will compare previous geochronology results (K-Ar and U-Pb fission track) and whole rock major and trace element geochemistry to data obtained via 40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb dates and new whole rock Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic ratios.



Ian Sharp, FLUTe, Albuquerque, NM, [email protected]; Carl Keller, FLUTe, Alcalde, NM

The recent concerns about fugitive gas from hydraulic fractur-ing operations has been especially strong in the Four Corners area of New Mexico and Arizona due to recent satellite mea-surements of the problem. It is noteworthy that in New Mexi-co there are unique manufactured methods which have been used for subsurface monitoring at another hydraulic fractur-ing site in Canada. The monitoring system has been installed at the Ground Birch fracking site in Northern British Columbia for one of the international oil companies. The method uses a flexible liner for sealing the monitoring borehole with both ground water and pore gas measurements at many elevations in the saturated and vadose zones. The advantages of the sev-eral measurements in a single borehole are the reduced drill-ing costs for monitoring wells and the high spatial resolution of potential leak paths. The system, called a Water FLUTe, also allows the monitoring of hydraulic head and pore gas pres-sure at each sampling interval to aid in detection of pressure changes and for comparison with barometric variations. With the monitoring at intervals of only high transmissivity in the borehole, there is the reduced cost of unnecessary monitor-ing intervals. A flexible liner method is also used to measure the transmissivity distribution in the borehole on the one foot scale and the formation head distribution on the ten foot scale. The transmissivity of the borehole and the head distri-bution are both measured in one day. This efficient monitor-ing technology is described and the details of the methods are explained. These systems are in common use in other states for contaminated ground water monitoring. This paper describes this technology which is substantially different from traditional, more costly subsurface measurement methods.

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William J. Siok, CPG, Tucson, AZ, [email protected]

Professional society membership is appealing to many college graduates. Credentialed individuals seek collegiality, profes-sional development opportunities, employment, and repre-sentation in the broader community through affiliation with an appropriate professional society.

Professional organizations conduct their affairs through a combination of member-volunteers and paid staff. Paid staff are trained professionals who manage the day-to-day busi-ness of the organization, interact with members on a daily basis, and carry out the policy decisions of an elected board (executive committee). Member-volunteers are profession-als eager and willing to contribute time, energy, and in many cases, revenue, for the benefit of their respective organization.

More often than not, professional organizations have either no orientation or ineffective orientation for incoming officers. This unpreparedness contributes to time wasted, duplication and rehashing of previously made decisions and policies, fun-damental misunderstanding of the organizational mission, and mission creep.

The amount of time devoted to volunteer responsibilities in a professional society obviously varies with the individual, but normally expectations are higher for the president. Ex-tra efforts are made to ensure that the president is kept fully apprised of organizational status and projects, whereas the other officers and board members may not have the same in-depth understanding.

It should be a standard practice for professional organizations to insist upon some level of orientation for new officers. This would serve both to provide incoming officers with a realistic understanding of expectations and responsibilities as well as prepare them for immediate immersion in the ongoing busi-ness of their professional society.

Orientation might consist of an informal and a formal com-ponent. Incoming officers and board members should take it upon themselves to be familiar with the society organizational chart, its bylaws, all pertinent policies, and particularly its stra-tegic plan. A sincerely dedicated board member will demon-strate a commitment to the organization by familiarization with these documents prior to assuming office. The first offi-cial board meeting following elections should include a formal briefing by key members of the headquarters staff focusing on officer responsibilities and the associated expectations.

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A modest investment to prepare new board members will re-sult in more efficient and productive governance.


Peter Smith, CPG, RESPEC, Rapid City, SD, [email protected]; Tabetha Stirrett, North Rim, Saskatoon, SK, Canada

This presentation on the development of the potash industry in North America will focus on potash from the Middle Devo-nian Elk Point Basin, with a focus on the Saskatchewan Sub-basin. This deposit is a world class potash reserve, boasting 10 operating mines and some of the world’s richest potash ore. Background on the depositional history and mineralogy of potash minerals, including sylvite and carnalite, will be pre-sented. One of the world’s largest deposits, the Prairie Evapo-rite, was discovered in Saskatchewan while drilling for oil in the early 1940’s. Both conventional (mechanical) and solution mining methods will be described, with a focus on mine inflow problems that affect mechanical room and pillar mines. Lastly, Saskatchewan potash will be compared to other deposits in North America, including the Permian Basins of New Mexico and Arizona and the Maritimes Basin Complex in eastern Can-ada. Finally, a brief discussion on how Saskatchewan potash is important in the world economy as a strategic resource.


Travis Sullivan, SA, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, CO, [email protected]; Uwe Kackstaetter, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, CO

The Early Jurassic Springdale Sandstone at Silver Reef Utah is a rare precious metal deposit contained in a fluvial sandstone with no evidence of hydrothermal interaction. The chemi-cal process to form cerargyrite under normal hydrogeologic conditions has never been fully experimentally established. This research focuses on experimental laboratory replication possibilities of cerargyrite percipitation within a porous sand-stone.________________________________________________



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Stacy Timmons, Hydrogeology and Aquifer Mapping Program Manager, New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM, [email protected]

The New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources (“the bureau”) is a non-regulatory, research and service divi-sion of New Mexico Tech, and serves as the state geologic survey. The hydrogeology research group formed in its cur-rent structure in 2005, called the Aquifer Mapping Program, is one of several research programs at the bureau. Our research goals of providing the state with a better understanding of our groundwater resources incorporates geology, hydrology, geochemistry, and geophysics to create a variety of maps and interpretations of our aquifers. The program is funded, in part, with state funds to the bureau, and supported with grants and gifts to accomplish particular research goals. Recent research endeavors range from statewide efforts to local scale stud-ies. Statewide efforts this past year included estimation of groundwater storage changes in alluvial aquifers across the state and a data compilation effort to characterize brackish water resources. Local-scale research was also completed on hydrogeologic sources of groundwater to a wetlands area and initiation of groundwater monitoring along the Animas River in New Mexico after the Gold King Mine water release. All completed projects become publicly available through our open file reports, maps and datasets. Many projects are view-able from the web at



Seema Turner, P.G., Ramboll Environ US Corporation, Los Angeles, CA, [email protected]; Devon Rowe, [email protected], Ramboll Environ US Corporation, Vancouver, WA; Carol Serlin, [email protected], Ramboll Environ US Corporation, Irvine, CA; Farshad Razmdjoo, [email protected], Ramboll Environ US Corporation, Irvine, CA

Since the 1980s, several subsurface investigations conduct-ed to evaluate impacts at a former manufacturing facility in southern California have identified volatile organic com-pounds (VOCs) in shallow soil and soil vapor underlying the

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site. The assemblage of detected VOCs in the vadose zone (soil and soil vapor) are different than those observed in first encountered regional groundwater at approximately 200 feet below ground surface (bgs). Shallow VOCs are predominantly comprised of tetrachloroethene (PCE), with low trichloroeth-ene (TCE) concentrations. Conversely, the regional groundwa-ter is characterized by predominantly TCE with low PCE con-centrations. Collectively, site data suggested PCE from historic impacts at the site had not migrated significantly and TCE in groundwater may have migrated from upgradient sources. However, additional lines of evidence were needed to confirm this conceptual site model (CSM), support traditional site as-sessment data, and to direct the path of future investigation and/or remediation efforts.

Ramboll Environ conducted an initial investigation to evaluate the vertical distribution of VOCs in soil vapor beneath areas of the site where elevated PCE concentrations had been identi-fied in previous shallow testing. Borings were advanced to ap-proximately 160 feet bgs, and nested soil vapor probes were installed. Soil vapor samples were collected and analyzed for VOCs including PCE, TCE and their degradation products. El-evated VOC concentrations had been identified using nested soil vapor probes which were compared to VOC concentra-tions in regional groundwater. To confirm the CSM, com-pound specific isotope analysis (CSIA; carbon, chlorine) was performed on samples collected from the soil vapor probes and monitoring wells screened in the regional groundwater. CSIA can often provide insight into subsurface behaviors that are masked by traditional techniques. In cases where bulk compositional data can be difficult to interpret (e.g., dilution or comingled plumes), isotopic data in many cases can pro-vide an understanding of the source of potential contributors, mixing ratios, or evidence of actual degradation processes that have occurred or are occurring throughout a site.

Using multiple lines of evidence, CSIA data suggested that the PCE in the vadose zone had not significantly impacted region-al groundwater. CSIA data demonstrated that TCE in regional groundwater was not derived from reductive dechlorination of shallow PCE during transport and was derived from upgradi-ent sources. VOC concentrations in the regional groundwater are similar in both upgradient and downgradient monitoring wells, indicative that VOC impacts in groundwater are com-ing from upgradient, off-site sources. Ultimately, CSIA results provided the evidence to differentiate between the potential subsurface sources of PCE and TCE.________________________________________________




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Shawn Turner, P.G., BCES, CDM Smith, Houston, TX, [email protected]; Toros Maksoudian, CDM Smith, Boston, MA; Kevin Molloy, P.G., CDM Smith, Houston, TX

New technologies enabling remote data access from the field are streamlining geologic data acquisition and processing ef-forts, and promoting a more cost effective solution for analysis and decision making. These technologies enable data collec-tion and use in near real-time from early assessment through to design and operations of facilities. In this presentation, we will focus on the advantages gained by implementing mobile GIS solutions.

The case study for this presentation focused on the collection and near real-time evaluation of geology, geologic hazards, and cultural information in the Kurdish Region of Iraq (KRI) during the siting of petroleum processing facilities and po-tential pipeline routes. The case study emphasized efficient data collection and platform use to aid in visualization of the ongoing assessment for active team decision making. Unique challenges were encountered during data collection, as the project area was large (equivalent to the area of Manhattan), in a remote location in Iraq, under extreme temperature con-ditions, and with limited access to the internet.

The case study presented demonstrates that tailored integra-tion of proven existing online technology platforms is cost ef-ficient, and very effectively deployed to achieve unique and routine field data collection objectives. These tools provide dramatic increases in the amount of data collected, and the detail, extent, and accuracy compared to traditional collection methods. The devices are easy to operate by field teams and have been shown to be effective even in extreme tempera-tures and remote locations.

The access to data as it is collected provides invaluable flex-ibility to monitor activities and actively supply guidance and adapt plans to field teams in real-time to meet project spe-cific objectives based on observed field conditions. In this case study, team members were able to evaluate the geologic data collected, eliminate unsuitable alternatives, and refocus field staff on key locations, shortening the project duration and eliminating the need for multiple mobilizations. Use of these technologies provides an immediate return on invest-ment for client end users by reducing the necessary field time to complete a task, while also increasing data capture and de-

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tails. These tools are focused on delivering best management practices and innovative solutions to drive industry toward ac-quisition of more complete/accurate data at a reduced cost/effort and allowing widespread access of the information by team members who will benefit from the information during current and future development phases.




Kate Zeigler, CPG, Zeigler Geologic Consulting, LLC, Albuquerque, NM, [email protected]; Barbara Podzemny, Northeastern Soil and Water Conservation District, Clayton, NM; Andy Yuhas, Northwest Geoinformatics, Missoula, MT; Ryan Mann, Zeigler Geologic Consulting, LLC, Albuquerque, NM

Union County, located in northeastern New Mexico, is primar-ily an agricultural economic base, focused on cattle ranching and center pivot irrigated farming. The area was not declared a groundwater basin until September 2005 and in 2006, the Northeastern Soil and Water Conservation District (NESWCD), based in Clayton, developed a county-scale hydrology data collection effort to help develop community guidelines for groundwater development. The Union County Hydrogeology Project (UCHP) was initially undertaken by members of the NESWCD who conducted biannual static water level measure-ments in wells distributed across the county. Since 2006, the UCHP has grown in scope to include geologic mapping, wa-ter chemistry and water age dating analyses, and subsurface analysis via petroleum wireline logs. A common assumption about the local groundwater system was that the primary aquifers being utilized were the Tertiary Ogallala Formation. However, evaluation of surface bedrock exposures and well cuttings from petroleum exploration wells drilled in eastern Union County demonstrate that the subsurface geology is more complex than might be expected. Paleotopography de-veloped on Jurassic and Cretaceous strata, coupled with sig-nificant structural relief on Triassic strata demonstrate that the aquifer system in Union County is partitioned and substan-tially more complicated than previously assumed. All of the data sets gathered for this study were shared biannually with the county’s producers, both at the annual NESWCD meet-ing in the spring and the county fair in the fall. As ranchers and farmers gained ownership of their hydrogeologic data, significant changes in range and crop management practices were instituted which have been tracked using static water level measurements. The UCHP provides a case study for the

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utility of integrating science into agricultural communities to develop best management practices for all resources.




Stephania Zneimer, SA, Southern Illinois University, Geology Department, Carbondale, IL, [email protected]; Liliana Lefticariu, Department of Geology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL; Trenton For, Department of Geography and Environmental Resources, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL; Mihai Lefticariu, Mass Spectrometry Facility, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL

This study pertains to better understanding the water cycle in Southern Illinois by quantifying the temporal variations in the contribution of different moisture sources (i.e., evaporated ocean water and local moisture recycled through evapotrans-piration) to local precipitation. A better understanding of the water cycle dynamics is needed for predicting extreme weath-er events such as droughts and floods as well as assessing the sensitivity of regional hydrologic and bioecological systems to climate variations.

Here we report stable isotope values (δ18O and δD) of indi-vidual precipitation events collected from November 2012 to February 2016 in Carbondale, Illinois. The isotope data was integrated with climate parameters as well as HYSPLIT model-ing. The HYSPLIT was used at altitudes of 300, 500 and 850 meters above ground level to ascertain backwards trajectories of individual precipitation events. We identified five distant advective moisture sources, namely: (a) the Pacific Ocean, (b) the Arctic Jet Stream and the upper continent of the North-ern Rockies and Plains, (c) the lower continent in the South and Southwest, (d) the Gulf of Mexico, and (e) the Atlantic Ocean. Convective moisture sources are regarded as occur-ring locally, which in this study is defined geographically as the area extending from 35.00° N to 45.00° N and -87.00° W to -95.00° W.

Our results show that the local meteoric water line (MWL) has a slope of 7.6 and an intercept of 10.5, values similar to those of the global MWL. Precipitation isotopic and deuterium ex-cess (d-excess) values show clear seasonality. The d-excess parameter can be taken as a measure of the contribution of

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recycled water to precipitation. Additionally, our results show that the two major components to local precipitation were the moisture originating from local recycled water through evapotranspiration and the moisture originated from the Gulf of Mexico.

Precipitation events with major moisture contribution from the Gulf of Mexico represented ~44% of total events and had distinct ranges for δ18O (0 to 10‰) and d-excess (5 to 25‰) as compared to those that incorporated the other four previously mentioned moisture sources which had δ18O rang-ing from 0 to 20‰ and d-excess from -5 to 15‰. Overall, moisture originating from the Gulf of Mexico is an important component to most precipitation events, particularly around the months of April, May and June. The colder months saw a total of forty storm events from the other four advective moisture sources; however a total of thirty-two storm events had precipitation from the Gulf of Mexico alone.

In the Midwestern portion of the United States most of the surface water is stored in soil and vegetation. Changes in the amount as well as transfer rates among these reservoirs can have a significant effect on the regional land-atmosphere wa-ter fluxes with direct implications on economic activities. This, coupled with increasing storm events and their severity within the oceanic regions, also directly impacts the flux of the con-tributions made from these moisture sources. ________________________________________________












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Thank You for Attending!!

The American Institute of Professional Geologists (AIPG), founded in 1963, is the largest association dedicated to promoting geology as a profession. It presently has 7,810 members in the U.S. and abroad, organized into 36 regional Sections. The Institute adheres to the principles of professional responsibility and public service and is the only in-ternational organization that certifies the compe-tence and ethical conduct of geological scientists in all branches of the science with members employed in industry, government, and academia. AIPG em-phasizes competence, integrity, and ethics. AIPG is an advocate for the profession and communicates regularly to federal and state legislators and agen-cies on matters pertaining to the geosciences.

Arch-Photo Courtesy of John Sorrell

Valles Caldera-Photo Courtesy of Fraser Goff

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Thank You!Exhibitors and Sponsors

AIPG Northeast Section

AIPG Section Break Sponsors• California Section • Colorado Section •

• Florida Section • Minnesota • • New Mexico • Wisconsin Section •

AIPG Michigan Section

Sorrell Consulting,