wcc film 100 - editing

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CHAPTER 4: EDITING WHAT IS “EDITING”? On its most fundamental level, film editing is the art, technique, and practice of assembling shots into a coherent sequence. A film editor must creatively work with the layers of images, story, dialogue, music, pacing, as well as the actors' performances to effectively construct - and sometimes even “rewrite” - the filmed material to craft a cohesive whole.

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CHAPTER 4: EDITINGWHAT IS EDITING?On its most fundamental level, film editing is the art, technique, and practice of assembling shots into a coherent sequence. A film editor must creatively work with the layers of images, story, dialogue, music, pacing, as well as the actors' performances to effectively construct - and sometimes even rewrite - the filmed material to craft a cohesive whole.

CHAPTER 4: EDITINGWHAT IS CONTINUITY EDITING?Continuity Editing emphasizes narrative logic over other qualities such as expressiveness; showing how things happen in a linear fashion and telling a clear and simple story visually

CHAPTER 4: EDITINGCONTINUITY EDITING ELEMENTS:Establishing shot = appears early in a scene and identifies the location where scenes action will unfold; typically a long or an extreme wide shotOften a change in location is accompanied by another establishing shot that signals the new scene location

CHAPTER 4: EDITINGCONTINUITY EDITING ELEMENTS:Establishing shots are used throughout a film in different field of views; for instance, once inside a location, there will typically be another establishing shot outlining the interior areaOnce the setting is established, the space is typically broken down by cutting to medium shots and then to close-ups; scenes may cut back to wider shots to reestablish where the action is taking place these are called reestablishing shots and/or master shots because they take in the whole scene

CHAPTER 4: EDITINGCONTINUITY EDITING ELEMENTS:In classical cinema, plot is driven by character psychology; continuity editing is used to focus the viewers gaze and attention with the goal of revealing the emotions and motivations of characters and moving the plot forwardCutting to close-ups allows a filmmaker to capture a characters emotional and psychological states as they are revealed in subtle facial expressions

CHAPTER 4: EDITINGCONTINUITY EDITING ELEMENTS:In this example from To Be Or Not To Be (1942), we see how classical filmmaking uses continuity editing to set up a scene and convey character psychology

CHAPTER 4: EDITINGCONTINUITY EDITING ELEMENTS:In this example from To Be Or Not To Be (1942), we see how classical filmmaking uses continuity editing to set up a scene and convey character psychologyEDITING VIDEO EXAMPLE ON BLACKBOARD: To Be Or Not To Be

Classical Cinema Editing1.) Exterior/Establishing shot of bookstore2.) Interior long shot establishing the space inside the bookstore3.) Two-shot of Maria and the bookseller4.) Shot/Reverse Shot of medium close-ups, reducing the space to smaller and smaller fields of view. This tightening of the frame around the characters has the effect of increasing the suspense and psychological intensity of the scene5.) As Maria leaves the store and the tension subsides, we cut back to a reestablishing shot of the bookstore and the German soldiers6.) After the soldiers leave, the bookseller looks inside the book for the secret message Maria has left and a medium close-up captures his facial expression7.) Then an extreme close-up of the message itself

CONTINUITY EDITING:This type of classical continuity editing directs the viewers attention and gaze to those elements of the scene that are important to the narrative while eliminating extraneous elementsClassical Cinema Editing

CONTINUITY EDITING ELEMENTS:The 180 degree rule is used in continuity editing to maintain the coherence of a scene within a space; this consists of drawing an imaginary line through the scene with a birds-eye view and insuring that the camera always remains on one side of that line during filmingVIDEO EXAMPLE HEREClassical Cinema Editing

CONTINUITY EDITING ELEMENTS:Shot/Reverse Shot is typically and frequently used in conversations to cut back and forth between the characters as they speakVIDEO EXAMPLE: THE COHEN BROTHERSClassical Cinema Editing

CONTINUITY EDITING ELEMENTS:Eyeline Match is another technique in which a character looks off to one side of the frame and there is a cut to another shot indicating what the character seesVIDEO EXAMPLE HERE:Match On Action is another technique in which two different shots of the same action are edited together in order to maintain continuity; the movement of a character or object is carried over from one shot to the nextVIDEO EXAMPLE HERE (includes GRAPHICAL and SOUND BRIDGE matching)Classical Cinema Editing

CONTINUITY EDITING ELEMENTS:Transitions are ways that a filmmaker can suggest a duration of time much longer than that actually shows on screenCUT = sudden change; typically no time lapseClassical Cinema Editing

CONTINUITY EDITING ELEMENTS:Transitions are ways that a filmmaker can suggest a duration of time much longer than that actually shows on screenDISSOVE = one image slowly fades into another with the two images briefly superimposed; signals a passage of timeCan signal a lapse either forwards OR backwards in timeClassical Cinema Editing

CONTINUITY EDITING ELEMENTS:Cross-Cutting/Intercutting/Parallel Editing This EDITING STYLE switches back and forth between shots of events taking place in multiple locations and often at different times rather than stay on one scene with no such changesEDITING VIDEO EXAMPLE ON BLACKBOARD: The Runaway Horse (earliest example)EDITING VIDEO EXAMPLE ON BLACKBOARD: The Graduate (modern example)Classical Cinema Editing

CONTINUITY EDITING ELEMENTS:The Tempo/Rhythm of a scene can be set by the speed at which the edits occur, thereby conveying the urgency or non-urgency of a particular sceneEDITING VIDEO EXAMPLE ON BLACKBOARD: The French ConnectionClassical Cinema Editing

The car chase was filmed without obtaining the proper permits from the city. Members of the NYPD's tactical force helped control traffic and cleared traffic for approximately five blocks in each direction. Permission was given to literally control the traffic signals on those streets where they ran the chase car.Even so, in many instances, they illegally continued the chase into sections with no traffic control, where they actually had to evade real traffic and pedestrians. Many of the (near) collisions in the movie were therefore real and not planned (with the exception of the near-miss of the lady with the baby carriage, which was carefully rehearsed).A flashing police light was placed on top of the car to warn bystanders. A camera was mounted on the car's bumper for the shots from the car's point-of-view. Leading man Gene Hackman did some of the driving but the extremely dangerous stunts were performed by Bill Hickman, with Friedkin (the director) filming from the backseat. Friedkin operated the camera himself because the other camera operators were married with children and he was not.VIDEO ABOUT CAR CHASEThe French Connection Chase Scene

CONTINUITY EDITING ELEMENTS:

CUTS & TRANSITIONS 101 (more video examples)Classical Cinema Editing

MONTAGE is the French word for editing and is also a term used to describe a particular style of filmmaking that emphasizes the expressive power of editing over other considerations such as narrative continuity or realistic actionThis is the principal contribution of Soviet film theorists to global cinema, and brought formalism to bear on filmmaking so is often referred to as SOVIET MONTAGE techniqueMONTAGE

SOVIET MONTAGE VIDEO EXAMPLEMONTAGE

LOOKING AHEADIn-Class Quiz on Chapter 4Chapter #5 FILM SOUND