consonants of english

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Universty of Duhok Science & Education - Akre English Department Phonetic The Consonants of English Produced by: Mosa H. Mosa Teacher: Saeed A. Attieh

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Faculty Of Science & Education - Akre

Universty of Duhok Science & Education - Akre English Department Phonetic The Consonants of English

Produced by: Mosa H. Mosa Teacher: Saeed A. Attieh

The Consonants of English

1- Friction Consonants

2- Stope Consonants

3- Nasal Consonants

4- Lateral Consonants

5- Gliding Consonants

Friction Consonants

. There are nine consonants in friction they are: / f,v,,,s,z,,,h / .. We have voiceless & Voiced Suonds.

VoicelessVoicedIt is strogIt is weakIt is longIt is shortIt hasnt VibrationIt has Vibration

Voiceless & Voiced Suonds In Friction Consonents

VoicelessVoiced/ f / / v // // // s // z // // //h/

/ f ,v / Suonds

* The soft plate is raised.

* The bottom lip is very close to the upper front teeth.

* The tongue is not directly concerned in making these sounds.

Notice

* When /f/ and /v/ occur at the end of words, after a vawel, they have an effect on the length of the vowel. ( The strong consonant /f/ makes the vowel shorter, the weak consonant /v/ makes the vowel longer ). And for /,,s,z/

Some Example: life /laIf/ live /laIv/ calf /k:f/ carve /k:v/

//, // Sounds

* The soft plate is raised so that all the breath is forced to go through the mouth.

* The tip of the tangue is close to the upper front teeth.

Notice

* Between vowels // is voiced, but in initial it will be fully voiced.

Example:

Between vowels: worthy /w:I/ VoicedIn Initially: that /t/ Fully Voiced

/s/,/z/ Sounds

* The soft plate is raised so that all the breath is forced to go through the mouth. * The tip and blade of the tangue are very close to the alveolar ridge. * The friction for these sounds, especially for /s/, is much greater than for /f,v,/ and //.

Notice

* /s/ and /z/ sounds is noisy, //and // is less noisy.

Example: south /sa/ this /Is/ these / i:z/ those /z/

The difference between /,/ and /s,z/ in produce

// , // Sounds

* The soft plate is raised so that all the breath is forced to go through the mouth. * There is a narrowing between the tip of the tangue and the back of the alveolar ridge. * The lips are very slightly rounded. * The front of the tangue is higher than for /s/,/z/

Notice

* // doesnt occur at the beginning of English words, But / / quite frequently does.

Example:

she /i:/ show // short /:t/ shut /t/

/h/ Sound

- In production, /h/ is like vowels. Such as ( hot,hat,hit )

- In distribution, /h/is a consonants . Such as ( sat,hat )

- we dont use speech organs for /h/ sound.

Stope Consonants . There are eight consonants in stope consonants, they are : /p,b/ , /t,d/ , /k,g/ and /,/ . - Between thes sounds we have Voiceless and voiced sounds .

* /p,t,k/sounds they have explosion .Voicelessvoiced /p//b//t//d//k//g/////

/p/ , /b/ Sounds

/t/ , /d/ Sounds

fxggfd19

/k/ , /g/ Sounds

* The back of the tangue is in firm contact with the soft palate, and the soft palate is raised, so that the breath is trapped for a short time.

// , // Sounds

Notices about stope consonants

/p/ is aspirated and shortens the vowel before it, whilst /b/ is particularly weak and only very little noise, but lenghens the vowel before it. Example: cap /kp/ cab /kb//t/ is aspirated and shortens the vowel before it, whilst /d/ is particularly weak and only very little noise, but lenghens the vowel before it. Example: heart /h:t/ hard /h:d//k/ is aspirated and shortens the vowel before it, but /g/ is very gentle weak lenghens the vowel before it. Example: back /bk/ bag /bg/// is strong and voiceless, and it shortens the vowel before it, but // is very weak and short, and it lenghens the vowel before it. Example: rich /rI/ ridge /rI/

the difference between friction and stope consonants

Friction consonantsStope consonantsIn friction consonants the air continues following to the outside .In stope consonants the air is stopped at some point in the mouth .

Nasal Consonants

. There are three consonants in nasal consonants they are : /m,n,/

- /m,n,/ all of them is voiced.

* /n/ sound It has syllabic. Example: person /p:s/

25

/m/,/n/,//

Lateral Consonants

. There are one consonants it is : /l/

* The air passes through the sides of the tangue.

* The soft palate is raised.

* The sound is voiced.

Notice

* We have two difference pronunciation for /l/ sound in Received pronunciation ( B.B.C ) .

/l/ Sound

1- Dark:

* /l/ + Consonants = Dark e.g : milk /mIlk/* /l/ in finally is dark e.g : full /fl/

2- Clear:

* /l/ + Vowel = Clear e.g : leaf /li:f/

Gliding Consonants

. There are three consonants it is : /j,w,r/ and they are voiced .

* In production /j,w,r/ is semi vowel.

Exampel: Yes /jes/

* /j/ doesnt come finally

Notice

* /r/ sound in Received pronunciation ( B.B.C ) , it is produced only befory vowels. Exampel: marry /mrI/ , raw /r:/ * In finally it is produced, if we have after /r/ word and the first letter of the word is vowel, if we havent vowel isnt produced.Exampel: better of /betr f/ letter /bet/ * /r/ after /p,t,k/ it will be voiceless.Exampel: pray /pre/

The End Produced byMosa Hussein Mosa Sources: Internet & Better English Pronunciation Facebook.com/mosakhurty Twitter.com/mosakurdish instagram.com/mosa_mzooryThanks